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Pramana unni-sr
Pramana unni-sr
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Pramana unni-sr

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PRAMANA SHAREERA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ANGULI PRAMANA OF BAHYA KARNA-SHAREERA, VIVEK UNNI.K.K, RACHANA SHAREERA, ALVA’S AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGE MOODBIDRI

PRAMANA SHAREERA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ANGULI PRAMANA OF BAHYA KARNA-SHAREERA, VIVEK UNNI.K.K, RACHANA SHAREERA, ALVA’S AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGE MOODBIDRI

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  • 1. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF PRAMANA SHAREERA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ANGULI PRAMANA OF BAHYA KARNA-SHAREERA DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE  RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKA, BANGALORE  IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF     AYURVEDA VACHASPATI (M.D)   IN  RACHANA SHAREERA                          By  Dr. VIVEK UNNI.K.K        Under the Guidance of    Dr. B. N Mishra M.D (Ayu) Professor  DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES  IN RACHANA SHAREERA  ALVA’S AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGE MOODBIDRI ‐ 574227  2010 
  • 2. ALVA’S AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN RACHANA SHAREERA MOODBIDRI, KARNATAKA DECLARATION I  hereby  declare  that  this  dissertation  entitled  “A  Comprehensive  Study of Pramana Shareera With Special Reference to Anguli Pramana  of  Bahya  Karna­Shareera”  is  a  bona‐fide  and  genuine  research  work  carried out by me under the guidance of Dr. B. N Mishra  M.D (Ayu)  Dept. of  P.G  Studies  in  Rachana  Shareera,  Alva’s  Ayurveda  Medical  College  Moodbidri.                                                                                    Dr.VivekUnni. K.K                                                                                   III Year P.G.Scholar                                                                                   Dept. of RACHANA SHAREERA                                                                                   Alva’s Ayurveda Medical College                                                                                   Moodbidri 574227   Date:  Place: Moodbidri     
  • 3. ALVA’S AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN RACHANA SHAREERA MOODBIDRI, KARNATAKA. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “A Comprehensive Study  Of  Pramana  Shareera  With  Special  Reference  To  Anguli  Pramana  Of   Bahya  Karna­Shareera”  submitted  by  Dr.VivekUnni.  K.K  in  partial  fulfilment  for  the  degree  of  Ayurveda  Vachaspathi  (M.D)  in  Rachana  Shareera,  of  Rajiv  Gandhi  University  of  Health  Sciences,  Bangalore,  is  a  record of research work done by him during the period of his study in this  institute,  under  my  guidance  and  supervision  and  the  dissertation  has  not  previously formed the basis to the award of any degree, diploma, fellowship  or other similar titles.    I recommend this dissertation for the above degree to the University for  the approval.                  Guide                                                                       Dr. B. N Mishra M.D (Ayu)                                                                                              Professor                                                                           Dept. of P.G Studies in Rachana Shareera                                                                                        Alva’s Ayurveda Medical College                                                Date:                                             Moodbidri ‐ 574227 Place: Moodbidri                                               
  • 4. ALVA’S AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN RACHANA SHAREERA MOODBIDRI, KARNATAKA. CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that the dissertation entitled  “A Comprehensive Study Of Pramana Shareera With Special Reference To Anguli Pramana Of  Bahya Karna­Shareera” is a bona‐fide research work done by Dr. VivekUnni. K.K under  the  guidance  of  Dr.  B.  N  Mishra  M.D  (Ayu),  Dept.  of  P.G  Studies  in Rachana Shareera, for partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree in Ayurveda Vachaspathi(M.D) in Rachana Shareera, of Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka Bangalore.  DR. RAMA BHAT. K. M. M.D (Ayu)  Professor and H.O.D.,  Dept. of P.G Studies in Rachana Shareera,  Alva’s Ayurveda Medical College  Moodbidri 574227Date: Place: Moodbidri  
  • 5. ALVA’S AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN RACHANA SHAREERA MOODBIDRI, KARNATAKA. ENDORSEMENT This is to certify that the dissertation entitled  “A Comprehensive Study Of  Pramana Shareera With Special Reference To Anguli Pramana Of  Bahya  Karna­Shareera” is a bona‐fide research work done by Dr. VivekUnni. K.K  under  the  guidance  of  Dr.  B.  N  Mishra  M.D  (Ayu),Dept.  of  P.G  Studies  in  Rachana Shareera, for partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award  of the degree in Ayurveda Vachaspathi(M.D) in Rachana Shareera, of Rajiv  Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka Bangalore.                    PRINCIPAL   Alva’s Ayurveda Medical College         Moodbidri 574227    Date: Place: Moodbidri 
  • 6.   COPYRIGHT     I  hereby  declare  that  the  Rajiv  Gandhi  University  of  Health  Sciences,  Karnataka  shall  have  the  rights  to  preserve,  use  and  disseminate  this  dissertation in print or electronic format for academic/research purpose.       Dr. VivekUnni.K.K   III Year P.G.Scholar  Dept. of P.G. Studies in Rachana shareera   Alva’s Ayurveda Medical College   Moodbidri 574227  Date: Place: Moodbidri      © Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka 
  • 7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTFirst of all I would like to dedicate this work to my parents. My mother, Dr. T.V. Aysha,  who  knows  me  better  than  myself,  inspired  to  be  a  better  person.  My father, K.R.Kalesan, who is my role model, guided me well to stay focused and achieve my goals.  I express my deepest feeling of veneration towards my beloved teacher & guide, Dr.B N Mishra, Professor, Dept. of Shareera Rachana whose heartening inspiration,relentless guidance heightened me to contrive this obscure task. Besides this, hispiquant affluence always provided me enough courage to cop up with each & everytask.I express my heartfelt respect and gratitude to my honorable teacher, Dr. G. M. Kantiwhose masterly suggestions & ablest guidance at every step which has molded,shaped, and enlightened my petite work into accomplishment.I am highly grateful to Dr. Rama Bhat. M.D (AYU). Professor and Head of dept. P.G. Studies in Shareera Rachana, Alva’s Ayurveda Medical College, Moodbidri, for his kind support, suggestions and valuable guidance which helped me in completing this work .  It  is  my  duty  to  thank  Dr.  Mohan  Alva,  Chairman,  Alva’s    Educational  Foundation, for providing me an opportunity in his institution for Post Graduate Studies.   I am indebted to express my thanks to Dr. K L Upadhya, Former Principal Alva’sAyurveda Medical College and Dr. Suresh Negalguli, Former Dean for PostGraduate faculty and Dr. Vinaya Chandra Shetty, of Alva’s Ayuveda MedicalCollege for their encouragement and support.
  • 8. It is my privilege to articulate my heartfelt thanks to Dr.Mohan Kumar, former Prof.Dept of ShalyaTantra, whose optimistic views, magnanimous nature, always putvehemence in me to overcome the obstacles.   I  solely  thank  my  senior  Dr.Arun.S.Kumar,  for  his  valuable  suggestions  and support.  I express my thanks to my classmates Dr.Bini, Dr.Gisha and Dr.Sreekumar for their timely help and immense support during my study. I am really thankful to Dr.Deepak.D,  Dr.  ArunBhaskaran,  Dr.  Anuprabha,  Dr.  Benoy  and  Dr.MadanKumar.M.K for their support.  I  express  my  thanks  to  my  juniors  Dr.  Binu  Balachandran  and Dr.Krishnanad.C for his timely help and immense support during my study.  I  wish  to  express  my  deep  sense  of  gratitude  to  my  wife  Dr.Deepthi  and  my daughter Devika, for her love and affections. Nothing can ever absolve me of my indebtedness to her sacrifices.  I would like to express my thanks to the Librarian & Staff for providing me with necessary books during the study.   In addition there are numerous people who have helped me during the course of this study, either directly or indirectly. My profound gratitude goes to all those wonderful people too.  Above all I thank the Almighty for the blessings, he had showered on me.               Dr. VivekUnni.K.K   Date: Place: Moodbidri       
  • 9. List of AbbreviationsA.H. : Ashtanga HrudayaA.H.Sa. : Ashtanga Hrudaya Shareera SthanaA.H.U : Ashtanga Hrudaya Uthara SthanaA.H.Chi : Ashtanga Hrudaya Chikitsa SthanaA.S. : Ashtanga SangrahaA.S.Sa : Ashtanga Sangraha Shareera SthanaA.S.U : Ashtanga Sangraha Uthara SthanaB. L. : Bhela SamhitaC.S. : Charaka SamhitaC. Chi. : Charaka Samhita Chikitsa SthanaC. I. : Charaka Samhita Indriya SthanaC. Sa : Charaka Samhita Shareera SthanaKa.S.Sa. : Kasyapa Samhita Shareera SthanaKa.S.Su : Kasyapa Samhita Sutra SthanasS.K.D. : Shabda Kalpa DrumaSha.S : Sharangadhara SamhitaSu.Su : Susruta Samhita Sutra SthanaSu. Sa : Susruta Samhita Shareera SthanaSu. Chi. : Susruta Chikitsa Sthana
  • 10. ABSTRACTAnguli Pramana demeanor of anatomical connotation is one of the imperative concepts inAyurveda. It elaborates ample references from the samhitas narrating that pramanashareera has a foremost position in the fortitude of life span of an individual. It is attiredthat a person having appropriate measurements will attain long life.In the concept of Ayurveda, Karna(s) is an important organ among thepanchagyanendriyas. Its shape and size are variable depending on the ages, sex, height,and geographical phase too. The external ear’s shape and size are also an importantparameter for one person’s aesthetic build. The outer ear is the most external portion ofthe ear. The external ear includes the pinna (also called auricle), the ear canal, and thevery most superficial layer of the ear drum (also called the tympanic membrane). Inhumans, and almost all vertebrates, the only visible portion of the ear is the outer ear.Although literary the word "ear" may properly refer to the pinna (the flesh coveredcartilage appendage on either side of the head), this portion of the ear is not vital forhearing but helps direct sound through the ear canal to the tympanic membrane(eardrum).The framework of the auricle consists of a single piece of yellow fibro-cartilage with acomplicated relief on the anterior, concave side and a fairly smooth configuration on theposterior, convex side.Though Acharya Susruta noted anguli pramana of karna as 4 angula and that of karnamula as 2-angula, but In Ayurveda detailed description of the anguli pramana of karna isnot adequately described.Hence the present study is undertaken to add some input and to have ready description ofthe anthropometric (so called anguli pramana) measurement of the external anatomicalstructure of the karna by following the anguli pramana concept.
  • 11. LIST OF CONTENTS Sl. No. Contents Page No. 1. Introduction 1–5 2. Objective 6 3. Review of literatures 7 – 56 4. Materials and Methods 57 – 61 5. Observations and Result 62 – 97 6. Discussion 98 – 107 7. Conclusion 108 – 111 8. Summary 112 – 114 9. Referred Shlokas 115 – 119 10. Bibliography 120 – 136 11. Annexure a. Proforma 137 – 138 b. Master Chart 139 – 140 c. Measurement Chart 141 - 149 
  • 12. LIST OF GRAPHTable Description Page no. no. 1. Breadth of proximal interphalangeal joint of right middle finger 62 2. Breadth of metacarpophalangeal joint of right hand 63 3. Length of right middle finger 64 4. Length of right ear measured with the help of 65 Proximal interphalangeal joint of right middle finger in anguli 5. Length of right ear measured with the help of 66 Breadth of right metacarpaophalangeal joint in anguli 6. Length of right ear measured with the help of 67 Length of right middle finger in anguli 7. Width of right ear measured with the help of 68 Proximal interphalangeal joint of right middle finger in anguli 8. Width of right ear measured with the help of 69 Proximal interphalangeal joint of right middle finger in anguli 9. Width of right ear measured with the help of 70 Length of right middle finger in anguli 10. Circumference of right ear measured with the help of 71 Proximal interphalangeal joint of right middle finger in anguli 11. Circumference of right ear measured with the help of 72 Breadth of right metacarpophalangeal joint in anguli 12. Circumference of right ear measured with the help of 73 Length of right middle finger in anguli
  • 13. 13. Root anterior of right ear measured with the help of Breadth of right 74 interphalangeal joint of right middle finger in anguli14. Root anterior of right ear measured with the help of 75 Breadth of right metacarpophalangeal joint in anguli15. Root anterior of right ear measured with the help of 76 Length of right middle finger in anguli16. Root posterior of right ear measured with the help of 77 Proximal interphalangeal joint of right middle finger in anguli17. Root posterior of right ear measured with the help of 78 Breadth of right metacarpophalangeal joint in anguli18. Root posterior of right ear measured with the help of 79 Length of right middle finger in anguli19. Breadth of proximal interphalangeal joint of left middle finger 80 in cm.20. Breadth of metacarpophalangeal joint of left hand in cm. 8121. Length of left middle finger in cm. 8222. Length of right ear measured with the help of 83 Proximal interphalangeal joint of left middle finger in anguli23. Length of right ear measured with the help of 84 Breadth of left metacarpophalangeal joint in anguli24.  Length of right ear measured with the help of 85  Length of left middle finger in anguli25.   Width of right ear measured with the help of 86  Proximal interphalangeal joint of left middle finger in anguli
  • 14. 26.   Width of right ear measured with the help of 87  Breadth of left metacarpophalangeal joint in anguli 27.   Width of right ear measured with the help of 88  Length of left middle finger in anguli  28.   Circumference of right ear measured with the help of 89  Proximal interphalangeal joint of left middle finger in anguli 29.   Circumference of right ear measured with the help of 90  Breadth of left metacarpophalangeal joint in anguli 30.   Circumference of right ear measured with the help of 91  Length left middle finger in anguli 31.   Root anterior of right ear measured with the help of 92  Proximal interphalangeal joint of left middle finger in anguli 32.   Root anterior of right ear measured with the help of 93  Breadth of left metacarpophalangeal joint in anguli 33.  Root anterior of right ear measured with the help of 94  Length of left middle finger in anguli 34.   Root posterior of right ear measured with the help of 95  Proximal interphalangeal joint of left middle finger in anguli 35.  Root posterior of right ear measured with the help of 96  Breadth of left metacarpophalangeal joint in anguli   36.   Root posterior of right ear measured with the help of 97  Length of left middle finger in anguli 
  • 15. LIST OF TABLESTable Description Page no. no. 1. Breadth of proximal interphalangeal joint of right middle finger 62 2. Breadth of metacarpophalangeal joint of right hand 63 3. Length of right middle finger 64 4. Length of right ear measured with the help of 65 Proximal interphalangeal joint of right middle finger in anguli 5. Length of right ear measured with the help of 66 Breadth of right metacarpaophalangeal joint in anguli 6. Length of right ear measured with the help of 67 Length of right middle finger in anguli 7. Width of right ear measured with the help of 68 Proximal interphalangeal joint of right middle finger in anguli 8. Width of right ear measured with the help of 69 Proximal interphalangeal joint of right middle finger in anguli 9. Width of right ear measured with the help of 70 Length of right middle finger in anguli 10. Circumference of right ear measured with the help of 71 Proximal interphalangeal joint of right middle finger in anguli 11. Circumference of right ear measured with the help of 72 Breadth of right metacarpophalangeal joint in anguli
  • 16. 12. Circumference of right ear measured with the help of 73 Length of right middle finger in anguli13. Root anterior of right ear measured with the help of Breadth of right 74 interphalangeal joint of right middle finger in anguli14. Root anterior of right ear measured with the help of 75 Breadth of right metacarpophalangeal joint in anguli15. Root anterior of right ear measured with the help of 76 Length of right middle finger in anguli16. Root posterior of right ear measured with the help of 77 Proximal interphalangeal joint of right middle finger in anguli17. Root posterior of right ear measured with the help of 78 Breadth of right metacarpophalangeal joint in anguli18. Root posterior of right ear measured with the help of 79 Legth of right middle finger in anguli19. Breadth of proximal interphalangeal joint of left middle finger 80 in cm.20. Breadth of metacarpophalangeal joint of left hand in cm. 8121. Length of left middle finger in cm. 8222. Length of right ear measured with the help of 83 Proximal interphalangeal joint of left middle finger in anguli23. Length of right ear measured with the help of 84 Breadth of left metacarpophalangeal joint in anguli24.  Length of right ear measured with the help of 85  Length of left middle finger in anguli
  • 17. 25.   Width of right ear measured with the help of 86  Proximal interphalangeal joint of left middle finger in anguli 26.   Width of right ear measured with the help of 87  Breadth of left metacarpophalangeal joint in anguli 27.   Width of right ear measured with the help of 88  Legnth of left middle finger in anguli  28.   Circumference of right ear measured with the help of 89  Proximal interphalangeal joint of left middle finger in anguli 29.   Circumference of right ear measured with the help of 90  Breadth of left metacarpophalangeal joint in anguli 30.   Circumference of right ear measured with the help of 91  Length left middle finger in anguli 31.   Root anterior of right ear measured with the help of 92  Proximal interphalangeal joint of left middle finger in anguli 32.   Root anterior of right ear measured with the help of 93  Breadth of left metacarpophalangeal joint in anguli 33.  Root anterior of right ear measured with the help of 94  Length of left middle finger in anguli 34.   Root posterior of right ear measured with the help of 95  Proximal interphalangeal joint of left middle finger in anguli 35.  Root posterior of right ear measured with the help of 96  Breadth of left metacarpophalangeal joint in anguli   36.   Root posterior of right ear measured with the help of 97  Length of left middle finger in anguli 
  • 18. LIST OF PICTURES Picture No Description Page No Picture No I Embryology of Ear 53 Picture No II External Ear 54 Picture No III External Acoustic Meatus 55 Picture No IV Middle & Inner Ear 56 Picture V Screw Gauge 61 Picture VI VernierCalipers 61 
