Rasakarpoor antimicrobial rs012_gdg

3,683 views
3,495 views

Published on

Preparation, Physico-chemical analysis of Rasakarpoor and its antimicrobial activity - Dr. Suvarana. P. Nidagundi, Department of rasashastra, Post graduate studies and research center, Shri D. G. Melmalagi Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,683
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
77
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Rasakarpoor antimicrobial rs012_gdg

  1. 1. PREPARATION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF RASAKARPOOR AND ITS ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY By Dr.Suvarna P.Nidagundi DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THERAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES BANGALORE, KARNATAKA In partial fulfillments of the requirements for the degree of AYURVEDA VACHASPATI(M.D) In RASASHASTRA Under the guidance of Dr.M.C.Patil M.D. (Ayu) Under the co-guidance of Dr.Girish N.Danappagouder M.D. (Ayu) J.S.V.V. SAMSTHE’S Shri.D.G.M. Ayurvedic Medical College, Hospital & P.G.Research Centre, GADAG - 582103 2004-2007
  2. 2. Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore. DECLARATION BY THE CANDITATE I hereby declare that this dissertation entitled Preparation, Physico-chemicalanalysis of Rasakarpoor and its antimicrobial activity is a bonafide and genuineresearch work carried out by me under the guidance of Dr. M.C. Patil, MD (Ayu),Professor and HOD, Post - Graduate Department of Rasashastra and under the co-guidance of Dr. Girish N. Danappagoudar M.D (Ayu), Lecturer, Post – graduateDepartment of Rasashastra.Date: Signature of the CandidatePlace: Gadag (Dr. Suvarna P. Nidagundi)
  3. 3. SHRI D.G. MELMALGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GADAG. POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA. I here by certify that this dissertation entitled Preparation, Physico-chemical analysis of Rasakarpoor and its antimicrobial activity is a bonafideresearch work done by Dr.Suvarna P. Nidagundi in partial fulfillment of therequirement for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspati M.D (Ayu) in Rasashastra ofRajiv Gandhi University of Health sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka under myGuidance. Guide Date: Dr.M.C.Patil M.D (Ayu) Place: Gadag Professor & HOD Department of Rasashastra, D.G.Melmalgi Ayurvedic Medical College, Hospital and P.G.Research Center, Gadag - 582103.
  4. 4. SHRI D.G. MELMALGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GADAG. POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA. I here by certify that this dissertation entitled Preparation, Physico-chemical analysis of Rasakarpoor and its antimicrobial activity is a bonafideand genuine research work done by Dr.Suvarna P. Nidagundi in partialfulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspati M.D (Ayu)in Rasashastra of Rajiv Gandhi University of Health sciences, Bangalore,Karnataka under my Guidance. Co-Guide Date: Dr.Girish N.Danappagoudar. M.D (Ayu) Place: Gadag Lecturer Department of Rasashastra, D.G.Melmalgi Ayurvedic Medical College, Hospital and P.G.Research Center, Gadag-582103.
  5. 5. This is to certify that the dissertation entitled Preparation, Physico-chemicalanalysis of Rasakarpoor and its antimicrobial activity is a bonafide research workdone by Dr.Suvarna P.Nidagundi under the Guidance of Dr.M.C.Patil MD(Ayu) Professor & HOD, Post Graduate Department of Rasashastra and under the Co-Guidance of Dr.Girish N.Danappagoudar MD (Ayu) Lecturer, Post GraduateDepartment of Rasashastra. Dr.M.C.Patil M.D (Ayu) Dr.G.B.Patil Professor & H.O.D Principal /C.M.O Department of Rasashastra,D.G.M.Ayurvedic Medical College D.G.M. Ayurvedic Medical CollegeHospital and P.G.Research Center, Hospital and P.G.Research Center Gadag. Gadag.Date: Date:Place: Gadag Place: Gadag
  6. 6. I here by declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore,Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminate this dissertation in printor electronic format for academic/research purpose.Date: Dr.Suvarna P.NidagundiPlace: Gadag © Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore.
  7. 7. Acknowledgement Any research is never an individual effort. It is contributory effort of manyhearts, hands and heads. It gives me inexpressible pleasure to offer my sincere thanksto all those who have rendered their wholehearted support, guidance and Co-operationin completing my thesis work. I utililize this opportunity to express my full respect and regards to my Motherin law who is not with us Smt.Vajreshwari.M.Shedagatagi, who gave me confidenceand encouragement to do this course. It is beyond the words to express my gratitudetowards my Father-in-law for his support and never ending love, which are the drivingforces behind my success and achievement. I express my enormous earnest gratification and heart felt thanks to myHusband and my Children for their dedication, support and sacrifice. My deep sense of gratification is due for my Parents who are the architects ofmy career, culture and discipline, which i could imbibe, are solely because of theirpainstaking, upbringing and strong moral support. I am extremely happy to express my deepest sense of gratitude to my belovedand respected HOD and Guide Prof. Dr.M.C.PatilMD whose sympathetic, scholarlysuggestions and guidance at every step have inspired me not only to accomplish thiswork but in all aspects. I express gratitude beyond words to my Associate guideDr.K.Krupanidhi.M.Sc,M.Phil,PhD Lecturer, Dept of Microbiology & Biotechnology,S.C.S. College of Pharmacy, Harapanahalli for his constant supervision, guidanceencouragement and wholehearted support during my experimental study. I am extremely grateful to my co-guide Dr.G.N.Danappagowdar, MD.(Ayu) underwhose guidance, inspiration, supervision and valuable suggestions, i have been able tocomplete this research work. I take this privilege to convey my sincere thanks to Dr.Numburi HanumantRao who guided me for Qualititative identification of Rasakarpoor in Vijayawadwhen we are on study tour. I wish to convey thanks to my teacher Prof.Dr.R.K.Gachchinamath.HOD,Rasashastra dept (UG) DGMAMC, Gadag, for being kind & affectionate through hisvaluable suggestions & advises. i
  8. 8. I express my deep gratitude to Dr.Dilipkumar B. MD (Ayu) for his criticalsuggestions and expert guidance for the completion of thesis. I am extremely grateful to Dr.Jagadish Mitti, MD (Ayu) who helped me in everystep of this thesis work and given valuable information’s wherever necessary. I convey my sincere gratitude to our beloved Principal Dr.G.B.Patil whosevaluable suggestions during the course of my academic career has shown me the wayof perfectness. I take this opportunity to thank HOD’s of other departmentsDr.Purushothamacharyulu MD (Ayu), Dr.Varadhacharyulu MD (Ayu), and Dr.G.V.MulgundMD (Ayu) for their inspiration and valuable suggestions. I am grateful to all the PG teachers Dr.K.S.R.PrasadMD.(AYU),Dr.S.H.Doddamani, Dr.ShivaramuduMD.(AYU), Dr.R.Y.ShettarMD.(AYU), Dr.Kuber.SankMD.(AYU), Dr.Santosh BelvadiMD.(AYU), Dr.Mulki Patil MD.(AYU), Dr.A.SamudriMD.(AYU), Dr.YasminMD.(AYU), Dr.Shashidhar NidagundiMD.(AYU) and Dr.Shankaragoudafor their valuable suggestions. I extend my immense gratitude to Dr.G.S.Hiremath, Dr.S.A.Patil,Dr.U.V.Purad, Dr.B.G.Swami, Dr.Paraddi, Dr.Sajjana and other teaching staff whohelped during my study. I take this opportunity to thank Shri.Suresh Hiremath, Shri.Chandur andShri.Shivakumar Lecturers of J. T. Pharmacy College Gadag, who extended valuablesupport for conducting analytical procedures. I feel proud in expressing my sincere gratitude to my brothers, familymembers and my best friend Dr.Manjula, who not only helped me but also stood byme during hours of stress and dejection. I would like to express my sincere thanks to LibrarianShri.V.M.Mundinamani, and Asst Librarian Shri.S.B.Sureban and Shri Shavi forproviding valuable books in time throughout the study. I extend my sincere thanks to my seniors Dr.Santhoji, Dr.Jaggal,Dr.V.S.Hiremath, Dr.Koteshwar, Dr.R.B.Pattanashetti, Dr.Ganti, Dr.Pradeep,Dr.Sobagin, Dr.Sasvihalli, Dr.M.S.Hiremath, My classmates Dr.S.V.Teggi,Dr.Sharanu Angadi, Dr.Anand.H, Dr.Anitha.H and Junior friends Dr.Suma.J,Dr.Jayshree.S, Dr.Rudrakshi.D, Dr.Kattimani, Dr.Amnish Varma, Dr.Kavita, Dr.Anu,Dr.Vijayalaxmi, Dr.Shivakumar, and Dr.Ravindra for their guidelines and timelyrendered help. ii
