PREPARATION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OFRASAPUSHPA AND ITS ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY                              By        ...
Rajiv Gandhi University Of Health Sciences, Karnataka,                           Bangalore.                DECLARATION BY ...
SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE,           POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA.                       C...
SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE,           POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA.                     CER...
J.S.V.V. SAMSTHE                       D.G.M. AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE                  POST GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARC...
ENDORSEMENT BY THE H.O.D AND PRINCIPAL OF                               THE INSTITUTION            This is to certify that...
COPYRIGHT                     Declaration by the candidate            I hereby declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of...
ACKNOWLEDGMENT          By the grace of Lord Dhanvantari and blessings of Shri Raghavendra Swamiji,it is pleasure to expre...
Belvadi   M.D. (Ayu),   Dr. Sashikanth Nidagundi   M.D. (Ayu),   and other P.G. Staff for theirconstant encouragement.    ...
TABLE OF CONTENTSS.L.NO.                  INDEX             PAGE. NO  1.      Introduction                        1-3  2. ...
ABSTRACT       Krimis are responsible for manifestation of oupasaigika rogas. Oupasaigikarogas can be considered as infect...
Experimental study   •   Disc diffusion method was selected to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of       Rasapushpa.   ...
LIST OF TABLESTable No                           Tables                       Page No.    1      Showing the synonyms of H...
29   Showing properties of Fluconazole                       10230   Observations made during Hingula shodhana.           ...
Introduction                                  INTRODUCTION       Ayurveda is an age-old science of Indian system that is b...
IntroductionRasapushpa was selected as trial drug on virtue of its importance in therapeutics aswell as skill involved in ...
Introductionthe body such as gastric irritation, destruction of gastric flora, nausea, vomiting,anaphylactic reaction caus...
ObjectivesThe Present study was planned with the following aims and objectives.       Preparation of Rasapushpa.       Phy...
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS⇒ A. H.     – Ashtanga Hridaya.⇒ A. P.     – Ayurveda Prakasha.⇒ A. S.     – Ashtanga sangraha.⇒ B.R....
Review of Literature                                       HingulaIntroduction         Hingula is a compound of Parada and...
Review of LiteratureDarada                     +      +         +         +        +      +       -      -Shukatunda      ...
Review of LiteratureVedic Period          There are no references about Hingula in Vedic, Prevedic, and Upanishadperiod.Sa...
Review of LiteratureHingula.Use of this term suggests that they were aware of chemical composition ofHingula.Rasaratnakara...
Review of LiteratureRatarangini 9          42 parts of Parada and 8 parts of Gandhaka subjected to paka in mrudangayantra....
Review of LiteratureTable No. 3 showing the bheda of Hingula       Name of Grantha             Charmara Shukatunda Hamsapa...
Review of LiteratureAshuddha Hingula sevana dosha, Tasya chikitsa28Ashuddha Hingula sevana may produce many grave symptoms...
Review of LiteratureTable No.4 showing the Rasa of Hingula according to different texts.    Granthas                   Mad...
Review of LiteratureKarma42        Sarva doshaghna, Agnivardaka, Rasayana, Balya, Medya, Garavishanashaka,Netrarogaghna, R...
Review of LiteratureAnupanaMaricha, Guda, Pippali, Guduchi swarasa, Madhu, Ardraka swarasa, Tambulaswarasa.Satwapatana 44,...
Review of Literature                                     Cinnabar53, 54          Cinnabar is important ore of mercury, whe...
Review of Literature4) Coral ore         This ore specially occurring in Germany and Italy. When mercury sulphide incoral ...
Review of Literatureand sulphur dioxide is released and mercuric oxide so forms decomposes to givemercury and oxygen.     ...
Review of LiteratureThey are following:   1) Urdwapatana yantra process 56   2) Adhapatana Yantra process 57   3) Tiryakap...
Review of Literature                                        Parada        In Rasashastra, Parada has been given an elevate...
Review of LiteratureVernacular Name 65,66English                -       MercuryLatin Name             -       HydrargyrumS...
Review of LiteratureRasaKala       In all Rasagranthas we find the references of Parada. Even the old granthassuch as Rase...
Review of Literature            1. Depending on the color.            2. Depending on the place of origin.01. Depending on...
Review of Literature   1. Naisargika Dosha   2. Yougika Dosha   3. Oupadhika Dosha (Sapta Kanchuka Dosha)Table No.11 Naisa...
Review of LiteratureVarija                  :       Bhedi.Two Naga dosha          :       Dravi, Malakari.Two Vanga dosha ...
Review of LiteratureShodhana81For elimination of Naisargika, Yougika and Oupadhika doshas, Parada shodhana isvery importan...
Review of LiteratureVishesha Shodhana84         Different acharyas have explained specific measures to eradicate the speci...
Review of Literaturenashana and rasayana. Remaining 10 procedures are specially utilized in dhatuvada.They are as mentione...
Review of Literaturelater it is kept in musha and sandhi bandhana made. Parada bhasma prepared bybhoodara yantra method.Ma...
Review of Literature                                       Mercury94, 95,96,1. English Name          :Quick silver2. Latin...
Review of LiteratureSimple tests of pure mercury   1. Boiling point of mercury is 357.250C. When metallic impurities are p...
Review of Literature       Alkalies may it be concentrated or dilute, hot or cold do not have any effect onmercury5) Halog...
Review of Literatureskeletal muscle, brain and lung. There is some evidence that mercuric salts can bestored in bones. Som...
Review of LiteratureMercury exhibits its therapeutic manifestation in a following manner:   •   Mercury ions are strong pr...
Review of Literaturebloody diarrhea, oliguria, circulatory collapse, uremia, gangrenous colitis may beobserved.Chronic poi...
Review of Literature   •   Fluid, electrolyte and cardiac abnormalities and shock must be corrected   •   Hemodialysis may...
Review of Literature                                         Kasisa         Kasisa is considered under Uparasa varga. It i...
Review of LiteratureGujarati           : Hiro kasArabic             : JajarujharParsi              : Jajs objaTelegu      ...
Review of LiteratureVarities of Kasisa          Different varieties are explained in different granthas based on its origi...
Review of LiteratureTable No.20 Showing various procedures for purification of Kasisa.Sl.No     Dravya         used       ...
Review of LiteratureVirya123                       : Ushna.Vipaka                         : Katu.Dosha prabhava124        ...
Review of Literatureimparts red colour to it. From the therapeutic point of view there is not muchdifference between shodh...
Review of Literature                                Ferrous Sulphate132, 133English Name           :       Green vitriolCh...
Review of Literature                2FeSO4        Fe2 O3 + SO2 + SO3       With Nitric oxide, ferrous sulphate turns black...
Review of Literature                                 Saindhava Lavana         Saindhava lavana is mineral, which is obtain...
Review of LiteratureVernacular Names142Sanskrit               :       SaindhavaEnglish                :       Rock saltChe...
Review of LiteratureVirya                      :       Sheeta.Dosha Prabhava             :       Tridoshaghna.KarmaTable N...
Review of LiteratureVishishta yogas   1) Nareekelalavana   2) Rasakarpoora   3) RasapushpaMODERN VIEW155       The body co...
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Pharmaco chemical study of Rasa pushpa and its antimicrobrial activity - Dr. Anitha. H, Department of rasashastra, Post graduate studies and research center, Shri D. G. Melmalagi Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag

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Rasapushpa antimicrobial rs014-gdg

  1. 1. PREPARATION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OFRASAPUSHPA AND ITS ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY By DR. ANITHA. H. Dissertation Submitted to the Rajiv Gandhi University Of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore. In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of AYURVEDA VACHASPATHI In RASASHASTRA Under the guidance of DR. M.C. PATIL M.D. (Ayu) Under the co-guidance of DR. JAGADEESH MITTI. M.D. (Ayu) DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA, POST GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH CENTER, SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GADAG – 582103. 2004-2007
  2. 2. Rajiv Gandhi University Of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore. DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE I here by declare that this dissertation entitled“Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Rasapushpa and itsAntimicrobial Activity.” is a bonafide and genuine research work car-ried out by me under the guidance of Dr. M.C. Patil, M.D.(Ayu) ,(Rasashastra), Professor and H.O.D, Post graduate department ofRasashastra and under the co-guidance of Dr. Jagadish. Mitti. M.D.(Ayu),Lecturer, Post graduate department of Rasashastra.Date: Dr. Anitha. HPlace: Gadag.
  3. 3. SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA. CERTIFICATE BY THE GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Preparation,Physico-Chemical Analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity.”is a bonafide research work done by Dr. Anitha. H in partial fulfillment ofthe requirement for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspathi. M.D (Rasashastra). Dr. M.C. Patil, M.D. (Ayu)Date: Professor & H.O.D.Place: Gadag. Department of Rasashastra, D.G.M.A.M.C, Gadag.
  4. 4. SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA. CERTIFICATE BY THE CO- GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Preparation,Physico-Chemical Analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity.”is a bonafide research work done by Dr. Anitha. H in partial fulfillment ofthe requirement for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspathi. M.D (Rasashastra). Dr. Jagadeesh Mitti. M.D. (Ayu)Date: LecturerPlace: Gadag. Department of Rasashastra, D.G.M.A.M.C, Gadag.
