PRAMANA SHAREERA W. S. R. TO DETERMINATION OF THE STATURE
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PRAMANA SHAREERA W. S. R. TO DETERMINATION OF THE STATURE
FROM HASTA & PADA, SEETHARAMA MITHANTHAYA, SHAREERA RACHANA, S.D.M. COLLEGE OF AYURVEDA, UDUPI
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“A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON PRAMANA SHAREERA W. S. R. TO DETERMINATION OF THE STATURE FROM HASTA & PADA” BY DR. SEETHARAMA MITHANTHAYA, B.A.M.S Dissertation submitted to theRajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore. In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF MEDICINE (M.D) In SHAREERA RACHANA UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF DR.U.GOVINDA RAJU M.D (AYU), M.A (SANSKRIT), P.G.C.R, C.G.L PROF. & H. O. D DEPARTMENT OF P.G. STUDIES IN SHAREERA RACHANA DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN SHAREERA RACHANA S.D.M. COLLEGE OF AYURVEDA, UDUPI – 574118 2010 -11
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Abbreviations …. List of Abbreviations used A mÉÑ : Agni Purana A MüÉå : Amara kosha A xÉÇ zÉÉ : Ashtanga Sangraha Shareera Sthana A WØû : Ashtanga Hrudaya A WØû zÉÉ : Ashtanga Hrudaya Shareera Sthana A xÉÇ : Ashtanga Sangraha pÉå xÉÇ C : Bhela samhita Indriya stana cÉ xÉÇ : Charaka Samhita cÉ ÍcÉ : Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana cÉ zÉÉ : Charaka Samhita Shareera Sthana cÉ¢ü : Cakrapani MüÉ zÉÉ : Kasyapa Samhita shareera Sthana MüÉæ A mÉë : Kutilya Arthashastra Prathama U iÉ : Rasatarangini zÉ Mü SØ : Sabdha Kalpa Druma zÉÉ xÉÇ mÉë : Sharangadhara Samhita Prathama kanda ´ÉÏ iÉ xÉÉ : Shrimat Tantra Sarasangraha xÉÑ xÉÇ : Susruta Samhita xÉÑ zÉÉ : Susruta Samhita Shareera Sthana xÉÑ xÉÑ : Susruta Samhita Sutra Sthana uÉÇ…¡û xÉÇ : Vangasena samhita SD : Standerd deviationA comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page III
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Abstract…. ABSTRACT Science aspires at betterment of living. A scientific study is the radiance thrownon facts in a matter of curiosity. It includes annotations, measurements of entities,addition of data’s & lastly scrutiny of entire findings to arrive at a conclusion. To unscrew the pathology of various diseases, thorough understanding of thestructural & functional built up of human physique is inevitable. Pramana Shareera is oneof such aspects which include the study of measurements of human body constituents. Itis of great significance as it helps to determine the life expectancy of an individual and itproves the individualistic approach of Ayurveda. Charakacharya enumerates that aperson endowed with ‘Pramanavat Shareera’ will have longevity, strength, happiness,power, wealth & virtues where as those with high or poor measurements will holdqualities contrary to that which explained in the classics. Mentions supportive of theabove view can be seen in Susruta Samhita also. A reference from Ashtanga hrudaya shows that even in the olden days also therewas curiosity regarding the fact that different parts of the body have a definite relationwith the height of the person and can be useful in determining the same. Henceestimation of the stature with the help of the measurement of different parts of the bodyhas been a topic for research since a long time. Anthropometry is widely utilized in the forensic science with the help of thedimensions of different parts of the human body & skeleton. It is utilized for establishingthe identity of a person for identification as well as estimation of stature, age, sex, raceetc from the body parts. Hasta & Pada are considered one among karmendriyas. The ayama& vistara ofhasta are 12 & 4 angulas. Ayama, vistara & Utseda of pada are 14, 6, 4 angularespectively.The study includes: 1) Comprehensive study of pramana shareera.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page IV
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Abstract…. 2) Determination of stature with Anguli Pramana of Hasta & Pada 3) Evaluation of the relevance of swa-angula pramana from ayurvedic texts in context with modern Anthropometry. The Study is conducted on 100 healthy volunteers between the age group of 25-35yrs, and the results show that there is positive relation between the stature of anindividual and the hand & foot measurements.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page V
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Index…. LIST OF CONTENTS Sl. No. Contents Page No. 1. Introduction 1-2 2. Objectives 3-4 3. Review of literature 5-29 4. Methodology 30-32 5. Observations & Result 33-73 6. Discussion 74-85 7. Conclusion 86 8. Summary 87-88 9. Reference 89-95 10. Bibliography 96-104 11. Annexure 105-107 12. Master chart 108-113A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page VI
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Index…. LIST OF TABLES Table No. Description Page No. 1 Measurements of lower limb (in Angula) 13 2 Measurements of upper limb (in Angula) 14-15 3 Measurements of trunk (in Angula) 16 4 Measurements of head & neck (in Angula) 17-18 5 Total measurement (in Angula) 19 6 Multiplying factor & constant factor for long bones 23 7 Multiplication factors of long bones (Indian population) 23A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page VII
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Index…. LIST OF FIGURESFigure Page Description No. No. 1 Surface Anatomy of Palmar aspect of Hand 28 2 Heads of metacarpal bones 28 3 Surface Anatomy of medial aspect of foot 29 4 Lateral malleolus 29 5 2nd, 3rd, 4th meta tarsao-phalangeal joints 29 6 Vernier calipers & measuring tape 32 7 Foot scale 32A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page VIII