  9. 9. I take this moment to express my thanks to all my Post Graduate friendsDr.Jagadish.H, Dr.Anand.D, Dr.Gangur, Dr.Channaverswami, Dr.Vijay,Dr.Lingareddi, Dr.Ashwin, Dr.Hakkandi, Dr.Manju.Akki, Dr.Umesh, Dr.Krishna,Dr.Akki, Dr.Gavi, Dr.Sarvi. Dr.Kalmath, Dr.Ashok, Dr.Kendadmath, Dr.Sajjanar,Dr.Venkareddy, Dr.Shaila, Dr.Sunita, Dr.Bingi, Dr.Ratan, Dr.Uday, Dr.Hugar,Dr.Meenaxi, Dr.Ashwini, Dr.Madhushri, Dr.Shalini, Dr. Shivaleela, Dr. Sulochana &Dr. Kamalaxi. I am very much thankful to M/s Pragati Xerox Center, Gadag for their timelyhelp bringing out this computer print. I express my thanks to all the persons who have helped me directly &indirectly with apologies for my ability to identify them individually. Dr.Suvarna P.Nidagundi. iii
  10. 10. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USEDAH -- Astanga HrudayaAP -- Ayurveda PrakashASS -- Ayurveda Sara SangrahaBP -- Bhava PrakashaBPN -- Bhava Prakash NighantuBR -- Bhaishajya RatnavaliBRJ -- BasavarajiumBRRS -- Bruhat Rasa Raja SundarChSm -- Charaka SamhitaDhN -- Dhanwantari NighantuKN -- Kaideva NighantuMHN -- Maha NighantuMPN -- Madanapala NighantuPaSa -- Parada SamhitaRaChi -- Rasendra ChintamaniRaPu -- Rasendra PuranaRCh -- Rasendra CoodamaniRHT -- Rasa Hridaya TantraRJN -- Rasa Jala NidhiRK -- RajakamadhenuRM -- Rasendra MangalaRMJ -- RasamanjariRN -- Raja Nighantu iv
  11. 11. RPS -- Rasa Prakash SudhakarRRK -- RasaratnakarRRS -- Rasa Ratna SamucchayaRSM -- RasamrutRSN -- RasarnavaRSS -- Rasendra Sara SangrahaRT -- RasataranginiPV -- Parada VignanaSSMK -- Sharangadhar Samhita Madhyama KandaSuSm -- Sushruta SamhitaYR -- Yogaratnakara v
  12. 12. AbstractBackground: Rasashastra is known for many valuable Herbal or Herbomineral and theirvaried preparations. Many of such formulations have been obscured for lack of properapprehension of the therapeutic uses and also due to the complexity in theirpreparations. Kupipakva Rasayanas fall under such category, out of whichRasakarpoor is one. It is one of the Nirghandha Kupipakva Rasayana, which isneglected in Pharmaceutics, because of its toxicity. When Rasakarpoor processedproperly and administered in minimal dose it is highly effective against diseases. Ithas properties like Krimigna, Bahubootavishapaha, etc. The above diseases caused byMicroorganisms. Therefore present study was undertaken as Rasakarpoor againstmicroorganisms.Objectives:The present study was planned with the following Aims and Objectives 1. Preparation of Rasakarpoor. 2. Physico chemical analysis of Rasakarpoor. 3. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Rasakarpoor.Methods:Pharmaceutical study: 1. Hingula shodhana according to Rasatarangini -- 9/16-17, Page No 202. 2. Hingulotha parada according to Rasatarangini -- 5/39-39, Page No 82-83. 3. Preparation of Rasakarpoor according to Rasatarangini -- 6/68-71, Page No 115-116. vi
  13. 13. Analytical study: Rasakarpoor is subjected to physico chemical analysis i.e. organolepticcharacters, loss on 1100C, Solubility, pH, and fineness of the particles etc.Experimental study: Cup plate method was selected to evaluate the antimicrobial activity ofRasakarpoor. For the study 2-gram +ve, 2-gram –ve bacteria and 2 fungi wereselected. Antimicrobial activity was carried out in Microbiology department ofS.C.S.collage of Pharmacy Harapanahalli.Results: Results of Antimicrobial activity of Rasakarpoor were expressed in terms ofZone of inhibition. Zone of inhibition was calculated with the help of measuringtransparent scale. 1. Rasakarpoor has shown less significant activity for all bacterias except E-coli, the standard drug cefotoxium in both the concentrations(50μgm/ml and 100μgm/ml). 2. Rasakarpoor has shown significant activity for fungai both the concentrations compared to fluconozole.Interpretation & Conclusion: Hingulotha Parada is equivalent to Asthasamskarita Parada and Samagunabalijarita Parada because it is devoid of saptakanchuka, Nagavanga doshas. The ingredients, appearance, chemical combinations of Rasakarpoor and Mercuric chloride are same. Cup plate method is convenient, cost effective method for evaluation of Antimicrobial activity. vii
  14. 14. When Rasakarpoor was processed properly, is very effective drug in the minimal dose. Rasakarpoor subjected to modern physico chemical analysis. Rasakarpoor has best antimicrobial activity.Keywords: Hingulotha Parada, Kupipakva rasayana, Rasakarpoor, Kramagni, Analytical study, Antimicrobial activity, Cup-plate method, Results, Discussion, Conclusion and Summary. viii
  15. 15. ContentsSl No Index Page No 1 Introduction 1-4 2 Aims and Objectives 5 3 Review of Literature 6-118 4 Methodology 119-161 5 Results 162-169 6 Discussion 170-179 7 Conclusion 180-181 8 Summary 182-184 9 Bibliography 185-200 10 Annexure 201-203 ix
  16. 16. List of TablesSl. Page Title of the TableNo No 1 Showing Synonyms of Hingula according to different Texts 9 2 Showing Synonyms are classified on the basis of appearance, Guna, 10 Karma, Constituents, and Habitat 3 Showing Classification of Hingula according to different Texts 11 4 Showing Types of Hingula according to different Text 12 5 Showing Grahya laxana of Hingula according to different Text 14 6 Showing Different process according to different Text 15 7 Showing Complications according to different Text 15 8 Showing types of Satvapatana of Hingula according to different Text 16 9 Showing Rasa of Hingula according to different Text 1810 Showing Doshaghnata of Hingula according to different text 1911 Showing Description about Parada according to different text 25, 2612 Showing Classification of Synonyms of Parada on the basis of 27 Roopa, Guna, Utpatti, and Upayog13 Showing Synonyms of Parada according to different Text 27, 2814 Showing Types of Parada depending on the Colour 3115 Showing Types of Parada depending on the place of Origin 3116 Showing Types of Parada dosha and dosha karma According to 32 different Text17 Showing Shodhana process according to Rasarnava 3518 Showing Shodhana process according to Rasatarangini 3519 Showing Shodhana process according to Rasendra Sara Sangraha 3520 Showing Shodhana process according to Ayurveda Prakash & 36 Rasendra Sarasangraha21 Showing important ores of Mercury 3922 Showing Synonyms of Saindhava lavana 55, 5623 Showing Properties of Sandhava Lavana according to different Texts 56, 5724 Showing different methods of Rasakarpoor preparation explained by 77 different Texts25 Showing Different types of Anupana of Rasakarpoor 7926 Showing Different indications mentioned by different Texts 80-8127 Showing Category & Features of Krimi 9028 Showing difference between Gram +ve and Gram –ve Bacteria 9329 The observations done during Hingula Shodhana. Pract No 1 12130 The observations done during Hingula Shodhana 12331 Observations during Hingula Satvapatana 12532 Observations of heating pattern 12533 Observations during Hingula Satvapatana 12734 Observations of heating pattern 127 x
  17. 17. 35 Hourly temperature chart 13636 Overall Results of Rasakarpoor Nirmana Vidhi 14137 Preparation of Reagent 14838 Nutrient broth composition 15739 Potato Dextrose Agar composition 15840 Nutrient Agar media composition 15941 Efficacy of Cefotaxime and Rasakarpoor against Staphylococcus 162 aureus (+ve)42 Efficacy of Cefotaxime and Rasakarpoor against Streptococcus 163 Pyogenes (+ve)43 Efficacy of Cefotaxime and Rasakarpoor against Escherichia – coli 164 (–ve)44 Efficacy of Cefotaxime and Rasakarpoor against Pseudomonas 165 aeruginosa (- ve)45 Efficacy of Fluconazole and Rasakarpoor against Candida 166 Albicans46 Efficacy of Fluconazole and Rasakarpoor against Aspergillus flavus 16747 Efficacy of standard and tested drug against gram +ve & gram –ve 168 organisms48 Efficacy of standard and tested drug against Fungal organism 16849 Results of Rasakarpoor 17450 xi