  • 19. Introduction  1.0 INTRODUCTIONConcept of Pramana is included in Shareera for understanding the physical built andmental constitution. Pramana shareera, requires immense perceptive of measurement ofvarious body part, and in many instances explains the quality of life. Ample referencesfrom classics explain that Pramana shareera can play a major role in determination oflife span of a person1. It described that the person having appropriate measurement mayattain a long span of life. Out of the Pramanas described in the classics, Anguli pramanabears the prime important. Anguli pramana is a salutary anthropometric concept asdescribed in Ayurveda, where Anguli is the unit of measurement of a body part andstructure2.Pramana shareera can be correlated with physical anthropology, popularly known asanthropometry that describes measurement of ideal height and age. Whereas in Ayurveda,Pramana shareera in addition to above concept, also correlates the measurements ofvarious body parts with life span, and health status of an individual3.Acharya Charaka had included Pramana among tenfold of examine that guides to assessthe physical and mental built of an individual4.The concept of Pramana shareera refers the ways of meaning to attain knowledge5. Itexplains the processes of measurement of various human body parts6 and marks the signfor longevity of an individual and mimics the qualities of Dirghayou, for longer healthylife span.A Comprehensive Study of PramanaShareera with Special Reference to AnguliPramanof BahyaKarna-Shareera  1  
  • 20. Introduction Acharya Charaka and Sushruta explained about Swaanguli pramana for evaluating theextremities and other physical constitution by using own finger as the measuring utility7,2.Various conceptual terms like Ayama, Vistara and Parinama are described under thesphere of Swaanguli pramana8. For examination of Ayu, Anguli pramana is one of theprime criteria of the measurement, from which we can measure and understand thequality and span of the life1. It is noted that Ayu will be more or less based on the variousmeasurement of the body parts. The Swaanguli pramana is considered by accepting thefinger breadth of an individual as the unit of measurement.The visible part of the human ear is a rather modest concern. During the course ofevolution, it has lost its long pointed tip and its mobility like the ear as visible in animals.In today’s era, the ear is fine; the sensitive edges have been evaluated, with ‘rolled rim’9.The main function of the external ear remains that of a sound gatherer- flesh- and bloodear trumpet. We may not be able to prick our ears like other animals, or twist and turnthem when seeking the direction of a sudden noise, but we are still capable of detectingthe source of a sound. During the evolution of ear in human, what we have lost in earmobility, have made up for with head mobility. When a deer or an antelope hears analarming sound, it raises its head and twists its ears in various directions, but when wehear such a sound, we turn our heads and it works almost as well10.The shape of our external ear is important in delivering undistorted sound to oureardrums. A minor function of our ear is temperature control. Elephants flap their hugeA Comprehensive Study of PramanaShareera with Special Reference to AnguliPramanof BahyaKarna-Shareera  2  
  • 21. Introduction ears when they are overheated and this helps to cool the animal down. There is aprofusion of blood vessels near the surface of the skin and heat loss through this route canbe important to many of the species. For us it may only play a trivial role in thermoregulation, but it has become a social signal. When someone overheats in a moment ofemotional conflict, their ears may go bright red. This ear blushing has been the subject ofcomment since ancient times11.Finally, our ear appears to have acquired a new erotic function with the development ofsoft fleshy lobes. These are absent in our nearest relatives and appear to be a uniquelyhuman feature, evolved as part of our increased sexuality. Early anatomists dismissedthem as functionless: ‘a new feature which apparently serves no useful purpose, unless itis pierced for the carrying of ornaments’; but recent observations of sexual behavior haverevealed that during intense arousal, the earlobes become swollen and engorged withblood. This makes them unusually sensitive to touch. In rare instances, according toKinsey and his colleagues at the institute for sex research in Indiana, ‘a female or malereach orgasm as a result of stimulation of the ear’12.At the centre of the external ear is the ‘ear hole’ which leads to a narrow canal about aninch long. The canal twists slightly, giving it a design that helps to keep the air inside itwarm. This warmth is important for the proper functioning of the eardrum at its innerend. The eardrum itself is an extremely delicate organ, and the canal not only keeps itsnugly warm but also protects it from physical damage. Evolution has provided theA Comprehensive Study of PramanaShareera with Special Reference to AnguliPramanof BahyaKarna-Shareera  3  
  • 22. Introduction answer in the shape of hair to keep out larger insects, and ear-wax to defeat smallercreatures13.Briefly, the sound vibrations which strike the eardrum are converted into nervousimpulses for transmission of the brain. The eardrum is incredibly sensitive, capable ofdetecting a vibration so faint that it only displaces the surface of the drum a thousand-millionth of a centimetre. This displacement is then transmitted through three ear ossiclesin the middle ear, which amplify the pressure twenty-two times. The enhanced signal isthen passed on to the inner ear. Vibration is enhanced that impinges on hair-like nervecells. There are thousands of these nerve cells – each one tuned to a particular vibration –and they send their messages to the brain via the auditory nerve14.The inner ear also contains vital organs of balance, three semicircular canals. Theimportance of these organs grew dramatically when our ancestors first stood up on theirhind legs and adopted bipedal locomotion. An animal standing on four legs is reasonablystable, but vertical living creates an almost non-stop demand for subtle balancingadjustments15.One of the sad aspects of our sense of hearing is that it starts to go into decline as soon aswe are born. The human infant can detect sound wave frequencies from 16 cycles asecond up to 30,000. At adolescence, the upper limit has already dropped to 20,000cycles a second. By the age of sixty this has declined to about 12,000 and the upper pitchthat we can detect continues to fall further and further as we become more elderly16.A Comprehensive Study of PramanaShareera with Special Reference to AnguliPramanof BahyaKarna-Shareera  4  
  • 23. Introduction It has long been argued that it is possible to identify every individual by his or her earshape. In the last century it was suggested that this feature could be used to detectcriminals, but another method, finger-printing won the day and ear- typing was forgotten.It remains true, however, that it is impossible to find two people with precisely the sameear details17.A Comprehensive Study of PramanaShareera with Special Reference to AnguliPramanof BahyaKarna-Shareera  5  
  • 24. Objectives 2.0 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 1. To measure the variable measurement of anatomical descriptions of Bahya- karna by using of the fundamentals of Anguli pramana in healthy volunteers. 2. To correlate of the justification narrated by different Acharyas. 3. To evaluate the relevance of Pramana shareera from ancient literature in context with modern anthropometry.2.1 Previous Work Done – Mishra P C- A study of Dehika Prakrutis w.s.r. to Anguli Pramana. Lucknow State Ayurvedic College, University of Lucknow-1983. Manakar Atul S- A study of Suthra given by Acharaya Sushrutha about Anguli pramana. B .V Ayurveda College Pune, Pune University-2002. Viswanath.K.Channappanavar-Concept of Pramana Shareera w.s.r. to determination of the stature from Prabahu (brachium) under taken at S D M College of Ayurveda, Udupi, R G U H S, Bangalore 2006. Shyny Thankachan- Comparative study of Anguli pramana & Prakruti w.s.r. to Bahu, S D M College of Ayurveda, Udupi, R G U H S, Bangalore 2009 A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera 6
  • 25. Literature Evaluation  3.0 LITERATURE EVALUATIONLiterature evaluation also known as literature review includes the extensive study ofcurrent and relevant references with consistent and appropriate explanation.Proper use of terminology and comprehensive study of various researches and analysis ofthe easement are noted criteria for literature review. The measuring of literature review isto present and explain up to date knowledge with current literature and justification forfeature result in the particular area.Pramana refers to the various means of gaining knowledge. Pramana is that whichprovides us with knowledge5. It specifically destined to the measurements of human bodythat express quantitatively its dimensions6. Pramana is one among the ten folds ofexamination of a patient explained by Charaka4. It marks its significance in the fact that ithelps to unearth the Ayu, viz. longevity of an individual. A person having appropriatePramana of Anga-prathyanga’s is considered to have Dirghayou.In the era of Susrutacharya and Charakacharya Swaanguli Pramana is used for estimatingthe Anga-pratyanga and other body constituents7, 3. Ayama, Vistara and Parinama etc aremeasured by the exploit of Swaanguli Pramana where as other body constituentsincluding the fluid are considered by applying the knowledge of Swa-anjali Pramana8.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  7  
  • 26. Literature Evaluation According to Susrutacharya before starting a treatment for an Atura, physician has toexamine many things including Ritu, Agni, Vaya, Deha, Bala, Satva, Satmya, Prakruti,Bheshaja and Desha18. For the examination of Ayu, Anguli Pramana is one of thecriteria1. Here Pramana of Anga-pratyanga has to be taken, the individuals withappropriate Anguli-Pramana have Dirghayou, and Ayu will be more or less if there isdifference of Pramana3.Pramana is one among the ten folds of examinations of a patient explained byCharakacharya. That is the patient has to be examined with reference to the measurementof his Anga-Pratyanga. This is resolute by measuring the height, length & breadth of theAnga-Pratyanga by taking the finger breadth of the individual as the unit measurement7.Technical terms used in the contextAnguliIt is the distal and movable part of the upper limb & lower limb; they are of twenty innumber & of five types19. a) Angushta b) Tarjani/ Pradeshini c) Madhyamanguli d) Anamika e) KanishtaA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  8  
  • 27. Literature Evaluation PramanaIt is the parameter or tool used through which valid knowledge is obtained4.Anguli pramana: is a relative unit to denote length, breadth and circumference.Angula can be taken as;1) Width of the madhyama parva of the madhyama angula20.2) Measurement obtained by taking the length of the madhyama angula and dividing it byfive21.3) Measurement obtained by taking the width of the palm and then dividing by Four22.4) Nakhatalabhaga of angushtha23.3.1 SynonymsThe Karna is also known by other names as Sabdhagraha, Sruth, and Sravana.24“Sravana- Sruyathe anena ithi sravana” that means the organ which is engaged inperception of the sound is sravana, or known as Karna25.3.2 Chronological reviewSince time immemorial, a general inquiry regarding Pramanas was in prevalence whichcan be traced even up to pre historic era. This is evident from its notion in the earliestliterature i.e. Vedas and the oldest medical texts.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  9  
  • 28. Literature Evaluation The chronological review may be noted as below –Karna is considered as Gyanendriya that is helpful us to listen to the sound of variousintensities. Even for the diagnosis of diseases a physician has to depend onPanchendriyas and Prasna26.3.2.1 Description in Samhita period:3.2.1.1 Sushruta SamhitaIn Susrutha samhita, Karna is described as one among the Pratyangas27. Sukra andSronita present in the Garbhasaya combined with Atma, Prakrti and Vikara is known asGarbha. Vayu mahabhuta divides this mass possessing Chetana; Tejas mahabhuta cooksit; Aap mahabhuta moistens it; Prithvi mahabhuta hardens it, and Akasa mahabhutaenlarges it. Developed in this manner, when it becomes endowed with hands, feet,tongue, nose ear, buttocks etc, we call the same as Sarira28.Acharya Sushruta, described that: 1. Karna is one among the Srotas29 2. Karna is made of one Asthi30 and two Sandhi31. 3. Asthi in Karna is of taruna type and type of Sandhi in Karna is Sankhavartha32, 33. 4. Two Mamsa pehsi are present in Karna34.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  10  
  • 29. Literature Evaluation  5. Sabda vahini sira, one of the ten Siras as described, should not be incised as these any incision may lead to hearing loss35.Acharya Sushruta advises to practice Karna sandhi bandhana in Mrudu mamsa,fabricating the ear, joining the severed ear and bandaging by using soft skin, muscles andhollow stalk of lily plant36.Acahrya Sushruta also described that “Svastika” is the type of Bandhana mentioned forKarna37.Acahrya Sushruta described that “Aharya” is the method used for removing Karnamala38.He also described the methodology of ear-piercing, known classically as ‘Karnavyadhana vidhi’. This methodology is aimed to protect the child for protection and bearsthe cosmetic approach. The usual time for Karna vyadhana is sixth or seventh month onfull moon day (Shukla pakhsa) on any auspicious day. In male child, the right side ear hasto be pierced, in Daivakrita chhidra39.Improper ear-piercing can lead harm to kalika siraresulting fever, burning, swelling, pain; harm to Marmarika sira resulting pain, fever,swelling in the vessels; and harm to Lohitika sira resulting in Manyastambha, Apatanaka,Sirograha, Karnasoola40.Repair of Karna is bears the moral significance in all the surgical process. Fifteen typesof procedures are explained for repairing the injured earlobe41. The ear lobule injury isrepaired by taking skin from the surrounding neck region42. Mismanage in repair orA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  11  
  • 30. Literature Evaluation bandaging can result in complications like Paripatika, Karnapati upadrava (Utpataka,Utputaka, Avamantha, Granthika, Jambala, Kanduka, Sravi, and Syava)43.Twenty-eight types of karna vyadhis are described by Acharya Sushruta Susrutha such asKarnasula, Karnapranada, Badhirya, Karnaksweda, Karnasrava, Karnakandu,Karnagutha, Karnapratinaha, Krimikarna, Karnavidradhi (Kshataabhighataga andDoshja), Karnapaka, Putikarna, Karnaarsa (Vataja, Pittaja, Kaphaja and Sannipadaja),Karnaarbutha (Vataja, Pittaja, Kaphaja, Sannipadaja, Raktaja, Mamsaja and Medhaja)and Karnasopha (Vataja, Pittaja, Kaphaja and Sannipadaja) 44.3.2.1.2 Charaka Samhita:Acharya Charaka noted about five attributes for Panchamahabhuta are Sabha, Sparsha,Rupa, Rasa and Gandha45.Acharya Charaka said that Sabdha, Srothra, Laghava, Soushmya are derived fromAkasha mahabutha46.Acharya Charaka said that Karna is one of the Panchendriyaadishatana and Sabda is thePanchendriabudhi47, 48. He describes the number of Karna and Karnaputraka are of twoin number49. The Sabda, and Sabendriya are of Akasha predomient50.3.2.1.3 Kashyapa SamhitaAcahrya Kashyapa described about the diagnostic process for various disorders of Karnaeven in the children that signifies the importance of the Karna. As per him one shouldA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  12  
  • 31. Literature Evaluation doubt for the pain in the ear when child touches ear with both hands, roll head too much,has dullness, anorexia and insomnia51.Acharya Kashyapa also described about the measures to increase ear lobe, whichsignifies the cosmetic importance of Karna52. He emphasized the importance of expertfor ear-piercing. He described the quality of the physician for earlobe piercing andcautioned to keep away from the unskilled person for ear lobe piercing as wrongfulprocess can create permanent deformity or can harm to the ear. He explained that quackshould not pierce the ear of children of royal families or other great person53, 54. Thephysician should know where, how and when to pierce, and what is beneficial, non-beneficial & its complication the ear lobe. This signifies the importance of anatomicalknowledge of Karna in those days55, 56.3.2.1.4 Vagabhatta SamhitaEven piercing of ear is prescribed as one of the importance Samskara57. Protection fromdemons is one of the major indications for this Sanskara. It is also believed that piercingof Karna increase the immunity.He described the development of all Angas in fourth month of the gestational period59,and Karna may be counted as one of the major Anga. Fleshly and adherent ear indicate oflong span of life60.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  13  
  • 32. Literature Evaluation Karnapurana, a process is mentioned where ear is to be filled with medicated oilysimultaneously massaging the root of ear and is to be retained till the pain subsides, in ahealthy person61.Acharya Vagabhatta described three Marmas related to Karna, and those are: 1. Vidhuramarma: It is situated below the Karna and injury to this causes loss of hearing62. 2. Shankamarma: It is situated between ear and end of the eye brow and injury to this marma cause immediate death63. 3. Srinkadakamarma: It is situated at the congregation of orifices of mouth, ear, nose and eyes64.Karna is site in which Abhyanga should be performed particularly65. Snana [bath] iscontra indicated for person affected by ear diseases66.He described that swelling in the Karna-mula occurs in Sannipathajwara67.Acharya described about Karnavedha (puncturing the ear lobe). It should be preferablycompleted done in Daivakritachidra to avoid injury to Sira in either sixth, seventh andeighth month of the baby68.Acharya described about the diseases, and their etiology of the ear69.Acahrya describedthe various types of diseases of Karna like Vatajakarnasula, Pittajakarnasula,KaphajakarnaSula, Raktajakarnasula, Sannipatajakarnasula, Karnanada, Krichrachuthi,A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  14  
  • 33. Literature Evaluation Pratinaha, Kandushopha, Poothikarna, Krimikarna, Kuchikarna, Karnapippali,Karnavidarika, Palishosha, Tantrika, Paripod, Ulpata, Umanunmantho/gallira,Dhukhavardhana and Lihyapidaka. He also described about the treatment from variousKarnavyadhis.3.3 Concept of AnthropometryAnthropometry is a Greek word literally means "measurement of humans". In physicalanthropology it refers to the measurement of living human individuals for the purposes ofunderstanding human physical variations70.It is a series of systematized measuring techniques that express quantitatively thedimensions of the human body and skeleton. Anthropometry is often viewed as atraditional and perhaps the basic tool of biological anthropology, but it has a longtradition of use in forensic sciences and it is finding increased use in medical sciencesespecially in the discipline of forensic medicine71.By this, we can obtain measurement of the human body in terms of the dimensions ofbone, muscle, and adipose (fat) tissue. Measures of subcutaneous adipose tissue areimportant because individuals with large values are reported to be at increased risks forhypertension, adult-onset diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, gallstones, arthritis,and other disease, and forms of cancer72.In the 19th and early 20th centuries, anthropometry was a pseudoscience used mainly toclassify potential criminals by facial characteristics. It is also called Bertillan system. ForA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  15  