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Index…. LIST OF GRAPHS 1 Height from hand length A-A1(Right) 39 2 Height from hand length B-B1 (Right) 40 3 Height from hand lengthC-C1 (Right) 40 4 Height from hand head length A-A1(Left) 41 5 Height from hand length B-B1 (Left) 41 6 Height from hand length C-C1 (Left) 42 7 Height with standing on toes with arms raised from hand length 43 A-A1 (Right) 8 Height with standing on toes with arms raised from hand length 43 B-B1 (Right) 9 Height with standing on toes with arms raised from hand length 44 C-C1 (Right) 10 Height with standing on toes with arms raised from hand length 44 A-A1 (Left) 11 Height with standing on toes with arms raised from hand length 45 B-B1 (Left) 12 Height with standing on toes with arms raised from hand length 46 C-C1 (Left) 13 Height from foot length A-A1(Right) 46 14 Height from foot length B-B1 (Right) 47 15 Height from foot lengthC-C1 (Right) 48 16 Height from foot length A-A1(Left) 48 17 Height from foot length B-B1 (Left) 49 18 Height from foot length C-C1 (Left) 50A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page IX
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Index…. 19 Height with standing on toes with arms raised from foot length A-A1 50 (Right) 20 Height with from standing on toes with arms raised from foot 51 length B-B1 (Right) 21 Height with standing on toes with arms raised from foot length 52 C-C1 (Right) 22 Height with from standing on toes with arms raised from foot 52 length A-A1 (Left) 23 Height with standing on toes with arms raised from foot length 53 B-B1 (Left) 24 Height with standing on toes with arms raised from foot length 54 C-C1 (Left) 25 Stature from hand length (SI Unit) 54 26 Stature from foot length (SI Unit) 55A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page X
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Introduction….. INTRODUCTION Great scholars of Ayurveda put forth glorious concepts of human constitution;estimation of Bala on the basis of its Pramana is one among such concepts. As earlyas 1000BC Acharya Caraka and Sushruta made detailed exercise on the concept ofPramana Shareera, later Acharya Vagbhata rearranged their perception1, 2, 3. Before starting with the chikitsa which is considered as karya in the field ofmedicine, the wise physician should perform the pareeksha of karyadesha i.e. Aturashareera4. Acharya Caraka explained Dashavidha pareeksha vidhi, and Pramanapareeksha is one among them. The basic goal behind Pareeksha is to get knowledgeregarding the bala of the rogi5, 6, where Acharya Sushruta considered it as the maintool to get the information regarding Ayu along with that of bala7. The subject of Shareera Rachana vijnana has been described in various aspectsof Ayurveda samhitas. Many hypothesis found in Samhitas and these are needed to bereassessed and prove on modern parlance with the help of scientific observation,parameters and experiments. The concept of Pramana Shareera is one such hypothesiswhich is needed to be proved and rearranged. Pramana is mainly assessed by Swa-Angula7, and some references available in modern Anatomy text book related withhand breadth, later they used the cm, inch & so on. One example for this is“Duodenum, its word meaning is the organ which has length equal to breadth oftwelve fingers”8. It is evident that the ancient Ayurvedic authorities were fully convinced withvalues of measurements in medical science, due importance is given regardingmeasurement of different parts of body. They listed in detail regarding anthropometric(somatometric) values of each part of the body; in addition they explained regardingits clinical application1, 2, 3. Anthropometry explains about average height, breadth of person and his bodyparts with the help of different measuring units like cm, inch etc9, 10, but it will not beappropriate to use average in every condition because sex, race, place & time etc.plays important role in determining the stature. Our Seers explained the concept ofSwa-Angula pramana11, 12 13. It can be ideal parameter irrespective of sex, race andplace. The growth of the body varies in different ages and gets ceased after aA comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 1
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Introduction….. particular stage14, though the average measurement of the body is fixed by randomstudy, the variation of measurement in growing age may take place. In the classics angula pramana of different parts of the body is categoricallymentioned but their relation amongst each other has not been widely dealt with,though we get a reference in Ashtanga hrudaya where acharya has quoted the relationof the hasta and Ayama of the shareera15. The concept of Ayurveda, i.e. measurements with individual parameter looksmore scientific method rather than fixing on average basis. But the individualanthropometric points and criterion to measure are not mentioned in our classics,hence with the help of modern science an effort is made to put light on concept ofPramana Shareera.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 2
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Objectives…. OBJECTIVES Determination of stature based on Hastha & Pada. To evaluate the relevance of Pramana Shareera from ancient literature in context with modern. To standardize the Anguli Pramana. To justify the existing knowledge of Pramana Shareera by taking measurement of Hastha & Pada of different individuals.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 3