  18. 18. List of GraphsSl No Title of the Graph Page No 1 Temperature and Time duration of Valuka Yantra in the 139 preparation of Rasakarpoor. 2 Results of standard and tested drug over the 162 Staphylococcus aureus (+ve). 3 Results of Standard and Tested drug over the 163 Streptococcus Pyogenes(+ve). 4 Results of standard and tested drug over the Escherichia 164 – coli (–ve). 5 Results of standard and tested drug over the 165 Pseudomonas aeruginosa (- ve) 6 Results of standard and tested drug over the Candida 166 albicans 7 Results of standard and tested drug over the Aspergillus 167 Flavus List of Photos Sl. No Title of Photo 1 Rasakarpoor Nirmana Vidhi Photo No 1. 2 Rasakarpoor Nirmana Vidhi Photo No 1. 3 Rasakarpoor Nirmana Vidhi Photo No 1. 4 Antimicrobial Activity Photo No 1. 5 Antimicrobial Activity Photo No 2. xii
  19. 19. IntroductionIntroduction: Science is not a sudden invention but gradual evolution. Ayurveda as a scienceis not an exception for it. It is not just a curative medicine, but also it teaches the wayto live long a healthy and happy life. The imperishable fundamentals of Ayurveda,which were laid down by the great sages of the olden days, are still applicable becauseof their scientific eternal background. Such fundamentals must be subjected toscientific research not only to prove its certainty but also to add something to theexisting knowledge. The ancient literature of Hindu system named as Vedas have been classifiedinto four categories that is Rugveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda and Atharvaveda.Ayurveda is a branch of Atharvaveda and it can be divided into two sampradayas thatis Atreya sampradaya and Dhanvantari Sampradaya. Further Nagarjuna sampradaya,which deals with the Rasashastra, was slowly absorbed into the stream of Ayurvedaand now in the present era we get an integrated form of Ayurveda and Rasashastra. The oath of Nagarjuna is “SIDDHE RASE KARISHYAMI NIRDARIDRYAMGADAM JAGAT.” I will make this world free from the disease and poverty throughthe attainment of absolute control over the mercury. The main aim of Rasashastra is not only lohavada but to attain theJeevanmukti by means of dehavada. And for vigorous health physic that is deahavada,Rasoushadis play an important role in the medicine. As it has been stated in manyRasashastra text that mercury kills diseases and death when it is itself in a state ofswoon. But mercury is not administered directly, it always in the compound form.Hence Rasoushadis have been termed as Daivabhaisajya and Daivichikitsa. There foreit is rightly stated that “UTTAMO RASAVAIDYASTU …….” 1Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  20. 20. Introduction Among Rasaushadhis, Kupipakva rasayanas hold the top place. The effects ofthese Kupipakva rasayanas are really a miracle. Their efficacy is good if they areprepared by proper procedures. In the preparation of Kupipakva rasayana, agni is animportant factor, which changes the natural physico – chemical properties of the drug,which depends on its chemical combination and dissociation, which can be broughtabout by the duration and type of contact of heat. This agni is varies from onepreparation to another preparation. Many Kupipakva rasayanas are explained inclassics such as Rasasindur, Rasakarpoor, Sameerpannagarasa, Talasindhur etc.Kupipakva rasayanas are classified into two types viz. Sagandha and Nirgandha.Rasakarpoor is a Kupipakva rasayana, which is said to be of Nirgandha type i.e.during the preparation of Rasakarpoor, Gandhaka (Sulphur) will not be used directly.Few of the authors have recommended utility of Gandhakamla (Sulphuric acid) in theprocess of Rasakarpoor. According Rasatarangini Rasakarpoor is having a property krimigna,bahubhootavishapaha, atisar, pravahika, tvachagatarog, raktadoshamana, grahi, spota,kandu, mandala, phiranga, kushta and vrunanashana and mentioned it assarvarogahara. Considering above all the properties we can assess Rasakarpoor is oneof the Rasaushadi. Krimi and bahubhootvisha of Ayurveda are correlated with microorganisms.The krimis are explained under two broad headings as visible and invisible in ourVedas. According to the recent authors of Ayurveda bhootas are those disease causingorganisms, which cannot be seen through the naked eyes. According to modern science some infectious diseases are affected byorganisms these are also visible or invisible. Infection is a result of interactionbetween microorganism and the natural defense mechanism of the body. 2Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  21. 21. Introduction In underdeveloped countries especially in the tropics infection continues to beone of the commonest causes of disease and death. Microorganisms such as bacteria,viruses, fungi and parasites, are present everywhere in the soil, water, atmosphere andon the body surfaces, and are responsible for a large number of infectious diseases inhuman beings. Particularly in children and determines the strength of working man,the health of the mother and pattern of systemic disease in the community. Multipledisease entities are the rule and the clinical pattern of illness differs in many waysfrom those in temperature zones. These cause respiratory diseases diarrhoea,dermatological problems, tuberculosis, malnutrition and other immunosuppressiveeffects. Chronic infections do cause serious damage to important organs such as liverand kidneys in schisthomiasis, the heart in trypanosmiasis, cruzi the lungs, bones andlymph nodes in tuberculosis, malaria and hook worm infections. Despite improvedliving conditions, wide spread vaccination and availability of effective antibiotics,infectious diseases continue to take very high rank as a cause of death in the world,which is more than ten million persons each year. For such life threatening conditions, many antibiotics such as penicillincephalosporins, fourquinolones, antiprotozoals, antifungal etc are heavily prescribedby modern medical practitioners, which are considered as the weapons of theAllopathic medical Science. But these drugs cause many hazards to the body such asnausea, vomiting, gastric irritations, metallic taste, destruction of gastric flora,anaphylactic reaction causing even death. There are some good medicines in terms ofantibiotics in Ayurvedic treasure of therapeutics to treat the infection by killing Krimi(Microorganisms) without or less complication. There fore Rasakarpoor has been selected to treat the infection against 3Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  22. 22. IntroductionKrimi (Microorganisms) without complications in vitro for the study.Review of Previous works:At Jamnagar:i) "Rasakarpura Nirmana" - by Dr. Patel A.S. in 1975ii) "The preparation of Rasakarpura and its efficacy in skin disorder W.S.R. to Vicarcika" by Dr. H. Yeriswamy in 1984.At Jaipur :i) "Rasakarpura Kalpa Vignyana"(Asta Samskarita Evam Hingulottha Parada Se Rasakarpura.) by Dr. Angiras R.K. in 1985.At BHU:i) "Study on Rasakarpura" (Standardization & Evaluation of toxicity andantimicrobial activity) by Dr. Rao G.P. in 1991. 4Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  23. 23. Aims & ObjectivesAims and Objectives of the study: The present study has been done with the following aims and objectives: 1. Preparation of Rasakarpoor. 2. Physico-chemical analysis of Rasakarpoor. 3. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Rasakarpoor. 5Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  24. 