  5. 5. J.S.V.V. SAMSTHE D.G.M. AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE POST GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH CENTRE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA GADAG –582103 Certificate I here by certify that this dissertation entitled “ PREPARATION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF RASAPUSHPA AND ITS ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY” isbonafide and genuine research work done by Dr. Anitha. H in partial fulfillment of the requirement forthe degree of Ayurveda Vachaspati (M.D. in Ayurveda) in Rasashastra of Rajiv Gandhi University ofHealth sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka under my Guidence. Associate-GuideDate: Dr. K.Krupanidhi. M.Sc, M.Phil, Phd Lecturer,Place: Gadag DEPT OF MICROBIOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY, S.C.S. COLLEGE OF PHARMACY,
  6. 6. ENDORSEMENT BY THE H.O.D AND PRINCIPAL OF THE INSTITUTION This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Preparation,Physico-Chemical Analysis of Rasapushpa and its AntimicrobialActivity.” is a bonafide research work done by Dr. Anitha. H under theguidance of Dr.M.C.Patil, M.D.(Ayu) , Professor & H.O.D, Postgraduatedepartment of Rasashatra and Under the co-guidance of Dr. JagadishMitti M.D.(Ayu), Lecturer, Post graduate department of Rasashastra. Dr. M.C. Patil, Dr. G. B. Patil, M.D. (Ayu) Principal. Professor & H.O.D. D.G.M.A.M.C, Gadag.Department of Rasashastra, D.G.M.A.M.C, Gadag.Date:Place: Gadag.
  7. 7. COPYRIGHT Declaration by the candidate I hereby declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of HealthSciences, Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use anddisseminate this dissertation in print or electronic format for academic /research purpose.Date: Dr. Anitha. HPlace:Gadag. © Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka.
  8. 8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT By the grace of Lord Dhanvantari and blessings of Shri Raghavendra Swamiji,it is pleasure to express my full respect and regards to my parentsShri Raghavendrachar and Smt. Pushpa, and my husband Shri Gururaj Joshi, whomade me to proficient and gave constant support and encouragement. With deep sense of Pleasure, I express my obligation to my honourableguide Dr. M.C. Patil MD (Ayu) HOD, PG Dept. of Rasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag, forhis scholarly guidance, supervision, creative criticism, and high inspiration at everystage of this work. I express my deep gratitude to beloved Principal Dr. G.B. Patil, PrincipalDGMAMC, Gadag, for his encouragement and providing all necessary facilities forthis research work. My gratitude is greatest towards my co-guide Dr. Jagadeesh. Mitti, MD (Ayu)Lecturer, PG Dept of Rasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag, who gave me timely, advisesand suggestions during the entire period of this effort.I express my sincere thanks to Dr. K.Krupanidhi. M.Sc, M.Phil, Phd Lecturer, Dept. ofMicrobiology & Biotechonology, S.C.S. College of Pharmacy, Harpanahalli, for hisvaluable directions. I owe my heartfelt credit to Dr. Dilipkumar B, Asst Professor, PG Dept ofRasashastra DGMAMC, Gadag, for his critical views and precious suggestions. I ofer my sincere thanks to Dr. R.K. Gaccchinmath, professor and HOD, UGDept of Rasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag, for his constant support. I wish to convey my regards to Dr. G.N. Danappagoudar MD (Ayu) Lecturer PGDept of Rasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag, for his creative criticism andencouragement. I express my sincere thanks to Dr. Varadacharylu M.D. (Ayu), Dr. Mulagund M.D.(Ayu), Dr. G. Purushothamacharyalu M.D. (Ayu) for their constant support. I express my gratitude to Dr. R.V. Shettar M.D. (Ayu), Dr. SamudriM.D.(Ayu) for their encouragement as well as suggestions for this research work. I am grateful to Dr. K.S.R. Prasad M.D. (Ayu), Dr. Shivramudu M.D. (Ayu), Dr. S.S.Doddamani M.D. (Ayu), Dr. R.V. Shettar M.D. (Ayu), Dr. Kuber sankh M.D. (Ayu), Dr. Santosh I
  9. 9. Belvadi M.D. (Ayu), Dr. Sashikanth Nidagundi M.D. (Ayu), and other P.G. Staff for theirconstant encouragement. I extend my gratitude to Shri V.M. Mundinmani and Surebanu for providingthe required books during the study. With great pleasure I offer my recognition to my friends Dr. Suvarna P.Nidagundi, Dr. Sharanabasappa S. Angadi, Dr. Anand H and Dr. Shambulinga Teggifor their friendly affection and amiable attitude during my study period without whichI would never be complete. I offer my sincere thanks to my friends Dr. B.Y. Ghanti, Dr. Pradeep, Dr.Sobagin, Dr. Shankuntala and Dr. M.S. Hiremath for their kind co-operation and help. I offer my sincere thanks to my friends Dr. Santoji, Dr. Koteshwara, Dr, V.S.Hiremath, Dr. Jaggal, Dr. R.B. Pattanshetty, Dr. for their immense help and affection. I am also thankful to my junior friends Dr. Rudrakshi, Dr. Suma Jamakhandi,Dr. Jaya, Dr. Kattimani, Dr. Shivakumar, Dr. Ravindra, Dr. Anupama Bijjal, Dr.Sarvamangala, Dr. Kavitha for their support and affection. I am grateful to Shri Chaitrakumar (Sadguru computers) for his kind co-operation and immense help to complete the dissertation work,. I express my regards to my in-laws, Shri C.L. Joshi, Smt. Shanta, for theirmoral and cordial support during the study. It would be my privilege to convey my love to my brother Krishnamurthy, andCo-brothers Ramesh Deshpande, Koteshwara, and my sisters Sunita, Poornima,Bhavani for their moral support during this study. I express my thanks to all those who had helped me directly and indirectlywith apologies for my inability to identify them individually. I dedicate this work done as partial fulfillment of postgraduate degree to myremembering respectful parents and my husband Shri Gururaj Joshi. Dr. Anitha H II
  10. 10. TABLE OF CONTENTSS.L.NO. INDEX PAGE. NO 1. Introduction 1-3 2. Objectives 4 3. Review of Literature 5-102 4. Methodology 103-138 5. Results 139-140 6. Discussion 141-155 7. Conclusion 156-157 8. Summary 158-160 9. Bibliography 161-174 10. Annexure I. Slokas of Rasapushpa II. Slokas of Hingula VI
  11. 11. ABSTRACT Krimis are responsible for manifestation of oupasaigika rogas. Oupasaigikarogas can be considered as infectious diseases and krimis as microorganisms.Infectious diseases continue to take very high rank as cause of death, which accountsfor ten million persons each year. Hence it is necessary to control thesemicroorganisms. Our treatises have described variety of treatment options for management ofkrimis. Rasapushpa is one such preparation, which has got properties such as twakdoshahara, bhutavishapaha, krimighna etc. Considering these indications, in a presentstudy, antimicrobial activity of Rasapushpa was carried out.ObjectivesThe present study was planned with the following objectives: 1. Preparation of Rasapushpa. 2. Physico- chemical analysis of Rasapushpa. 3. To evaluate antimicrobial activity of Rasapushpa.MethodsPharmaceutical study 1. Hingula shodhana according Rasatarangini (9/16,17) 2. Hingulotha parada according to Rasatarangini (5/39) 3. Preparation of Rasapushpa according to Rasatarangini (6/29,30,31)Analytical study Rasapushpa was subjected to physico-chemical analysis i.e. organolepticcharacters, loss on drying, solubility, fineness of particles etc. proportion of Hg and Clin Rasapushpa was estimated. IV
  12. 12. Experimental study • Disc diffusion method was selected to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Rasapushpa. • Organisms selected for the study include 2 G(+)ve and 2 G(-)ve bacterias and 2 fungi. • Activity was conducted in the microbiology department pharmacy college, Harapanahalli.Results Results were expressed in terms of zone of inhibition. Vernier Calipers wasused to calculate zone of inhibition.Rasapushpa has shown less activity for all bacterias compared to standard drugCefataxime in both concentrations (5o mg/ml, 100mg/ml).Rasapushpa has shown significant zone of inhibition for fungi in both concentrationcompared to standard “Fluconazole”Interpretations and conclusion • Asthasamskaras is a difficult and time taking procedure. Hence Hingulotha Parada is taken for the preparation of Rasapushpa. It is devoid of naga, vanga and saptakanchukadi doshas. • Urdwapatana method used for Satwapatana of Hingula is a easy method to obtain Parada. • Because of specific pharmaceutical procedure and minimal dose efficiency of Kupipakwa method, it was selected for Rasapushpa nirmana. • Rasapushpa is chemically identified as mercurous chloride. • Rasapushpa has got significant antimicrobial activity.Key words Kupipakwa Rasayana, Rasapushpa, Kramagni, Analytical study, Antimicrobial activity, Disc diffusion method and Significant results. V