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Objectives…. PREVIOUS WORK DONE 1. Yadav SS- Chest girth in anguli pramana relation with height-weight ratio, Faculty of Ayurveda Institute of Medical Sciences, BHU, Varanasi, 1979. 2. Chate Chandra Kant-Vertical & horizontal Anthropometric measurements of adult human volunteers suggested in Ayurvedic Samhita & study of differences in 3 Prakruti, Ashtanga Ayurvedic MahaVidyalaya, Pune University. Pune. 3. Mishra P.C- A study of Dehika Prakruti w s r to Anguli Pramana, Lucknow state Ayurvedic College, Lucknow, University of Lucknow -1983. 4. Alam-Ashraf Ali – Concept of Anthropometrics study in Charaka Samhita w.s.r. to determination of age & sex from Clavicle, Institute of Postgraduate education & Research in Ayurveda, university of Kolkota, Kolkota -2001. 5. Viswanath.K.Channappanavar- Concept of Pramana Shareera w.s.r. to determination of the stature from Prabahu (brachium) under taken at S D M college of Ayurveda, Udupi, R G U H S, Bangalore 2006. 6. Shyny Thankachan- Comparative study of anguli pramana & prakruti w.s.r. to bahu, S D M college of Ayurveda, Udupi, R G U H S, Bangalore 2009 7. Amardeep Singh- A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determine the stature from Shiras, S D M college of Ayurveda, Udupi, R G U H S, Bangalore 2010 A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 4
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Historical review… HISTORICAL REVIEW A general inquiry regarding pramana was prevalence since time immemorial,which can be traced even up to pre-historical era. This is evident from its notion in theearliest literature like Vedas & oldest medical and other texts.VEDIC KALA References regarding the angula pramana can be cited in yajurveda. Angulapramana is utilized in homa kunda preparation. Another reference regarding thelength of darbha used for homa is available in yajurveda it is mentioned like dharbashould be cut in 6 angula pramana. In Rigvada a reference explains like Paramatmatakes ashraya in dasha angula pradesha.PURANA-UPANISHAD KALA In Varaha-mihikya, the ancient Brihat Samhita, a reference regarding 5typesof Purushas with their Anguli Pramana is available. In Agni purana angula details regarding pramana of different parts likehridaya, prishta, kati etc. available 16 and also reference regarding sama ayama vistarais available17. In Shrimat Tantrasara Sangraha by Shrimadananda thirtha in the context ofPratima yoga lakshana various Pramanas of different body parts has been mentionedfor making statues which is based upon Swa-angula concept18.SAMHITA KALA Samhita period is considered as the golden period of ayurveda. Ayurvedadeveloped immensely during samhita period. Classical text books of samhita kalagiven much importence to the pramana pareeksha.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 5
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Historical review… Charaka Samhita: Acharya Charaka has explained pramana shareera as one of the dasha vidhapareeksha of the patient19. He has categorically mentioned the anguli pramanas of anga-pratyangas ofhuman body in which hasta is said to be of 12 angula in length & pada is 14 angula inlength20. In patabheda it is mentioned like the hasta is of dasha angula in length21. He has put forth the concept of Sama shareera. There by throwing light on thefact that pramana concept can be a useful tool to assess the ayu of the aatura22.Sushruta Samhita: Sushrutacharya has explained the anguli Pramanas of different parts of thebody23. Regarding pramana of hasta he mentioned length of hasta as 24 angulas24.According to him a person with appropriate Pramana of Anga-pratyangas is bestowedwith good health & long life25. Acharya has explained pramana pariksha as one of the criteria for assessing theayu of the person. Acharya sushruta has further explained that before proceeding withthe treatment it is beneficial to examine the ayu of the patient26.Kashyapa Samhita: Acharya Kashyapa has explained about the anjali pramana but he has not dealtwith anguli pramana27.Bhela Samhita: Detailed description of pramana of different part body parts is not available inBhela samhita but in ‘Ayurlakshanendriya’ chapter he has mentioned that if lalata,nasika and karna of a person are of 6 angulas each then he will attain the life span of100 years28.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 6
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Historical review… SANGRAHA KALAAshtanga Samgraha: Vruddha Vagbhata has also explained the pramana of different parts of thebody & also explained regarding Sama shareera concept3. Details regarding pramanaof different parts of body are available, and mentioned hasta is of 12 angula and padais of 14 angula29.Ashtanga Hrudaya: Detailed description regarding the pramana shareera is not found in ashtangahrudaya. But acharya has explained that the appropriate height of a person isequivalent to 31/2 times the length of his hasta30.MADHYA KALASharangadhara Samhita: In the context of Maanaparibhasha reference of anguli pramana can be cited.Anguli pramana has been mentioned while explaining about the kudava pramana31.Anguli pramana of anga-pratyangas is not explained, different types of pramanas areexplained in detail though. In the commentary description regarding the angula is available32.Vangasena Samhita: In the chapter named Nidanapanchaka Acharya has considered knowledge ofpramana as one of the key to achieve success in field of medicine33. In the same chapter while explaining about the kudava mana, he has mentionedabout the anguli pramana34.Rasatarangini: Many references regarding angula pramana is available in relation to preparationof different Putas. In relation to mahaputa author explained like it should have ½A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 7