24. Drug ReviewHingula:Introduction: Hingula is compound of parada and gandhaka, which occurs as a mineral innature and also prepared artificially. This is a chief source of mercury since ancienttimes to this date. In ancient times, mercury was obtained from it through patanaprocess. Many varieties of this mineral have been described in ancient texts. Out ofthese Hamsapada variety is considered best.Historical Background: The man started usage of Hingula for several purposes even before Christ inmany parts of the World. Rather than a medicine the usage of Hingula attainedpopularity in other fields. At first, Arthashastra, a textbook written in 200 B.C.hasgiven the methods of testing of valuable metals using Hingula. Attracted towards itsbeauty, the Indian ladies were using this for face make-up. The ore was directly usedat first. The invention of synthetic preparation of Hingula came later.Vedic Period: No reference about HINGULA is available in any of the Vedas.Purana and Upanishad Period: No reference is available about the HINGULA in this period.Samhita Kala (100 B.C.): No reference available in Charaka, Sushruta, Ashtanga Samgraha andAshtanga Hridaya. But, we get references of parada. It is assumed that in olden days,it was imported from other countries.Koutilya Arthashastra (200 B.C.): The author of Kautilya Arthashastra, Chanakya has mentioned hingula in histext for the first time. “Ghanasuahire vaa rope swarna mrit valuka hingula kalko vaataptovatishthate”(kou arth 2/14/40). 6Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  25. 25. Drug Review This reference of hingula is found in the methods for testing of suvarna andother metals rather than medicine. He mentioned it for testing various metals. He did not describe the use ofHingula as a medicine. He has mentioned four types of testing methods namely 1) Parikuttanam (Hammering) 2) Avachahadana (Cutting) 3) Ullekhana (Scratching) 4) Parimardana (Rubbing)Here Hingula is mentioned under Parimardana (Kou Arth 2/14/54)Nighantu Period: Dhanwantari, Madanphal nighantu & Rajanighantu has mentioned aboutHingula in Suvarnadi Dhatu varga, Kaidevnighantu & Bhavaprakash nighantuclassified under dhatvadi varga and we find explanation about Synonyms,Properties etc.Rasakala (Starts from 8th century) :Rasendra Mangala (8th century A.D.): The oldest text of Rasashastra, Rasendramangala described for the firsttime about shodhana and the therapeutic usage of Hingula and this is also usedfor the preparation of Loha bhasma. He has considered Hingulottha Parada isthe satwa of hingula.Rasa hridaya tantra (10th century A.D.): Acharya Bhagvata Govindpada has mentioned in list of eightrasadravyas.Rasarnava (12 th century A.D.): He has considered Hingula as a maharasa; he also described the synonyms,varieties, properties and satvapatana of hingula. He utilized the term 7Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  26. 26. Drug Review“rasagandsambhotam” which indicates the awareness about chemical composition ofHingula.Rasaratnakar (15th century A.D.): Rasaratnakar described the Hingula and also mentioned the artificialpreparation.Other Granthas: Rasaratnasamuchchaya, Rasaprakasha sudhakara, Rasendra sara sangraha,Rasendrachudamani, Bhavaprakash etc and naveen rasagranthas like Rasatarangini,Rasamritakara, Ayurved prakasha, Siddha bhaishajya manimala, Rasajalnidhi,Itrochemistry of Ayurved have mentioned the Synonyms, varieties, properties,shodhana, grahyalakshana and uses. These texts also mentioned the artificialpreparation of hingula.Vernacular Names:1& 2 Sanskrit -- Hingula, Darada, Churnaparada, Mlechch Hindi -- Hingula, Singarpha, Latin name – Sulphuatumhydrargyrum English -- Cinnabar, Redsulphide of Mercury Kannada -- Ingalika, Marathi -- Hingula, Assami -- Janophar Telagu -- Ingulikam, Gujarati -- Hingula Malayalam -- Sedilengam, Arabic -- Zunjefer Nepal -- Sabita, Persian -- Shengherf 8Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  27. 27. Drug ReviewSynonymsTable No 1 Synonyms of Hingula according to different Texts:Sl.No Synonym RT 3 RSS4 AP5 RSN6 DhN7 RSM8 KN9 BP1001. Hingulam - - - - + - - -02. Hingul + - - - - - - -03. Hingula + + + + - + - +04. Ingula + - - - - - - +05. Hingulaka - - - - - - + -06. Mleccha + - + + + + + +07. Rakta + - + - - - + -08. Gairika + - - - - - + -09. Suranga + - + - - - - -10. Chitranga + - - - - - + -11. Churna parada + - - - + - - +12. Rasodbhava + - - - + - - -13. Rasasthana + - - - + - - -14. Ranjana + - - - - - - -15. Kapishirshaka + - - - - - - -16. Raktakaya + - - + - - - -17. Hamsapada + - - - - + + -18. Darada + + + - - - - +19. Barbara - - + - - - - -20. Shuka tunda - + - - - - - -21. Jati - - - - - - + - Rasagandha - + - + - - - -22. sambhuta23. Daitya raktaka - + - - - - - -24. Maraka - - - - + - - -25. Maniraga - - - - - - + -26. Rasagarbha - + + - + - - -27. Ati rakta - - - - - - + -28. Parvata - - - - - - + -29. Saikta - - - - - - + - 9Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  28. 28. Drug ReviewTable No 2 Synonyms are classified on the basis of appearance, Guna, Karma,Constituents, and Habitat:Names based on SynonymsAppearance Kapishirshaka, Chitranga, Chinapishta, Churna Parada, Makshi Vanga, Daitya Raktaka, Manohara, Markata Shirsa, Rakta, Raktakaya, Rakta Parada, Shukatundaka, Supittaka, Suranaga, Hansapada, Hansandhri, Hansaka, Hingulu, Hinguli, Hingula, Kuruvinda.Guna & Karma Charmanuranjana, Maraka, Maniraga, Ranjaka, Ranjana, Lohaghna, Ratna Ragakari, Raga Dravya, Vishesa, Barbara, Sagara, Charmara, Charmaragandhika, Charmarabandha nam, Charmaravardhana, Uru Charmaka.Constituents Rasagandha Sambhuta, Rasa Garbha, Rasasthana, Siddhi Parada, Rakta Parada, Rasodbhava, Rasa.Habitat Mleccha, Darada, ChinapistaOrigin of Hingula: According to Rasa Ratna Samuccaya, an interesting mythological story hasbeen described for the origin of Hingula. The Hingula is the Virya of Lord Siva,which was received by God Agni but due to unbearable intensity he omitted it. Theomitted material fell in Darada Desha and became known as Darada, a synonym ofHingula. In ancient days, Hingula was available in Darada country. There is acontroversy regarding the interpretation of Daradasthana. Prof. D.A. Kulkarni,commentator of R.R.S. consider an area of Kashmir nearby HindukushaMountain as Darada Desa while author of Rasa Prakasa Sudhakara gives Romeas Darada Desa.Classification: Different authors have included Hingula under the various titles. Theclassification of all rasa dravyas done generally, according to their usage andimportance in the procedure related with parada. The important rasa texts haveincluded Hingula under following classes – 10Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  29. 29. Drug ReviewTable No 3 Classification of Hingula according to different Texts:Sl No Authors A B C D E F G 1 Rasahrudayatantra + - - - - - + 2 Rasarnava - + - - - - - 3 Rasakamadhenu - + - - - - - 4 Gorakshasamhita - + - - - - - 5 Anandkanda - - + - - - - 6 Rasaratnakar - - + - - - - 7 RasaprakashSudhakar - - + - - - - 8 Rasendrasarsangraha - - + - - - - 9 Rasmanjari - - + - - - - 10 Rasendrachintamani - - + - - - - 11 Ayurvedprakash + + - - - - - 12 Bhavaprakash - - + - - - - 13 Rasaratnasamucchaya + - - - - - - 14 Brihatyogtarangini - - + - - - - 15 Rasarajsundara - - - + - - - 16 Rasendrachudamani - - - + - - - 17 Rasajalnidhi - - - + - - - 18 Bharatiyrasashastra - - - + - - - 19 Dhanvantarinighantu - - - - + - - 20 Rajanighantu - - - - + - - 21 Madanphalnighantu - - - - + - - 22 Rasamruta - - - - - + - 23 Yogaratnakara - - - - - + - 24 Kaidevnighantu - - - - - - + 25 Bhavaprakashnighantu - - - - - - +A: Rasa B: Maharasa C: Uparasa D: SadharanarasaE: Suvarnadivarga F: Rasadhatu G: Dhatuvarga 11Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  30. 