  • 34. Literature Evaluation example, Cesare Lombrosos criminal anthropology (1895) claimed that murderers haveprominent jaws and pickpockets have long hands and scanty beards. The work of EugeneVidocq, which identifies criminals by facial characteristics, is still used nearly a centuryafter its introduction in France. The most infamous use of Anthropometry was by theNazis, who’s Bureau for Enlightenment on Population Policy and Racial Welfarerecommended the classification of Aryans and non-Aryans on the basis of measurementsof the skull and other physical features. Craniometric certification was required by law.The Nazis set up certification institutes to further their racial policies. Not measuring upmeant denial of permission to marry or work, and for many it meant the death camps. Itwas applicable only to the adult since it was based on the principal that after 21 years ofage, no changes occurs in the dimensions of the skeleton & that the ratio in the size of thedifferent parts to one another varies considerable in different individuals73.Today, Anthropometry plays an important role in industrial design, clothing design,ergonomics, and architecture, where statistical data about the distribution of bodydimensions in the population are used to optimize products. Changes in life styles,nutrition and ethnic composition of populations lead to changes in the distribution ofbody dimensions (e.g., the obesity epidemic) 70.Anthropometry can be subdivided into somatometry including cephalometry andosteometry including craniometry74.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  16  
  • 35. Literature Evaluation Somatometry75: It is the measurement of the living body and cadaver including head andface. Somatometry is useful in the study of the estimation of stature from different bodysegments age, sex, ethnic group, geographic location, etc.Osteometry76: It includes the measurements of the skeleton and its parts i.e. themeasurements of the bones including skull.3.4Utility of anthropometry Forensic anthropometry incorporates most of the techniques originating with the analysis of human skeletal material from Archaeological sites; Applicable to evolutionary interpretation. Applicable to clinical evaluation. Useful in industrial design. Studies of morphological variation, by their very nature have a comparative focus in which variation within and among populations is the central theme. Somatometry is useful in the study of age estimation from different body segments in a given set of individuals. Somatometry is extensively used in the estimation of stature from different body segments. Can study variation in bony skeleton of different populations of the world. Used in the estimation of sex and race in forensic and legal sciences. Helps in understanding of comparative anatomy of primates.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  17  
  • 36. Literature Evaluation  Helps in orthopedic surgery in fractures, dislocation, and amputation, and in construction of artificial limbs i.e. prosthesis. It also helps in construction of artificial teeth in dentistry. Helps in forensic science to identify the individual. To identify the monozygotic & dizygotic twins. Today, anthropometry has many practical uses, most of them benign. For example, it is used to assess nutritional status, to monitor the growth of children, and to assist in the design of office furniture.3.5 EmbryologyThe three morphological subdivisions of the ear [namely the external, middle and internalear] each have a separate origin77.3.5.1 External ear78The external acoustic meatus is derived from the dorsal part of the first ectodermal cleft.However, its deeper part is formed by proliferation of its lining epithelium, which growstowards the middle ear. This proliferation is at fist solid [meatal plug], but is latercanalized.The auricle, or pinna, is formed from about six mesodermal thickenings [called tuberclesor hillocks] that appear on the mandibular and hyoid arches, around the opening of thedorsal of the first ectodermal cleft [i.e. around the opening of the external acousticmeatus].A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  18  
  • 37. Literature Evaluation The mandibular arch forms only the tragus and a small area around it, the rest of theauricle being formed from the hyoid arch. This is consistent with the fact that theauricular muscles are supplied by the facial nerve.3.5.2 Tympanic membrane79This is formed by apposition of the tubo-tympanic recess and the first ectodermal cleft,these two formations the inner [endodermal] and outer [ectodermal] epithelial linings ofthe membrane. The intervening mesoderm forms the connective tissue basis.Two points worth noting are as follows: 1. The handle of the malleus grows into the connective tissue from above. 2. The chorda tympani nerve is at first outside the membrane but later comes to lie within its layers, because of upward extension of the membranes. 3.5.3 Middle ear80The epithelial lining of the middle ear and of the pharyngo-tympanic tube is derived fromthe tubo-tympanic recess. This recess develops from the dorsal part of the firstpharyngeal pouch, and also receives a contribution from the second pouch. The tympanicantrum and mastoid air cells are formed by extensions from the middle ear.The malleus and incus are derived from the dorsal end of Meckel’s cartilage, while thestapes is formed from the dorsal end of the cartilage of the second pharyngeal arch. TheA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  19  
  • 38. Literature Evaluation ossicles are at first outside the mucous membrane of the developing middle ear. Theyinvaginate the mucous membranes, which covers them throughout life. The ossicles ofthe ear fully ossify in the fourth month of intrauterine life. They are the first bone in thebody to do so.The tensor tympani is derived from the mesoderm of the first pharyngeal arch and thestapedius from that of the second arch.3.5.4 Internal ear81The membranous labyrinth is derived from a specialized area of surface ectodermoverlying the developing hind brain. This area is first apparent as a thickening called theoticplacode. The oticplacode soon becomes depressed to form the otic pit.The otic vesicle is at first an oval structure. By differential growth of various parts of itswall, it gives rise to the structures comprising the membranous labyrinth.Localized areas of the epithelium of the membranous labyrinth undergo differentiation toform specialized sensory end organs of hearing, and of equilibrium [cristae ofsemicircular ducts; maculae of utricle and saccule; organ of corti of cochlea]. These areinnervated by peripheral processes of the cells of the vestibulocochlear ganglion. Thisganglion is derived from the neural crest. Its cells are peculiar in that they remain bipolarthroughout life.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  20  
  • 39. Literature Evaluation The bony labyrinth is formed from the mesenchyme surrounding the membranouslabyrinth. This mesenchyme becomes condensed to form the otic capsule. Themesenchymal condensation is soon converted into cartilage. Between this cartilage andthe membranous labyrinth there is a layer of loose periotic tissue. The space of the bonylabyrinth is created by the disappearance of this periotic tissue. The membranouslabyrinth is filled with a fluid called endolymph, while the periotic spaces surrounding itare filled with perilymph.The periotic tissue, around the utricle and saccule, disappears to form a space called thevestibule. The periotic tissue, around the semicircular ducts also disappears to form thesemicircular canals. Two distinct spaces are formed, one on either side of the cochlearduct. These are the scala tympani and the scalavestibuli. The scalavestibuli communicateswith the vestibule while the scala tympani grows towards the tympanic cavity, fromwhich it remains separated by a membrane. The cartilaginous labyrinth is subsequentlyossified to form the bony labyrinth.3.5.5 Cronology of ear development82 22nd day – oticplacode is seen. 5th week – auricle starts forming 6th week – the cochlea and semicircular canals starts forming.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  21  
  • 40. Literature Evaluation  8th week – the cochlea and semicircular canals assume their definitive external form. 10th week – scalavestibuli and scala tympani appear. 7th month – external acoustic meatus gets canalized. The ear is most sensitive to teratogens during the 4th to 9th week, and can be affected up to the 12th week.3.6 Anomalies of the ear3.6.1 Anomalies of the auricle83 1. The development of the auricle may get arrested at any stage. As a result of this, it may be totally, or partially, absent; it may be represented by isolated nodules; or it may be very small. Alternatively it may be very large. 2. The migration of the auricle from its primitive caudo-ventral position may remain incomplete. We have seen that this migration occurs as a result of the growth of the maxillary and mandibular processes. This explains the association of caudo- ventral displacement of the auricle with mandibulofacial dysostosis.3.6.2 Anomalies of the External Auditory Meatus84A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  22  
  • 41. Literature Evaluation  1. There may stenosis, or atresia, of the meatus over its whole length or over part of it. The lumen may be closed by fibrous tissue, by cartilage, or by bone. 2. The normal curvature of the meatus may be accentuated as a resullt of which the tympanic membranes cannot be fully seen from the outside.3.6.3 Anomalies of the middle ear85 1. The ossicles may be malformed. They may show abnormal fusion to one another or to the wall of the middle ear. The stapes may be fused to the margins of the fenestra vestibuli. 2. The facial nerve may bulge into the middle ear and may follow an abnormal course. 3. The stapedial artery, which normally disappears, may persist.3.7 Anatomy of earThe ear is an organ of hearing. It is also concerned in managing the equilibrium of thebody. It consists of three parts like the external ear, the middle ear, and the internal ear89.3.7.1 The External earThe external ear consists of the auricle or pinna and the external acoustic meatus.3.7.1.1 The Auricle or pinna90A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  23  
  • 42. Literature Evaluation This is the part seen on the surface. The greater part of it is made up a single crumpledplate of cartilage which is lined on both sides by skin. The lowest part of the auricle issoft and consists only of connective tissue covered by skin. This part is called the lobule.The lateral surface of the auricle is irregularly concave, faces slightly forwards anddisplays numerous eminences and depressions. It has a prominent curved rim, helix. Thisusually bears a small tubercle postero-superiorly, Darwan`s tubercle. The anti-helix is acurved prominent paraller and anterior to the posterior part of the helix. It divided aboveinto two cura which flank a depressed triangular fossa. The curved depression betweenhelix and antihelix is the scaphoid fossa. The antihelix encircles the deep, capaciousconcha of the auricle, which is incompletely divided by the cura or anterior end of thehelix. The conchal area above this, the cymba conchae, overlies the super meatal triangleof the temporal bone which can be felt through it, and which overlies the mastoid antrum.The tragus is a small curved flap below the cura of helix and in front of the concha, itproject posteriorly, partly over lapping the meatal orifice. The anti-tragus is a smalltubercle opposite the tragus and separated from it by the inter-tragic incisures or notch.3.7.1.2 The Skin91The skin of the auricle continues into external auditory meatus to cover the outer surfaceof the tympanic membranes. It is thin, has no dermal papillae, and is closely adherent tothe cerumen. The secretary cell are columnar which active but cuboidal when quiescent,there are covered externally by myoepithelial cells. Ducts open either on to the epithelialA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  24  
  • 43. Literature Evaluation surface or into the nearby sebaceous gland of a hair follicle .Cerumen prevents themaceration of meatal skin by trapped water. 3.7.1.3 The Cartilaginous frame work92The auricle is a single thin plate of elastic fibro cartilage covered by skin, It surfacemoulded by eminences and depressions .It is connected to the surrounding part byligament and muscles and is continous with the cartilage of the external auditory meatus.There is no cartilage in the louble or between the tragus anti crux of the helix, where thegap is filled by dense fibrous tissue. Anteriorly, where the helix curves upwards, there isa small cartilaginous projection, the spin of the helix. Its other extremity is prolongedinferiorly as the tail of the helix and it is separated from the anti-helix by the fissura antitragahelixina. The cranial aspect of the cartilage bears the eminentia conchae andeminentiascaphae, which correspond to the depression on the lateral surface. The twoeminences are separated crus of the antihelix on the lateral surface. The eminentiaconchae are crossed by an oblique ridge, the ponticulus, for the attachment of auricularisposterior. There are two fissures in the auricular cartilage, one behind the crux of thehelix and another in the tragus.3.7.1.4 Ligaments93Anterior and posterior extrinsic ligament connect the auricle with the temporal bone .Theanterior ligament extends from the tragus and the spin of the helix to the root of thezygomatic process of the temporal bone. The posterior ligament passes from the posteriorA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  25  
  • 44. Literature Evaluation surface of the concha to the lateral surface of the mastoid process to main intresticligament connect individual auricular cartilage: a strong fibrous band passes from thetragus to the helix, there by completing the meatus anteriorly and forming part of theboundary of the concha and another band passes between the antihelix and the tail of thehelix. Less prominent bands are seen on the cranial aspect of the auricle.3.7.1.5 Auricular muscles94Extrinsic auricular muscles connect the auricle to the skull and scalp and move the auricleas a whole. Intrinsic auricular muscles connect the different parts of the auricle.3.7.1.5.1 Extrinsic musclesThe extrinsic auricular muscles are the auricularis anterior, superior and posterior. Thesmallest of the three is auricularis anterior, a thin fan of pale fibres which arise from thealateral edge of the epicranialaponeurosis and converge to attach to the spine of the helix.The largest of the three, auricularis superior, is also thin and fan-shaped and convergesfrom the epicranialaponeurosis via a thin, flat tendon to attach to the upper part of thecranial surface of the auricle. The auricularis posterior consists of two or three fleshyfasciculi which arise by short aponeurotic fibres from the mastoid part of the temporalbone and insert into the ponticulus on the eminentia conchae.Vascular supplyA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  26  
  • 45. Literature Evaluation The arterial supply of the extrinsic auricular muscles is derived mainly from the posteriorInnervation. Auricularis posterior is supplied by the posterior auricular branch of thefacial nerve.ActionIn man these muscles have very little obvious effect. However, despite the paucity ofauricular movement, auditory stimuli may evoke patterned responses from these smallmuscles and electromyography can detect the crossed acoustic response, used todetermine auditory threshold levels and brainstem latencies, which is elicited by thismeans in investigative clinical neurology.3.7.1.5.2 Intrinsic musclesThe intrinsic auricular muscles are helicis major and minor, tragicus, antitragicus,transversusauriculae and obliqusauriculae. Helicis major is a narrow vertical band on theanterior margin of the helix, passing from its spine to its anterior border, where the helixis about to curve back. Helicis minor is an oblique fasciculus covering the crus of thehelix. Tragicus is a short, flattened, vertical band on the lateral aspect of the tragus.Antitragicus passes from the outer part of the antitragus to the tail of the helix and theantihelix. Transversusauriculae, located on the cranial aspect of the auricle, consists ofscattered fibres, partly tendinous, partly muscular, which extend between the eminentiaconchae and the eminentia fibres which extend from the upper and posterior parts of theaminentia conchae to eminentiascaphae.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  27  
  • 46. Literature Evaluation Vascular supplyThe intrinsic auricular muscles are supplied by branches of the posterior auricular andsuperficial temporal arteries.The intrinsic auricular muscles on the lateral aspect of the auricle are innervated by thetemporal branches of the facial nerve, and those on the cranial aspect of the auricle areinnervated by the posterior auricular branch of the facial nerve.ActionsThe intrinsic muscles modify auricular shape minimally, if at all, in most human ears:helicis major can draw the auricle forwards and upwards. Rare individuals can modify theshape and position of their external ear.3.7.1.6 Vascular supply & lymphatic drainage95ArteriesThe posterior auricular branch of the external carotid artery is the dominant blood supply.It supplies three or four branches to the cranial surface of the auricle: twigs from thesearteries reach the lateral surface, some through fissures in the cartilage, other round themargin of the helix. The posterior auricular artery ascends between the parotid gland andthe styloid process to the groove between the auricular cartilage and mastoid process. Thesuperior auricular artery has a constant course and connects the superior temporal arteryand the posterior auricular arterial network: this branch can provide a reliable vascularA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  28  
  • 47. Literature Evaluation pedicle for retro-auricular flaps .The auricle is also supplied by anterior auricularbranches of the occipitalVeinsAuricular veins correspond to the arteries of the auricle. Arterio-venous anastomoses arenumerous in the skin of the auricles and are thought to be important in the regulation ofcore temperature. Lymphatic drainageThe posterior aspect of the pinna drains to nodes at the mastoid tip. The tragus and upperpart of the pinna drain into pre-auricular nodes, while the remainder of the pinna drains toupper deep cervical lymph nodes.3.7.1.7 Innervation96The sensory innervation of the auricle is complex and not fully determined. This isperhaps because the external ear represents an area where skin originally derived from abrachial region meets skin originally derived from a post brachial region. The sensorynerve involved are the great auricular nerve, which supplies most of the cranial surfaceand the posterior part of the lateral surface [helix, anti-helix, louble] the lesser occipitalnerve , which supplies the upper part of the cranial surface; the auricular branch of thevagus, which supplies the concavity of the cocha and posterior part of the eminentia; theauriculotemporal nerve, which supplies the tragus, crux of the helix and the adjacent partA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  29  