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Historical review… vyama depth & 2 hasta width 35. The word vyama is synonym for ayama which is of84 angulas36.Kautilya Arthashastra: Anguli pramana has been used as the ‘unit measurement’ for measuringlengths of different objects, depth, measuring land distances. In ‘Deshakalamanam’ chapter definitions of ‘angula’ has been explained. Wefound two opinions, one opinion states; one angula is that measurement which isobtained by sewing 8 yavas in the middle37, and according to another; one angula isthe measurement of the madhyama prakarsha of the madhyama anguli of themadhyama kaya purusha38. In ‘Tulamanapautavam’ chapter, the concept of Anguli pramana has beenapplied for preparing different types of weighing tools to measure the weight of gold,silver etc39.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 8
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Review of Literature…. PRAMANA SHAREERA- THE CONCEPT Pramanas are considered as the tool for gaining knowledge in Ayurveda40.Angula pramana is the means to quantitatively expressing the dimensions of the humanbody parts41, 42 . Caraka considered it as one among the Dashavidha pareekshyabhavas43. The patient should be examined by measuring anga-pratyanga by using Swa-angula pramana as unit measurment44. It helps in the determination of the ayu & balaof the patient45. The patient or an individual having appropriate pramana of differentanga-pratyangas mentioned is considered to attain deerghayu46. There are basically two types of Pramanas that we find in Ayurvedic classics,one is anjali pramana and the other one is the anguli pramana. The anjali pramana isused for measuring other body constituents including fluids27. On the other handAnguli pramana which is based on swa-angula pramana is used for measuring thedimensions (Ayama, vistara, and parinaha etc) of the different anga-pratyangas of thebody44, 47. Ayu pareeksha is an important procedure before starting with the treatment.Ayurvedic principles state the pramanataha pareeksha as one of the criterion toascertain ayu of the patient48. The person who have appropriate pramana of his anga-pratyangas will attain deergayu and the person with moderate and poor measurementsattain madya and alpa ayu respectively49. An expert physician should understand that a man at the age of 25years and awoman at the age of 16 years attain samatva and gataveeryata50, and Dalhana says atthis stage the individual will have the shareera pramanas as mentioned in the classics51.According to Ashtanga Sangraha full growth of individual takes place at the end of 2nddecade of his life52, 53. In Ashtanga Hrudaya, it has been mentioned that a person having height equal 1/2to 3 of his own hasta will have a happy life54, but it is not applicable for ashtaninditapurusha55. There is some difference of opinion between Sushruta and Charaka. Sushrutahas mentioned the height of man as 120 angulas56. Commenting on that Dalhana opinesthat; height given by Sushruta is to be measured by making the person stand on his toeswith arms raised above the head57. While Chakrapani comments that the angulaA comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 9
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Review of Literature….pramana taken by sushruta is smaller than taken by charaka and there is actually thereis no difference between the two58. Both Charaka and Vagbhata considered 84 angulas as the height of anindividual59, 60 according to Chakrapani; height is to be measured from padatala toshirahparyanta that is the top of the head61. Caraka gave a glorious concept of ‘SAMA SHAREERA’ Later it wassupported by acharya vruddha vagbhata. This concept gives an idea that the individualhaving equal height and arm span is considered to have sama shareera and will attaindeergayu, bala, sukha, aishvarya, ojas, etc62. According to Bhela individual with Lalata, Nasika & Karna of length 6Angula each will attain Shatayu63.DESCRIPTION REGARDING ANGULI:Anguli- These are the terminal members of both upper and lower limb. They aretwenty in number and of five types64. 1) Angushtha 2) Pradeshini 3) Madhyama 4) Anamika 5) KanisthikaDESCRIPTION REGARDING ANGULI PRAMANA: Pramana is a tool through which valid knowledge is obtained40. Mana is theact of measuring different items which comprises different branches like tula, Anguli,prasta. Anguli pramana is a unit of measure followed in olden days to denote theAyama, vistara, parinaha, utsedha etc65.ANGULA CAN BE TAKEN AS: 1) Width of the madhyama parva of the madhyama angula66. 2) Measurement obtained by taking the length of the madhyama angula and dividing it by five67. 3) Measurement obtained by taking the width of the palm and then dividing by Four68. 4) Nakha tala bhaga of angushtha69.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 10
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Review of Literature….DESCRIPTION REGARDING HASTA (HAND):Hasta has the synonyms like Pani, Sama, Shaya70, 71. It extends from manibhanda tothe tip of the madyama angula72.It is one among karmendria which does the karma of adana73, 74.Hasta & Pada are the first angas to develop, because garbha chesta depends on Hasta& Pada75, 76.There are five anguli in each Hasta. These Anguli are considered among pratyangas77.There are two kurchas78, four khandaras79, twenty-six asthis80, fourteen sandhis81,sixty snayus 82& fourty five mamsa peshis located in located in Hasta83.Kshipra, Kurcha, Talahridaya, Kurchashira, Manibandha are Hasta gata Marmas84.Acharya Sushruta has considerd Hasta as the Pradhanatama yantra85.Indra is considerd as adidevata of Hasta86.Different measurements related to Hasta, like ayama, vistara are available in Brihattrayee1, 2, 3. In Sushruta we get details regarding ayama of individual fingers also2.Ayama of Hasta is 12 angula but in patabheda it is mentioned that it is of 10angulas21. Vistara of hasta is 4 angula. Ayama of middle finger is 5 angula, that ofring and index finger is 4½ angula where as little and thumb is 3½ angulas2.DESCRIPTION REGARDING PADA (FOOT):Pada have synonyms like Anghri, Carana87. 