  13. 13. LIST OF TABLESTable No Tables Page No. 1 Showing the synonyms of Hingula according to 5 different authors. 2 Showing Hingula included under following category by 9 different authors: 3 Showing the bheda of Hingula 10 4 Showing the rasa of Hingula according to different 12 texts. 5 Showing doshagnata of Hingula according to different 12 authors. 6 Shows the properities of Hingula according to 13 different granthas. 7 Showing the synonyms of parada: 19 8 Showing the ores of parada along with their chemical 21 composition. 9 Showing the varities of Parada depending on the 22 colour and their karma also specified. 10 Showing the varieties of Parada depending upon the 22 place of origin. 11 Naisaragika Dosha and its effect on sharira. 23 12 Yougika Dosha and its effect on sharira 23 13 Oupadhika (Saptakanchuka) Dosha and its effect 23 14 Showing samanya shodhana of parada according to 25 different authors: 15 Showing vishesha shodhana of parada according to 26 different authors: 16 Showing synonyms of kasisa according to different 36 Acharyas. 17 Showing classification according to different granthas. 37 18 Showing varities of kasisa according to orgin. 38 19 Showing varities of kasisa according to Colour. 38 20 Showing various procedures for purification of Kasisa. 39 21 Showing Rasa of kasisa according to different 39 acharyas. 22 Showing synonyms of saindhava lavana 44 23 Showing the karma of saindhava lavana 46 24 Showing the Rogaghnata of saindhava 46 25 Showing the Matra of Rasapushpa in different 69 diseases. 26 Showing the distinguishing features of Rasapushpa 70 and Rasakarpoora. 27 Showing laxanas sthana and prabhava of different 76 krimis. 28 Showing the difference between Gram positive and 80 Gram negative bacteria. VII
  14. 14. 29 Showing properties of Fluconazole 10230 Observations made during Hingula shodhana. 10631 Showing the results of Hingula shodhana 10732 Temperature recorded during the procedure. 11033 Physical examination of Ashodhita and 114 Shodhita Kasisa.34 Showing the observations made during the procedure 12035 Showing the yield of Rasapushpa in different 124 practicals.36 Showing the composition of nutrient broth. 13437 Showing the composition of Potato dextrose agar. 13538 Showing the composition of nutrient agar. 13639 Showing the efficacy of standard and trial drugs 139 against Gram positive and Gram negative organisms40 Showing efficacy of standard and treated drug against 140 fungus.41 Showing the yield of Rasapushpa. 150 LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS S.L. No. Photographs 1 Ingredients and Preparation of Rasapushpa 2 Antimicrobial Activity FLOW CHART AND GRAPH S.L. No. Flow chart and Graph 1 Graph showing the Temperature and Hour readings of Rasapushpa. 2 Flow chart of Classification of Kupipakwa Rasayana. VIII
  15. 15. Introduction INTRODUCTION Ayurveda is an age-old science of Indian system that is based on its ownfundamentals. It represents totality of life and provides complete knowledge tomaintain holistic balance of body and mind. Ayurveda and its medicines are servingthe needs of ailing humanity since many centuries. Rasashastra is an important branch of Ayurveda, which is pioneered byNagarjuna. This shastra is related to metals and minerals. It is believed thatRasashastra is an expansion of Rasayana therapy of Ayurveda. Rasaoushadhis havegood preventive, curative and rejuvenating potential. Rasayogas are classified on the basis of samskara given to them as KharaliyaParpati, Kupipakwa and Pottali Rasayana. Among these pharmaceutical preparationsKupipakwa Rasayana are important as they exhibit fast action in small dose. Historically their manufacturing and therapeutic uses have started since 12thcentury AD onwards. Sri Dundukanth the author of Rasandra chintamani was the firstintellectual to introduce this type of preparation in Ayurvedic therapeutics in view oftheir high potency, and least toxicity in treating almost all types of ailments. In Kupipakwa Rasayana agni plays an important responsibility in changingPhysico- chemical properties of drug by duration and pattern of heating. Based on use of Gandhaka in the preparation of Kupipakwa Rasayana, theyare called as sagandha and nirgandha kalpanas. The two important nirgandhapreparations mentioned in Rasa literature are Rasapushpa and Rasakarpoora. Nirgandha preparations are most neglected part of Rasashastra. No muchresearch work was done in this direction. Hence for present research work, 1 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  16. 16. IntroductionRasapushpa was selected as trial drug on virtue of its importance in therapeutics aswell as skill involved in its pharmaceutical preparations. Rasapushpa is a sagni, nirgandha moorchana of Parada prepared by adoptingbahirdhuma procedure. For the preparation of Rasapushpa, Hingulotha Parada alongwith equal quantities of Kasisa and Saindhava lavana are mentioned. Rasapushpa is being indicated in Vrana dosha, Bhootavisha, Hikka, Phiranga,and Visuchika and is told as Parama Virechanakara. Most of the indications specifiedare caused by microorganisms. Microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites are presenteverywhere in atmosphere and on body surfaces. They are responsible for largenumber of infectious diseases in human beings. Infectious diseases continues to takevery high rank as cause of death which accounts for ten million persons each year. Ifthe infections becomes chronic, it can do serious damage to vital organs such as liver,lungs, kidney intestines etc. especially in immouno- compromised hosts. The worstpart of infection is its transmission to other people directly or indirectly which leads toan epidemic. We get references about microorganisms since vedic period. In vedic periodmany terms used for it such as Krimi, Bhuta, Rakshasa, Pisacha, Yatudhana etc. In Ayurvedic literature also many references regarding krimis are found. Theyhave recognized a number of diseases as sankramaka or oupasaigika. The termsbhutopasaraga indicates invasion of organisms. The terms prasangat,gatrasamsparashtwa etc denotes the mode of spread of infective organism. To avoid the ill effects of organisms, appropriate treatment is necessary. Manyantibiotics such as pencillins, cephalosporins, etc are heavily prescribed bycontemporary medical science. But these drugs are having some adverse effects on 2 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  17. 17. Introductionthe body such as gastric irritation, destruction of gastric flora, nausea, vomiting,anaphylactic reaction causing even death. Apart from these, development of newer antibiotic resistant strains ofmicroorganisms is a major existing problem. Hence there is a need for establishmentof new antimicrobial compound. Looking at the therapeutic indications of Rasapushpa mentioned in ourclassics, in a present study a modest attempt was made to study antimicrobial activityof Rasapushpa.Previous work Published in relation to the subject Standardization of Rasapushpa and its pharmaco-chemical study w.r.s.t. itsantimicrobial activity by Dr. Shailesh Sahadeo Nawkar, Gujarat AyurvedicUniversity, Jamnagar. 3 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  18. 18. ObjectivesThe Present study was planned with the following aims and objectives. Preparation of Rasapushpa. Physico-Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of Rasapushpa. 4 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  19. 19. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS⇒ A. H. – Ashtanga Hridaya.⇒ A. P. – Ayurveda Prakasha.⇒ A. S. – Ashtanga sangraha.⇒ B.R.R.S – Brihat Rasa Raja Sundara.⇒ C. S. – Charaka Samhita.⇒ D. N. – Dhanvantari Nighantu.⇒ K. N. – Kaideva Nighantu.⇒ M.P.N. – Madana Pala Nighantu.⇒ R.A. - Rasamritam.⇒ R.A.N. - Rasarnava.⇒ R.C. - Rasendra chudamani.⇒ R.J.N. - Rasa Jala Nidhi.⇒ R.N. - Raja Nighantu.⇒ R.K. - Rasa Kamadhenu.⇒ R.P.S. - Rasaprakasha Sudhakara.⇒ R.R.S. - Rasa Ratna Samucchaya.⇒ R.S.S. - Rasendra Sara Sangraha.⇒ R.T. - Rasa Tarangini.⇒ S.S. - Sushruta Samhita.⇒ R.P. - Rasapushpa. III
  20. 20. Review of Literature HingulaIntroduction Hingula is a compound of Parada and Gandhaka. It is obtained from mines asa natural mineral and prepared artificially also1. This is the chief source of mercurysince ancient times to till date. Anandakanda named Hingula as Rasagarbha and it isRasagandha sambhava according to Rasarnava. Parada extracted from Hingula is saidto be equivalent to ashtasamskarita Parada.Synonyms2, 3,4 Various paryayas are described by different acharyas.Table No.1 showing the synonyms of Hingula according to different authors.Synonyms RAN RJN RSS AP RA RT DN KNHingulam + - - + - - - -Hingul - + - - - + - -Hingula - - + + + + - -Ingula - - - - - + - -Hingulaka - - - - - - - +Mleccha + + - + + + - +Rakta - - - + + + - +Gandhika + - - - - - - +Suranga - + - + - + - +Chitranga - + - - - + - +Churnaparada + + - - - + + -Rasodbhava - - - - - + + -Rasasthana - - - - - + + -Ranjana - - - - - + - -Kupishirshaka - - - - - + - -Raktakaya - - - - - + - -Hamsapada - - - - + + - + 5 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  21. 21. Review of LiteratureDarada + + + + + + - -Shukatunda - - + - - - - -Jati - - - - - - - +Rasagandha + - + - - - - -sambootaDaitya Raktaka - - + - - - - -Mani Ragaja + - - - - - - +Rasagarbha - - + + - - + -Parvata - - - - - - - +Divya - - - - - - - +Vernacular Names 5Scientific Name - Red Sulphide of MercuryEnglish - CinnabarSanskrit - Hingula, DaradaHindi - SingraphBengali - HingulaMarathi - HingulaGujarathi - HinguatoAssami - JanjapherPharsi - SingraphKannada - IngulikaTelegu - InguikamuHistory The Possible references regarding Hingula, since ancient period to present dayare as follows: 6 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  22. 