30. Drug ReviewHingula Bheda: Table No 4 Types of Hingula according to different Texts:Sl Name of the Text Charmara Shukatunda Hamsapada AnyaNo 1 Anand Kanda + + + - 2 Rasendra Chudamani - + + - 3 Ayurveda Prakasha + + + - 4 Rasaprakash Sudhakar + + + - 5 Rasatarangini + + + Kritrim,Khanija 6 Rasamrita - - + Mlecha 7 Rasakamedhenu + + + - 8 Bhavaprakasha + + - - 9 Rasa Ratna Samuchaya - + + -10 Parada Vignyana + + + -11 Ayurveda Sarasangraha + + + -12 Ayurveda Prakasha + + + -13 Yogaratnakar + + + - According to Haridatta shastri commentator of Rasatarangini furtherclassified artificial hingula into two types in his Prasadini commentaryi.e. 1. Mrisrina 2. Kathina According to Bharatiya Rasashastra kritrima Hingula again classified into twotypes, 1) Rumi Hingula (Rakta Varna) 2) Katha Hingula (Krishna Hingula)Charmara Hingula: Shuka Varna i.e. Greenish colour. AdhamShukatunda Hingula: Sapeeta Varna i.e. Yellowish colour. MadhymHamsapada Hingula: Uttam It has Pravala samana and having sweta rekhas on the surface of Hingula. It isconsidered to be best for therapeutic purpose. Among these three are having thequality of uttarottara gunavan. 12Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  31. 31. Drug ReviewOccurrence:11,12& 13 It is obtained from the mines as a natural mineral and also prepared artificially.In ancient days hingula was available in darada desh at present it can be found atmany places all over the world i.e., Spain (almandine), Italy, Russia, Yugoslavia,Jechoslovia, Germany (idria mines), Japan, china, USA, Australia, Nepal etc…. But, now a days no deposits of cinnabar are detected in India. Artificialhingula is prepared in Surat and Calcutta. The hingula what we get from market ismost of the time artificial prepared.Chemical Composition (HgS): According to Rasarnava “Rasagandha Samnbutham”by this we assume thathingula is a compound of parada and gandaka, Chemically it is red sulphide of mercury. It contains 86.2%of parada and13.8% of gandaka and trace amount of arsenic, iron pyrite, clay, gypsum, and blackearthy material.14Artificial Preparation of Hingula: Preparation of artificial Hingula prepared since rasaratnakara period15, nextafter this number of texts also mentioned the artificial preparation of Hingula. Herethe ratio of parada and gandaka is differing from text to text. According to Rasatarangini16 ---- 42 Part parada and 8 Part gandaka subjectedto paka in mrudangayantra. According to Ayurveda prakasha17 1 part ashuddha parada and 4 part ashuddha gandaka, subjected to pachana inloha patra. After paka 1/10 part manashila was added and make mardana & fill inkachakupi. After filling kept in valuka yantra and subjected to paka karma (mridu,madyam, teevra). 13Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  32. 32. Drug Review Grahya Hingula: Most of the Acharyas opine that the Hamsapada variety is best among the others. eÉmÉÉMÑ ü xÉÑ q ÉuÉhÉÉï p É: mÉã w ÉhÉÉã xÉÑ q ÉlÉÉã W û Uç : | qÉWû É ã e euÉsÉÉã pÉÉUmÉÑ h ÉÉã ï ÌWû û l aÉÑs É: ´Éã ¹ CwrÉiÉã | | R.T. Hingula Shodhana: Table No 5 Grahya laxana of Hingula according to different Authors:Sl Grahya AuthorNo Laxanas BP 18 BPN 19 RPS 20 RRS 21 AP 22 RT 23 RSS 24 PV 25 YR 26 ASS 271 Japakusum + + - - + + - + - + Varnabha2 Mhojwala - - - - - + - - - +3 Bharapoorn - - - - - + - - - +4 ShwetaRekh - - - + - + - - - -5 Pravalabha - - + + - + - - + -6 Bimbiphala - - - - - - + - - - Sadrusha7 Sumanohar - - - - - - - - - +8 Uttama + + + + + + + + + - According to different Acharyas, Various drugs are used for Hingula Shodhana: 1. Gomamsa, Mahishamutra, Tilataila, shikhibeeja.28 2. Kushmand swarasa and Lakucha swarasa. 29 3. Lakucha swaras or Ardraka swaras. 30 4. Sringveri swarasa, Meshidugdha, Amlavarga dravya, Nimbu swarasa.31 5.Amlavargadravya, Meshidugdha, Nimbuswarasa, Ajamutra, Ardhrak swaras. 32 6. Ardhrakaswarasa or Lakuchaswarasa.33 7. Ajadugda and Amlavarga, Ardrakaswarasa or Lakuchaswarasa.34 8. Meshikshira one time + 7 times Nimbu swarasa.35 9. Meshikshira and Amlavargadravya.36&37 14 Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  33. 33. Drug ReviewTable No 6 Different process according to different Texts: Sl Name of Author Process No Pachana Swedhana Mardana Bhavana 1 RSN28 + - - + 2 RPS29 - + - - 3 RRS30 - - - + 4 RT31 - - - + 5 RSS32 - + - + 6 RCH33 - - - + 7 AP34 - - - + 8 RST35 - - - + 9 SSMK36 - - - + 10 YR37 - - - +Ashuddha and Asamyakshuddha hingula dosha:38 Rasataranginikara has given description about ashuddha and AsamyakshuddhaHingula Dosha; Ashuddha Hingula administration may produce dangerous toxicsymptoms like Klama, Moha, Bhrama, Klaibya, Kusta, Kshinatha, Andatha, Murcha,Prameha etc.Table No 7 Complications according to different Texts: Sl No Symptoms BRJ AP YR PaSa RJN RPu RT BRRS 1 Andhata - + + - - - + - 2 Kshinata - + + + - - + - 3 Kushta + - - - + + - - 4 Klama + + + + + + + + 5 Bhrama + + + + + + - + 6 Moha + + + + + + + + 7 Klaibhya + - - - + + - + 8 Hridayavasada - - - - - - - - Chikitsa of complications caused by Ashuddha and asamyakshuddha hingula dosha: Bruhatrasarajasundara mentioned the treatment about this. Heremanagement should be done as in the management of apakva parada bhasma andasamyakshuddha Parada sevan. iÉmiɱÉiÉ rÉiÉç urÉÉÍkÉ SUSèxrÉÉÌlÉ xÉãuÉlÉlÉÑiÉ | iÉiÉ xÉÑiÉuÉiÉ xÉuÉï MÑürÉÉïiÉç vÉÉÎliÉ mÉëÌiÉÌ¢ürÉÉ || 15Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  34. 34. Drug ReviewShodhita gandhaka should be administered till the complication subsides.Satvapatana of Hingula:Table No 8 Different types of Satvapatana of Hingula according to differentTexts:Sl YantraNo Author Drugs Used Urdva Adhah Tiryak Vidya Damaru PA PA PA dhar1 RCh 39 Aardhraka,Swarasa, Bhavana + - - + -2 RRS 40 - - + - - -3 SSMK41 Nimbu or Patra Swarasa + - - - -4 BPN 42 - + - - - +5 ASS43 - - - - - +6 AP44 Nimbu Swarasa or Nimba + - - - - Patra Swaras7 RST45 Nimbu swarasa - - + - +8 RSS46 Paribadra or Nimbu swarasa + - - - -9 RRK 47 Gomutra,Mahishamutra,Tiltail + + + - - a,Amlavarga–Kumariswarasa & Triphalakvat Rasataranginikara has explained Urdvapatana yantra for extraction of Mercury.I selected this procedure for my study. The detail explanation is mentioned inpharmaceutical study.Method of Parada Nishkashana (Prachin granths):48 In ancient days the only source of Mercury was Hingula (Cinnabar). Sinceolden days it is accepted that Hingulakrushta parada is pure, devoid of saptakanchukadoshas & believed to possess with the property of jeernagandha gunaha (jeernagandhasamo gunaiha). In Rasaratnakara, it is also advised to use Hingulakrishta parada forall purposes without doing ashtasanskara. Almost all Acharyas have explained about 16Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  35. 35. Drug ReviewHingulakrishta parada with the help of many yantras. The above mentioned yantrasare more or less similar. Prior to the extraction of parada from hingula, it should be done mardana up tothree hours, either with the nimbu swarasa or nimbu patra swarasa, which enables toreduce the hingula to its fine state of division; By this maximum amount of paradacan be extracted. Nimbu swarasa contain citric acid where as Nimbu patra containsorganic sulphur. The effect of bhavana with these juices has to be evaluatedscientifically, which is a separated entity. It is advised to keep cold pads over the topof Urdvapatanayantra, by which parada collects over the inner surface of the uppervessel of Damaru yantra. It is assumed to be free from doshas with this procedure.Brief description of modern methods: From ancient description, it is very clear that the source of extraction ofmercury was only Hingula (cinnabar). In Spain, Italy etc Parada is extracted byvarious methods.First method, It was heated with oxygen. HgS + O2 Hg + O2Second method was heating of hingula with loha(Fe) or sudha(Ca). By these two methods most part of the parada separates from sulphur andremained parada is taken out by distillation. For this purpose various types of furnacesare employed. There is vast change in the methodology and equipments employed forthis purpose now a day. The equation of heating hingula in air is as follows 1) 4HgS +4CaO 4Hg 3CaS+CaSO4 2) HgS+Fe+O2 Hg +Fe +SO2 After these methods the ramnant unsepareted part of mercury is obtained bydistillation. This process of distillation is called vaccum distillation. In purification of 17Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  36. 