  • 48. Literature Evaluation of the helix and the facial nerve, which together with the auricular branch of the vagusprobably supplies small areas on both aspects of the auricles, in the depression of theconcha and over its eminence. The details of the cutaneous innervation derived from thefacial nerve require further clarification. It is possible that as the auricular branch of thevagus probably supplies small area on both aspects of the auricle, in the depression of theconcha, and over its eminence. The details of the cutaneous innervation derived from thefacial nerve require farther clarification. It is possible that as the auricular branch of thevagus traverses the temporal bone and crosses the facial canal, approximately 4 mmabove the stylomastoid foramen, it contributes an ascending branch to the facial nerveand that in this way fibers of the vagus are carried via the facial nerve to pinna.3.8 External Acoustic Meatus97The external acoustic meatus extends from the concha to the tympanic membrane: it isapproximately 2.5 cm from the floor of the concha and approximately 4 cm from thetragus. It has two structurally different parts: its lateral third is cartilaginous and itsmedial two third is osseous .It forms an S-shape curve, directed at first medially,anteriorly, and slightly up [pars externa], then posteromedially and up [pars media] andlastly anteromedially and slightly down [pars interna]. It is oval in section, its greatestdiameter is obliquely inclined posteroinferiorly at the external orifice, but is nearlyhorizontal at its medial and. There are two constrictions, one near the medial end of thecartilaginous part, the other, the isthmus, in the osseous part about 2 cm from the bottomof the concha. The tympanic membranes, which closes its medial end, is obliquely set,A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  30  
  • 49. Literature Evaluation which means that the floor and the anterior wall of the meatus are longer than its roof andposterior wall.The lateral, cartilaginous part is approximately 8 mm long. It is continuous with theauricular cartilage and attached by fibrous tissue to the circumference of the osseous part.The meatel cartilage is deficient posterosuperiorly, and the gap is occupied by a sheet ofcollagen. Two or three deep fissure [of santorini] exists in its anterior part: tumours of theexternal acoustic meatus escape the confines of the canal through these fissures andspread into the adjacent soft tissue.The osseous part is approximately 16 mm long, and is narrower than the cartilaginouspart. In sagittal section it is oval or elliptical and it is directed anteromedially and slightlydownwards, with a slight posterosuperior convexity. Its medial end is smaller than thelateral end and it terminates obliquely. The anterior wall projects medially approximately4 mm. beyond the posterior and is marked, except above, by a narrow tympanic sulcus oranulus, to which the perimeter of the tympanic membrane is attached. Its lateral end isdilated and mostly rough for the attachment of the meatal cartilage. The anterior, inferiorand most plate of the temporal bone, which in the foetus is only a tympanic plate of thetemporal bone, which in the foetus is only a tympanic ring. The posterosuperior region isformed by the squamous part of the temporal bone. The outer wall of the meatus isbounded above by the posterior zygomatic root, below which there may be a suprameatalspine.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  31  
  • 50. Literature Evaluation 3.8.1 Relations of the meatusThe condylar process of the mandible lies anterior to the meatus and is partially separatedfrom the cartilaginous part by a small portion of the parotid gland. A blow on the chinmay cause the condyle to break into the meatus. The middle cranial fossa lies above theosseous meatus and the mastoid air cell are posterior to it, separated from the meatus onlyby a thin layer of bone. Its deepest part is situated below the epitympanic recess, and isanteroinferior to the mastoid antrum: the lamina of bone which separates it from theantrum is only 1-2 mm thick and provides the transmeatal approach of aural surgery.3.8.2 Vasculature and lymphatic drainageThe arterial supply of the external acoustic meatus is derived from the posterior auricularartery, the deep auricular branch of the maxillary artery and the auricular branches of thesuperficial temporal artery. Associated veins drain into the external jugular and maxillaryveins and the pterygoid plexus. The lymphatics drain into those associated with the pinna.3.8.3 InnervationThe sensory innervation of the external acoustic meatus is derived from theauriculotemporal branch of the mandibular nerve, which supplies the anterior andsuperior wall, and the auricular branch of the vagus, which supplies the posterior andinferior wall. The facial nerve may also contribute via its communication with the vagusnerve.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  32  
  • 51. Literature Evaluation 3.9 Middle ear98The middle ear is an air-filled, mucous membrane-lined space in the temporal bonebetween the tympanic membrane laterally and the lateral wall of the internal ear medially.It is described as consisting of two parts. • Tympanic cavity immediately adjacent to the tympanic membrane. • Epitympanic recess superiorly.The middle ear communicates with the mastoid area posteriorly and the nasopharynx [viathe pharyngotympanic tube] anteriorly. Its basic function is to transmit vibrations of thetympanic membrane across the cavity of the middle ear to the internal ear. Itaccomplishes this through three interconnected but movable bones that bridge the spacebetween the tympanic membrane and the internal ear. These bones are the malleus[connected to the tympanic membranes], the incus [connected to the malleus], and thestapes [connected to the incus and the lateral wall of the internal ear at the oval window]3.9.1 BoundariesThe middle ear has a roof and a floor, and anterior, posterior, medial and lateral walls.Tegmental wall [Roof]The tegmentalwall of the middle ear consists of a thin layer of bone, which separates themiddle ear from the middle cranial fossa. This layer of bone is the tegmen tympani on theanterior surface of the petrous part of the temporal bone.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  33  
  • 52. Literature Evaluation Jugular wall [Floor]The jugular wall of the middle ear consists of a thin layer of bone that separates it fromthe internal jugular vein. Occasionally, the floor is thickened by the presence of mastoidair cells.Near the medial border of the floor is a small aperture, through which the tympanicbranch from the glossopharyngeal nerve [9] enters the middle ear.Anterior wallThe anterior wall of the middle ear is only partially complete. The lower part consists of athin layer of bone that separates the tympanic cavity from the internal carotid artery.Superiorly, the wall is deficient due to the presence of: A large opening for the entrance of the pharyngotympanic tube into the middle ear: A smaller opening for the canal containing the tensor tympani muscle.The foramen for exit of the chorda tympani nerve from the middle ear is also associatedwith this wall.Mastoid wall [Posterior]A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  34  
  • 53. Literature Evaluation The mastoid wall of the middle ear is only partially complete. The lower part of this wallconsists of a bony partition between the tympanic cavity and mastoid air cells.Superiorly, the epitympanic recess is continuous with the aditus to the mastoid antrumAssociated with the mastoid wall are: The pyramidal eminence, a small elevation through which the tendon of the stapedius muscle enters the middle ear. The opening through which the chorda tympani nerve, a branch of the facial nerve [7], enters the middle ear.Labyrinthine wall [Medial]The labyrinthine wall of the middle ear is also the lateral wall of the internal ear. Aprominent structure on this wall is a rounded bulge [the promontory] produced by thebasal coil of the cochlea, which is an internal ear structure involved with hearing.Associated with the mucous membrane covering the promontory is a plexus of nerves[the tympanic plexus], which consists primarily of contributions from the tympanicbranch of the glossopharyngeal nerve [9] and branches from the internal carotid plexus. Itsupplies the mucous membrane of the middle ear, the mastoid area, and thepharyngotympanic tube.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  35  
  • 54. Literature Evaluation Additionally, a branch of the tympanic plexus [the lesser petrosal nerve] leaves thepromontory and the middle ear, travels across the anterior surface of the petrous part ofthe temporal bone, and leaves the middle cranial fossa through the foramen ovale to enterthe middle cranial fossa through the foramen ovale to enter the otic ganglion. Otherstructures associated with the labyrinthine wall are two openings, the oval and roundwindows, and two prominent elevations. The oval window is posterosuperior to the promontory, is the point of attachment for the base of stapes [footplate], and end the chain of bones that transfer vibrations initiated by the tympanic membrane to the cochlea of the internal ear. The round window is posteroinferior to the promontory. Posterior and superior to the oval window on the medial wall is the prominence of facial canal, which is a ridge of bone produced by the facial nerve [7] in its canal as it passes through the temporal bone. Just above and posterior to the prominence of facial canal is a broader ridge of bone [prominence of lateral semicircular canal] produced by the lateral semicircular canal, which is a structure involved in detecting motion.Membranous wall [Lateral]The membranous wall of the middle ear consists almost entirely of the tympanicmembrane, but because the tympanic membrane does not extend superiorly into theA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  36  
  • 55. Literature Evaluation epitympanic recess, the upper part of the membranous wall of the middle ear is the bonylateral wall of the epitympanic recess.3.9.2 Mastoid area99 Posterior to the epitympanic recess of the middle ear is the aditus to mastoid antrum, which is the opening to the mastoid antrum. The mastoid antrum is a cavity continuous with collections of air-filled spaces [the mastoid cells], throughout the mastoid part of the temporal bone, including the mastoid process. The mastoid antrum is separated from the middle cranial fossa above by only the thin tegmen tympani. The mucous membrane lining the mastoid air cells is continuous with the mucous membrane throughout the middle ear. 3.9.3 Pharyngotympanic tube100 The Pharyngotympanic tube connects the middle ear with the nasopharynx and equalizes pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane. Its opening in the middle ear is on the anterior wall, and from here it extends forward, medially, and downward to enter the nasopharynx just posterior to the inferior meatus to the nasal cavity. It consists of: A bony part [the one-third nearest the middle ear]. A cartilaginous part [the remaining two-thirds].A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  37  
  • 56. Literature Evaluation  The opening of the bony part is clearly visible on the inferior surface of the skull at the junction of the squamous and petrous parts of the temporal bone immediately posterior to the foramen ovale and foramen spinosum. Vessels The arterial supply to the pharyngotympanic tube is from several sources. Branches arise from the ascending pharyngeal artery [a branch of the external carotid artery] and from two branches of the maxillary artery [the middle meningeal artery and the artery of the pterygoid canal]. Venous drainage of the pharyngotympanic tube is to the pterygoid plexus of veins in the infratemporal fossa. Innervations Innervation of the mucous membrane lining the pharyngotympanic tube is primarily from the tympanic plexus because it is continuous with the mucous membrane lining the tympanic cavity, the internal surface of the tympanic membrane, and the mastoid antrum and mastoid cells. This plexus receives its major contribution from the tympanic nerve, a branch of the glossopharyngeal [9]. 3.9.4 Auditory ossicles101A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  38  
  • 57. Literature Evaluation  The bones of the middle ear consist of the malleus, incus, and stapes. They form an osseous chain across the middle ear from the tympanic membrane to the oval window of the internal ear. Muscles associated with the auditory ossicles modulate movement during the transmission of vibrations.MalleusThe malleus is the largest of the auditory ossicles and is attached to the tympanicmembrane. Identifiable parts include the head of malleus, neck of malleus, anterior andlateral processes and handle of malleus. The head of malleus is the rounded upper part ofthe malleus in the epitympanic recess. Its posterior surface articulates with the incus. Inferior to the head of malleus is the constricted neck of malleus, and below this are the anterior and lateral processes: The anterior process is attached to the anterior wall of the middle ear by a ligament. The lateral process is attached to the anterior and posterior malleolar folds of the tympanic membrane.The downward extension of the malleus, below the anterior and lateral processes, is thehandle of malleus, which is attached to the tympanic membrane.IncusA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  39  
  • 58. Literature Evaluation The second bone in the series of auditory ossicles is the incus. It consists of the body ofincus and long and short limbs: The enlarged body of incus articulates with the head of malleus and is in the epitympanic recess; The long limb extends downward from the body, paralleling the handle of the malleus, and by bending medially to articulate with the stapes; The short limb extends posteriorly and is attached by a ligament to the upper posterior wall of the middle ear.StapesThe stapes is the most medial bone in the osseous chain and is attached to the ovalwindow. It consists of the head of stapes, anterior and posterior limbs, and the base ofstapes: The head of stapes is directed laterally and articulates with the long process of the incus. The two limbs separate from each other and attach to the oval base. The base of stapes fits into the oval window on the labyrinthine wall of the middle ear.3.9.5 Muscles associated with the ossiclesA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  40  
  • 59. Literature Evaluation Two muscles are associated with the bony ossicles of the middle ear: • Tensor tympani • StapediusTensor tympaniThe tensor tympani muscle lies in a bony canal above the pharyngotympanic tube. Itoriginates from the cartilaginous part of the pharyngotympanic tube, the greater wing ofthe sphenoid, and its own bony canal, and passes through its canal in a posteriordirection, ending in a rounded tendon that inserts into the upper part of the handle of themalleus.Innervation of the tensor tympani is by a branch from the mandibular nerve.Contraction of the tensor tympani pulls the handle of the malleus medially. This tensesthe tympanic membrane, reducing the force of vibrations in response to loud noises.StapediusThe stapedius muscle is a very small muscle that originates from inside the pyramidaleminence, which is a small projection on the mastoid wall of the middle ear. Its tendonemerges from the apex of the pyramidal eminence and passes in a forward direction toattach to the posterior surface of the neck of stapes.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  41  
  • 60. Literature Evaluation Stapedius is innervated by a branch from the facial nerve. Contraction of the stapediusmuscle, usually in response to loud noise, pulls the stapes posteriorly and preventsexcessive oscillation.3.9.6 Vessels102Numerous arteries supply the structures in the middle ear: The two largest branches are the tympanic branch of the maxillary artery and the mastoid branch of the occipital or posterior auricular arteries; Smaller branches come from the middle meningeal artery, the ascending pharyngeal artery, the artery of the pterygoid canal, and tympanic branches from the internal carotid artery.Venous drainage of the middle ear returns to the pterygoid plexus of veins and thesuperior petrosal sinus.3.9.7 Innervations102The tympanic plexus innervates the mucous membrane lining the walls and contents ofthe middle ear, which includes the mastoid area and the pharyngotympanic tube. It isformed by the tympanic nerve, a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve [9] and frombranches of the internal carotid plexus in the mucous membrane covering thepromontory, which is the rounded bulge on the labyrinthine wall of the middle ear.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  42  
  • 61. Literature Evaluation As the glossopharyngeal nerve [9] exits the skull through the jugular foramen, it gives offthe tympanic nerve. This branch re-enters the skull through a small foramen and passesthrough the bone to the middle ear.Once in the middle ear, the tympanic nerve forms the tympanic plexus, along withbranches from the plexus of nerves surrounding the internal carotid artery, in the mucousmembrane covering the promontory. Branches from the tympanic plexus supply themucous membranes of the middle ear, including the pharyngotympanic tube and themastoid area.The tympanic plexus also gives off a major branch [the lesser petrosal nerve], whichsupplies preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to the otic ganglion.The lesser petrosal nerve leaves the area of the promontory, exits the middle ear, travelsthrough the petrous part of the temporal bone, and exits onto the anterior surface of thepetrous part of the temporal bone through a hiatus just below the hiatus for the greaterpetrosal nerve. It continues diagonally across the anterior surface of the temporal bonebefore exiting the middle cranial fossa through the foramen ovale. Once outside the skullit enters the otic ganglion.3.10 Internal ear103A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  43  
  • 62. Literature Evaluation The internal ear consists of a series of bony cavity [the bony labyrinth] and membranousduct and [the membranous labyrinth] within these cavities. All these structures are in thepetrous part of the temporal bone between the middle ear laterally and the internalacoustic meatus medially.The bony labyrinth consists of the vestibule, three semicircular canal and the cochlea.These bony cavities are lined with periosteum and contain a clear fluid [the perilymph].Suspended within the perilymph but not filling all spaces of the bony labyrinth is themembranous labyrinth, which consists of the semicircular ducts, the cochlear duct, andtwo sacs [the utricle and the saccule]. These membranous spaces are filled withendolymph.The structures in the internal ear convey information to the brain about balance andhearing: The cochlear duct is the organ of hearing. The semicircular duct, utricle, and saccule are the organs of balance.The nerve responsible for this function is the vestibulocochlear nerve [8], which dividesinto vestibular [balance] and cochlear [hearing] parts after entering the internal acousticmeatus.3.10.1 Bony labyrinth104A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  44  
  • 63. Literature Evaluation The vestibule, which contains the oval window in its lateral wall, is the central part of thebony labyrinth. It communicates anteriorly with the cochlea and posterosuperiorly withthe semicircular canals.A narrow canal [the vestibular aqueduct] leaves the vestibule, and passes through thetemporal bone to open on the posterior surface of the petrous part of the temporal bone.3.10.1.1 Semicircular canalProjecting in a posterosuperior direction from the vestibule are the anterior, posterior, andlateral semicircular canals. Each of these canal forms two-thirds of a circle connected atboth ends to the vestibule and with one end dilated to form the ampulla. The canals areoriented so that each canal is at right angles to the other two.3.10.1.2 CochleaProjecting in an anterior direction from the vestibule is the cochlea, which is a bonystructure that twists on itself two and one-half to two and three-quarter times around acentral column of bone [the modiolus]. This arrangement produces a cone-shapedstructure with a base of cochlea that faces posteromedially and an apex that facesanterolaterally. This positions the wide base of the modiolous near the internal acousticmeatus, where it is entered by branches of the cochlear part of the vestibule-cochlearnerve [8].A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  45  