22. Review of LiteratureVedic Period There are no references about Hingula in Vedic, Prevedic, and Upanishadperiod.Samhita Kala No references of Hingula found in Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita,Ashtanga sangraha and in Hridaya,Kautilya Arthashastra 6 The author of Kautilya Arthashastra, “Chanakya” has mentioned Hingula inhis text for the first time. He mentioned it for testing of swarnadi dhatus. Use ofHingula as a medicine was not described by him.Nighantu Period In Dhanvantari, Raja and Kaideva Nighantu, references of Hingula is found inbhoumadhatu varga.Rasa KalaRasendra mangala The oldest text of Rasashastra mentioned first time about shodhana andtherapeutic usage of Hingula. Author has used Hingula for the preparation of lohabhasma. He described Parada as a satwa of Hingula and has used the word Darada forHingula.Rasahridaya tantraAcharya Bhagavata Govindapada has mentioned about Hingula.Rasarnava Acharya has included Hingula in maharasa varga. In his text, he discussedabout synonyms, varities and used the term “ Rasagandha sambhootam” for 7 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  23. 23. Review of LiteratureHingula.Use of this term suggests that they were aware of chemical composition ofHingula.Rasaratnakara Author discussed almost all aspects of Hingula and also mentioned artificalpreparation of Hingula. In other Rasagranthas such as RRS, RPS, RSS, R.Chu etc., and in naveenarasa granthas like RT, RA, Siddabhaishajaya manimala etc, we find detail descriptionabout Hingula.Origin Mythological story described that Hingula is a virya of lord Shiva which wasreceived by god Agni but due to its high intensity he vomited it, this vomited materialfell in darada desha and become mixed with earthy materials, and called by nameHingula.Occurance7, 8 It is obtained from mines as a natural mineral and also prepared artificiallyIt can be found at most many places all over the world i.e. Spain Italy, Russia,Yogoslavia, Jechoslovia, Germany, Japan, China, USA, Austria, Nepal etc. But no deposit of cinnabar can be detected in India. Hence artificial Hingula isprepared in Surat and Calcutta. The Hingula what we get from market is artificially prepared.Preparation of Artificial Hingula Reference of artificial Hingula preparation is found since Rasaratnakaraperiod. Thereafter many Rasa texts mentioned artificial preparation of Hingula. Following are the ratio of Gandhaka and Parada according to differentacharyas. 8 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  24. 24. Review of LiteratureRatarangini 9 42 parts of Parada and 8 parts of Gandhaka subjected to paka in mrudangayantra.Ayurveda Prakash10 1 part of Parada and 4 parts of Gandhaka, subjected to pachana in loha patra,after paka, 1/10th part of Manashila added and triturated well. Then it is filled inkachakupi and subjected to pakakarma (mrudu, madyama, and teevragni) in valukayantra.Inclusion of Hingula Different authors of various Rasagranthas have included Hingulaunder various titles.Table No.2 showing Hingula included under following category by different authors: Sl.No. Category Rasagranthas 1 Rasa Rashridaya Tantra 11 2 Maharasa Rasarnava12, Rasakamadhenu 3 Uparasa Anandakanda, Rasendra Sara Sangraha13, Brihat Rasa Rajasundara14, Ayurveda Prakasha15 4 Sadharana rasa Rasajalanidhi16 Resendrachintamani17, Rasa Ratnasamuchaya18, Rasaprakash sudhakara 19, 5 Rasadhatu Rasamruta20 YogartnakaraHingula Bheda No description about varities of Hingula is available in Rasahridaya tantra butwe get reference of Hingula bheda in other texts. 9 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  25. 25. Review of LiteratureTable No. 3 showing the bheda of Hingula Name of Grantha Charmara Shukatunda Hamsapada Anya Anandakanda + + + - Rasendra Chudamani 21 - + + - Ayurveda Prakash 22 + + + - Rasa Ratna Samuchaya 23 - + + - Rasaprakash Sudhakara - + + - 24 Rasatarangini 25 - - - Kritrima khanija Rasamrita 26 - - +Grahya Hingula Laxanas27The laxanas of ideal varity of Hingula is as follows: • Japakusuma Varnabha : Resembles the color of hibiscus flower • Peshane sumanoharaha : When triturated its colour becomes beautiful • Mahojwala : Reflects specially hibiscus when exposed to sunlight. • Bharapurna : Heavy in weight • Sheweta rekha : Having silvery streaks • Pravalabha : Resembles like that of pravala.According to Rasendra Sara Sangraha Hingula possess Bimbiphala samana raktavarna. 10 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  26. 26. Review of LiteratureAshuddha Hingula sevana dosha, Tasya chikitsa28Ashuddha Hingula sevana may produce many grave symptoms such as1. Andhata2. Kshinata3. Klama4. Bhrama5. Moha6. Prameha It is treated similar to the ashuddha Parada bhakshanajanya dosha, shuddhaGandhaka should be administered for 2 months29.ShodhanaVarious shodhana methods are explained in different classics as follows: • Hingula should be kept in kushmanda khanda, pottali prepared and swedana done in Lakucha swarasa Portia dola yantra. 30 • Subject Hingula to 7 bhavanas of Ardraka swarasa and lakucha swarasa 31 • Subject Hingula to 7 bhavanas Ardraka swarasa. 32 • Hingula should be subjected to bhavana with mahisha dugda and any amla rasa dravya for 7 times. 33 • Hingula subjected for 7 bhavanas of Nimbuswarasa 34Hingula PropertiesRasaVarious opinions are available regarding the rasa of Hingula. 11 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  27. 27. Review of LiteratureTable No.4 showing the Rasa of Hingula according to different texts. Granthas Madhura Tikta Kashaya Katu Rasarnava + + - - Paradasamhita - + + + Ayurveda Prakash - + + + Rasendra Purana - + + + Dhanvantari Nighantu + + - - Raja Nighantu + + - -Guna35 Most of the Rasa Acharyas have considered Hingula as ushna gunayauktadravya.Virya and Vipaka No Rasa text has mentioned about virya and Vipaka of Hingula. ThoughDhanvantari nighantu is the text of dravyaguna vijnana, has mentioned that Hingula ishaving ushna virya and katu vipaka.Doshakarma36, 37,38,39,40,41 Even though almost all the authors agree with the tridoshaghna karma of theHingula, some authors have mentioned kaphaghna or kaphapittagna action ofHingula as well.Table No. 5. Showing doshagnata of Hingula according to different authors.Dosha RPS RRS R.Chu B.R.R.S AP RT RA RJNTridoshaghna + + + - - - + +Kaphapittagna - - - + + - - -Kaphaghna - - - - - + - - 12 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  28. 28. Review of LiteratureKarma42 Sarva doshaghna, Agnivardaka, Rasayana, Balya, Medya, Garavishanashaka,Netrarogaghna, Ruchikaraka, Loha Ranjana.Vyadhi Prabhava 43 Pramehaghna, Jwaragna, Hridrogahara, Kushtaghna, Amlapittahara,Kamalahara, and is also useful in Aruchi, Amavata, Pleehavruddi, Mandagni,Sandivata, Hrillasa.Table No.06 Shows the prosperities of Hingula according to different granthas.Properties RPS RRS RC AP BRRS RT RJV RS RRSarvadoshaghnata + + + KP KP KV + - +Deepana + + + - + - + - +Atirasayana + + + - + - + - +Sarvarogahara + + + - - - + - +Vrishya - + + - - - + - +Jaranartha - + - - + - + - -Mehahara - - - + + + + + -Kushtagna - - - + + + + + -Aruchihara - - - + + - + + -Medya - - - + + + + + -Balya - - - + + + + + -Agnivardhaka - - - + - + + + -Netrarogahara - - - + + + - + -Hrillasa - - - + + - - - -Jwaragna - - - + + - - - -Kamalahara - - - + + + - - -Pleehari - - - + + + - - -Amavatari - - - + + + - - -Garavisha nashaka - - - + - + - - -Dehakantikara - - - - - + - - -Lohamaranartha - - - - - - - - -Dravanartha + - - - - - - - -Matra½ to 1 ratti [ 62.5mg to 250mg ] 13 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  29. 29. Review of LiteratureAnupanaMaricha, Guda, Pippali, Guduchi swarasa, Madhu, Ardraka swarasa, Tambulaswarasa.Satwapatana 44,45,46 Hingula satwa is Parada; hence Hingula is considered as chief source ofparada. Rasa can be extracted through various procedures viz patana, nadayantra etc.most popular and common method of extraction of Parada is through urdwapatana. Itis described in most of the granthas viz Ayurveda Prakash, Rasatarangini, RasendraSara Sangraha etc.Marana47, 48 Generally marana is not advised for Hingula. Shodita Hingula can be used forthe preparation of yogas, however elaborate procedure for marana has been describedin Ayurveda Prakash, Brihat RasaRajaSundara etc.Vishishta Yoga 1) Ananda Bhairava Rasa 49 2) Hinguleshwara Rasa 50 3) Kaphaketu Rasa 51 4) Hingulad Rasasindoora 52 14 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  30. 30. Review of Literature Cinnabar53, 54 Cinnabar is important ore of mercury, when used as a pigment it is calledVermillion. Nearly all mercury in the world is obtained from cinnabar. It occurs bothin crystalline and massive forms. The ore is a red crystalline mass that is easilydistinguished from all the red minerals by its peculiar shade of colour and its greatweight.General InformationChemical formula - HgsMolecular Weight - 232.66 gmComposition - Mercury (Hg)-86.221 and sulphur (S) –13.781Locality - Alma den, SpainSynonyms - Cinnabre, zinnoberVerities Verities are made according to colour and percentage of Hgs present in it.1) Cinnabar Native This is one of the most important ore of mercury. It contains 95% mercurySulphide and other impurities like carbon, silica, etc. It is bright and dark red incolour.2) Hepatic Cinnabar When percentage of Carbon impurities is higher in cinnabar, its colourbecomes darker like liver colour; such ore is called hepatic cinnabar.3) Meta Cinnabar In this type muddy dust is present in more percent which makes its colour stilldarker almost to black shade. 