88, 89Pada consists of following parts like Prapada/Padagra (distal part of foot) ,Parshni/Padamula (proximal part of foot) 90, 91.It is one among karmendria which does the karma of Viharana73, 74.According to Acharya Markandeya & Acharya Badisha, Hasta & Pada are the firstangas to develop, because garbha chesta depends on Hasta & Pada75, 76.It is formed in the 2nd month of garbha92.There are five anguli in each Pada. These Anguli are considered among pratyangas77.There are two kurchas78, four khandaras79, twenty-six asthis80, fourteen sandhis81sixty snayus82 & fourty five mamsa peshis83 located in located in Pada.Kshipra, Kurcha, Talahridaya, Kurchashira, Manibandha are Pada gata Marmas84Lord Vishnu is considerd as adidevata of Pada86.Different measurements related to Pada available, which includes Ayama, Vistara andUtseda 1, 2, 3.Ayama, vistara & utseda of Pada is mentioned as 14, 6, 4 angula respectively2.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 11
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Review of Literature….In Sushruta & Ashtanga Sangraha details relted to ayama of individual angula alongwith that of prapada, padatala, parshni available2, 3.IMPORTANCE OF PRAMANA SHAREERA BASED ON SWA-ANGULAPRAMANA: 1) An individual with anga-pratyangas having proper measurements is endured with longevity, wealth, prosperity, happiness, ojas, strength etc. 2) The measurements mentioned in the classics for each part of the body are appropriate and desirable where as the less or more of these are abnormal and undesirable. 3) Useful in the measuring different measurements of different parts of the body. 4) It is one among the ten folds of examination and also useful in assessing the ayu of the patient. 5) It helps to understand the prognosis of the disease. 6) With the study of Anguli Pramana health of an individual can be assessed. 7) Helps to identify the Nindita Purusha explained in Ayurvedic classic. It helps in determining Atideergha & Atihrasva Purushas. 8) It is useful in assessing the bala of the person. 9) Helps in assessing the age of an individual.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 12
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Tables…. Table No 2: Measurements of Upper limb (in Angula) SUSHRUTA CHARAKA VAGBHATA UPPER AÉrÉÉqÉ ÌuÉxiÉÉU mÉËUhÉÉWû EixÉãS AÉrÉÉqÉ ÌuÉxiÉÉU mÉËUhÉÉWû EixÉãS AÉrÉÉqÉ ÌuÉxiÉÉU mÉËUhÉÉW EixÉãS LIMBAÇaÉÑ¹ 3 ½ 3 ½ mÉëSãÍvÉÌlÉ 41/2 4 ½ qÉkrÉqÉÉ 5 5 AlÉÉÍqÉMüÉ 41/2 4 ½ MüÌlÉÌ¹M 3 ½ 3 ½ mÉëmÉÉÍhÉ 15 15 mÉÉÍhÉ 12 WûxiÉiÉsÉ 6 4 AÇaÉÑ¸qÉÔsÉ- 5 mÉëSãÍvÉÌlÉqÉÍhÉoÉÇkÉ- 16 MÔümÉïUxÉÇÍkÉWûxiÉ 24 12 mÉëoÉÉWÕû 16 16 pÉÑeÉ 32 xMülkÉ 8 8 AÇxÉ 6 6 Mü¤ÉÉ 8 8 A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 14
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Tables…. Table No 2: Measurements of Upper limb (in Angula) SUSHRUTA CHARAKA VAGBHATAUPPER AÉrÉÉqÉ ÌuÉxiÉÉU mÉËUhÉÉWû EixÉãS AÉrÉÉqÉ ÌuÉxiÉÉU mÉËUhÉÉWû EixÉãS AÉrÉÉqÉ ÌuÉxiÉÉU mÉËUhÉÉW EixÉãS LIMBqÉÍhÉoÉlkÉ 12 mÉëMüÉå¹ 12 ClSìoÉÎxiÉ 16 AÇxÉmÉÏOûMÔümÉïU 16 AliÉUÉrÉÉqÉ A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 15
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Tables…. Table No 3: Measurements of Trunk (in Angula) SUSHRUTA CHARAKA VAGBHATA TRUNK AÉrÉÉqÉ ÌuÉxiÉÉU mÉËUhÉÉWû EixÉãS AÉrÉÉqÉ ÌuÉxiÉÉU mÉËUhÉÉWû EixÉãS AÉrÉÉqÉ ÌuÉxiÉÉU mÉËUhÉÉWû EixÉãS uÉ×wÉhÉ 2 6 8 6 5 (qÉÑwMü) qÉãWûlÉ (qÉãRíûì) 4 6 5 pÉaÉ 12 12 qÉãWûlÉ-lÉÉÍpÉ 12 lÉÉÍpÉ-¾ûSrÉ 12 ¾ûSrÉ-aÉëÏuÉÉ 12 mÉÑÂwÉ-EUÈ 24 12 24 12 MüÌOû 18 16 16 50 oÉÎxiÉÍvÉUÈ 10 10 ESU 12 10 12 mÉÉμÉï 12 10 12 10 xiÉlÉ 2 2 (xiÉlÉmÉrÉïliÉ) xiÉlÉÉliÉU 12 12 12 x§UÏ-EU 18 ¾ûSrÉ 2 2 Ì§ÉMü 12 12 zÉåTü 6 5 mÉ×¹ 18 18 A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 16
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Tables…. Table No 4: Measurements of Head & Neck (in Angula) SUSHRUTA CHARAKA VAGBHATAHEAD AÉrÉÉqÉ ÌuÉxiÉÉU mÉËUhÉW EixÉãS AÉrÉÉqÉ ÌuÉxiÉÉU mÉËUhÉÉW EixÉãS AÉrÉÉqÉ ÌuÉxiÉÉU mÉËUhÉÉWû EixÉãS &NECKÍcÉoÉÑMü 2 4 4 SvÉlÉ 2 AÉlÉlÉ 2 24 12 24 12 lÉÉxÉÉmÉÑOû 2 1/3 MühÉïqÉÔsÉ 2 pÉëÑlÉrÉlÉÉliÉU 2 uÉSlÉ 4 lÉÉxÉÉuÉÇzÉ 4 4 4 MühÉï 4 4 4 sÉsÉÉO 4 4 4 aÉëÏuÉÉ 4 24 lÉã§É 2 AÍ¤ÉqÉkrÉ 4 ´ÉuÉhÉ- 5 AmÉÉÇaÉ qÉÑZÉ 12 24 lÉÉxÉÉmÉÑO 11/3 13 qÉrÉÉïSÉ iÉÉUMü 1/3 OF NAYANA MãüvÉÉliÉ- 11 qÉxiÉMü MühÉÉïuÉOèuÉliÉU 14 A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 17
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Tables…. Table No 4: Measurements of Head & Neck (in Angula) SUSHRUTA CHARAKA VAGBHATA HEAD AÉrÉÉqÉ ÌuÉxiÉÉU mÉËUhÉW EixÉãS AÉrÉÉqÉ ÌuÉxiÉÉU mÉËUhÉÉW EixÉãS AÉrÉÉqÉ ÌuÉxiÉÉU mÉËUhÉÉWû EixÉãS &NECK ÍvÉUÉãkÉU 24 4 32 4 AÉxrÉ 5 5 AÉã¹ 4 4 qÉxÉiM- 10 AuÉOÒûMåüzÉÉliÉÍzÉU 32 16 32 6 SØÌ¹rÉliÉU 4 4 SØÌ¹ 1/9th of taraka A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 18
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Tables…. Table No 5: Total Measurements (in Angula) TOTAL SUSHRUTA CHARAKA VAGBHATA HEIGHT 120 84 84 BREADTH 84 84 A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 19