  • 64. Literature Evaluation Extending laterally throughout the length of the modiolus is a thin lamina of bone [theposition by its attachment to the lamina of modiolus, is the cochlear duct, which is acomponent of the membranous labyrinth.Attached peripherally to the outer wall of the cochlea, the cochlear duct creates twocanals [the scala vestibule and the scala tympani], which extend throughout the cochleaand are continuous with each other at the apex through a narrow slit [the helicotrema]: • The scala vestibuli is continuous with the vestibule. • The scala tympani, is separated from the middle ear by the secondary tympanic membrane covering the round window finally, near the round window is a small channel [the cochlear canaliculus], which passes through the temporal bone and opens on its inferior surface into the posterior cranial fossa. This provides a connection between the perilymph- containing cochlea and the subarachnoid space.3.10.2 Membranous labyrinth105The membranous labyrinth is a continuous system of ducts and sacs within the bonylabyrinth. It is filled with endolymph and separated from the periosteum that covers thewalls of the bony labyrinth by perilymph.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  46  
  • 65. Literature Evaluation Consisting of two sacs [the utricle and the saccule] and four ducts [the three semicircularducts and the cochlear duct], the membranous labyrinth has unique functions related tobalance and hearing: The utricle, saccule, and three semicircular ducts are part of the vestibular apparatus [i.e. organ of balance]. The cochlear duct is the organ of hearing.The general organization of the parts of the membranous labyrinth place: The cochlear duct within the cochlea of the bony labyrinth, anteriorly. The three semicircular ducts, within the three semicircular canals of the bony labyrinth, posteriorly. The saccule and utricle, within the vestibule of the bony labyrinth, in the middle.3.10.2.1 Organs of balanceFive of the six components of the membranous labyrinth are concerned with balance.These are the two sacs [the utricle and the saccule] and three ducts [the anterior, posteriorand lateral semicircular ducts].Utricle, saccule, and endolymphatic duct.The utricle is the larger of the two sacs. It is oval, elongated and irregular in shape and isin the posterosuperior part of the vestibule of the bony labyrinth.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  47  
  • 66. Literature Evaluation The three semicircular ducts empty into the utricle. Each semicircular duct is similar inshape, including a dilated end forming the ampulla, to its complimentary bonysemicircular canal only much smaller.The saccule is a smaller, rounded sac lying in the anteroinferior part of the vestibule ofthe bony labyrinth. The cochlear duct empties into it.The atriculosaccular duct establishes continuity between all components of themembranous labyrinth and connects the utricle and saccule. Branching from this smallduct is the endolymphatic duct, which enters the vestibular aqueduct [a channel throughthe temporal bone] to emerge onto the posterior surface of the petrous part of thetemporal bone in the posterior cranial fossa. Here the endolymphatic duct expands intothe endolymphatic sac, which is an extradural pouch.3.10.2.2 Sensory receptorsFunctionally, sensory receptors for balance are organized into unique structures and ineach of the components of the vestibular apparatus. In the utricle and saccule this senseorgan is the macula of utricle and macula of saccule, respectively, and in the ampulla ofeach of the three semicircular ducts it the crista.The utricle responds to centrifugal and vertical acceleration, while the saccule respondsto linear acceleration. In contrast, the receptors in the three semicircular ducts respond tomovement in any direction.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  48  
  • 67. Literature Evaluation 3.10.2.2 Organ of hearingCochlear ductThe cochlear duct has a central position in the cochlea of the bony labyrinth dividing itinto two canals [the scala vestibule and the scala tympani]. It is maintained in thisposition by being attached centrally to the lamina of modiolus, which is a thin lamina ofbone extending from the modiolus [the central bony core of the cochlea], and peripherallyto the outer wall of the cochlea.Thus, the triangular-shaped cochlear duct has: An outer wall against the bony cochlea consisting of thickened, epithelial-lined periosteum [the spiral ligament]. A roof [the vestibular surface membranes], which separates the endolymph in the scala vestibule and consists of a membrane with a connective tissue core lined on either side with epithelium. A floor, which separates the endolymph in the cochlear duct from the perilymph in the scala tympani and consists of the free edge of the lamina of modiolus, and a membrane [the basilar membrane] extending from this free edge of the lamina of modiolus to an extension of the spiral ligament covering the outer wall of the cochlea.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  49  
  • 68. Literature Evaluation The spiral organ is the organ of hearing, rests on the basilar membrane, and projects intothe enclosed, endolymph-filled cochlear duct.3.10.3 Vessels106The arterial supply to the internal ear is divided between vessels supplying the bonylabyrinth and the membranous labyrinth.The bony labyrinth is supplied by the same arteries that supply the surrounding temporalbone these include an anterior tympanic branch from the maxillary artery, a stylomastoidbranch from the posterior auricular artery, and a petrosal branch from the middlemeningeal artery.The membranous labyrinth is supplies by the labyrinthine artery, which either arises fromthe anterior inferior cerebellar artery or is a direct branch of the basilar artery, whateverits origin, it enters the internal acoustic meatus with the facial [7] and glossopharyngeal[9] nerves and eventually divides into: A cochlear branch, which passes through the modiolus and supplies the cochlear duct. One or two vestibular branches, which supply the vestibular apparatus.Venous drainage of the membranous labyrinth is through vestibular veins and cochlearveins, which follow the arteries. These come together to form a labyrinthine vein, whicheventually empties into either the inferior petrosal sinus or the sigmoid sinus.3.10.4 Innervations107A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  50  
  • 69. Literature Evaluation The vestibulocochlear nerve [8] caries special afferent fibres for hearing [the cochlearcomponent] and balance [the vestibular component]. It enters the lateral surface of thebrainstem, between the pons and medulla, after exiting the temporal bone through theinternal acoustic meatus and crossing the posterior cranial fossa.Inside the temporal bone, at the distal end of the internal acoustic meatus, thevestibulocochlear nerve divides to form: The cochlear nerve. The vestibular nerve.The vestibular nerve enlarges to form the vestibular ganglion, before dividing intosuperior and inferior parts, which distribute to the three semicircular ducts and the utricleand saccule.The cochlear nerve enters the base of the cochlea and passes upwards through themodiolus. The ganglion cells of the lamina of modiolus as it winds around the base of thelamina of modiolus. Branches of the cochlear nerve pass through the lamina of modiolusto innervate the receptors in the spiral organ.3.4.5 Facial nerve [7] in the temporal boneThe facial nerve is closely associated with the vestibulocochlear nerve as it enters theinternal acoustic meatus of the temporal bone. Travelling through the temporal bone, itspath and several of its branches are directly related to the internal and middle ears.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  51  
  • 70. Literature Evaluation The facial nerve enters the internal acoustic meatus in the petrous part of the temporalbone. The vestibulocochlear nerve and the labyrinthine artery accompany it.At the distal end of the internal acoustic meatus, the facial nerve enters the facial canaland continues laterally between the internal and middle ears. At this point the facial nerveenlarges and bends posteriorly and laterally. The enlargement is the sensory geniculateganglion. As the facial canal continues, the facial nerve turns sharply downward andrunning in an almost vertical direction, it exits the skull through the stylomastoidforamen.Branches Greater petrosal nerve. Nerve to stapedius and chorda tympaniGreater petrosal nerveAt the geniculate ganglion, the facial nerve gives off the greater petrosal nerve. This isthe first branch of the facial nerve. The greater petrosal nerve leaves the geniculateganglion, travels anteromedially through the temporal bone, and emerges through thehiatus for the greater petrosal nerve on the anterior surface of the petrous part of thetemporal bone. The greater petrosal nerve carries preganglionic parasympathetic fibers tothe pterygopalatine ganglion.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  52  
  • 71. Literature Evaluation Continuing beyond the bend, the position of the facial nerve is indicated on the medialwall of the middle ear by a bulge.Nerve to stapedius and chorda tympaniNear the beginning of its vertical descent, the facial nerve gives off a small branch, thenerve to stapedius, which innervates the stapedius muscle, and just before it exits theskull the facial nerve gives off the chorda tympani nerve.The chorda tympani does not immediately exit the temporal bone, but ascends to enterthe middle ear through its posterior wall, passing near the upper aspect of the tympanicmembrane between the malleus and incus. It then exits the middle ear through a canalleading to the petrotympanic fissure and exits the skull through this fissure to join thelingual nerve in the infratemporal fossa.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  53  
  • 72. Literature Evaluation A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  54  
  • 73. Literature Evaluation  Picture-1 Embryology of the EarA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  55  
  • 74. Literature Evaluation  Picture-2 External EarA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  56  
  • 75. Literature Evaluation  Picture No. 3 Ear with acoustic meatusA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  57  
  • 76. Literature Evaluation  Picture-4 Middle & Inner EarA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Pramana of Bahya Karna-Shareera  58  
  • 77. Methodology  4.0 METHODOLOGYOne hundred healthy volunteers in and around the Alva’s Ayurveda Medical College,Moodbidri are selected to be included in this present study.4.1 InstrumentsThe following instruments are used to complete the present study. Measuring tape Measuring callipers Micrometre Weighing machine4.2 Inclusion criteriaHealthy individuals from both sexes without any visible abonromalities ranging from 15-45 years of age are included in this present study.4.3 Exclusion criteriaDuring this present study, special care is considered to exclude the individuals with thefollowing features which may impact on the result of the study. Individuals with visible congenital and acquired external ear deformities. Individuals with any known pathological conditions of the external ear. Wearing heavy ornaments in ears as it may resultant in pathological disfigurement.A Comprehensive Study of PramanaShareera with Special Reference to AnguliPramanof BahyaKarna-Shareera  57  
  • 78. Methodology 4.4 Assessment criteria4.4.1 Anguli Praman (Anthropometry) Width of madhyama parva of madhyama angulii, (width of proximal inter- phalangeal joint of middle finger). Width of the palm at the level of metacarpophalangeal joints (2nd -5th) and dividing it by four. Length of the madhyama anguli i.e. from tip of middle finger to metacarpo- phalangeal joint of middle finger which is then divided by five.4.4.2 Bahyakarna (External Ear)The following anatomical parts of the external ear are considered to be measured byusing own anguli. a) Circumference: The distance between curve of helix and intertragus notch crossing through auricular tubercle and lobule of auricle across the pinna. b) Length: The distance between upper portion of helix and lower portion of lobule of auricle. c) Width: The distance between tragus and proximal part of helix at 1800 denominator. d) Root posterior: The distance between posterior part of pinna with petrous part of the temporal bone posteriorly.A Comprehensive Study of PramanaShareera with Special Reference to AnguliPramanof BahyaKarna-Shareera  58  
  • 79. Methodology  e) Root anterior: The distance between anterior part of pinna with petrous part of the temporal bone anteriorly.4.5 MethodologyThe healthy volunteers after following the inclusion and exclusion criteria are preparedfor the anthropometric study of Bahya Karna using anguli praman. The measurementwas taken preferably in the early morning.Prior to initiation of the study carefully, investigation was carried out to ensure thenormal stature and anatomical configuration of ear. Emphasis was also drawn to excludeany use of heavy ornaments that has the possibility to interfere the normal investigation.After thorough investigation ensuring normal anatomorphological structure of the ear, theindividual was advised to swipe the external ear using sterile solution prepared from 10%of Dettol.The middle finger is accepted as the tool of measurement. The middle finger ispremeasured with screw gauge and converted into centimetre to arrive at uniformstandardized result. Along with this, metacarpophlangeal joint is also consider as a tool ofmeasurement of the external ear.The measurements were carried out for circumference, length, width, root posterior, rootanterior of both external ears (Bahyakarna).A Comprehensive Study of PramanaShareera with Special Reference to AnguliPramanof BahyaKarna-Shareera  59  
  • 80. Methodology The data received are recorded in the specific forms they are noted with age, sex, height,occupation, and education.The following points are noted during measuring procedure to enable accurate andminimal error free result and interpretation. 1. Clothing that might interfere with measurement procedure are removed and the volunteers are advised dressed in simple cloth. 2. Measurements were preferable taken in the early morning between 8-10 AM. 3. Minimal compressions to the skin surface were taken care. 4. Profoma is prepared with observation of 100 health individuals for the present study.A Comprehensive Study of PramanaShareera with Special Reference to AnguliPramanof BahyaKarna-Shareera  60  
  • 81. Methodology  Picture-5 Screw gauge Picture-6 Vernier callipersA Comprehensive Study of PramanaShareera with Special Reference to AnguliPramanof BahyaKarna-Shareera  61  
  • 82. Observations and results   Table 1 BREADTH OF PROXIMAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT OF RIGHT MIDDLE FINGER Volunteer age Breadth of proximal interphalangeal joint of right middle finger in (cm) group 1.6 – 1.8 1.9 – 2.1 2.2 – 2.4 16 - 20 2 6 0 21 – 25 25 55 2 26 – 30 2 6 0 31 – 35 2 0 0Breadth of proximal interphalangeal joint varies from 1.6 - 2.2 cm with the mean 1.896 cm andStandard deviation (SD) as 0.141 cm and median as 1.900 cm.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 62  
  • 83. Observations and results   Table 2 BREADTH OF METACARPOPHALANGEAL JOINT OF RIGHT HANDVolunteer age group [ Breadth of Metacarpo Phalangeal joint of Right hand( 2nd – 5th ) ] / 4 in cm 1.6 – 1.89 1.9 – 2.19 2.2 – 2.49 16 - 20 1 6 1 21 – 25 6 74 2 26 – 30 3 4 1 31 – 35 2 0 0Breadth of metacarpophalangeal joint varies from 1.73 - 2.33 cm with the mean as 1.977 cm andStandard deviation (SD) as 0.107 cm. The median breadth is noted as 1.970 cm.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 63  
  • 84. Observations and results   Table 3 LENGTH OF RIGHT MIDDLE FINGERVolunteer age group [ Length of right middle finger ] / 5 in cms 1.6 – 1.89 1.9 – 2.19 2.2 – 2.49 16 - 20 3 5 0 21 – 25 44 38 0 26 – 30 4 4 0 31 – 35 1 1 0Length of middle finger varies from 1.60 - 2.02 cm with the mean 1.868 cm and Standarddeviation (SD) as 0.0935 cm, with median length is 1.880 cm.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 64  
  • 85. Observations and results   Table 4 LENGTH OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF PROXIMAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT OF RIGHT MIDDLE FINGER IN ANGULIVolunteers age group Length of right ear measured with the help of proximal interphalangeal joint of right middle finger 3.00 – 3.59 3.60 – 4.09 4.10 – 4.59 4.60 – 5.09 16 – 20 3 3 2 0 21 – 25 13 58 8 3 26 – 30 3 2 2 1 31 – 35 0 1 0 1Length varies from 3.17 – 4.60 anguli with the mean as 3.858 and standard deviation (SD) as0.373 anguli and median length is 3.838 anguli.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 65  
  • 86. Observations and results   Table 5 LENGTH OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF BREADTH OF RIGHT METACARPAOPHALANGEAL JOINT IN ANGULIVolunteer age [ Length of right ear in anguli with breadth of right metacarpo phalangeal joint[ (2ndgroup – 5th) / 4] . anguli 3.00 – 3.59 3.60 – 4.09 4.10 – 4.59 16 - 20 2 6 0 21 – 25 26 49 7 26 – 30 3 5 0 31 – 35 0 1 1Length of right ear measured varies from 3.15 – 4.54 anguli with the mean 3.703 and standarddeviation(SD) as 0.336 anguli, median 3.700 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 66  
  • 87. Observations and results   Table 6 LENGTH OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF LENGTH OF RIGHT MIDDLE FINGER IN ANGULIVolunteers age group Length of right ear with length of right middle finger / 5 – anguli 3.00 – 3.59 3.60 – 4.09 4.10 – 4.59 4.60 – 5.09 16 – 20 2 5 1 0 21 – 25 11 51 17 3 26 – 30 3 2 3 0 31 – 35 0 1 1 0Length of right year varies from 3.20 – 4.82 anguli with the mean 3.886 and standard deviation(SD) as 0.375 anguli, median 3.890 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 67  
  • 88. Observations and results   Table 7 WIDTH OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF PROXIMAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT OF RIGHT MIDDLE FINGER IN ANGULIVolunteer age Width of right ear with proximal interphalangeal joint of right middle fingergroup in anguli 1.0 – 1.59 1.6 – 2.09 2.1 – 2.59 16 - 20 4 4 0 21 – 25 51 28 3 26 – 30 5 2 1 31 – 35 1 1 0Width of right ear varies from 1.14 – 2.40 anguli with the mean 1.558 and standard deviation(SD) as 0.236 anguli, median 1.570 anguli.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 68  
  • 89. Observations and results   Table 8 WIDTH OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF BREADTH OF RIGHT METACARPOPHALANGEAL JOINT IN ANGULI Volunteers age [Width of right ear in anguli with breadth of right metacarpo phalangeal joint [(2nd – group 5th ) / 4] – anguli 1.0 – 1.59 1.6 – 2.09 16 – 20 6 2 21 – 25 66 16 26 – 30 6 2 31 – 35 1 1Width of right ear varies from 1.12 – 2.08 anguli with the mean 1.486 and standard deviation(SD) as 0.180 anguli, median 1.465 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 69  