15 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  31. 31. Review of Literature4) Coral ore This ore specially occurring in Germany and Italy. When mercury sulphide incoral ore its separated, it is rosy in colour. It contains about 5% mercury.Physico Chemical Property Cinnabar is granular, massive or earthy, it some times occurs beautifullycrystallized in small complex and highly modified hexagonal Crystals. Usually thecrystals are rhombohedral or prismatic. It is cohineal red in colour often incliningbrown. Its streak is bright red. Adamantine to dull luster and perfect prismaticclevage.Transparency - Opaque or translucentHardness - 2 – 2.5Specific gravity - 8.09Lustre - AdamantineOccurance - Generally it occurs due to the volcanic activity, also available near hot springs. Important places of occurrence are Spain, Western States of USA, Mexico.Solubility:It is insoluble in water and acids but dissolves in aquaragia and forms mercuricchloride.In the presence of a strong oxidizing agents like potassium chloride, it forms mercuricchlorideRoastingWhen Unconcentrated ore is roasted in air, Cinnabar is oxidized to mercuric oxide 16 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  32. 32. Review of Literatureand sulphur dioxide is released and mercuric oxide so forms decomposes to givemercury and oxygen. 2Hgs+302 2So2+2Hgo 2Hgo 2Hg+O2The mercury thus obtained will be pure in nature.Mercury sulphide reacts with concentrated potassium Sulphide solution to give acomplex thiosalt. Hgs + K2S K2Hgs2 On sublimation mercuric sulphide becomes red. Extraction of Parada from Hingula In ancient days the only source of mercury was Hingula. Since olden days it isaccepted that Hingulotha Parada is pure and devoid of sapta kanchuka doshas andbelieved to posses the property similar to Gandhajeerna Suta55. In Rasa Ratanakaraalso it is advised to use Hingulotha Parada for all purposes.HistoryIts references are not found in Prevedic, Vedic and Samhita period.Its references are found since Rasarnava period. After, it has been explained in allRasa granthas viz Rasaprakash Sudhakara, Rasendra Sara Sangraha, Anandakanda,Ayurveda Prakash, Rasatarangini etc. Vidyadhara yantra, Urdwapatana yantra etc. areused for the extraction of Parada.Hingulad Rasa karshana VidhiPrior to extraction of parada, Hingula should be subjected to shodhana.Many procedures are described in Rasa texts for extraction of Parada from Hingula. 17 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  33. 33. Review of LiteratureThey are following: 1) Urdwapatana yantra process 56 2) Adhapatana Yantra process 57 3) Tiryakapatana yantra process 58 4) Nada yantra process 59Urdwapatana Method This method is more commonly followed for extraction of mercury. In thisprocess Hingula is triturated with Nimbu swarasa and made into chakrikas & kept insunlight for drying. They after being dried are kept in earthen pot covering withanother pot of same size and sealed at the joint with cloth and mrittika in such a wayso as to make it air tight. Then heat the lower pot and cool the upper pot with wetcloth so that mercury fumes can condense in the upper pot. Then allow theurdwapatana Yantra (Damaruyantra) to cool by itself and open the pot and collect themercury. If some amount of unburnt Hingula is remaining repeat the process andcollect the mercury.Superiority of Hingulotha parada60 Parada extracted from Hingula is considered to be best because it is free fromvarious types of doshas. Hence, the same does not need any further samskar and couldbe used even without subjecting to asthasamskaras. It is claimed that, Parada soextracted is capable of performing all the actions attributed to it. According toRasaprakash, Sudhakara” Hingulakrshta Parada possesses all the properties, which areseen in gandha jarita parada. Thus it is considered superior. 18 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  34. 34. Review of Literature Parada In Rasashastra, Parada has been given an elevated place. It is claimed that, itnot only cures the diseases and senility but also responsible for moksha. Its meretouch, vision of Parada can make the man free from all sins and bless him withpunya61. Mythological it is believed the Parada is originated by Lord Shiva. Paradahas got amalgamating quality because of which it carries the properties ofamalgamated materials. Hence it is successfully used as potent medicine in Ayurvedictherapeutics. It is a shining, silvery white metal, liquid at ordinary temperature. It isthree times heavier than water. Pure mercury does not possess taste and smell62.Synonyms of parada63, 64 Many synonyms of Parada are explained by different Rasacharayas dependingon factors such as its swaroopa, gati, dehavada, dhatuvada etc.Table No.7. Showing the synonyms of paradaSl Property SynonymsNo.1 Swaroopatmaka Galadroupyanibham, Mahavahni, Mahateja, Suvarna.2 Dharmika / Devatamaka Trinetra, Trilochana, Deva, Dehaja, Prabhu Rudraja, Lokesh, Vijendraja, Budha, Rajaswala, Shiva, Shivaveerya, Skanda, Harateja, Harabija, Shivabija, Pavana, Lokanath.3 Gatyatmaka Khechara, Chapala, Chala, Dhurtaka.4 Dehavadatmaka Amrita, Jaiva, Dehada, Paramamrita Parata, Parada, Mrityu nashana, Rasayana, Rasayana shreshta, Jaitra.5 Dhatuvadatmaka Divyarasa, Maharasa, Rasa, Rasendra, Rasesh, Rasottama, Rasadhatu, Rasaraja, Rasanath, Siddadhatu, Soota, Sootaka, Sootaratha, Mishraka.6 Vishishta guna Ananta, Amara, Yashade, Soubhagya, Sukshma, Kalikantaka.7 Darshanika Adyatmika Jeeva, Jaiva, Divya, Achintya. 19 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  35. 35. Review of LiteratureVernacular Name 65,66English - MercuryLatin Name - HydrargyrumSanskrit - ParadaHindi - ParaBengali - ParaGujarathi - ParaAssami Jivaka, inul HayataParsi - Simaba, JivahTelegu - PadarasamuKannada - PadarasaHistorical Review67,68,69,70 In Indian Alchemy Parada is considered as one of the important drug. It hasgot ability to amalgamate with most of the metals. Indian history says that Parada isbeing used as a medicine since 6000 years.Vedic periodThe references of Parada are not available in prevedic, vedic and Upanishad period.Samhita Kala References of Parada are found in Charaka Samhita. Sushruta Samhita andAshtanga Hridaya. In Samhita Parada is used externally for lepanartha and its internaladministration is not found.Koutilya Arthashastra We find reference of Parada in Koutilya Arthashastra. In Swarna bhedaprakarana author has explained Rasavidda as one of the types of Swarna. 20 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  36. 36. Review of LiteratureRasaKala In all Rasagranthas we find the references of Parada. Even the old granthassuch as Rasendra Mangala, Rasarnava etc. include Parada as their major content.Most of Rasa granthas have described every aspect of Parada i.e., Parada parayaya,Parada utpatti, Parada dosha, Shodhana, different samskaras, marana etc.Occurance71 In Rasaratna Samucchaya, it is mentioned that in ancient times mercury wasfound mainly in Darada desha and also in Himalayas in small amounts. But now adays it is obtained mainly from the mines of Spain, America, Italy, Australia, British,China, Russia, Japan and Africa as Cinnabar or Metacinnabar. It occurs in 2 forms. 1. Native 2. Ore formOres of Mercury72 Generally mercury is found in the form of ores, the most important arecinnabar and Metacinnabar, which are in sulphide forms.Table No. 8 Showing the ores of parada along with their chemical composition. Sl No. Ores Chemical Composition 1 Cinnabar Hgs 2 Metacinnabar Hgs 3 Calomel Hg2Cl2 4 Living stonite 2sb2C3Hgs 5 Montrodyte Hgo 6 Falh ore 7 Bassenite 8 Gwadal kajrite 9 Living ore of mercury 10 Caronine ore of mercury 11 Brick ore of mercuryBhedasBhedas of Parada described in various texts are based on following factors: 21 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  37. 37. Review of Literature 1. Depending on the color. 2. Depending on the place of origin.01. Depending on the Color 73 As soon as Parada is taken out of kupa, it has been classified into 4 varities onthe basis of its color and its luster.Table No.9 Showing the varities of Parada depending on the color and theirkarma also specified.Sl.No. Types Color Varna Karma1 Shweta White Brahmana Shwetakarma2 Rakta Red Kshatriya Therapeutics3 Peeta Yellow Vaishya Used in alchemy or to prepare gold.4 Krishna Black Shudra Used in Maintaining healthDepending on the Place of origin 74,75,76,77Table No. 10 showing the varieties of Parada depending upon the place of origin.Sl.No. Varieties Color Impurities Uses1 Rasa Rakta Which is free from all Rasayana types of impurities2 Rasendra Peeta Free from impurities Rasahara3 Suta Ishatpeeta Impurities present Rogahara4 Mishraka Mayura Impurities present Saravasiddi Chandrika dayaka VarnaParada dosha 78,79 Parada is highly reactive and it readily mixes with other dhatus. Henceprobability of impurities present in it is more. These are explained under the headingof Parada doshas in our classics. If are not eradicated by shodhana process can lead tomany diseases and even death. Some authors described the doshas or blemishes ofParada collectively. In other granthas viz Rasa Ratna Samuchaya, doshas have beenconsidered in 3 groups: 22 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  38. 