36. Drug Reviewmercury reduced pressure and vaccum distillation is major invention. Now a daysreadymade equipments are available for this purpose.Superiority of Hingulotha Parada: Parada extracted from Hingula is considered to be the best because it is freefrom various types of doshas. Hence, the same does not need any further samskar forthe removal and could be used even without subjecting it to Astasamskaras and isclaimed to be capable of performing all the action attributed to it. More overaccording to Rasaprakash Sudhakar, Parada extracted from Hingula may posses allthose properties, which are seen in Shadgunabalijarit parada thus it is consideredsuperior to ordinary Parada.Marana of Hingula: In Bruhat Rasaraja Sundara total 3 methods are described for HingulaMarana. But in other texts Satvapatana is given instead of Marana.In Yogaratnakara Hingula Bhasma Vidhi has been described.Properties of purified Hingula: The properties of shodhita Hingula are equal to property of Rasasindhura andparada extracted from this equal to Gandhaka jarita parada.Rasa -- We have different opinions regarding the rasa of hingula 1. Most of the authors opine that it is of Tikta Katu Kashaya rasa. 2. Some other opine Madhura Tikta rasa. 3. Least references are available about katu and only Tikta rasa.Table No 9 Rasa of Hingula according to different Texts: Sl.No Rasa Rasagranthas 1. Katu Bhava Prakash, Ayurveda Prakash,Aryuveda Tikta Chintamani, Parada Samhita, Rasendra purana, Kashay Rasadhatu Prakasha, Brihat Yoga Tarangini 2. Madhura Rasarnava, Basavarajiya, Danwantharinighantu, Tikta Rajanighantu 3. Tikta Rasendra Chintamani, 18Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  37. 37. Drug Review Guna :Ushna Guna49 Veerya :Ushna Veerya49 Vipaka : Katu vipaka49 Doshaghnata :Tridoshaghna, Vatakaphaghna, Kaphaghna, Kaphapittagn. Table No 10 Doshaghnata of Hingula according to different text: Sl No Doshaghnata Rasagranthas 1. Vata Basavarajiya, Rasendra Chudamani, Rasendra Pitta Sara sangraha, RSS, Danwantharinighantu, Kapha Rasamrita, Rasachandanshu, Rasadhatu prakasha 2. Kapha B.P., A.P., Aryuveda Chintamani, Parada Pitta samhita, Rasendra Bhaskara, rasoddhara tantra, Si.Bh.Ma.Ma. Bha.Ra.Sha, Bri YoTarangini, 3. Kapha RasataranginiKarma: Sarvadoshaghna, Agnivardhaka, Rasayana, Balya, Medhya, Kantivardhaka,Garavishnashaka, Netrya, Ruchya, Hriudayotsadaka, Hrillashanashaka.Upayog:49 & 50 Prameha, Jwara, Hridroga, Kusta, Garavisha, Amlapitta, Kamala,Pleehavraddi, Mandagni, Aruchi, Amavati, Sandhivata, Hrillasha. Lohamarnarta, Lohajaranarta, Paradaniskashanartha, Dehavadatmaka,Swarnapariksanarthaka.Matra:51 1 ratti (125mg)Anupan:52 Maricha,Guda, Pipali,Guduchi swarasa, Madhu, Ardraka swarasa, TambulaSwarasa.Toxicity of Hingula: Improper administration of Hingula will lead to the toxic manifestations. Theuse of Hingula without purification, higher dose of administration, no follow up ofPathyas etc. are the idea behind the word Improper administration. Such drug willcause certain diseases to the human body. Many Rasashastra texts specified this - 19Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  38. 38. Drug ReviewBasavarajiyam, Ayurveda Prakasha, Yogaratnakara, Parada Samhita, andRasatarangini etc. These texts mentioned about following diseases caused by improperadministration of Hingula. Andhyata, Akulata, Kanthashosa, Kustha, Klaibya,Hritspandana, Kshinata etc. Some authors have mentioned the antidote to tackle these problems. RasendraBhaskara and some other acharyas advised to follow the procedures used for themercury in toxication i.e. purified Gandhaka is advised orally.Modern aspect of Hingula:53 Cinnabar is only important ore of mercury, it is massive or oarthy. Sometimes it occurs beautifully crystallized in small complex and highly modifiedhexagonal crystals. Usually the crystals are rhombohedral or prismatic in habit. It isalso transparent, translucent or opaque, sometime cochineal red in colour ofteninclining to brown its streak is scarlet to reddish brown. Adamantine to luster prefectprismatic cleavage. Sometimes with an earthy coatings.Variety: According A textbook of Rasashastra by Dr Vilas Dole, the varieties of HgSare made according to colour and percentage.1. Cinnabar native – This is one of the most important ore of mercury. Chemicallyit contains 84% mercury sulphide. It is bright and dark red in colour it contains otherimpurities like Carbon, Silica, Quartz etc.2. Hepatic cinnabar – When percentage of carbon impurities is higher in cinnabar,its colour becomes darker like liver colour, such an ore is called as hepatic cinnabar.3. Meta cinnabar – This type contains muddy dust in more percent and that makesits colour still darker almost to a black shade. 20Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  39. 39. Drug Review4. Coral ore – This ore especially occurring in Germany and Italy. This ore is in theform of rose colour earthen material. When mercury sulphide in coral ore isseparated, it is rosy in colour, it contains about 5% of mercury.5. Idrialate – The variety called idrialate, always occurs cinnabar at Idria, as whiteand crystalline in structure when toward and it is found in impure with clay, pyrite,gypsum as a brownish black earthy material because of its combustibility andpresence of mercury it is called inflammable cinnabar.Mineralogical Findings Of Cinnabar: According to Inorganic chemistry, Cinnabar crystallizes in rhombohedraltrapezohedral crystals. Crystals are also thick tabular. In habit sometimes it occurs astwins and acicular prismatic grains, in crystal incrustations, granular, massive andsometimes with earthy coatings. Cleavage - Prismatic perfect Fracture - Sub-conchoidal to uneven, somewhat sectile Hardness - 2 to 2.5 Specific Gravity - 8 to 8.2 Lustre - Admentive, inclining to metallic and dull. Colour - Red, brownish red and lead gray. Streak - Scarlet Transparency - Opaque Indices of refraction - W=2.91, E+27 with strong birefringence, shows strong circular polarizationChemical properties: 1. Cinnabar is a red or whitish red coloured mineral. This ore is a red crystalline mass that is easily distinguishable from all other red minerals by its peculiar shade of colour and its great weight. 2. It is insoluble in water and acids but dissolve in aquaragia (mixture of HCl and HNO3) and forms mercuric chloride. 21Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  40. 40. Drug Review In the presence of a strong oxidizing agents like potassium chlorite forming mercuric chloride 3. Roasting – usually the unconcentrated ore is roasted in air. Cinnabar is oxidized to mercuric oxide and sulphur dioxide is released at the temperature of the furnace and mercuric oxide so forms decomposes to give mercury and oxygen. 2HgS + 3O2 2SO2 + 2HgO 2HgO 2Hg + O2 The mercury obtained by above method is the purest mercury. 4. Mercury Sulphide reacts with concentrated potassium sulphide solution to give a complex thio salt. HgS + K2S K2HgS2 On sublimation mercuric sulphide becomes red. 22Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  41. 41. Drug ReviewPARADA: Parada is the most important and foremost ingredient of compounds ofRasashastra, without which the science of Alchemy – Rasashastra perhaps would nothave existed. Considering Soota to be semen of Shiva which was thrown on earth atvarious places,54 during the creative conjunction between Shiva and Parvati mythlogically, adds more to its importance. Since Shiva is the first Physician and hissemen parada is considered to be so divine that it destroys diseases, old age and evendeath.55 various authors mentioned different doshas of parada. Parada in the crude form, in the earth is with the admixture of Naga, Vangaetc. During the medieval period the dealers sold mercury with these adulterations.Presently these adulterants are not seen, but Oupadika and Kanchuka doshas arepresent.56 In most of the preparations, parad is either in the shodhita form, orashtasamskar or Hingulottha parada. Usually for curing a disease, shodhita parada istaken.57 For Rasayana and dhatuvada purposes Ashta-dasha-samskrita parada ispreferred. 