  • 90. Observations and results   Table 9 WIDTH OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF LENGTH OF RIGHT MIDDLE FINGER IN ANGULIVolunteer age [ Width of right ear in anguli with length of right middle finger ] / 5 –group anguli 1.0 – 1.59 1.6 – 2.09 2.1 – 2.59 16 - 20 3 5 0 21 – 25 48 32 2 26 – 30 4 3 1 31 – 35 1 1 0Width of right ear varies from 1.20 – 2.25 anguli with the mean 1.579 and standard deviation(SD) as 0.210 anguli, median 1.560 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 70  
  • 91. Observations and results   Table 10 CIRCUMFERENCE OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF PROXIMAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT OF RIGHT MIDDLE FINGER IN ANGULI Volunteers age Circumference of right ear in anguli with proximal inter phalangeal joint of group right middle finger – anguli 4.1 – 5.09 5.1 – 6.09 6.1 – 7.09 7.1 – 8.09 16 – 20 1 3 4 0 21 – 25 8 28 36 10 26 – 30 0 2 4 2 31 – 35 0 0 1 1 Circumference of the right ear varies from 4.71 – 8.00 anguli with the mean 6.235 and standard deviation (SD) as 0.737 anguli, median 6.230 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 71  
  • 92. Observations and results   Table 11 CIRCUMFERENCE OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF BREADTH OF RIGHT METACARPOPHALANGEAL JOINT IN ANGULI Volunteers age [ Circumference of right ear in anguli with breadth of right metacarpo group phalangeal joint [(2nd – 5th ) / 4] – anguli 4.1 – 5.09 5.1 – 6.09 6.1 – 7.09 7.1 – 8.09 16 – 20 1 5 2 0 21 – 25 12 32 37 1 26 – 30 0 2 6 0 31 – 35 0 0 2 0 Circumference of right ear varies from 4.46 – 7.34 anguli with the mean 5.958 and standard deviation (SD) as 0.631 anguli, median 6.070 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 72  
  • 93. Observations and results   Table 12 CIRCUMFERENCE OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF LENGTH OF RIGHT MIDDLE FINGER IN ANGULIVolunteers age group [ Circumference of right ear with length of right middle finger ] / 5 – anguli 4.1 – 5.09 5.1 – 6.09 6.1 – 7.09 7.1 – 8.09 16 – 20 0 5 2 1 21 – 25 3 17 56 6 26 – 30 0 3 2 3 31 – 35 0 0 2 0Circumference of right ear varies from 4.57 – 7.65 anguli with the mean 6.295 and standarddeviation (SD) as 0.595 anguli, median 6.295 anguli.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 73  
  • 94. Observations and results   Table 13 ROOT ANTERIOR OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF BREADTH OF PROXIMAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT OF RIGHT MIDDLE FINGER IN ANGULIVolunteer age Root anterior of right ear in anguli with proximal inter phalangeal joint ofgroup right middle finger – anguli 1.5 – 2.49 2.5 – 3.49 3.5 – 4.49 16 - 20 3 5 0 21 – 25 36 44 2 26 – 30 3 5 0 31 – 35 0 2 0Root anterior of the right ear varies from 2.00 – 3.54 anguli with the mean 2.604 and standarddeviation (SD) as 0.326 anguli, median 2.530 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 74  
  • 95. Observations and results   Table 14 ROOT ANTERIOR OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF BREADTH OF RIGHT METACARPOPHALANGEAL JOINT IN ANGULI Volunteers age [ Root anterior of right ear in anguli with breadth of right metacarpo phalangeal joint group [(2nd - 5th )/ 4] – anguli 1.5 – 2.49 2.5 – 3.49 16 – 20 4 4 21 – 25 42 40 26 – 30 5 3 31 – 35 0 2 Root anterior of the right ear varies from 2.07 – 3.38 anguli with the mean 2.497 and standard deviation (SD) as 0.300 anguli, median 2.490 anguli,A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 75  
  • 96. Observations and results   Table 15 ROOT ANTERIOR OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF LENGTH OF RIGHT MIDDLE FINGER IN ANGULIVolunteer age group Root anterior of right ear in anguli with length of right middle finger - anguli 1.5 – 2.49 2.5 – 3.49 3.5 – 4.49 16 - 20 3 4 1 21 – 25 28 50 4 26 – 30 3 5 0 31 – 35 0 2 0 Root anterior of the right ear varies from 2.08 – 3.66 anguli with the mean 2.652 and standard deviation (SD) as 0.393 anguli, median 2.650 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 76  
  • 97. Observations and results   Table 16 ROOT POSTERIOR OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF PROXIMAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT OF RIGHT MIDDLE FINGER IN ANGULIVolunteer age Root posterior of right ear in anguli with proximal interphalangeal joint of rightgroup middle finger – anguli 3.0 – 3.99 4.0 – 4.99 5.0 – 5.99 16 - 20 4 4 0 21 – 25 21 56 5 26 – 30 0 7 1 31 – 35 1 1 0Root posterior of right ear varies from 3.43 – 5.33 anguli with the mean 4.234 and standarddeviation (SD) as 0.441 anguli, median 4.210 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 77  
  • 98. Observations and results   Table 17 ROOT POSTERIOR OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF BREADTH OF RIGHT METACARPOPHALANGEAL JOINT IN ANGULIVolunteer age [ Root posterior of right ear in anguli with breadth of right metacarpo phalangeal jointgroup (2nd – 5th) ] /4 – anguli 3.0 – 3.99 4.0 – 4.99 5.0 – 5.99 16 - 20 6 2 0 21 – 25 36 45 1 26 – 30 0 8 0 31 – 35 1 1 0Root posterior of the right ear varies from 3.23 – 5.08 anguli with the mean 4.056 and standarddeviation (SD) as 0.332 anguli, median 4.040 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 78  
  • 99. Observations and results   Table 18 ROOT POSTERIOR OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF LEGTH OF RIGHT MIDDLE FINGER IN ANGULIVolunteer age [ Root posterior of right ear in anguli with length of right middle finger ] / 5 –group anguli 3.0 – 3.99 4.0 – 4.99 5.0 – 5.99 16 – 20 6 2 0 21 – 25 36 45 1 26 – 30 0 8 0 31 – 35 1 1 0Root posterior of the right ear varies from 3.60 – 5.29 anguli with the mean 4.302 and standarddeviation (SD) as 0.402 anguli, median 4.245 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 79  
  • 100. Observations and results   Table 19 BREADTH OF PROXIMAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT OF LEFT MIDDLE FINGER IN CMs.Volunteers age group Breadth of proximal interphalangeal joint of left middle finger in cms 1.6 – 1.89 1.9 – 2.19 16 – 20 3 5 21 – 25 50 32 26 – 30 7 1 31 – 35 2 0 Breadth of proximal interphalangeal joint of left hand varies from 1.6 -2.1 cm with the mean 1.822 cm and standard deviation (SD) as 0.122 cm, median1.800 cm.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 80  
  • 101. Observations and results   Table 20 BREADTH OF METACARPOPHALANGEAL JOINT OF LEFT HAND IN CMs.Volunteer age group [ Breadth of metacarpo phalangeal joint of left hand (2nd – 5th) ] / 4 in cms 1.60 – 1.89 1.90 – 2.19 2.20 – 2.49 16 - 20 1 7 0 21 – 25 10 70 2 26 – 30 3 4 1 31 – 35 2 0 0Breadth of metacarpophalangeal joint varies from 1.7 – 2.2 cm with the mean 1.955 cm andstandard deviation (SD) as 0.103cm, median 1.950 cmA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 81  
  • 102. Observations and results   Table 21 LENGTH OF LEFT MIDDLE FINGER IN CMs.Volunteer age group Length of left middle finger / 5 in cms 1.60 – 1.89 1.90 – 2.19 2.20 – 2.49 16 - 20 4 4 0 21 – 25 46 36 0 26 – 30 4 4 0 31 – 35 1 1 0Length of middle finger varies from 1.6 – 2.02 cm with the mean 1.862 cm and standarddeviation (SD) as 0.0932 cm, median 1.880 cmA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 82  
  • 103. Observations and results   Table 22 LENGTH OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF PROXIMAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT OF LEFT MIDDLE FINGER IN ANGULI Volunteers age Length of right ear in anguli with proximal inter phalangeal joint of left middle group finger – anguli 3.00 – 3.59 3.60 – 4.09 4.10 – 4.59 4.60 – 5.09 16 – 20 2 4 2 0 21 – 25 5 40 34 3 26 – 30 2 3 2 1 31 – 35 0 0 0 2Length of right ear varies from 3.33 – 4.88 anguli with the mean 3.991 and standard deviation(SD) as 0.302 anguli , median 4.000 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 83  
  • 104. Observations and results   Table 23 LENGTH OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF BREADTH OF LEFT METACARPOPHALANGEAL JOINT IN ANGULIVolunteer age [ Length of right ear with breadth of left metacarpo phalangeal joint (2nd – 5th) ] / 4group - anguli 3.00 – 3.59 3.60 – 4.09 4.10 – 4.59 16 - 20 3 5 0 21 – 25 23 52 7 26 – 30 4 4 0 31 – 35 0 2 0Length of right ear varies from 3.18 – 4.51 anguli with the mean 3.714 and standard deviation(SD) as 0.249 anguli, median 3.740 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 84  
  • 105. Observations and results   Table 24 LENGTH OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF LENGTH OF LEFT MIDDLE FINGER IN ANGULIVolunteers age group [ Length of right ear in anguli with Length of left middle finger ] / 5 – anguli 3.00 – 3.59 3.60 – 4.09 4.10 – 4.59 4.60 – 5.09 16 – 20 1 6 1 0 21 – 25 13 47 19 3 26 – 30 3 2 3 0 31 – 35 0 1 1 0Length of right ear varies from 3.20 – 4.82 anguli with the mean 3.906 and standard deviation(SD) as 0.304 anguli, median 3.890 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 85  
  • 106. Observations and results   Table 25 WIDTH OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF PROXIMAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT OF LEFT MIDDLE FINGER IN ANGULIVolunteer age group Width of right ear with proximal interphalangeal joint of left middle finger – anguli 1.00 – 1.59 1.60 – 2.09 2.10 – 2.59 16 - 20 4 4 0 21 – 25 45 35 2 26 – 30 4 3 1 31 – 35 1 1 0Width of the right ear varies from 1.25 – 2.40 anguli with the mean 1.621 and standarddeviation (SD) as 0.230 anguli, median 1.590 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 86  
  • 107. Observations and results   Table 26 WIDTH OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF BREADTH OF LEFT METACARPOPHALANGEAL JOINT IN ANGULI Volunteers age [Width of right ear in anguli with breadth of left metacarpo phalangeal joint group (2nd – 5th ) ] / 4 – anguli 1.00 – 1.59 1.60 – 2.09 16 – 20 5 3 21 – 25 59 23 26 – 30 4 4 31 – 35 1 1Width of right ear varies from 1.14 – 2 .02 anguli with the mean 1.506 and standard deviation(SD) as 0.189 anguli, median 1.490 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 87  
  • 108. Observations and results   Table 27 WIDTH OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF LEGNTH OF LEFT MIDDLE FINGER IN ANGULIVolunteer age group [ Width of right ear with length of left middle finger ] / 5 - anguli 1.00 – 1.59 1.6 – 2.09 2.10 – 2.59 16 – 20 3 5 0 21 – 25 47 33 2 26 – 30 5 2 1 31 – 35 1 1 0Width of the right ear varies from 1.20 – 2.25 anguli with the mean 1.583 and standard deviation(SD) as 0.210 anguli, median 1.570 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 88  
  • 109. Observations and results   Table 28 CIRCUMFERENCE OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF PROXIMAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT OF LEFT MIDDLE FINGER IN ANGULI Volunteers age Circumference of right ear with proximal inter phalangeal joint left middle finger – group anguli 4.1 – 5.09 5.1 – 6.09 6.1 – 7.09 7.1 – 8.09 s16 – 20 1 2 5 0 21 – 25 1 17 53 11 26 – 30 0 2 3 3 31 – 35 0 0 1 1Circumference of the right ear varies from 4.95 – 8.00 anguli with the mean 6.454 and standarddeviation (SD) as 0.711 anguli, median 6.470 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 89  
  • 110. Observations and results   Table 29 CIRCUMFERENCE OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF BREADTH OF LEFT METACARPOPHALANGEAL JOINT IN ANGULI Volunteers age [ Circumference of right ear with bredth of left metacarpo phalangeal joint (2nd – 5th group ) ] / 4 – anguli 4.1 – 5.09 5.1 – 6.09 6.1 – 7.09 7.1 – 8.09 16 – 20 1 5 2 0 21 – 25 7 38 33 4 26 – 30 0 2 6 0 31 – 35 0 0 1 1Circumference of right ear varies from 4.53 – 7.14 anguli with the mean 6.020 and standarddeviation (SD) as 0.633 anguli, median 6.130 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 90  
  • 111. Observations and results   Table 30 CIRCUMFERENCE OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF LENGTH OF LEFT MIDDLE FINGER IN ANGULI Volunteers age [ Circumference of right ear with length of left middle finger ] / 5 – group anguli 4.1 – 5.09 5.1 – 6.09 6.1 – 7.09 7.1 – 8.09 16 – 20 0 5 2 1 21 – 25 3 17 56 6 26 – 30 0 3 2 3 31 – 35 0 0 2 0Circumference of right ear varies from 4.57 – 7.65 anguli with the mean 6.314 and standarddeviation (SD) as 0.596 anguli, median 6.265 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 91  
  • 112. Observations and results   Table 31 ROOT ANTERIOR OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF PROXIMAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT OF LEFT MIDDLE FINGER IN ANGULIVolunteer age group Root anterior of right ear with proximal inter phalangeal joint of left middle finger anguli 1.50 – 2.49 2.50 – 3.49 3.50 – 4.49 16 - 20 2 6 8 21 – 25 21 58 3 26 – 30 0 8 0 31 – 35 0 2 0It varies from 2.20 – 3.59 anguli with the mean 2.722 and standard deviation (SD) as 0.367anguli, median 2.650 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 92  
  • 113. Observations and results   Table 32 ROOT ANTERIOR OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF BREADTH OF LEFT METACARPOPHALANGEAL JOINT IN ANGULI Volunteers age [ Root anterior of right ear in anguli with breadth of left metacarpo phalangeal joint group (2nd - 5th ) ] / 4 – anguli 1.50 – 2.49 2.50 – 3.49 16 – 20 4 4 21 – 25 40 42 26 – 30 4 4 31 – 35 0 2It varies from 1.95 – 3.38 anguli with the mean 2.516 and standard deviation (SD) as 0.295anguli, median 2.530 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 93  
  • 114. Observations and results   Table 33 ROOT ANTERIOR OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF LENGTH OF LEFT MIDDLE FINGER IN ANGULI Root anterior of right ear in anguli with length of left middle finger - anguliVolunteer age group 1.50 – 2.49 2.50 – 3.49 3.50 – 4.49 16 - 20 3 5 0 21 – 25 30 49 3 26 – 30 2 6 0 31 – 35 0 2 0It varies from 2.14 – 3.66 anguli with the mean 2.644 and standard deviation (SD) as 0.395anguli, median 2.635 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 94  
  • 115. Observations and results   Table 34 ROOT POSTERIOR OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF PROXIMAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT OF LEFT MIDDLE FINGER IN ANGULIVolunteer age Root posterior of right ear in anguli with proximal interphalangeal joint of leftgroup middle finger – anguli 3.00 – 3.99 4.00 – 4.99 5.00 – 5.99 16 - 20 3 5 0 21 – 25 13 62 7 26 – 30 0 5 3 31 – 35 0 2 0It varies from 3.60 – 5.63 anguli with the mean 4.398 and standard deviation (SD) as 0.418anguli, median 4.440 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 95  
  • 116. Observations and results   Table 35 ROOT POSTERIOR OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF BREADTH OF LEFT METACARPOPHALANGEAL JOINT IN ANGULIVolunteer age [ Root posterior of right ear in anguli with breadth of left metacarpo phalangeal jointgroup (2nd – 5th) ] /4 – anguli 3.0 – 3.99 4.0 – 4.99 5.0 – 5.99 16 - 20 5 3 0 21 – 25 31 50 1 26 – 30 0 8 0 31 – 35 1 1 0It varies from 3.27 – 5.14 anguli with the mean 4.067 and standard deviation (SD) as 0.444anguli, median 4.070 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 96  
  • 117. Observations and results   Table 36 ROOT POSTERIOR OF RIGHT EAR MEASURED WITH THE HELP OF LENGTH OF LEFT MIDDLE FINGER IN ANGULI Volunteer age [ Root posterior of right ear in anguli with length of left middle finger ] / 5 – group anguli 3.0 – 3.99 4.0 – 4.99 5.0 – 5.99 16 – 20 2 5 1 21 – 25 16 60 6 26 – 30 0 7 1 31 – 35 2 0 0It varies from 3.60 – 5.29 anguli with the mean 4.293 and standard deviation (SD) as 0.374anguli, median 4.245 anguliA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 97  
  • 118. Observations and results  A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  Page 98  
  • 119. Discussion  6.0 DISCUSSIONThis present anthropometric study of the bahya- karma (so called the external ear) wasreally challenging. The cause is lack of definite descriptions related to the relativecomparisons of various parts of the external ear in the view of their measurement as wellas the proper methodologies for measuring the external ear.Hence, the present study is aimed to explore the details of the bahya-karna based on theswanguli pramana. The study is planned to compare the anguli pramana of karnadescribed by Acharya Charaka and Sushruta.The study was planned with healthy volunteers (n=100, with age group of 16 to 35) inand around Alva’s Ayurveda Medical College, Moodbidri, Karnataka. The study isconducted in the early morning with maintenance of complete hygiene.All the healthy volunteers are grouped in 5-years of interval for easier understanding andgraphical presentation. The details of the measurements are noted in the master tableattached as annexure.A Comprehensive Study of PramanaShareera with Special Reference to AnguliPramanof BahyaKarna-Shareera    98 
  • 120. Discussion Right and left middle finger is selected for the study. The measurements were carried outafter proper cleaning of the external ear, after ensuring that all the ear-ornaments aretaken out.Breadth of proximal inter-phalangeal joint of right middle finger is explained in the table-1. The mean breadth is 1.896 cm with standard deviation (SD) is 0.141 cm and median is1.900 cm. The breadth of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint of right middle finger variesfrom 1.6 cm to 2.2 cm.Breadth of metacarpo-phalangeal joint of right hand is explained in the table-2. The meanbreadth is 1.977 cm with standard deviation (SD) is 0.107cm and median is 1.970 cm.The breadth of the metacarpo-phalangeal joint of right hand varies from 1.73- 2.33 cm.Length of middle finger of right hand is explained in the table-3. The mean length is1.868 cm with standard deviation (SD) is 0.0935 cm and median is 1.880 cm. The lengthof middle finger of right hand varies from 1.60 - 2.02 cm.Length of right ear measured with proximal interphalangeal joint of right middle finger isexplained in table-4. The mean length is 3.858 anguliwith standard deviation (SD) is0.373 anguliand median is 3.838 anguli. Length of right ear varies between 3.17 – 4.60anguli.A Comprehensive Study of PramanaShareera with Special Reference to AnguliPramanof BahyaKarna-Shareera    99 
  • 121. Discussion Length of right ear measured with breadth of right metacarpo phalangeal joint of righthand is explained in table-5. The mean length is 3.703 anguli with standard deviation(SD) is 0.336 anguliand median is 3.700 anguli. Length of right ear varies between 3.15– 4.54 anguli.Length of right ear measured with length of right middle finger is explained in table-6.The mean length is 3.886 anguli with standard deviation (SD) is 0.375 anguliand medianis 3.890 anguli. Length of right ear varies between 3.20 – 4.82 anguli.Width of right ear measured by proximal interphalangeal joint of right middle finger isexplained in table-7. The mean length is 1.558 anguli with standard deviation (SD) is0.236 anguliand median is 1.570 anguli. Width of right ear varies between 1.14 – 2.40anguli.Width of right ear measured by breadth of metacarpo phalangeal joint of right hand isexplained in table-8. The mean length is 1.486 anguli with standard deviation (SD) is0.180 anguliand median is 1.465 anguli. Width of right ear varies between 1.12-2.08anguli.A Comprehensive Study of PramanaShareera with Special Reference to AnguliPramanof BahyaKarna-Shareera    100 