38. Review of Literature 1. Naisargika Dosha 2. Yougika Dosha 3. Oupadhika Dosha (Sapta Kanchuka Dosha)Table No.11 Naisargika Dosha and its effect on sharira. NAISARGIKA DOSHA Sl.No. Dosha Prabhava 1 Visha Mrityu 2 Agni Santapa 3 Mala MoorchaTable No. 12 Yougika Dosha and its effect on sharira YOUGIKA DOSHA Sl.No. Dosha Prabhava 1 Naga Jadya, Adhmana, Kushta 2 Vanga Jadya, Adhmana, KushtaTable No. 13 Oupadhika (Sapta kanchuka) Dosha and its effect Sl.No. Dosha Prabhava 1 Bhumija Kushta 2 Girija Jadya 3 Varija Vata sanghata 4 Two Naga Dosha Vividha dosha vikara 5 Two Naga Dosha Vividha dosha vikara Though Oupadhika doshas like Bhumija etc are also called sapta kanchuka, itis unclear why again different sapta kanchuka doshas have been described. This maylead to assumption that they are two different sets of doshas.The names of sapta kanchuka doshas are as followsBhumija : Parpati.Girija : Patini. 23 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  39. 39. Review of LiteratureVarija : Bhedi.Two Naga dosha : Dravi, Malakari.Two Vanga dosha : Andhakari, Dhwankshi. Sapta kanchuka doshas are claimed to be responsible for various disorders,according to the Subhodini tika on Rasaratna Samucchaya.Parpati : Dries up the skin making it scaly.Patini : Cracking of the skin.Bhedi : Loose stools.Dravi : Liquefying the dhatus.Malakari : Aggravation of malas.Andhakari : Blindness.Dhwankshi : Hoarseness in the voice.Parada Grahya SwaroopaBahirujwala : Externally Parada is shiningMadhyahna surya pratimam : It looks like mid-day sun.Antah neelavarna : Internally it has bluish tinge.Effect of Ashuddha parada sevana 80 It is said in the texts that impure mercury if used internally may producevarious diseases in the body viz Vidaha, Krimi, Kushta, Agnimandya, Aruchi, Chardi,Jadya and even Mrityu. Thus it may cause serious ill effects and hence purified Parada should be usedfor medication. It is also said that shuddha Parada is like an amrita and ashuddha islike poison. 24 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  40. 40. Review of LiteratureShodhana81For elimination of Naisargika, Yougika and Oupadhika doshas, Parada shodhana isvery important. Shodhana of parada has been broadly divided into 2 divisions. 1. Samanya and Vishesha Shodhana. 2. Group of Eighteen special procedures i.e. Ashtadasha Samskar. When Parada is to be used to prepare medicine to combat diseases, the first set ofshodhana is useful. If it is to be used for Rasayana karma then the Ashtadashasamskar has to be followed. Any Rasa karma has to be conducted in shubha nakshatra and shubha dina,worshiping Lord Shankara and Bhairava, because the studies have shown that thoseparticular days, time and worshipping will impart the efficacy in medicine. Hence itshould be necessarily followed.Samanya Shodhana82, 83 Different procedures are explained by various granthas for Samanya shodhanaof Parada.TableNo.14 Showing Samanya shodhana of Parada according to differentauthors: S.L.No. Shodhana dravyas used Procedure used 1 Sudharaja, Mardana done for 3 days, Vastraghalana 2 Lashuna, Saindhava Mardana for 7 days in taptakhalva, Prakshalana. 3 Tambula swarasa, Ardraka Mardana for 3 days, Prakshalana. swarasa, Ksharatraya With amla dravya. 4 Kumari swarasa, Mardana for 3 days prakshalana Chitraka, Raktasarshapa, with kanji. Brihati, Triphala kwatha. 25 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  41. 41. Review of LiteratureVishesha Shodhana84 Different acharyas have explained specific measures to eradicate the specificdoshas present in the Parada.Table No.15 Showing Vishesha shodhana of Parada according to differentauthors Sl.No. Dosha Shodhana dravyas Procedure used used 1 Naga dosha Gruhadhuma, Ishtika Mardana for 1 day, choorna, Haridra prakshalana with choorna, Urna bhasma kanji 2 Vanga dosha Indrayava Ankola Mardana, churna, Haridra prakshalana with churna, kanji. 3 Agni dosha Chitrakamula churna Mardana or Triphala churna, parada 4 Mala dosha Aragwada churna or Mardana, Kumari swarasa, prakshalana 5 Chapala dosha Krishnaduttura Mardana, panchanga, parada prakshalana 6 Visha dosha Triphala churna or Mardana, Chitrakamula churna prakshalana 7 Giri dosha Trikatu churna Mardana vastra ghalana 8 Asahya agni Gokshura churna Mardana doshaAshtadasha samskara85 The eighteen special procedure of shodhana of Parada can further be classifiedinto a sub group called as Astha samskara. It will have both properties i.e. Vyadhi 26 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  42. 42. Review of Literaturenashana and rasayana. Remaining 10 procedures are specially utilized in dhatuvada.They are as mentioned below. Rasayanartha Dhatuvadartha1) Swedana 5) Patana 9) Gaganabhakshana 14) Sarana2) Mardana 6) Rodhana 10) Charana 15) Ranjana3) Moorchana 7) Niyamana 11) Garbhadruti 16) Kramana4) Uttapana 8) Deepana 12) Bahyadruti 17) Vyadha 13) Jarana 18) BhakshanaPharmacological and Therapeutic properties of Shodita Parada86Rasa : ShadrasaGuna : Snigdha, saraVirya : UshnaVipaka : MadhuraKarma : Yogavahi, Rasayana, Ativrishya, Balya, Vajikara, Drushitibala prada, Vayasthapaka, Bhukti, Muktiprada, Pushtikara, Deepana, Ayushkara, Agni Sandhukshana, Dehasiddikara, Lohasiddikara, Ropana, Krimighna.Dosha Prabhava : TridoshaghnaVyadhi Prabhava : Krimi, Kushta, Akshiroga, Kshaya, Tridosha roga, Papaja roga Sarvarogahara.Parada Marana87 Different acharyas have described several procedures of Parada marana.Method: Kajjali is prepared with 2 palas of Parada and 1 pala of Gandhaka, thenbhavana given with swarasa or kashaya of Parada maraka gana oushadhies and dried 27 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  43. 43. Review of Literaturelater it is kept in musha and sandhi bandhana made. Parada bhasma prepared bybhoodara yantra method.Matra88,89Parada can be administered for Vyadhi nashanartha as well as for Rasayanartha.Mruta parada : 2 rattiSwarna jarita parada : ½ rattiVaikranta jarita parada : ½ rattiVajra jarita parada : 1/4 rattiParada yoga : 1 rattiAnupana It has to be suggested according to Vyadhi.PatyapatyaPurana godhuma, Shalianna, Godugda, Gritha, Dadhi, Hamsodaka, Mudga, Yusha areincluded under patyavargaKakarshtaka gana, Masha, Kulutha, Anupa mamsa, Guru, Vishtambhi, Amla aharasevana, etc are included under apatya varga.Parada YogasKajjali90Makaradhwaja91Rasaparpati92Hemagarbha Pottali Rasa93 28 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  44. 44. Review of Literature Mercury94, 95,96,1. English Name :Quick silver2. Latin Name : Hydrargyrum3. Chemical Formula : Hg.2) Mercury is the only metal which is liquid at room temperature. It is shining, silverywhite heavy liquid easily divisible into globules. It is extremely mobile, readilyvolatises on heating. It is 13.5 times more dense than water and 1.2 times heavier thanlead. It exists in three forms metallic, mercurous and mercuric. Metallic mercury is(Hg2+) also known by the name quicksilver, i.e. a liquid metal having a bright silverluster. It exists in nature as metal itself and also found in sulphide form (Cinnabar).Metallic mercury is not poisonous if taken orally because it is not absorbed. Itvaporizes even at room temperature to an extent sufficient to permit inhalation totoxic amounts. Mercury depresses cellular enzymatic mechanisms by combating withsulphahydral groups.Physical Properties Colour : Silvery white. Atomic No : 80 Atomic Weight : 200.61 Specific Gravity : 13.59 Freezing Point : -390C Boiling point : 357.250C 29 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  45. 45. Review of LiteratureSimple tests of pure mercury 1. Boiling point of mercury is 357.250C. When metallic impurities are present, its boiling point changes to lower temperature. 2. Pure mercury does not stick to a clean glass, on the contrary impure mercury leaves behind its track on the clean glass. 3. Impure mercury when shaken for some time in an open air, it forms a thin film of blackish powder over its surface. This is due to oxidation of the metallic impurities. If mercury is pure, this does not occur.Chemical PropertiesEffect of Air: At ordinary room temperature, with low or high humidity, mercury is not at allaffected chemically. If it is heated in an open air gradually up to its boiling point, itreacts with oxygen present in the atmosphere to form oxide of mercury.Effect of water on mercuryWater at any temperature has not any chemical effect on mercury.Effect of Acids: Hydrochloric acid, dilute or concentrated does not cause any change inmercury chemically. Concentrated sulphuric acid also does not bring about anychange in mercury, however it produces sulphur dioxide gas when used in hot andconcentrated form. Hg+2H2SO4 Hgso4+2H2o+SO2Concentrated nitric acid reacts with mercury, to produce mercury nitrate and nitrogenoxide Hg+6HNo3 Hg (NO3)2 + No + 3H2o + No2Effects of Alkalies: 30 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  46. 