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Review of Literature-anthropometry…… ANTHROPOMETRY ‘Anthropos’ means man and the science deals with man are known asanthropology, and the science of measuring the body parts constitutes Bertillon’ssystem or anthropometry, introduces by Alphonse Bertillon, a French police officer.This system was used in United States in early 1900s93. The anthropometry is themeans of quantifying variation in the body size and shape. It is also one of thefundamental techniques of human biology as most of the biological functions are insome way related to one or the other aspect of the physical dimensions of the body94. Anthropometry can be defined as “A systemized body of techniques ofmeasuring and taking observations on man, his skeleton, the skull, the limbs and trunketc as well as the organs, by the most reliable means and scientific methods94.For the sake of convenience anthropometry may be subdivided into95 1) Somatometry: - Measurements of body morphology. 2) Osteometry: - Measurement of skeleton and its parts. 3) Physiometry: - It deals with measurement of physiological functions of the body and constitutes important adjunct of anthropometry. 4) Anthroscopy: - An analog of anthropometry, is the visual observation and description of physical traits not capable of exact measurement. E.g., form & character of hair, skin color etc. Measurements and its types96 The term measurement generally refers to the act of measuring, and in context of anthropometry it refers to a definite measure between two clearly defined landmarks, and the term measure refers to dimension of a clearly defined distance between two specified points, and in the context of anthropometric work landmarks or points is always related to bony points. Examples:- 1) Linear measurement- It is the measure of vertical distance between the surface land marks. E.g. Hand length, foot length, facial height, 2) Transverse measurement- It is the measure between two land marks perpendicular top linear axis. E.g. Head breadth, biorbital breadth, 3) Circumferential measurement- these measure the circumference of different parts of the body. e.g. Upper arm circumference, head circumference,A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 20
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Review of Literature-anthropometry…… 4) Angular measurement- These measure the profile of a particular part of the body with respect to two landmarks linearly distanced from each other. E.g. Facial profile angle, 5) Skin fold measurement- these measure the thickness of the fold of subcutaneous fat. E.g. Skin fold thickness at biceps, triceps. Few recommendations which put forth in order to take accurate measurements97: - 1) All instruments should be absolutely clean and their precision duly verified by a reliable verificator. 2) While taking measurements the subject should be with minimal clothing, because that may interfere with the procedure. 3) Land marks for each measurement should be fixed very carefully. 4) All paired measurements should be taken on left side; so as to avoid any occupational deformities. 5) While taking measurements with calipers no pressure should be applied on points of landmark. 6) Only normal healthy individual range 25-50 year of age should be included as adult sample. 7) For sake of clarity all measurements should be taken in same unit. 8) The measurements should be read perpendicularly and inclination should be avoided. Principle: - It is assumed that after the age of 21yr the skeleton stops growing and hence the measurement of various parts of the body remains constant. It is also assumed that no two people will have bones of identical dimensions98, 99. Disadvantages100: - • Only applicable in adults. • Chances of error in taking measurements by instruments. • Needs measurements of various parts of the body. Stature: - Stature provides one aspect of an individual’s physiognomy and one piece of information that may be an aid in individual’s identification. The stature can beA comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 21
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Review of Literature-anthropometry…… measured by taking the distance between the vertex to the floor, when the subject in standing erect with heel touching the wall101. There are few factors which have influence on stature like102, 1) Age factor-Stature or height of a person will be maximum at the age between 21 to 25 yr. for every 25 yr stature is shortened for about 2.5cms. It is due to thinning of inter-vertebral disc of spinal column as a result of osteoporosis, secondly the spinal column cannot be put straight & erect as a result of reduced tone of muscles. 2) Diurnal variation- Height varies in an individual at different time of a day. It is maximum in the morning and it is less by 1.5 to 2 cm in the evening. This is due to reduction of elasticity of intervertebral disc and muscle tone. 3) Posture- The length will be maximum in recumbent posture, which is due to relaxation of muscles and increase of intervertebral space. The approximate length between the outstretched tips of middle finger is approximately equal to the stature of an individual. 4) It is said that cadavers increase their length after rigormortis due to loosening of the intervertebral discs and slackening of vertebral curvature. The increase in length may be from 2 to 2.5 cm. Estimation of stature from mutilated or dismembered remains: The stature can also estimated when the part of the skeleton such as the long bones are available103. 1) If the entire skeleton is available then by adding 2.5cm to its length to allow for the thickness of the soft tissue gives the height of the person. 2) Stature can be estimated from one arm by multiplying by 2 and adding 30 cm for two clavicle and 4cm for sternum. 3) Stature is twice the length of vertex or heel to the top of symphysis pubis. 4) The length from the sternal notch to the pubic symphysis is 1/3 of the stature. 5) The length of the forearm measured from the tip of the olecranon process to the tip of the middle finger is equal to 5/19 of the stature. 6) Stature is equal to the length measured from tip of middle finger to the tip of the opposite middle finger when the arms are fully extended. Many workers have devised different mathematical formulae for the purpose of estimating stature from long bones. Usually used bones for this purpose areA comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 22