  • 122. Discussion Width of right ear measured by length of right middle finger is explained in table-9. Themean length is 1.579 anguli with standard deviation (SD) is 0. 0.210 anguliand median is1.560 anguli. Width of right ear varies between 1.20 – 2.25 anguli.Circumference of right ear measured with proximal inter phalangeal joint of right middlefinger is explained in table-10. The mean length is 6.235 anguli with standard deviation(SD) is 0. 0.737anguliand median is 6.230anguli. Circumference of right ear variesbetween 4.71 – 8.00 anguli.Circumference of right ear measured with breadth of metacarpo phalangeal joint of righthand is explained in table-11. The mean length is 5.958 anguli with standard deviation(SD) is 0. 0. 631 anguliand median is 6.070 anguli. Circumference of right ear variesbetween 4.46 – 7.34 anguli.Circumference of right ear measured with length of right middle finger is explained intable-12. The mean length is 6.295 anguli with standard deviation (SD) is 0.595anguliand median is 6.295 anguli. Circumference of right ear varies between 4.57 – 7.65anguli.Root anterior of right ear measured with proximal inter-phalangeal joint of right middlefinger is explained in table-13. The mean length of root anterior is 2.604 anguli withA Comprehensive Study of PramanaShareera with Special Reference to AnguliPramanof BahyaKarna-Shareera    101 
  • 123. Discussion standard deviation (SD) is 0.326 anguliand median is 2.530 anguli. Root anterior of rightear varies between 2.00 – 3.54 anguli.Root anterior of right ear measured with breadth of right metacarpo phalangeal joint isexplained in table-14. The mean length of root anterior is 2.497 anguli with standarddeviation (SD) is 0.300 anguliand median is 2.490 anguli. Root anterior of right earvaries between 2.07 – 3.38 anguli.Root anterior of right ear measured with length of right middle finger is explained intable-15. The mean length of root anterior is 2.652 anguli with standard deviation (SD) is0.393 anguli and median is 2. 650 anguli. Root anterior of right ear varies between 2.08– 3.66 anguli.Root posterior of right ear measured with proximal interphalangeal joint of right middlefinger is explained in table-16. The mean length of root posterior is 4.234 anguli withstandard deviation (SD) is 0.441 anguliand median is 4.210 anguli. Root posterior ofright ear varies between 3.43 – 5.33anguli.Root posterior of right ear measured with breadth of right metacarpo phalangeal of isexplained in table-17. The mean of root posterior is 4.056 anguli with standard deviation(SD) is 0.332 anguliand median is 4.04anguli. Root posterior of right ear varies between3.23-5.08 anguli.A Comprehensive Study of PramanaShareera with Special Reference to AnguliPramanof BahyaKarna-Shareera    102 
  • 124. Discussion Root posterior of right ear measured with length of right middle finger is explained intable-18. The mean of root posterior is 4.302 anguli with standard deviation (SD) is 0.402anguliand median is 4.245 anguli. Root posterior of right ear varies between 3.60 –5.29anguli.Breadth of proximal inter-phalangeal joint of left middle finger is explained in the table-19. The mean breadth is 1.822 cm with standard deviation (SD) is 0.122 cm and medianis 1.800 cm. The breadth of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint of left middle fingervaries from 1.6 cm to 2.1 cm.Breadth of metacarpo-phalangeal joint of left hand is explained in the table-20. The meanbreadth is 1.955 cm with standard deviation (SD) is 0.103 cm and median is 1.950 cm.The breadth of the metacarpo-phalangeal joint of left hand varies from 1.70- 2.22 cm.Length of middle finger of left hand is explained in the table-21. The mean length is1.862 cm with standard deviation (SD) is 0.0932 cm and median is 1.880 cm. The lengthof middle finger of left hand varies from 1.60 - 2.02 cm.Length of right ear measured with proximal interphalangeal joint of left middle finger isexplained in table-22. The mean length is 3.991 anguli with standard deviation (SD) isA Comprehensive Study of PramanaShareera with Special Reference to AnguliPramanof BahyaKarna-Shareera    103 
  • 125. Discussion 0.302 anguliand median is 4.0anguli. Length of right ear varies between 3.33 – 4.88anguli.Length of right ear measured with breadth of left metacarpo phalangeal joint is explainedin table-23. The mean length is 3.714anguli with standard deviation (SD) is0.249anguliand median is 3.740 anguli. Length of right ear varies between 3.18 –4.51anguli.Length of right ear measured with length of left middle finger is explained in table-24.The mean length is 3.906anguli with standard deviation (SD) is 0.304anguliand medianis 3.890 anguli. Length of right ear varies between 3.20 – 4.82 anguli.Width of right ear measured by proximal interphalangeal joint of left middle finger isexplained in table-25. The mean length is 1.621anguli with standard deviation (SD) is0.230anguliand median is 1.590 anguli. Width of right ear varies between 1.25 – 2.40anguli.Width of right ear measured by breadth of left metacarpo phalangeal joint is explained intable-26. The mean length is 1.506anguli with standard deviation (SD) is 0.189anguliandmedian is 1.490anguli. Width of right ear varies between 1.14-2.02 anguli.A Comprehensive Study of PramanaShareera with Special Reference to AnguliPramanof BahyaKarna-Shareera    104 
  • 126. Discussion Width of right ear measured by length of left middle finger is explained in table-27. Themean length is 1.583anguli with standard deviation (SD) is 0.210 anguliand median is1.570 anguli. Width of right ear varies between 1.20 – 2.25 anguli.Circumference of right ear measured with proximal inter phalangeal joint of left middlefinger is explained in table-28. The mean length is 6.454anguli with standard deviation(SD) is 0.711anguliand median is 6.470anguli. Circumference of right ear varies between4.95 – 8.00 anguli.Circumference of right ear measured with breadth of left metacarpo phalangeal joint isexplained in table-29. The mean length is 6.020anguli with standard deviation (SD) is 0.633anguliand median is 6.130anguli. Circumference of right ear varies between 4.53 –7.14 anguli.Circumference of right ear measured with length of left middle finger is explained intable-30. The mean length is 6.314 anguli with standard deviation (SD) is 0.596anguliandmedian is 6.265 anguli. Circumference of right ear varies between 4.57 – 7.65 anguli.Root anterior of right ear measured with proximal interphalangeal joint of left middlefinger is explained in table-31. The mean of root anterior is 2.722anguli with standardA Comprehensive Study of PramanaShareera with Special Reference to AnguliPramanof BahyaKarna-Shareera    105 
  • 127. Discussion deviation (SD) is 0.367anguliand median is 2.650anguli. Root anterior of right ear variesbetween 2.20 – 3.59anguli.Root anterior of right ear measured with breadth of left metacarpo phalangeal joint isexplained in table-32. The mean of root anterior is 2.516anguli with standard deviation(SD) is 0.295anguliand median is 2.530anguli. Root anterior of right ear varies between1.95 – 3.38 anguli.Root anterior of right ear measured with length of left middle finger is explained in table-33. The mean of root anterior is 2.644anguli with standard deviation (SD) is0.395anguliand median is 2.635anguli. Root anterior of right ear varies between 2.14 –3.66 anguli.Root posterior of right ear measured with proximal interphalangeal joint of left middlefinger is explained in table-34. The mean of root posterior is 4.398anguli with standarddeviation (SD) is 0.418anguliand median is 4.440anguli. Root posterior of right earvaries between 3.60 – 5.63 anguli.Root posterior of right ear measured with breadth of left metacarpo phalangeal joint isexplained in table-35. The mean of root posterior is 4.067anguli with standard deviationA Comprehensive Study of PramanaShareera with Special Reference to AnguliPramanof BahyaKarna-Shareera    106 
  • 128. Discussion (SD) is 0.444anguliand median is 4.07anguli. Root posterior of right ear varies between3.27-5.14anguli.Root posterior of right ear measured with of left middle finger is explained in table-36.The mean length of root posterior is 4.293anguli with standard deviation (SD) is0.374sanguliand median is 4.245 anguli. Root posterior of right ear varies between 3.60– 5.29 anguli.A Comprehensive Study of PramanaShareera with Special Reference to AnguliPramanof BahyaKarna-Shareera    107 
  • 129. Conclusion  7.0 CONCLUSIONScience always encompasses principles and facts that are methodically attested andundeniably accepted. It is a matter of nosiness voyage along with dim little corridors ofscientific theory and exhumes the dust-leaden precious gems through experiments &discussion. Hence I have chosen such a topic of interest, to explore the anthrometry ofBahyakarna by using own anguli (so called as swangula pramana) as standard ofmeasurement.Pramana forms one of the relevant aspects in the study of the structural and functionalmake up of human body. Pramana gives an idea of the stature, and their life spanincluding the quality of life. This is important in diagnosis, prognosis and management ofVyadhi.The characteristic features of various aspects of Bahyakarna like length and root asassessed during the study are found to have been in concurrence with those mentioned inthe classics. In addition to this, measurements of other parts of the bahya karma are alsoincluded to get the complete anthrometry of the bahyakarna.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  108 
  • 130. Conclusion The anguli is subjected to different versions of the authors. However the parameter takenas the width of madhyamaparva of madhyamanguli was conforming in all one hundredsubjects.Measurements are taken for both the Bahyakarnas (External ear)- right and left ear. Themeasurements of both left and right ears are equal across all the parameters. The detailsof the measurements are captured in the master chart.Modi, 1997 described in his text book of medical jurisprudence and toxicology thatanthropometry is adopted in personal identity with measurements of the length and widthof right ear. Hence, I have also vividly discussed various measurements of the rightexternal ear.The measurements taken with the help of angula pramanausing the width of the proximalinter-phalangeal joint (madhyama parva of the madhyama anguli), is found to be moreaccurate than the two other parameters used for measuring the angula pramana.The anterior root of the external earis resulted with mean of 2.604 angula(with standarddeviation 0.326 angula)whenmeasured by middle finger of right hand and 2.722(withstandard deviation 0.367 angula)angula when measured in middle finger of the left hand.This measurement though not exactly matches with the classical references, but may becompared to nearby.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  109 
  • 131. Conclusion The length of the right ear measured by proximal interphalangeal joint, breadth ofmetacarpophalangeal joint and length of the middle finger of left hand is resulted with3.991angula (with standard deviation 0.302), 3.714angula (with standard deviation 0.249)and 3.906 angula (with standard deviation 0.304) respectively. Whereas the length of theright ear measured by proximal interphalangeal joint and length of the middle finger ofright hand is resulted with 3.858angula (with standard deviation 0.373), 3.703angula(with standard deviation 0.336) and 3.886 angula (with standard deviation 0.375)respectively. The measurements as perceived by the use of left hand middle finger-interphalangeal joint is more nearby to the classical reference of karna as described of 4in angula.The width of the right ear measured by proximal interphalangeal joint, breadth ofmetacarpophalangeal joint and length of the middle finger of left hand is resulted with1.621angula (with standard deviation 0.230), 1.506angula (with standard deviation0.189)and 1.583 angula (with standard deviation 0.210) respectively. Where as the widthof the right ear measured by proximal interphalangeal joint, breadth ofmetacarpopalangeal joint and length of the middle finger of right hand is resulted with1.558angula (with standard deviation 0.236), 1.486angula (with standard deviation 0.180)and 1.579 angula (with standard deviation 0.210) respectively. This measurement is notdescribed in the classics nor is any papers available in modern anatomy.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  110 
  • 132. Conclusion The circumference of the right ear measured by proximal interphalangeal joint, breadth ofmetacarpophalangeal joint and length of the middle finger of left hand is resulted with6.454angula (with standard deviation 0.711), 6.020angula (with standard deviation0.633)and 6.314 angula (with standard deviation 0.596) respectively. Whereas thecircumference of the right ear measured by proximal interphalangeal joint, breadth ofmetacarpophalangeal joint and length of the middle finger of right hand is resulted with6.235 angula (with standard deviation 0.737),5.958 angula (with standard deviation0.631) and6.295 angula (with standard deviation 0.595) respectively. This measurementis not described in the classics nor is any papers available in modern anatomy.The posterior root of the right ear measured by proximal interphalangeal joint, breadth ofmetacarpophalangeal joint and length of the middle finger of left hand is resulted with4.398angula (with standard deviation 0.418), 4.067angula (with standard deviation 0.444)and 4.293 angula (with standard deviation 0.374) respectively. Whereas the length of theright ear measured by proximal interphalangeal joint and length of the middle finger ofright hand is resulted with 4.234angula (with standard deviation 0.441), 4.056angula(with standard deviation 0.332) and 4.302 angula (with standard deviation 0.402)respectively. This measurement is not described in the classics nor is any papers availablein modern anatomy about this measurement.Further studies with large sample size may be required for a better understanding of theanguli pramana.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  111 
  • 133. Summary  8.0 SUMMARYThe study entitled “A comprehensive study of pramana shareera with special reference toanguli praman of bahyakarna-shareera” comprises of eight chapters namelyIntroduction, objectives, review of literature, methodology, observations and result,discussion, conclusion and summary. It also includes other additional complementarychapters like references, bibliography, and annexure containing the master chart, andproforma.Chapter-1: IntroductionIt gives a general idea concerning the subject of discussion namely pramana andanthropometric concept. The relevance of these topics especially based on theiranatomical importance is also highlighted.Chapter-2: ObjectivesIt is presented with aims and objectives of this study.Chapter-3: Review of literatureIt includes important aspects like historical review, ayurvedic review and appliedanthropometric review.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera   112 
  • 134. Summary Vivid discussions related to the karna in Ayurveda, their importance in clinical practice,prognosis, embryology and anatomy of the ear anthropometric measurements in ownfingers (swanguli), modern review of anthropometric concept & their importance arepresented, which give us the consequence and need of the full topic of study.Descriptions are narrated with the help of various pictures for better perceptive.Review:Historical review: Mentions regarding pramana in various ancient literatures have beendealt with.Ayurvedic Review: Encloses explanations regarding the details & importance of Pramana& Prakruti dealt in various classics.Modern Review: It itemizes details of anthropometry and its close association withPramana.Chapter-4: MethodologyIt spells out method of collection of data, inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria, andassessment criteria.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera   113 
  • 135. Summary Chapter-5: Observations & ResultIt embraces the inference drawn based on the studies.This chapter is explained in detail of various measurements of the ear and narrates aboutthe study in detail. The chapter contains thirty six tables along with graphicalpresentations that ease to understand the topic of study in a descriptive manner.Chapter-6: DiscussionIt comprises the details of comparison of the collected data from the pool of theobservation and results. The details are compared with the help of statistics that includesmean, median and standard deviation.Chapter-7: ConclusionConclusion drawn from the various sections of the work is enumerated. Comparisonswith the ancient references explained by the classics are also explained and justified.Chapter-8: SummaryIt summarizes the entire work.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera   114 
  • 136. Reference Sloka  9.0 Referred Shlokas 1.AjÉmÉÑlÉUÉrÉÑwÉÉåÌuÉ¥ÉÉlÉÉjÉïÇ A…¡ûmÉëirÉ…¡ûmÉëqÉÉhÉxÉÉUÉlÉÑmÉSå¤rÉÉqÉ || | xÉÑ.xÉÔ.3511 | 2. SåWû:xuÉæUXçaÉÑsÉæUåwÉrÉjÉÉuÉSlÉÑMüÐÌiÉïiÉ: || rÉÑ£ü: mÉëqÉÉhÉålÉÉlÉålÉmÉÔqÉÉlÉuÉÉrÉÌSuÉÉÅXçaÉlÉÉ | SÏbÉïqÉÉrÉÑUuÉÉmlÉÉåÌiÉÌuɨÉÇcÉqÉWûSØcNûÌiÉ | qÉkrÉqÉÇqÉkrÉqÉæUÉrÉÑÌuÉï¨ÉÇWûÏlÉæxjÉÉÅuÉUqÉç || (xÉÑ.xÉÔ 3515 ) 3.iɧÉÉrÉÑoÉïsÉqÉÉåeÉ: xÉÑZÉqÉæµÉrÉïÇÌuɨÉÍqɹ¶ÉÉmÉUå pÉÉuÉÉpÉuÉlirÉÉrɨÉÉ: mÉëqÉÉhÉuÉÌiÉzÉUÏUå; ÌuÉmÉrÉïrÉxiuÉiÉÉåWûÏlÉåÅÍkÉMåüuÉÉ || ( cÉ. ÌuÉ. 7117 ) 4. iÉxqÉÉSÉiÉÑUÇmÉUϤÉåiÉmÉëM×üÌiÉiɶÉÌuÉM×üÌiÉiɶÉxÉÉUiɶÉxÉÇW ûlÉlÉiɶÉmÉëqÉÉhÉÉiɶÉxÉÉiqrÉiÉ¶É xÉiuÉiɶÉAÉWûÉUzÉÌ£üiɶÉurÉÉrÉÉqÉzÉÌ£üiɶÉuÉrÉxiɶÉåÌiÉoÉsÉ mÉëqÉÉhÉÌuÉzÉåwÉaÉëWûhÉWåûiÉÉå :|( cÉç.ÌuÉ. 894) 5.mÉëqÉÏrÉiÉåAlÉålÉåÌiÉmÉëqÉÉhÉÇ ¥ÉÉlÉqÉɧÉqÉÏÎmxÉiÉqÉç || (cÉ. ÌuÉ. 87) 6.qÉÉlÉqÉ | (cÉ. vÉÉ. 715 cÉ¢ümÉÉhÉÏ ) 7. mÉëqÉÉhɶÉåÌiÉzÉUÏUmÉëqÉÉhÉÇmÉÑlÉrÉïjÉÉxuÉålÉÉ…¡ÓûÍsÉmÉëqÉ hÉålÉÉåmÉSå¤rÉiÉåEixÉåkÉÌuÉxiÉÉUÉrÉÉqÉærÉïjÉÉ¢üqÉqÉç| (cÉç.ÌuÉ 8117) 8. rÉiuÉgeÉÍsÉxÉÇZrÉårÉÇiÉSÒmÉSå¤rÉÉqÉ: iÉiÉ:mÉUÇmÉëqÉÉhÉqÉÍpÉgeÉårÉÇ, iÉ¶É uÉ×ή¾ûÉxÉrÉÉåÌaÉ iÉYrÉïqÉåuÉ | ( cÉ. vÉÉ. 715 )A Comprehensive Study of PramanaShareera with Special Reference to AnguliPramanof BahyaKarna-Shareera  115  
  • 137. Reference Sloka  18. AÉiÉÑUqÉÑmÉ¢üqÉÉhÉålÉÍpÉwÉeÉÉÅrÉÑUÉSÉuÉåuÉmÉUÏͤÉiÉurÉÉqÉ ç| xÉirÉÉrÉÑÌwÉurÉÉkrÉ×iuÉÎalÉuÉrÉÉåSåWÇûoÉsÉÇ | xÉiuÉÇxÉÉiqrÉmÉëM×üÌiÉpÉåwÉeÉSåzÉÉlÉçmÉUϤÉåiÉ || ( xÉÑ.xÉÔ.352) 19. WûxiÉmÉÉSvÉÉZÉÉxiÉÑmÉëirÉÇaÉ,mÉëÌiÉvÉÉZÉÉrÉÉÇmÉgcÉÍqÉÍsÉiuÉ ÉÌuÉÇvÉÌiÉ | ( xÉÑ.vÉÉ.54 )20. के िचत्मध्यमाङ्गुिलकायास्तुमध्यमपर्विभताङ्गुलिभित । (आढमल्ल. श. सं. प्र. १/३५-३६)21. मध्यमाङ्गुल्यौप ाङ्गुले । (सु. सु. ३५/१२)22. तलंषट् चतुरङ्गुलायामिवस्तारम् । (सु. सु. ३५/१२)23. अङ्गुलशब्देना ाङ्गुषठनखतलभागंगह्णिन्त । (आढमल्ल. श. सं. प्र. १/३५-३६) ् ृ24.शब्द ाह, ोत्रम्, ुित, श्रवनम् [शब्दकल्प मम्] ु25. श्रवनम् - ुयतेअनेनइितश्रवनम् [शब्दकल्प मम्] ु26. तत्र ो िन् यिवजेयािवशेषारोगेषुवरणा ाविवज्ञानीयािदषुवक्ष्यन्ते- े ्तत्रसफे नम्रक् तमीरयन्निनल: सशब्दोिनर्गच्छित । (सुसु १०/५)27. कर्णनेत्र ु शङ्खाम्सगण्डक् षस्तनङ्क् षणवॄषणपाश्र्विस्फग्जानुकुर्परबाहुरुप्रभॄतयो े । (सु ेश ५/४)28. स यदाहस्तपादिजह्वा ाणकर्णिनतम्बािदिभरड् .घाड् .गैरुपेतस्तदा ’शरीरम्इितसंज्ञलभते ।(सु श. ५/३)29. श्रवणनयनवदन ाणगुदमे ािणनव ोतािम्सनराणांबिहमुर्खािन । (सु. श .५/१०)30. गण्डकर्णशङ्खेष्वेकैकं ,......(सु.श. ५/१९)31. गण्डकर्णशङ्खेष्वेकैकः ौ.....(सु.श. ५/२३)32. ाणकर्ण ीवािक्षकोषेषतरुणािन । (सु. श. ५/२०) ु33. ोत्रशॄङ्गाटके षुशड् .खावतार्: । (सु. श. ५/२७)34. पञ्चपेशीशतािनभविन्त .........कर्णयोद्व, चत ोललाटे, एकािशरसीित; र्एवमेतािनपञ्चपेशीशतािन । (सु .श. ५/३७)A Comprehensive Study of PramanaShareera with Special Reference to AnguliPramanof BahyaKarna-Shareera  116  
  • 138. Reference Sloka 35. कर्णय दशतासाम्शब्दवािहनीमेकैकम्पिरहरे त् । (सु. श ७/२२)36. मॄदचर्ममाम्सपेशीषूत्पलनालेषु च कर्णसिन्धबन्धयोग्याम् । (सु. सु. ९. ४) ु37. सिन्धकू र्चक ूस्तनान्तरतलकर्णषुस्विस्तकम् । (सु. सु १८/ १८)38. आहायार्: शर्करािस्त ोदन्तकर्णमलोअश्मरी।शल्यािनमूढगभार्शचवर्चश्चिनिचतम्गुदे ॥ (सु. सु. २५/११) ्39. रक्षाभूषणिनिम ंबालस्यकण िवध्येते ।तौष मािससप्तमेवाशुक्लपक्षेप्रशस्तेषु ेितिथकरणमुहूर्तनक् ष ेषुकृतमङ् गलस्विस्तवाचनंधा ्यङ्के कु मारधराङ्के वाकु मारमुपवेश्यबाल- ीडनकै ःप्रलोभ्यािभसान्त्वयिन्भषग्वामहस्तेनाकृ ष्यकणदैवकृ तेिछद्रआिदत्यकरवभािसतेशनैःशनैर्दिक्षणहस्तेनजुर्िवध्येत, प्रतनुकंसुच्या,बहलमारयाःपूर्वदिक्षणंकुमारस्य, वामंकु मायार्ःततःिपचुवितप्रवेशयेत्॥ (सुसु १६/३)40. त ाज्ञेनयदृचछयािव ासुिसरासुकिलका- ्मर्मिरकालोिहितकासूपद्रवाभविन्त।तत्र, कािलकायांजवरोदाहःश्वयथुवदना च भविन्त; ्मर्मिरकायांवेदनाज्वरोग्रन्थयश्च; ेलोिहितकायांमन्यास्तम्भापतानकिशरोग्रह-कर्णशूलािनभविन्त । तेषुयथास्वंप्रितकु व त। (सु.सु १६/५)41. त समासेनपञ्चदशकर्णबन्धाकृ तयः । ेतद्ध्यथानेिमसन्धानकउल्पलमेद्ध्यकोवल्लूरकआसिङ्गमोगण्डकर्णआहाय िनविधमो ायोिजमःकपाटसिन्धकोअर्धकपाटसिन्धकःसंिक्ष ोहीनकणवल्लीकण यि कणर्ःकाकौष्ठकइित । (सु. सु १६/१०)42. गण्डादुत्पाट्यमांसेनसानुनन्धेनजीवता ।कर्णपालीमपालेस्तुकुयार्ि िलख्यशास्त्रिवत् ॥(सु. सु. १६/१४)43. अतऊध्वनामिलङ्गैर्व येपाल्यामुपद्रवान् ।उत्पाटक ोत्पुटका: श्याव: कण्डू युतोभृशम् ॥अवमन्थ: सकण्डू कोग्रिन्थकोजम्बुलस्तथा ।A Comprehensive Study of PramanaShareera with Special Reference to AnguliPramanof BahyaKarna-Shareera  117  