46. Review of Literature Alkalies may it be concentrated or dilute, hot or cold do not have any effect onmercury5) Halogen compounds: Halogen and halogen compounds i.e Iodine, Bromide, Flourine, Chlorine andtheir compounds do have effects on mercury to from Iodides, bromides fluorides andchlorides.Hg + Cl2 HgCl2Amalgam Formation Mercury forms alloys with many metals and those are called amalgams.Metallic properties of such amalgams are very useful in different industries andmedicines.Absorption, Distribution and Excretion: The absorption, distribution and excretion of mercury and its compounds varyconsiderably with the chemical form of the metal. The soluble inorganic mercurial (Hg2+) readily gain access to the circulationwhen taken by mouth, although a considerable portion of ingested Hg2+ may remainfixed to the alimentary mucosa and the intestinal contents. Insoluble inorganicmercurous compounds, such as calomel (Hg2Cl2), may undergo some oxidation tosoluble, absorbable compounds. In suitable vehicles, inorganic mercurials may bereduced to elemental mercury and deposited as a grey to bulish pigment. In the blood,Hg+2 is first fixed to α globulins and erythrocytes but later shifts to albumin, fromwhich it is redistributed tissues with a half-time of about 15 days. Within few hoursthe mercury is found in tissues in the following approximate order of decreasingconcentration. Pancreas, kidney, liver, spleen, blood, bone marrow, upper respiratoryand buccal mucosa, intestinal wall (especially colon), skin, salivary glands, heart, 31 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  47. 47. Review of Literatureskeletal muscle, brain and lung. There is some evidence that mercuric salts can bestored in bones. Some tissues have a lower capacity bind to mercury than to others sothat distribution may be dose dependant. Also the distribution changes over the courseof time. In the kidney, mercury is found primarily in the proximal tubules. Excretion of mercury starts immediately after absorption, mainly by way ofkidney and colon, and to a lesser extent via the bile and saliva. Small amounts are alsoexcreted in volatile elemental form, through both lungs and the skin. Most of themercury is excreted within 6 days after administration but traces may be detectedfrom months to even years. The absorption, distribution and excretion of the mercury of organicmercurials is determined by Physico-chemical factors and the extent of in-vivoconversion to inorganic mercury. Methyl mercury compounds, the most important ofthe environmental mercury contaminants, are lipid soluble and are rapidly and almostcompletely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.Therapeutic uses The inorganic mercuric salts, as well as certain organic compounds ofmercury, are employed chiefly as antiseptics and preservatives. Also certain mercurycompounds are effective parasiticides and fungicides when locally applied. Certaincomplex organic mercurial compounds are employed as diuretic. Mercurous chlorideis an absolute cathartic. The metal is of historical interest in syphilo therapy. Thespecific actions of mercury are: 1. Antiseptic 2. Anti syphilitic 3. Diuretic 4. Cathartic 32 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  48. 48. Review of LiteratureMercury exhibits its therapeutic manifestation in a following manner: • Mercury ions are strong protein precipitants and act as antiseptic. • They stimulate secretory activities of many glands such as salivary, intestinal etc. • They interfere with reabsorption of fluid by the intestine (cathartic action) • The mercurial diuretics act primarily to inhibit water reabsorption by the tubules of the kidney and therefore interfering with reabsorbing function of the tubules.Other uses of mercury • It finds use in thermometers, barometers, manometers, and high vaccume air pumps. • It is used in extraction of gold and silver by amalgamation process. • Mercury is used in preparation of its alloys with other metals called amalgams. • Amalgams of tin, silver and gold are used in the dentistry.Mercury poisoningMercury is highly toxic, its ingestion may lead to a manifestation of many symptomsand even death.Acute poisoning Acute poisoning usually results from the oral ingestion of highly dissociatedinorganic preparations, although it may also result from inhalation of vapours ofelemental mercurial ointments applied tropically. Symptoms produced may vary fromone individual to other. Metallic taste, swollen and grayish appearance of the mouth, pharynx, andgastric mucosa, intense pain in the affected tissues, vomiting, nausea, severe, profuse, 33 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  49. 49. Review of Literaturebloody diarrhea, oliguria, circulatory collapse, uremia, gangrenous colitis may beobserved.Chronic poisoning Chronic mercury intoxication can result from wide variety of industrial,agricultural, and domestic exposures. It also occurs among those who have takeninternally for a prolonged period of excessive doses of mercury compounds. The symptoms produced are gingivitis, stomatitis, loosening of the teeth,salivation, metallic taste, colitis, retrogressive renal damage, loss of appetite,nutritional disturbances, anemia, hypertension and peripheral neuritis. The CNS isespecially involved, as evidenced by behavioral changes, mental depression,irritability, blushing, insomnia, intention tremors, occasionally hallucinations.Fatal dose : 1 – 4 gms.Fatal period : 3 – 5 days.Treatment • A source of sulphahydral-rich protein such as milk or raw eggs, is introduced into the stomach. • Copious lavage is performed with 5% solution of sodium formaldehyde sulphoxylate. • This provides an excellent local antidote. It reduces bivalent mercuric ion to the much less soluble mercurous form. • Intramuscular dimercaprol or a penicillamine is given to chelate the mercury and accelerate its excretion. Prompt therapy with metal-chelating agents affords the kidney almost complete protection from the toxic effects of mercury. 34 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  50. 50. Review of Literature • Fluid, electrolyte and cardiac abnormalities and shock must be corrected • Hemodialysis may be required to relieve uremia. Line of treatment remains same for chronic poisoning also. But response isslow to therapy and patient may remain ill health for years. 35 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  51. 51. Review of Literature Kasisa Kasisa is considered under Uparasa varga. It is a compound of iron andsulphur, it being a sulphate of Iron. It is made artificially and found in native formalso97. Artificially it is produced by the reaction of sulphuric acid on iron98. Now daysit is mostly made artificially.Synonyms99, 100,101,102 Different paryayas of Kasisa are listed by various acharyas depending on itsorigin action, properties and specific characteristics.Table No.16 Showing synonyms of Kasisa according to different Acharyas.Paryayas R.S.S3 A.P4 R.A5 R.T6Kasisa + + + +Kashisha - + - +Dhatukasisa + + - -Pushpa kasisa - - - +Panshukasisa - - - +Pamshukam - + - +Dhatu Ranjaka + - - -Khechara + - + -Khaya + - + +Vernaculars Names103English : Green vitriolHindi : KasisMarathi : Hira kasBengali : Hira kas 36 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  52. 52. Review of LiteratureGujarati : Hiro kasArabic : JajarujharParsi : Jajs objaTelegu : AnnabedhiClassification of Kasisa104, 105,106Kasisa is explained under different titles by our acharyas.Table No. 17 Showing classification according to different granthas.Sl.No. Class Granthas1 Uparasa Rasachintamani, Rasarnava, Rasendra Purana, Rasahridaya Tantra, Rasaratna Samucchaya, Brihat RasaRajaSundara, RasendraSaraSangraha, Rasaprakash sudhakara.2 Upadhatu Sharangadhara Samhita, Rasatarangini3 Dhatu Varga Rasamrita In Charaka Samhita, Kasisa is described under Bhouma gana, and in ushakadigana in Sushruta Samhita, while in Ashtanga Hridaya it is described as Parthivadravya.Occurance107It is found in native form as well as made artificially. It is available naturally resulting from decomposition of Iron pyrites by theaction of atmospheric moisture and found in small quantities where iron pyrite occurs.Malenterite, which is available naturally (not abundantly) found in USA, Bavaria,Sweden, Spain and Bihar, Punjab in India.Artificial preparation Kasisa is prepared in laboratories by adding sulphuric acid to iron fillings. 37 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  53. 53. Review of LiteratureVarities of Kasisa Different varieties are explained in different granthas based on its origin andcolor.Table No. 18 Showing varities of Kasisa according to origin.Reference Churna Pushpakasisa Pamshu Valu kasisa kasisa kasisaR.T 108 + + -A.P 109 - + + -RRS 110 - + - +R.Ch 111 - + - +R.PS 112 - + - +Table No. 19 Showing varities of Kasisa according to Color.Reference Shweta Peeta Krishna Harita Rakta kasisa Kasisa kasisa kasisa kasisaRAN 113 + + + -AK + + + - +RP 114 + + + - -BRRS115 + + + - -RJN116 + + + + -Grahya Kasisa117 Of all different verities of Pushpakasisa, which is told as peeta varnaja, isgrahya and it is used for different therapeutic purpose. In Rasamrita, Yadavaji has mentioned that Pushpakasisa is one which isartificially prepared and is the ideal for medicinal purpose.Shodhana of Kasisa118, 119,120,121 Different shodhana methods are explained in various texts. 38 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  54. 