58& 59Mythological Origin: Lord Shiva and Parvati were in the process of cohabitation to have a strongson for the destruction of Tarakasur by whom all Devatas were disturbed. During thisperiod the parada was originated. This parada is amrutatully samana.Historical Background: Rasopanisad quotes that as soul plays an important role in body, like wiseParada is the soul of Rasashastra and without Parada, existence of Rasashastra couldnot be imagined. 23Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  42. 42. Drug ReviewVedakala:There is no such direct evidence of Parada in Vedic age. But in Atharvaveda thereference like AÉãÅqÉç mÉÍ¤É eÉÉrÉÉlrÉ: mÉiÉÉÌiÉ xÉ AÉÌuÉvÉÉÌiÉ mÉÑÂwÉqÉç | iÉSÉͤÉiÉxrÉ pÉãwÉeÉqÉÑpÉrÉÉã: xÉѤÉiÉxrÉ cÉ || Indicates whenever the Veeshalpaksha lost its life, it enters the other body andacts like Rasayana for both Swastha and rogi. Here this word Pakshi could beconsidered for both Parada and Atma because of their high volatile nature.Smruti: According to Yagnyavalka Smruti text, indirect evidence of Parada couldbe traced. The commentator opines that ‘Kutaswarna Vyavahari’ could be thepreparation of Gold artificially.Koutily Arthashastra: In 34th chapter of Koutilya Arthashastra, under the heading of‘Suvarnabhedhenekathana Rasavidham’ word is used for parada vedasidhaswarna. Ithighlights the presence of Dhatuvada in Koutilya kala, which is 325 years beforeKristha.Samhita kala: In samhitas like charaka and sushruta therapeutic use of parada has beenindicated internally and externally respectively. But Vagbhata has indicated for bothexternal and internal uses. Cha.sam – Kustha chikitsa Cha Chi 7/79. Su.Sam – Su Chi Cha 25. Asthanga - 39/161 & Cha 32. 24Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  43. 43. Drug ReviewNighantu period: Dhanvantari nighantu, Rajanighantu and Madanaphal nighantu haveexplained synonyms, properties and doshas of parada under suvarnadivarga. Kaiadev Nighantu & Bhavaprakash Nighantu has explained Synonyms,Properties & Doshas under the heading of Dhatuvarga.Rasakala: But the proper utilization of Parada for Dehavada and Lohavada startedfrom 8th century A.D. onwards. Thereafter, Parada has become an impeccable part ofRasashastra.Table No 11 Description about Parada according to in different text:Sl. Authors /Kala Description about Parada mentioned in different textNo a b c d e f g h i j k l m n th1 RM10 cent AD + - + - - - - + - + + + + -2 RHT 10thcent AD - - + + - - - + + - + + - -3 RSN 10thcent AD + - + + - + - + + + - + - -4 RCh 12thcent AD + - + - - - - + + - - - + -5 RPS 12thcent AD + - + + + + - + - - - - + +6 RRS13thcent AD + + + - - + - + + - + + + +7 RRK 13thcent AD - - - - - + - - - + - - - +8 RSS 13thcent AD + + + + + - - + + - + + + -9 RaChi14thor + + + + - + - + - - + + + + 15thcent AD10 RPU 19th cent AD + - + + + + - + + + - + +11 BRRS18thcentAD + + + + + - + - + + + - +12 YR 18thcent AD - - + + + + - - + - - + + -13 RJN 20thcentAD + + + + + + + + - - + - + +14 RK 17th cent AD + - + - - + - + - - - - - -15 BP 16thcent AD - + - - + - - + - - - - + -16 PV 20th AD + + + + + + + + + + + + + +17 AP 17thcent AD + + + + + + - + + - + + + + 25Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  44. 44. Drug Review18 SSMK - + + + - - - + - - - + - -19 RT 20thcent AD + + + + + + - + - - + + + +20 PS 20th cent AD + - + - - + - + + + + + + +21 RSM 20thcent AD - + + - - - + + - - + + + +22 ASS 20th cent AD - - - - - - - + - - - + + -Reference: a- utpatti, b-paryay, c-shodhana, d-marana, e-grahyalakshana,f-rasabhandha, g-rasapanchaka, h-samskara, i-parada pooja phala, j-dhatuwada, k-moorchana, l-paradayogas, m-dosha, n-jarana. These Acharyas mentioned synonyms varieties properties shodhana,marana, grahya lakshana, dhatuvadartha, dehavadartha, upayoga, patyaa patya, matra,and yogas with the same opinion about parada in their text. 60Vernacular Names: Sanskrit - Parada Hindi - Para English - Mercury, Quick silver Kannada - Padarasa Gujarati - Paro Marathi - Para Latin - Hydrargyrum French - Mercure German - Merkure Arab - Abuk; Zibakh Parsian - Simab; Zeebag. Bengali - Para Malayalam - Rassam Telugu - Padarasam Tamil - Padrasa Konkani - Padrasa 26Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  45. 45. Drug Review 61Synonyms:Table No 12 Classification of Synonyms on the basis of Roopa, Guna, Utpatti,and Upayog: Sl No Swaroopa Synonyms Galadroupyanibham, Mahavanhi, Mahateja, 1 Swarupatmaka Suvarna 2 Gatyatmaka Kheehara, Chapala, Chala, Dhoorthaka. Rasayana, Amrtim, Mrtyunasana, Jaiva, 3 Dehavadatmaka Dehada, Paramamruta, Parata, Parada, Rasayana Shreshta Maharasa, Rasottama, Suta, Divyarasa, Rasarasendra,Rasesha, Rasadhatu, Rasaraja, 4 Dhatuvadatmaka Rasanath,Sidhadhatu, Soota, Sootaka, Sootaratha, Mishraka, Chamara. Ananta, Suksma, Saubhagya, Amara, 5 Visista Gynantmaka Kalikantaka, 6 Darshanika/Aadhyatmika Divya, Acintyah, Jeeva, Jaiva Trinetra, Trilochana, Deva, Dehaja, Prabhu, Rudraja, Lokesh, Vijendra, Budha, 7 Dharmika/Devatmaka Rajaswala, Shanta, Shiva, Shivaveerya, Skandha, Harateja, Harabeeja, Shivahaya, ShivabeejaTable No 13 Synonyms according to different Texts:Sl No Synonyms RSS 62 DN63 KN64 BPN65 BP66 MPN67 RT68 SSMK69 1 Rasendra + + + + + + + + 2 Parada + + + + + + + + 3 Sootaraja + - - - - - - - 4 Sootama + - - - - - - - 5 Shivateja + - - - - - - - 6 Soota + + + + + + + + 7 Rasa + - - + - - - - 8 Rudraretashy - + - - - - - - 9 Rasaloha - + + - - + - - 10 Maharasa - + - + + + - - 11 Chapala - + - + + + - - 27Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  46. 46. Drug ReviewSl No Synonyms RSS 62 DN63 KN64 BPN65 BP66 MPN67 RT68 SSMK69 12 Paradiya - + - - - - - - 13 Rasottama - + + - - + - - 14 Hemabija - - + - - - - - 15 Rajaswala - - + - - - - - 16 Trilochana - - + - - - - - 17 Hemanidhi - - + - - - - - 18 Shivaputro - - + - - - - - 19 Lokanatho - - + - - - - - 20 Gnanreto - - + - - - - - 21 Mahanalha - - + - - - - - 22 Rasadhatu - - - + + - - - 23 Shivaveerya - - - + + - - - 24 Shivji - - - + - - - - 25 Shivahvaya - - - - + - - - 26 Rasa - - - - - + + + 27 Raseshwar - - - - - - + - 28 Rasaraja - - - - - - + - 29 Haraja - - - - - - - + 30 Sutaka - - - - - - - + 31 Misraka - - - - - - - + 32 Trinetra - - - - - + - - 33 Roshana - - - - - + - - 34 Swamy - - - - - + - - 35 Harabeeja - - - - - + - -Meaning of Synonyms:70 1. External Features of Mercury a. Galadrupyanibham: It means like liquefied silver. The English synonym Quick Silver implies the same meaning b. Mahavahni: A big Fire Implied meaning – asbringht as big fire 28Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  47. 47. Drug Review c. Suvarna: Su means good one, Varna – means Colour.Actual meaning Gold, Implied Meaning – One which is having required colour d. Mahateja: It means having great brightness. 2. Various Motions: a. Khechara: Kha means Sky.Khe means in the Sky and Chara means Movements the meaning is one, which moves in the sky. b. Chapala, Chala: One, which is quick in nature. 3. Dehavada: a. Amrita: Which never dies (immortal). Implied meaning is with the use of which one achieves longevity. b. Jarita: Meaning is Victorious. Implied meaning is which has achieved victory over death and diseases. c. Dehada: Which gives healthy body. d. Paramamrita: Amrita of ultimate quality. e. Parata & Parada: One, which helps in completing successful & long life. f. Mrityunashana: Which destroys death. g. Rasayana: By definition it means one, which destroys old age, death & pain. 4. Dhatuvada: a. Divya Rasa: Liquid of Devine nature. b. Rasa: The liquid. c. Rasendra, Rasesh, Rasottam: Best liquid. d. Rasanath, Rasaraja: Master of the liquids. e. Mishraka: One, which mixes with and assimilates others. It is also a notion that it has properties of all metals, in mixed form and hence mishraka. 29Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  48. 