  • 139. Reference Sloka  ावी च दाहवां ैवशृण्वेषांक्रमश: ि याम् ॥ (सु. सू. १६/२६)44. कर्णशूलप्रणादश्चबािधय वेडएव च ।कर्णपकःपूितकर्णस्तथैवार्शश्चतुिवधम् ॥कणार्बुर्दसप्तिवधंशोफ ािपचतुिवधः । ंएतेकर्णगतारोगाअ ािवशितरीिरताः ॥ (सु.ऊ २०/४ – ५)45. महाभूतािनखंवायुरि रापःिक्षितस्तथा ।शब्दःस्पर्शश्चरुपं च रसोगन्धश्चतद्गुणाः ॥ (च.श. १/२७)46.त ास्याकाशात्मकं शब्दः ो ंलाघवंसौ म्यंिववेकश्च(च.श.४/१२)47.प ेिन् यािध ानािनःद्ध्यथा- त्वग्, िजह्वा, नािसका, अिक्षणी, कण च ।(च.श.७/७)48. पञ्चबु ीिन् यािणःतद्ध्यथा- स्पर्शनं, रसनं, ाणं, दर्शनं, ोत्रिमित। (च.श.७/८)49. कर्णशष्कु िलके , ौकर्णपुत्रकौ(च.श.७/११) े50. यि िव ं यदुचयतेमहािन्तचाणुिन ोतांिसतदान्तरीक्षंशब्दः ो चः (च.श.७/१६) ् ं51. कण स्पृशितहस्ताभ्यांिशरोभ्रमयतेभृशम् ।अरत्यरोचकास्व ैजार्नीयात्कर्णवेदनम् ॥ (क. सु. १२/७)52. रोिहणीस्वयङ्गुल्तामूलम् हिर बृहतीफलरसैघृर्तार्धवत्पचेत्पच्यमानेआपामार्गचावपेत् । े ेिस नकर्णपालीमहन्यहिनम्रक् षयेि मृ ीयाच्च, आशुवर्धतेपीनसमा च पालीभवित । ेमधुिच्छष्टसर्जरस....(क सु २१/१)53. नािभष ाजपु ाणामन्येषांवामहात्मनाम् ।कणार्िन्वध्येत्सुख ेप्सुिरहलोके परत्र च ॥ (क.सु.२१/२)54. आमच्छेदअत्ययोह्यत्रकु वेधा ोपजायते । ेअिभषक् तत्रमन्दात्मा ककिरष्यत्यशास्त्रिवत् ॥ (क. सु. २१/३)55. कदावेध्यंकुत्रवेध्यंकुत्रवेध्यंकथंवयध:। ्िहतोअिहतोअत्यय: कश्चत ाज्ञ: कप्रपत्सते ॥ (क. सु. २१/४)56. तस्माि षक्सुकुशल: कर्णिवध्येि चक् षण: ।िशशोर्हर्षप्रमत्तस्त्यधर्मकामार्थिसद्धये ॥ (क. सु. २१/ ५)A Comprehensive Study of PramanaShareera with Special Reference to AnguliPramanof BahyaKarna-Shareera  118  
  • 140. Reference Sloka 57.षट् स ाष्टममासेषुनीरुजस्यशुभऽहिन । ेकण िहमागमेिवध्ये ा ्यङ् कस्थस्यसान्त्वयन् ॥(अ हृ. उ. १/२८)59.चतुथव्यक् तताअङ्गानां, चेतनायाश्चपञ्चमे । (अ हृ.श.१/५७)60. कण नीचोन्नतौप ान्महान्तौि ष्टमांसलौ ।ने ेव्य ािसतिसतेसुबद्धघनपक्ष्मणी ॥ (अ हृ. श.३/१०८)61.धारयेत्पुरणंकर्णकर्णमूलंिवमर्दयन् ।रूजःस्थानमार्दवयावत्मात्रशतंअवेदने ॥ (अ हृ. श ३२)62.अधस्तात्कर्णयोिन ेिवधुरे ुितहािरणी ।(अ हृ. श ४/२९)63. अनुकणललाटान्तेशङ्खौस ोिवनासशनौ । (अ हृ.श ४/३२)64.िजह्वािक्षनािसका ोत्रखचतुष्टयसङ् गमे ।तालुन्यास्यािनचत्वािर ोतसां, तेषुमर्मसु ॥िव ः ृङ्गाटकाख्येषुसद्ध्यस्त्यजितजीिवतम्। (अ हृ.श ४/३४-३५)65. अभ्यङ् गमाचरे ि त्यं, स जराश्रमवातहा ।हृि प्रसादपुष् ायुःस्वप्नसुत्व ् वदाढ् र्यकृ त् ॥िशरःश्रवणपादेषुतंिवशेषणशीलयेत् । ेवज्य्य अभ्यङ्गःकफग्रस्तकृ तसंशुदयजीिणिभः ॥ (अ हृ.सु. २८-९) ्66. ानम दतने ास्यकर्णरोगाितसािरषु ।आध्मानपीनसाजीर्णभुक्तवत्सु च गिहतम् ॥ (अ हृ. सु. २/१८)67. सि पातज्वरस्यान्तेकर्णमूलेसुदारुणः ।शोफःस ायतेयेनकिश्कदेविवमुचयते ॥ (अ हॄ. िच १/१४९) ्68. षड् स ाष्टममासेषुनीरुजस्यशुमअहिन्त । ेकण िहमागमेिवध्येत्धा ्यङ् कस्थस्यसान्त्वयन् ॥ (अ,हृ.ऊ १/२८)69. प्रितश्यायजल ीडाकर्णकण्डु यनैर्मरुत् ।िमथ्यायोगेनशब्दस्यकु िपतोन्यैश्चकोपनैः ॥ (अ.हृ.ऊ१७/१)77. द्व्यङ्गुलािनवृषणिचबुकदशननासापुटभागकर्णमूल ूनयनान्तरािणः।। (सु. सु.३५/१२)78. चतुरङ्गुलािनमेहनवदनान्तरनासाकर्णललाट ीवोच्छायदृ ् यन्तरािणः ॥ (सु.सु.३५/१२)79. िचबुकौष्ठकणार्िक्षमध्यनािसकाललाटंचतुरङ्गुल, ॥( च.िव.८/११७) ंA Comprehensive Study of PramanaShareera with Special Reference to AnguliPramanof BahyaKarna-Shareera  119  
  • 141. Bibliography  10.0 Bibliography 1. Sushruta, Sushruta Samhitha with Nibandhasangraha Commentary of Sri Dalhana Acharya (and Nyayachandrika Panjika of Gayadas Acharya on Nidhanasthana edited by Trikamji Acharya and Narayanaramacharya Kavyathirtha). Choukambha Orientalia, Varanasi .IX Edition. 2007. Pp-824, P No- 150. 2. Sushruta, Sushruta Samhitha with Nibandhasangraha Commentary of Sri Dalhana Acharya (and Nyayachandrika Panjika of Gayadas Acharya on Nidhanasthana edited by Trikamji Acharya and Narayanaramacharya Kavyathirtha). Choukambha Orientalia, Varanasi .IX Edition. 2007. Pp-824, P No- 151. 3. Agnivesha, Charaka Samhitha, revised by Charaka and Dridhabala with Sri Chakrapanidatta Ayurvedadipika Commentary in Sanskrit edited by Vaidya Yadhavji Trikamji Acharya. Choukambha Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi, Reprint Edition, 2008. Pp-738, P No- 279. 4. Agnivesha, Charaka Samhitha, revised by Charaka and Dridhabala with Sri Chakrapanidatta Ayurvedadipika Commentary in Sanskrit edited by Vaidya Yadhavji Trikamji Acharya. Choukambha Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi, Reprint. Edition, 2008. Pp-738, P No- 276. 5. Agnivesha, Charaka Samhitha, revised by Charaka and Dridhabala with Sri Chakrapanidatta Ayurvedadipika Commentary in Sanskrit edited by Vaidya Jadhavji Trikamji Acharya. Choukambha Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi, Reprint. Edition, 2008. Pp-738, P No- 262. 6. Agnivesha, Charaka Samhitha, revised by Charaka and Dridhabala with Sri Chakrapanidatta Ayurvedadipika Commentary in Sanskrit edited by VaidyaA Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  120  
  • 142. Bibliography  Yadhavji Trikamji Acharya. Choukambha Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi, Reprint. Edition, 2008. Pp-738, P No- 339. 7. Agnivesha, Charaka Samhitha, revised by Charaka and Dridhabala with Sri Chakrapanidatta Ayurvedadipika Commentary in Sanskrit edited by Vaidya Yadhavji Trikamji Acharya. Choukambha Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi, Reprint. Edition, 2008. Pp-738, P No- 279. 8. Agnivesha, Charaka Samhitha, revised by Charaka and Dridhabala with Sri Chakrapanidatta Ayurvedadipika Commentary in Sanskrit edited by Vaidya Yadhavji Trikamji Acharya. Choukambha Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi, Reprint. Edition, 2008. Pp-738, P No- 339. 9. Desmond Morries, Body watch, Published by Grafton book, A Division of Lottins Publication goup 2nd Edition, Pp-250, P No- 77. 10. Desmond Morries, Body watch, Published by Grafton book, A Division of Lottins Publication goup 2nd Edition, Pp-250, P No- 77. 11. Desmond Morries, Body watch, Published by Grafton book, A Division of Lottins Publication goup 2nd Edition, Pp-250, P No- 77. 12. Desmond Morries, Body watch, Published by Grafton book, A Division of Lottins Publication goup 2nd Edition, Pp-250, P No- 77. 13. Desmond Morries, Body watch, Published by Grafton book, A Division of Lottins Publication goup 2nd Edition, Pp-250, P No- 78. 14. Desmond Morries, Body watch, Published by Grafton book, A Division of Lottins Publication goup 2nd Edition, Pp-250, P No- 79.A Comprehensive Study of Pramana Shareera with Special Reference to Anguli Praman of Bahya Karna-Shareera  121  
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  • 158. PROFORMA A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF PRAMANA SHAREERA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ANGULI PRAMAN OF BAHYA KARNA SHAREERA Scholar: Dr. Vivek Unni K K Guide: Dr. B. N. Mishra, M.D (Ay)Name of the Person: Address:Age: Date:Sex: Male / Female Religion: H / M / C / OthersHabitat: Urban / Rural Education:-UE/PR/H/HS/G/PG.Occu: Stud /Empl /H w /Labors Socio Economic Status: P/ M/ RPlace of Birth: Marital status: Married/ UnmarriedPresent illness (if any):Past history (if any):Measurement of Anguli (in c. m.):Right hand A R) Breadth of proximal interphalyngeal Joint of middle finger : B R) Breadth of metacarpophalyngeal B Joints (2nd to5th) ÷ 4 : CR) Height of the middle finger ÷ 5 :Left hand AL) Breadth of proximal interphalyngeal Joint of middle finger : B L) Breadth of metacarpophalyngeal B Joints (2nd to5th) ÷ 4 : C L) Height of the middle finger ÷5 : 137  
  • 159. Measurement of Ear:Conversion of centimeter into Anguli pramana (Right hand) RIGHT EAR LEFT EAR Measurement Anguli Anguli c. m c. m AR BR B CR AL BLB CLCIRCUMFERENCELENGTHWIDTHROOT POSTERIORROOT ANTERIORConversion of centimeter into Anguli pramana (Left hand) RIGHT EAR LEFT EAR Measurement Anguli Anguli c. m c. m AR BR B CR AL BLB CLCIRCUMFERENCELENGTHWIDTHROOT POSTERIORROOT ANTERIORSignature of the volunteer Signature of the scholar 138  
  • 160. MASTER CHART CONVERSION OF CENTIMETER TO ANGULI (Right hand) A B C Mean - 1.896 cm Mean - 1.977 cm Mean - 1.868 cm Anguli SD - 0.141 cm SD-0.107cm SD-0.0935 cm Length of the Mean - 3.858 Mean - 3.703 Mean - 3.886 right ear SD-0.373Angula SD-0.336 Angula SD-0.375 Angula Width of the right Mean - 1.558 Mean - 1.486 Mean - 1.579 ear SD-0.236Angula SD-0.180 Angula SD-0.210 Angula Circumference of Mean - 6.235 Mean - 5.958 Mean - 6.295 the right ear SD-0.737 Angula SD-0.631 Angula SD-0.595 Angula Mean - 2.604 Mean – 2.497 Mean - 2.652 Root anterior of the right ear SD-0.326Angula SD-0.300 Angula SD-0.393 Angula Mean-4.234 Mean - 4.056 Mean - 4.302 Root posterior of the right ear SD-0.441Angula SD-0.332 Angula SD-0.402 Angula           139 
  • 161.    CONVERSION OF CENTIMETER TO ANGULI  (Left hand) A B C Mean - 1.822 cm Mean - 1.955 cm Mean - 1.862 cm Anguli SD - 0.122 cm SD - 0.103cm SD - 0.0932 cm Length of the Mean - 3.991 Mean - 3.714 Mean - 3.906 right ear SD-0.302Angula SD-0.249 Angula SD-0.304 Angula Mean - 1.621 Mean - 1.506 Width of the right Mean - 1.583 ear SD-0.230Angula SD-0.189 Angula SD-0.210 Angula Circumference of Mean - 6.454 Mean 6.020 Mean 6.314 the right ear SD-0.711Angula SD-0.633 Angula SD-0.596 Angula Root anterior of Mean - 2.722 Mean 2.516 Mean 2.644 the right ear SD-0.367Angula SD-0.295 Angula SD-0.395 Angula Root posterior of Mean - 4.398 Mean - 4.067 Mean - 4.293 the right ear SD-0.418Angula SD-0.444 Angula SD-0.374 Angula 140 
  • 162.       Anguli  Right Ear  L                     Left  Ear   No.  Name  Age  Sex  Rt.  Lt.  A  B  C  A  B  C  I  II  III  IV  V     I  II  III  IV  V  1  Mathew  22  M  2.0 2.08  1.66  1.9 2.05 1.64 10.3  7.9  3  8  6  10.3  7.9  3  8  6  2  Jith  20  M  2.1 2.02  1.96  2.0 2.0  1.96 13.3  7.6  2.9  8  4.4  13.3  7.6  2.9  8  4.4  3  Jeespoul  22  M  2.0 1.95  1.94  1.9 1.93 1.92 12.0  8  2.8  7.2  4.4  12.0  8  2.8  7.2  4.4  4  Pooja  24  F  1.9 2.0  1.88  1.8 1.98 1.88 11.1  7.4  3  7.8  5.7  11.1  7.4  3  7.8  5.7  5  Shiny  23  F  1.8 1.85  1.74  1.7 1.82 1.74 13.0  7.6  2.7  7.8  4.2  13.0  7.6  2.7  7.8  4.2  6  Nithi  21  F  1.9 1.97  1.82  1.8 1.95 1.82 11.8  7.6  3  7.9  5  11.8  7.6  3  7.9  5  7  Ashitha  21  F  1.9 1.95  1.92  1.8 1.93 1.92 11.8  6.7  2.3  8.1  4.4  11.8  6.7  2.3  8.1  4.4  8  Nafisa  22  F  1.7 1.93  1.88  1.6 1.9  1.88 8.6  6.8  3  7.6  4.1  8.6  6.8  3  7.6  4.1  9  Swapna  21  F  1.9 1.97  1.92  1.8 1.95 1.92 12.0  6.6  2.7  8.2  4.2  12.0  6.6  2.7  8.2  4.2  10  Maya  35  F  1.8 1.83  1.84  1.7 1.8  1.84 12.9  8.3  2.8  7  5.3  12.9  8.3  2.8  7  5.3 141  
  • 163. 11  Manoj  25  F  1.9 1.98  1.96  1.8 1.95 1.94 13.3  7.4  3.3  7.6  4.8  13.3  7.4  3.3  7.6  4.8  12  Sudeep  23  M  1.9 1.98  1.84  1.8 1.95 1.82 12.3  7.4  3.3  7.6  4.8  12.3  7.4  3.3  7.6  4.8  13  Prajith  23  M  2.0 1.98  1.86  1.9 1.95 1.86 10.0  7.4  2.9  7.6  5  10.0  7.4  2.9  7.6  5  14  Anish  21  M  1.8 1.92  1.9  1.7 1.92 1.88 12.1  6.7  2.8  8.1  4.1  12.1  6.7  2.8  8.1  4.1  15  Chithira  24  F  1.7 1.93  1.88  1.6 1.9  1.88 8.6  6.8  3  7.6  4.1  8.6  6.8  3  7.6  4.1  16  Deepu  24  M  1.8 1.98  1.84  1.8 1.95 1.82 12.3  7.4  3.3  7.6  4.8  12.3  7.4  3.3  7.6  4.8  17  Divin  25  M  1.9 1.98  1.8  1.8 1.93 1.78 10.0  7.4  2.6  6.6  5.0  10.0  7.4  2.6  6.6  5.0  18  Anand  23  M  2.0 1.98  1.86  1.9 1.95 1.86 10.0  7.4  2.9  7.6  5.0  10.0  7.4  2.9  7.6  5.0  19  Deva   24  M  1.9 2.05  1.82  1.8 2.02 1.82 11.3  7.6  3.2  7.2  5.7  11.3  7.6  3.2  7.2  5.7  20  Jaya   22  F  1.8 1.85  1.74  1.7 1.82 1.74 13.0  7.6  2.7  7.8  4.2  13.0  7.6  2.7  7.8  4.2  21  Vaishak  21  M  1.9 1.9  1.8  1.9 1.88 1.8  12.5  7.0  3  7.1  4.5  12.5  7.0  3  7.1  4.5  22  Jeevan  23  M  1.9 1.95  1.92  1.8 1.93 1.92 11.8  6.7  2.3  8.1  4.4  11.8  6.7  2.3  8.1  4.4  23  Krishnan   20  M  2.1 2.13  1.98  2.1 2.1  1.98 11.5  7  3.4  7.5  6.3  11.5  7  3.4  7.5  6.3 142  
  • 164. 24  Dinesh   24  M  1.9 1.9  1.88  1.8 1.9  1.86 11.0  7  2.6  8.1  4.3  11.0  7  2.6  8.1  4.3  25  Girijan  24  M  1.9 1.93  1.88  1.8 1.93 1.88 11.5  7.2  2.8  8.1  4.5  11.5  7.2  2.8  8.1  4.5  26  Anil   21  M  1.8 1.9  1.94  1.8 1.88 1.94 11.0  6.2  2.8  7  4.2  11.0  6.2  2.8  7  4.2  27  Soumya  22  F  1.7 1.95  1.96  1.7 1.93 1.96 12.0  6.7  3.6  8  4.3  12.0  6.7  3.6  8  4.3  28  Gopinath  24  M  1.7 1.92  1.9  1.7 1.92 1.88 12.1  6.7  2.8  8.1  4.1  12.1  6.7  2.8  8.1  4.1  29  Nandhu  23  M  2.1 2.17  1.92  2.0 2.15 1.92 13.0  7.4  3  7.8  4.2  13.0  7.4  3  7.8  4.2  30  Anjana  21  F  1.9 1.98  1.9  1.8 1.98 1.9  12.2  7.4  3.2  8  6.7  12.2  7.4  3.2  8  6.7  31  Soumya  21  F  1.6 1.73  1.6  1.6 1.7  1.6  12.0  6.9  3.6  8  4.3  12.0  6.9  3.6  8  4.3  32  Suneeb  21  M  2.2 2  1.92  2.1 1.98 1.92 11.0  7  2.5  7.5  5.3  11.0  7  2.5  7.5  5.3  33  Arun  27  M  2.0 2.23  1.92  1.8 2.2  1.92 11.5  7  2.5  8  5.2  11.5  7  2.5  8  5.2  34  Sophy  21  M  1.8 1.9  1.84  1.7 1.87 1.84 11.5  7.1  2.6  7.9  5  11.5  7.1  2.6  7.9  5  35  Arun  27  M  1.9 1.85  1.9  1.8 1.83 1.88 12.0  6.1  3.1  8  5.5  12.0  6.1  3.1  8  5.5  36  Sriraj  23  M  2.0 2.33  2.02  2.0 2.2  2.0  11.7  7.1  2.5  9.9  6.6  11.7  7.1  2.5  9.9  6.6 143  
  • 165. 37  Bindhya  21  F  1.9 1.9  1.86  1.8 1.9  1.86 11.5  7.2  2.8  8.1  4.5  11.5  7.2  2.8  8.1  4.5  38  Mamitha  20  F  1.9 1.9  1.88  1.8 1.9  1.86 11.0  7  2.6  8.1  4.3  11.0  7  2.6  8.1  4.3  39  Shamina  23  F  1.7 1.93  1.92  1.7 1.93 1.92 12.5  7  3.1  7.8  4.1  12.5  7  3.1  7.8  4.1  40  Bindya  24  F  1.9 1.93  1.88  1.8 1.93 1.88 11.5  7.2  2.8  8.1  4.5  11.5  7.2  2.8  8.1  4.5  41  Navya  24  F  1.7 1.92  1.9  1.7 1.92 1.88 12.1  6.7  2.8  8.1  4.1  12.1  6.7  2.8  8.1  4.1  42  Shan   21  M  1.9 1.98  1.8  1.8 1.95 1.8  12.2  7  2.8  8  5.1  12.2  7  2.8  8  5.1  43  Ajay   21  M  1.8 2.05  1.78  1.8 2.03 1.76 11.0  7  2.9  8.3  5.7  11.0  7  2.9  8.3  5.7  44  Remi  24  F  1.8 1.93  1.86  1.7 1.9  1.86 12.0  7.1  2.7  7.8  4  12.0  7.1  2.7  7.8  4  45  Deena   24  F  1.9 1.95  1.9  1.8 1.93 1.9  11.4  7.1  2.6  8.2  4.1  11.4  7.1  2.6  8.2  4.1  46  Deepak   24  F  1.7 1.8  1.92  1.7 1.77 1.9  11.0  6.3  2.7  8  4.8  11.0  6.3  2.7  8  4.8  47  Vidya  33  F  1.8 1.83  1.92  1.8 1.8  1.92 12.3  7.3  3.1  7.5  5  12.3  7.3  3.1  7.5  5  48  Vishal   20  F  1.9 2.2  1.94  1.9 2.17 1.94 12.1  7.9  3.2  8.2  5.3  12.1  7.9  3.2  8.2  5.3  49  Varsha  23  F  1.7 1.93  1.92  1.7 1.93 1.9  12.9  7.5  3  8.7  4  12.9  7.5  3  8.7  4 144  
  • 166. 50  Jithendra  24  M  1.8 1.9  2.02  1.8 1.95 2.02 12.0  8  2.6  8.3  5.7  12.0  8  2.6  8.3  5.7  51  Anvar  24  M  2  1.95  2  1.9 1.95 2  12.5  7.6  2.8  7.5  5.4  12.5  7.6  2.8  7.5  5.4  52  Krishna   24  M  1.9 1.95  1.98  1.9 1.95 1.98 12.5  7.6  2.8  7.8  5  12.5  7.6  2.8  7.8  5  53  Abdul   25  M  2.1 2.15  1.96  2  2.13 1.96 12.0  8.2  3.4  8.5  5.6  12.0  8.2  3.4  8.5  5.6  54  Jeevan  24  M  2.1 2.23  1.96  2  2.2  1.96 11.0  7.6  2.8  7.2  5  11.0  7.6  2.8  7.2  5  55  Aravind  23  M  2  2.15  1.78  1.9 2.1  1.78 11.7  7.6  3.4  7.8  5.9  11.7  7.6  3.4  7.8  5.9  56  Durga  21  M  1.9 1.95  1.9  1.9 1.93 1.9  13.0  7.5  3  8  5  13.0  7.5  3  8  5  57  Jeeson  23  M  2.1 2.1  2.02  2  2.13 2  14.0  7  2.5  9  5  14.0  7  2.5  9  5  58  Mohamad  23  M  2  1.95  2  1.9 1.95 2  12.5  7.6  2.8  7.5  5.4  12.5  7.6  2.8  7.5  5.4  59  Sofia  26  F  1.5 1.73  1.6  1.5 1.7  1.6  12.0  6.9  3.6  8  4.3  12.0  6.9  3.6  8  4.3  60  Arun  29  M  1.9 2.1  1.84  1.8 2.02 1.84 13.5  7.9  3.3  9  6.1  13.5  7.9  3.3  9  6.1  61  Sumesh  22  M  1.9 1.98  1.96  1.8 1.95 1.94 12.3  7.4  3.3  7.6  4.8  12.3  7.4  3.3  7.6  4.8  62  Ragavenda  25  M  1.9 1.98  1.8  1.8 1.93 1.78 10.0  7.4  2.6  6.6  5  10.0  7.4  2.6  6.6  5 145  
  • 167. 63  Pradeep  25  M  1.9 1.98  1.84  1.8 1.95 1.82 12.3  7.4  3.3  7.6  4.8  12.3  7.4  3.3  7.6  4.8  64  Somunath  23  M  2  1.98  1.86  1.9 1.95 1.86 10.0  7.4  2.9  7.6  5  10.0  7.4  2.9  7.6  5  65  Praveen   22  M  1.9 2.05  1.82  1.8 2.02 1.82 11.3  7.6  3.2  7.2  5.7  11.3  7.6  3.2  7.2  5.7  66  Anish  24  M  2  2.15  1.78  1.9 2.1  1.78 11.7  7.6  3.4  7.8  5.9  11.7  7.6  3.4  7.8  5.9  67  Subin  24  M  2.1 2.15  1.96  2  2.13 1.96 12.0  8.2  3.4  8.5  5.6  12.0  8.2  3.4  8.5  5.6  68  Shahir  23  M  2  1.95  2  1.9 1.95 2  12.5  7.6  2.8  7.5  5.4  12.5  7.6  2.8  7.5  5.4  69  Sunil   22  M  1.7 1.93  1.92  1.7 1.93 1.9  12.9  7.5  3  8.7  4  12.9  7.5  3  8.7  4  70  Renesh  26  M  1.9 1.95  1.9  1.8 1.93 1.9  11.4  7.1  2.6  8.2  4.1  11.4  7.1  2.6  8.2  4.1  71  Sudha  21  F  1.8 1.93  1.86  1.7 1.9  1.86 12  7.1  2.7  7.8  4  12  7.1  2.7  7.8  4  72  Shini  21  F  1.9 1.97  1.92  1.8 1.95 1.92 12.0  6.6  2.7  8.2  4.2  12.0  6.6  2.7  8.2  4.2  73  Jisha  22  F  1.7 1.77  1.7  1.6 1.75 1.7  13.0  7.4  2.7  9  4.1  13.0  7.4  2.7  9  4.1  74  Maveen  22  M  1.9 1.95  1.88  1.8 1.93 1.88 21.0  7.9  3.1  5.3  8.2  21.0  7.9  3.1  5.3  8.2  75  Shambu  21  M  2  2.05  1.94  1.9 2.02 1.94 10.8  7.2  3.5  8.3  5.1  10.8  7.2  3.5  8.3  5.1 146  
  • 168. 76  Sreejith  20  M  1.7 1.95  1.92  1.7 1.95 1.9  11.0  7.1  3.1  7.5  3.5  11.0  7.1  3.1  7.5  3.5  77  Albert   22  M  2.1 1.98  1.8  2.0 1.93 1.8  11.5  7.2  2.6  8.5  5  11.5  7.2  2.6  8.5  5  78  Vivek  23  M  2  2.02  1.86  1.9 2  1.84 11.5  7.5  2.5  8  5.1  11.5  7.5  2.5  8  5.1  79  Manjuraj  23  M  1.8 2.05  1.78  1.8 2.03 1.76 11.0  7  2.9  8.3  5.7  11.0  7  2.9  8.3  5.7  80  Rupesh  24  M  1.6 1.73  1.6  1.6 1.7  1.6  12.0  6.9  3.6  8  4.3  12.0  6.9  3.6  8  4.3  81  Smitha  25  F  1.9 1.98  1.9  1.8 1.98 1.9  12.2  7.4  3.2  8  6.7  12.2  7.4  3.2  8  6.7  82  Manjusha  24  F  1.9 2  1.88  1.8 1.98 1.88 11.1  7.4  3  7.8  5.7  11.1  7.4  3  7.8  5.7  83  Jinimol  25  F  2  1.95  1.94  1.9 1.93 1.92 12.0  8  2.8  7.2  4.4  12.0  8  2.8  7.2  4.4  84  Sujith  23  M  2.1 2.02  1.96  2  2  1.96 13.3  7.6  2.9  8  4.4  13.3  7.6  2.9  8  4.4  85  Jenish  24  M  1.9 1.95  1.9  1.9 1.93 1.9  13.0  7.5  3  8  5  13.0  7.5  3  8  5  86  Babu  24  M  2  2  1.9  1.9 1.97 1.9  12.0  7.4  3.4  9.5  4.8  12.0  7.4  3.4  9.5  4.8  87  Ramnath  25  M  1.8 1.9  1.7  1.8 1.88 1.7  12.5  7  3.1  8.9  5.1  12.5  7  3.1  8.9  5.1  88  Hari  24  M  2.1 2.13  1.7  2  2.1  1.7  9.9  6.7  2.5  7.7  5.1  9.9  6.7  2.5  7.7  5.1 147  
  • 169. 89  Anoop  24  M  2.1 1.98  1.8  2  1.93 1.8  11.5  7.2  2.6  8.5  5  11.5  7.2  2.6  8.5  5  90  Veekshan  21  M  2  2.02  1.86  1.9 2  1.84 11.5  7.5  2.5  8  5.1  11.5  7.5  2.5  8  5.1  91  Deepthi  30  M  1.7 1.8  1.92  1.7 1.77 1.9  11.0  6.3  2.7  8  4.8  11.0  6.3  2.7  8  4.8  92  Sarath  27  M  1.9 2.1  1.86  1.8 2.07 1.84 13.3  7.9  2.9  9  4.5  13.3  7.9  2.9  9  4.5  93  Thomas   21  M  1.9 2.08  1.66  1.9 2.05 1.64 10.3  7.9  3  8  6  10.3  7.9  3  8  6  94  Nikesh  17  M  2.1 1.9  1.84  1.9 1.9  1.84 11.0  7  3  7.5  5.5  11.0  7  3  7.5  5.5  95  Krishna   29  M  2.1 2.1  2.02  2  2.13 2  14  7  2.5  9  5  14  7  2.5  9  5  96  Afsal  20  M  2.1 2.13  1.7  2  2.1  1.7  9.9  6.7  2.5  7.7  5.1  9.9  6.7  2.5  7.7  5.1  97  Harish   20  M  1.8 1.9  1.7  1.8 1.88 1.7  12.5  7  3.1  8.9  5.7  12.5  7  3.1  8.9  5.7  98  Anil   24  M  2  2  1.9  1.9 1.97 1.9  12.0  7.4  3.4  9.5  4.8  12.0  7.4  3.4  9.5  4.8  99  Najeeb  24  M  1.7 1.93  1.88  1.6 1.9  1.88 8.6  6.8  3  7.6  4.1  8.6  6.8  3  7.6  4.1  100  Nikhil  25  M  1.9 1.97  1.82  1.8 1.95 1.82 11.8  7.6  3  7.9  5  11.8  7.6  3  7.9  5  148  
  • 170. Key words A)Breadth of proximal interphalyngeal Joint of middle finger. B)Breadth of metacarpophalyngeal Joints (2nd to5th)÷ 4 C)Height of the middle finger÷5 I. Circumference II. Length III. Width IV. Root posterior V. Root anterior  149  

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