54. Review of LiteratureTable No.20 Showing various procedures for purification of Kasisa.Sl.No Dravya used in Procedure used Yantra Reference Shodhana used1 Nimbu swarasa Bhavana for a Khalva BRRS, RJ.N, day RP2 Jambiri swarasa Bhavana for a Khalva RSS day BRRS, RP3 Bhringaraj swarasa Bhavana for 3 Khalva RP, RJN, RA times4 Bhringaraj swarasa Swedana for 3 Dolayantra R.T, RPS, hrs BRRS, R.P, A.P5 Bhringaraj swarasa Klinna RRS, R.C, RJN6 Stri shonita Bhavana Khalva BRRS, R.P, RRS, RJN,7 Panchapitta Bhavana Khalva RP, BRRS, RRS8 Kasamarda rasa Bhavana Khalva RANPharmacological and Therapeutic properties of Kasisa Slight difference of opinion exists among different acharyas regarding Rasa ofKasisa.Table No.21 Showing Rasa of Kasisa according to different Acharyas.Rasa RPS RRS RKD BRRS AP RA RJN RTAmla + + + + + - + -Kashaya + + + + + + + +Tikta - - - - + - - -Guna122 : All Rasa granthas mentioned it as Ushnagunayukta. Rasendra Sara Sangraha has mentioned Snigdha guna also 39 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  55. 55. Review of LiteratureVirya123 : Ushna.Vipaka : Katu.Dosha prabhava124 : Vatahara, kaphahara.Karma125 : Netrya, Keshya, Kesharanjaka, Pataranjaka, Balya, Kandughna, Vishahara, Rajapravartaka, Jwaragna.Vyadhi Prabhabva126 : Rasavad gunakaraka, Mootra kriccha, Ashmari, Shwitra, Pandu, Kamala, Kshaya, Vrana , Pleehari Pittaja vikara, Apasmara and Netra rogahara.Kasisa Marana127, 128Many methods of Kasisa marana are explained in different Rasa texts.I Method Kasisa Sukshma churna is prepared, 7 bhavanas with Kanji is given andsubjected to laghuputa. Rakta varna bhasma is obtained, which is again triturated withNimbu swarasa and laghuputa given. This process to be repeated till Kasisa loses itsamlata. By this sarvadosha rahita, vimala bhasma of Kasisa is obtained.II Method Kasisa should be given bhavana with Nimbu swarasa. Chakrika prepared anddried in sunlight, they are sealed inside sharava samputa and heat is applied using10kg of vanopalas. The procedure is repeated till Kasisa bhasma becomes free fromsour taste and acquires red color like Gairika. Kasisa is a ferrous sulphate, which can be used after its shodhana only. It doesnot need marana process. However some texts have recommended its marana. Its redcolored bhasma can be prepared within three to four putas. By subjecting it tobhasmikarana process the ferrous sulphate changes to ferric or ferrous oxide, which 40 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  56. 56. Review of Literatureimparts red colour to it. From the therapeutic point of view there is not muchdifference between shodhita and marita Kasisa.Kasisa Bhasma Guna129 Kasisa bhasma has properties similar to Loha bhasma but it is speciallyindicated for Kushta and Shwitra.Matra of Kasisa130 Shodhita Kasisa 23 : ½ - 2 ratti Kasisa Bhasma 24 : Loha bhasma samana matra is indicated.Anupana Triphala churna MadhuSatwapatana131 The satva of Kasisa can be obtained by adopting the similar process of TuvariSatwapatana, i.e. it should be triturated with Kshara and Amla dravyas and heatedintensively to obtain satwa. 41 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  57. 57. Review of Literature Ferrous Sulphate132, 133English Name : Green vitriolChemical Name : Ferrous SulphateChemical Formula : Feso4 7H20Atomic Weight : 278.0 It is the hydrated salt, which contains 20% iron. It consists of pale, bluish-greenishcrystals or granules. In moist air crystals of ferrous sulphate rapidly oxidize andbecome coated with a brownish yellow basic ferric sulphate and must then not be usedfor medicinal purposes. The drug is odorless and has a saline, astringent taste. Ferrous sulphate may be obtained by dissolving scrape iron in dilute sulphuricacid. Solubility: It is completely soluble in 1 in 1:5 of water 1 in 0.5 of boiling waterand practically insoluble in alcohol. The British pharmacopoeia specifies that a 5%solution in water has a PH of 3.0 to 4.0. It is usually dispensed as pills or tablets coated to protect them from moisture. Thesalt is mixed with glucose or lactose to protect it against oxidation. Ferrous sulphatecontains about 60mg of Iron in 300mg. Ferrous sulphate syrup contains 40mg of salt(8mg of Iron) in each millimeter. The average adult dose is 2 tsp thrice daily forchildren who weigh from 15-35 kg, 1tsp twice daily for children who weigh from 15-35 kg, 1tsp twice or thrice daily is advocated. Properties and uses: Light green crystals of ferrous sulphate lose water and turnbrown on exposure to air due to oxidation. 4Feso4 + 2H2o + o2 4Fe (OH) SO4 Basic Ferric sulphate.On heating it decomposes as follows 42 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  58. 58. Review of Literature 2FeSO4 Fe2 O3 + SO2 + SO3 With Nitric oxide, ferrous sulphate turns black due to the formation of nitroferrous sulphate, FeSO4 NOReducing property: It is a good reducing agent, for e.g. it declorises acidifiedpotassium permanganate and turns into acidified potassium dichromate green. With ammonium sulphate, it gives ferrous ammonium sulphate (Mohar’s salt), Fe(NH4)2 SO4 6 H2O. This is not oxidized so readily as ferrous sulphate and is thereforeused in volumetric analysis in preference to ferrous sulphate.Uses: It is extensively used in Iron deficiency anaemia. Ferrous sulphate is largelyused in manufacture of blue-black ink and as mordant in dyeing and tanningindustries.Toxicity: Ferrous sulphate rarely proved fatal to adults but it has produced fatalpoisoning in children under the age of 4 years who took proprietary sugar coatedferrous tablets mistaking them for sweets. Each tablet contains 180mg of FeSO4 2mgof CuSo4 and 2mg of manganese sulphate. It is believed that iron released from tabletshas a necrotising effect on stomach and intestine and this disturbs the normal mucosalblock and releases ferritin into the stream and allows toxic quantity of iron to beabsorbed. 43 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  59. 59. Review of Literature Saindhava Lavana Saindhava lavana is mineral, which is obtained from Punjab mines134. It isliterally means produced in sindh or the country along the Indus. The term is appliedto rock salt, which is regarded as best of salts135.Synonyms, 138,139,140,141.Table No. 22 Showing synonyms of Saindhava lavanaSynonyms RT RM RN KN DN MPNSaindhava + + + + + +Sindhu lavana + - - + + -Sindhootha + - - + + -Sindhudeshaja + - - - - -Sindhu Bhava + - - - - -Sindhumanjhaja + - - - - -Sheeta shiva + + + + - -Nadeya + + - + + -Shilatmaka + - - + - -Shiva + - + + + -Vashira + - - - - -Manimantha - + + + - +Sindhuja - + + - + +Shivatmaja - - + - - -Pathya - - + - - -Vimalavara - - - + - -Lavanavara - - - + - -Doutheya - - - + - -Pututhama - - - + - + 44 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  60. 60. Review of LiteratureVernacular Names142Sanskrit : SaindhavaEnglish : Rock saltChemical Name : Sodium chlorideHindi : Sendha namakBengali : SaindhavanunMarathi : Sende lunaGujarathi : Sindha lunaKannada : UppuClassification: Lavana skandhaVarities 143Acharya Yadavaji Trikramaji has mentioned two varities of Saindhava lavana 1. White 2. RedSource144 Found in nature in extensive beds mostly associated with clay and calciumsulphate. To obtain it, holes are dug into these rocks which soon become filled upwith salt water; the water is then evaporated and the salt is left ready for use.Characters145 It is found in small white crystalline grains or transparent cubes. It is brownishwhite externally and white internally. It has a pure saline taste and burns with ayellow flame.Pharmacological Properties146, 147,148,149,150Rasa : Lavana, Madhura.Guna : Snigdha, Laghu. 45 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  61. 61. Review of LiteratureVirya : Sheeta.Dosha Prabhava : Tridoshaghna.KarmaTable No. 23 Showing the karma of Saindhava lavanaKarma RT RM MPN DN KN RNHridya + + + + - -Vrishya + + + + + +Netrya + + + + + +Pachaka + - + - + -Deepaka + + + + + +Avidahi - + - + - -Sukhada - + - - - -Rogaghnata151, 152,153,154Table No. 24 Showing the Rogaghnata of SaindhavaRogaghnata RT RM RN DNNetra roga + + - +Vrana + + + +Vibhanda + + + +Aruchi - + - +Importance of Saindhava Lavana 1) Used in diet as well as in medicine. 2) Saindhava lavana is best among all the lavanas for internal use. 3) In any preparation when any particular type of lavana is not mentioned in literature, then Saindhava lavana has to be considered. 4) Used in treatment of Aruchi, Netra roga, Hridroga, Vrana and Vibhanda. 46 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity
  62. 62. Review of LiteratureVishishta yogas 1) Nareekelalavana 2) Rasakarpoora 3) RasapushpaMODERN VIEW155 The body contains 250gm of Sodium Chloride, which is an essentialconstituent of the body as well as the chief mineral constituent of the blood serum. Ithelps to maintain the water and salt balance of the tissues, which is regulated by theposterior pituitary antidiuretic and adrenocortical hormones. Any change in theosmotic tension causes the movement of fluids and diffusion of salts in the cellulartissue. Sodium metabolism is intimately related to the concentration of sodium,potassium and chloride in the blood. Its deficiency causes retention of potassium anddiminution of sodium. The balance in the blood is kept uniform, and some stored inthe tissue as reserves, but the surplus water and salt passes out through kidneysproducing diuresis. It is therefore essential that the necessary supply of this should beintroduced either with the food itself, or as an addition to the food. 47 Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Rasapushpa and its Antimicrobial Activity

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