48. Drug Review f. Maharasa: The great liquid. g. Suta, Sutaka, Sutarat :In Sanskrit the verbal form ‘Su’ means to produce, to form. SãWûsÉÉãWûqÉrÉÏÇ ÍxÉÌ¬Ç xÉÑiÉã xÉÔiÉçxiÉiÉ: xqÉ×iÉ: (U. U. xÉ) It means it is instrumental in forming both Deahasiddhi & Lohasiddhi andhence called as Suta. 5. Special Properties: a. Ananta: Meaning One without end. Implied meaning – One that has unending good virtues. b. Amara: Actual meaning is one who never dies; the word is usually used to mean God. Here the Implied meaning is ‘which has Devine, God like properties. c. Soubhagha: Goodluck.Implied meaning – With which good luck can be achieved in Treatment. 6. Indian Philosophy: a. Jiva, Jaiva: Concerning life. b. Divya: Divine c. Achintya: Beyond thinking.Occurrence: In rasaratna Samucchaya, it is mentioned that in ancient times mercury wasfound mainly in Darada desha and also in Himalayas in small amount. But now a day,it is obtained mainly from the mines of Spain, America, Italy, Australia, BritishBornea, China, Russia, and Japan. 30Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  49. 49. Drug Review 71&72Types of Parada: The varieties of Parada described in different text are based on the 2 factors 1. Depending on the Colour. 2. Depending on the place of Origin.Table No 14 Types of Parada depending on the Colour: Sl No Types Colour Caste Karma 1 Sweta White Brahmana Swetakarma 2 Rakta Red Kshatriya Therapeutics 3 Peeta Yellow Vaishya Used in alchemy or to Prepare Gold 4 Krishna Black Shudra Used in Maintaining healthTable No 15 Types of Parada depending on the place of Origin:Sl No Variety Colour Impurities Uses Which is free from all 1 Rasa Rakta types of impurities. Rasayana 2 Rasendra Peeta Free from impurities. Rasayana 3 Suta Isatpeeta With impurities. Deharogaharana 4 Parada Sweta With impurities. Servarogaharana 5 Mishraka Mayur,Chandrika,Vama With impurities. SarvasiddidayakaVargikarana: In Kaideva Nighantu, Parada has been categorized in Dhatuvarga, whereasDhanvantari Nighantu has classified it as Suvarnadivarga. Most of all the Rasashastratexts have considered Parada in Rasa Varga. 73Doshas of Parada: Parada (Mercury) procured from its original sources or from the market maycontain various types of admixtures. Sometimes the Parada is found associated withsome metallic elements in nature, while the profiteers deliberately adulterate it forcommercial purposes. The ancient chemists knew this fact very well and as suchmost of the authorities have described impurities of Parada, which run as follows, 31 Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  50. 50. Drug Review Doshas of Parada Naisargika Doshas Yougika Doshas Aupadhika Doshas Visa Naga Vahni Vanga Mala Bhumija Girija Varija Nagaja(2) Vangaja(2) Parpati Patani Bhedi Dravi Andhakari Malakari Dhwanksi Table No 16 Types of Parada dosha and dosha karma According to different Texts:Sl Dosha KarmaNo Dosha RM74 RaPu75 RRS76 RPS77 AP78 RT79 RCh80 RSN81 RSS821 Visa Mrutyu Mrutyu Marana Mrutyu Mrutyu Mrutyu Mrutyu Marana Mrutyu2 Vahni Jalana Santapa Santapa Bhaya Daha Tapa Daha Kushta Daha3 Mala Murcha Murcha Murcha Murcha Ruja Jadya Murcha Udararog Jadata4 Mada - - - Sphota - - Vispota - -5 Darpa - - - Siroruja - - Sirobrama - -6 Naga Galaganda Jadata Jadata - Jadata Vruna Unmad - Vruna7 Vanga Gulma Aadmana Aadmana - Kushta Kushta Mahashool - Kushta Dosha8 Capalya Asthirata - - - Viryanas Bijanasa - - Viryanas9 Giri - - Jadata - Sphota Sphota Jadata - Jadata10 Asahyagni - - - - Moha Moha - - Spota11 Bhoomija - - Kushta - - - Kushta - -12 Shailaja - - - - - - Vata - -13 Jalaja - - - - - - Vataroga - -14 Tamraja - - - - - - Daha - -15 Ayaja - - - - - - Aasittakrit - -16 Varija - - Vatavikar - - - Kantaroga - - Shodhana: Introduction: The word Shodhana is originated from the word “Shuddha”, Which means to purify, to wash, to clean, to filter, to refine etc. Shodhana is a process of dosha nirharana. Shodhana, which literally means purification, is a procedure necessary for Rasadravyas, before they are used 32 Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  51. 51. Drug Reviewtherapeutically and for further process like Bhasmikarana, Satvapatana andAmrutikarana. The Shodhana process is not only to remove the physical and chemicalimpurities of the mineral drugs, but it may also lower the toxicity of the Rasadravyasto greater extent. It includes different process like swedhana, Nirvap, Dhalana,Bhavana, Patana, Bharjana etc.Principle adopted in shodhana to Rasadravyas: 1. To remove physical and chemical impurities. 2. To reduce or to neutralize the toxicity. 3. To enhance the therapeutic properties. 4. To impart organic qualities in the inorganic mineral. 5. To achieve desirable effects from single drug.Importance of Sodhana of Parada: lÉæxÉÌaÉïMüÉxiÉÑ rÉã SÉãwÉÉ rÉã cÉÉlrÉ MülcÉÑMüɽçrÉÉ:| iÉãwÉÉliÉÑ mÉËUWûÉUÉrÉ xÉÉqÉÉlrÉçÇ vÉÉãkÉlÉqÉÇ xqÉ×iÉqÉ ||According to RT 5/14 by Samanya Sodhana of Parada, the Naisargika and Kanchukidoshas of Parada can be eliminated. AÉÍkÉurÉÉÍkÉÌuÉlÉÉvÉÉjÉïÇ mÉërÉÉãaÉÉjÉïÇ UxÉãwÉÑ cÉ | xÉÉqÉÉlrÉÇ vÉÉãkÉlÉçÇ vÉxiÉÇ UxÉiÉl§ÉÌuÉvÉÉUSæ:|| RT (5/21) states that for the eradication of diseases from body, SamanyaSodhana of Parada is essential.There are two types of Shodhana – 1. Samanya Shodhana. 2. Vishesh Shodhana.Another one is SamskarPre – Preparation process: Acc to RT 5th chapter Page No 77. xÉÑÌSlÉã vÉÑpÉlɤɧÉã xuÉã¹SãuÉÇ cÉ vÉÇMüUqÉç| pÉæUuÉçÇ cÉÉÌmÉ xÉqmÉÔerÉ UxÉMüqÉï xÉqÉÉcÉUãiÉç|| Before starting the Rasakarma one should think of the Shubha Nakshatra, 33Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  52. 52. Drug ReviewShubha Dina and worshiping Lord Shankara and Bhairava then the procedures are tobe carried out. Because the studies shown those particular days, time and worshippingwill impart the efficacy in medicine. So every Ayurvedic Pharmacologist shouldfollow these.Samanya Shodhana: Acharyas mentioned Different Procedures like 1. Parada & Sudha raja (Lime powder) should be taken in equal quantity and mardana should be done for 3days. Parada should be filtered through two folded cloth. Add equal quantity of Nistusha lushana and half quantity of saindhav lavan subject it for mardana, until it becomes black coloured kalka. Prakshalana should be done.83 2. The mixture of triphalakwata, choornas of chitraka, rakthasarshapa, brihati, Gritha Kumari and parada should be triturated for 3 days, the parada obtained by this method will be devoid of sapta malas.84 3. Parada should be triturated with Nagavalli Swarasa, Ardraka Swarasa and Ksharadraya for 3 days and washed with water. This parada will be shining like mukta and devoid of Sapta dosha.85 4. Parada should be triturated with lasuna & Saindava lavana in Tapta Khalvayantro for 7days.86Vishesh Shodhana of Paradha: Specific process of shodhana done is to remove specific doshas separately isVishesh Shodhana. This is done for Rasayana purpose. 34Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity
  53. 53. Drug ReviewTable No 17 Shodhana process according to Rasarnava:87 Sl No Dosha Drugs for Shodhana Process 1 Visha Ankola Mardan Vanhi Aargvadha Mardan Mala Chitraka Mardan 2 Naga,Vanga Vasa and Bhibitaki Mardana+Patana kalk 3 Girisindhur Kakmach kalk Mardana(7times) or Patn (7times) 4 Kanchukadoshas Karpas swars + Swedana Trikatuchurna 5 Naga,Vanga Tamra PatanaTable No 18 Shodhana process according to Rasatarangini:88 Dosha Drugs Process Vish 1. Triphala Choorna Mardan and Parada for 1 day 2. Kumari Swaras Vanhi 1. Chitrak Choorana Mardan and Parada for 1 day 2. Kumari Swarasa Mala 1. Aragwadha Phalmajja Mardan and Parada for 1 day 2. Kumari Swaras Naga 1. Girihadoom Mardan and Parada for 1 day 2. Ishlika 3. Haridra 4. Bhasma of Wool 5. Kumari Swaras Vanga 1. Indravaruni Mardan and Parada for 1 day 2. Ankola Choorna 3. Haridra Choorna 4. Kumari Swarasa Chapalya 1. Krishna dhatura beeja Mardan and Parada for 1 day 2. Kumari Swarasa Girija 1. Trikatu Choorna Mardan and Parada for 1 day 2. Kumari Swarasa Asahyagni 1. Gokshura Choorna Mardan and Parada for 1 day 2. Kumari SwarasaTable No 19 Shodhana process according to Rasendra Sara Sangraha:89 Dosha Drugs Process Saptakanchukadosha Jayanti, Eranda,Ardraka, Each Drug 7 – times Makoyaswarasa. Mardana and kanji prakshalana. 35Preparation, physico chemical analysis of RASAKARPOOR and its antimicrobial activity

×