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Review of Literature-anthropometry…… humerus, radius, ulna, femur, and tibia. The long bones are measured by osteometric board and Pearson’s formulae or Trotter & Gleser’s formulae are applied to calculate stature104. Pearson’s formula is a regression formula put forth by Karl Pearson in the year 1889. According to formulae, to estimate the stature from the bone, the length of the bone is to be multiplied by a multiplying factor which is different for different bones and then a constant factor which is also different for different bones. It also different for males & females and even then it is different for dry & humid specimen. This is to be added to the length of the bone with the multiplying factor. This gives the stature of the person105. Male Female Dry Humid Dry HumidHumerus *2.894 + 70.614 *2.894 + 70.714 *2.754 + 71.475 *2.754 + 72.046Radius *2.271 + 89.925 *3.271 + 86.465 *3.343 + 81.224 *3.343 + 82.189 Femur *1.880 + 81.30 *1.880 + 81.231 *1.945 + 72.844 *1.945 + 73.163 Tibia *2.376 + 78.664 *2.376 + 78.807 *2.352 + 74.774 *2.352 + 75.369 Table No 6: Multiplying factor & constant factor for long bones There are some multiplication factors devised by Indian scientists for estimation of stature of Indians of certain states like Bengal, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, and these formulae are in use in India. These factors are based on the results obtained by dividing the average height of the body by the average length of the bone106. Bihar, Bengal and Orissa Uttar Pradesh and PunjabLength of Male Female Male Female Humerus 5.31 5.31 5.30 4.97 Radius 6.78 6.70 6.90 6.43 Ulna 6.00 6.00 6.30 5.93 Femur 3.82 3.80 3.70 3.57 Tibia 4.49 4.46 4.48 4.18 Fibula 4.46 4.43 4.48 4.35 Table No 7: Multiplication factors of long bones (Indian population)A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 23
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Review of Literature-anthropometry…… Stature estimation: - The stature of an individual is estimated by different methods, but the easiest, reliable and most widely used method is the regression equation method. Different scientists have used different parts of the body to measure the stature. Lengths of long bones, short bones, skull etc. have been used for the estimation of stature107. Applications of Anthropometry The technique of anthropometry has application in many areas of human concern and welfare. It is proposed to enlist some of more important applications of the science of anthropometry108. 1) Morphological differences within and between populations may be demonstrated by comparing anthropometric results statistically. 2) It provides opportunity for identification of individuals and departed populations i.e. helpful in understanding the ethnic affinities between populations. 3) To study the evolutionary changes, inter-population and intra-population differences. 4) It forms a basis for a clear understanding of comparative anatomy of primates particularly those closer to man. 5) Has major application in the field of forensic science for identification of an individual also helpful in determination of age, sex. 6) The study of the processes and patterns of human growth and development is another area where anthropometric techniques are basically used. 7) The general standards of health can be evaluated by using composite measurements like height and weight. 8) Found quite useful in the field of orthopedic surgery, particularly in the preparation of artificial limbs. 9) It has definite application in the field of Eugenics, in which promotion of better trait in future generation is mainly considered. 10) Extremely helpful in evaluating the physique and the constitution suitable in different sports specialty. 11) In the field of genetics it is helpful in evaluating the zigosity of twins. 12) In recent years anthropometric measurements and standards are being used in industry- dress designing, shoes, gloves, seats in aero planes, railway, buses, helmets, manufacture of artificial limbs etc.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 24
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Review of Literature-anthropometry……Importance of Hand & Foot in anthropometry: Growth – the vital process is measured by measuring the height of a person,which itself is a sum of the length of certain bones and appendages of the body,represent certain relationship with form of proportions to the total stature. Thisrelationship is very useful anthropologically to find racial differences and medico-legally, when only parts of the deceased body are available109. The hand & foot can be used as an alternative measure to estimate staturewhen the later cannot be measured directly due to deformity like khyphosis, lordosis& scoliosis, contracture or missing legs etc. In these cases the original stature of thesepeople can be estimated by multiplying the dimension of hand or foot lengths. Themultiplying factor can be obtained by making ratio of stature to the hand length110. Length of hand and foot plays a major role in determination of race. The sexcan also be identified by them like women have a longer or narrower hand andbroader or shorter feet than men111. The multiplication factors obtained by these can be applicable inreconstructing artificial limbs proportional to individual’s body. This can also be applicable in industries like glove, hand tool, shoe etc112. SURFACE ANATOMYBONY LANDMARKS:Hand113, 114: Styloid process of ulna: - Its tip is felt on postero-medial aspect of wrist, and liesabout 1.2cm above the level of the tip of the styloid process of radius. (fig 1) Styloid process of radius: - It can be traced to the lower end of anterior border ofradius and is felt in the floor of anatomical snuff box. Its tip is about 1.2cm lower thanthe styloid process of ulna. (fig 1) Anatomical snuff box: - It is a hollow space at the back of root of the extendedthumb and lies just below the styloid process of radius. The space is bounded laterallyby tendons of extensor pollicis brevis & abductor pollicis longus and medially byextensor pollicis longus. Dorsal tubercle of radius: - It is felt near the middle of the posterior aspect of thelower end of radius, when the wrist is slightly flexed. It lies in line with the lateralborder of middle finger.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 25
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Review of Literature-anthropometry…… Tubercle of scaphoid: - It is a bony prominence felt above and medial to the frontof thenar eminence when the wrist is extended. Pisiform: - It is the first bony prominence felt when the tendon of flexor carpiulnaris traced downwards. It is felt on the palmar aspect of wrist at the medial part ofthe base of hypothenar eminence. Crest of trapezium: - It is felt on deep palpation below and lateral to tubercle ofscaphoid. Hook hamate: - It is felt on deep palpation about 2.5 cm below and lateral toPisiform bone. Prominence of knuckle: - Formed by the heads of the metacarpal bones. (fig 2)Creases of wrist and fingers (fig 1) A) These are transverse creases on the front of wrist. 1) Proximal: - This crease corresponds roughly to the level of radiocarpal joint (wrist joint). 2) Distal: - This crease corresponds to proximal border of flexor retinaculum. B) There are three transverse creases on the palmar aspect of finger. 1) Proximal: - Lies 2cm distal to metacarpophalangeal joint. 2) Middle: - It corresponds to proximal interphalangeal joint. 3) Distal: - It lies just proximal to the distal interphalangeal joint.Foot115: - Lateral malleolus & medial malleolus: - The lateral malleolus is narrow andelongated while the medial malleolus is broader and stumpy. (fig 3, 4) They are subcutaneous and can be both seen and felt. The lateral malleolus liesmore distally and further back than medial malleolus. Peroneal tubercle: - It is felt as a prominence on the lateral surface of the calcaneus,about 2cm below the lateral malleolus. Sustentaculum tali: - It is felt as a thickened ridge on the medial surface of thecalcaneus, about 2cm below the medial malleolus. (fig 3) Head of the talus: - It can be felt about 3cm in front of lower end of tibia when thefoot is inverted. If the head of the talus is difficult to feel, draw a line between the tip ofthe medial malleolus and the tuberosity of the navicular, bisect the line, the head liesdirectly under your fingers. In flat foot, the head becomes prominent on the medialside. (fig 3)A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 26
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Review of Literature-anthropometry…… Tuberosity of navicular: - It is the most marked bony prominence on the medialside of the foot and lies about 2.5cm in front of the medial malleolus. (fig 3) Tubercle on the base of 5th metacarpal: - It is easily felt on the lateral side of thefoot, about 2.5cm in front of the peroneal tubercle. It lays half way along the lateralborder of the foot. It lies halfway along the lateral border of the foot. Prominence of heel: - It is formed by calcaneum. The tendocalcaneus (Achillistendon) is visible proximal to the heel.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 27
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Methodology …… METHODOLOGY For the present study minimum of 100 apparently healthy individuals in andaround the S.D.M.C.A. & H. campus were selected for taking measurements.Instruments Measuring tape Vernier calipers Foot scaleInclusion criteria Healthy individuals ranging from 25-35yrs are considered in this study.Exclusion criteria o Individuals with congenital deformities. o Individuals with deformities like fracture, Pathologies pertaining to bone and other metabolic disorders. o Individuals who had undergone amputation of limb.Assessment criteriaAngula Pramana o Width of Madhyama Parva of Madhyama anguli or Width of proximal Inter- phalangeal joint of middle finger. o Width of the palm at the level of metacarpophalangeal joints (2nd -5th) and dividing it by four. o Length of the middle finger i.e. from tip of middle finger to metacarpo- phalangeal joint of middle finger which is then divided by five.Stature:- a) It is measured from heel to the vertex. Subject stands erect, heels together, with head oriented in ear-eye plane (Frankfurt plane). Measurement is taken at vertex with hair compressed. b) It is measured from the tip of the toe to the tip of the middle finger, when the person stands on his toes & arms are raised.Arm span- This is the horizontal distance between the two dactylia with the two hands fully stretched laterallyHand: - a) Hand length: - Measured by using Vernier calipers, measurement is taken between the stylion (A point in the distal margin of the styloid process ofA comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 30
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Methodology …… radius) to tip of the middle finger without nail. While taking measurement palm position should be fully extended. b) Hand breadth: - This measurement is taken between the heads of 2nd & 5th metacarpals, using their most projecting point. c) Palm length: - It is measured between stylion and 3rd metacarpo-phalangeal joint. d) Fingers: - From metacarpo-phalangeal joint to tip of each respective finger the length is measuredFoot: - a) Foot length: - It is the distance from pternion (The most backward projecting point of the heel) to the extremity of longest toe (Acropodian). While taking measurements subject should stand erect and sustaining the full weight on the two feet. b) Foot breadth: - It is the distance between the heads of the 2nd & 5th metatarsals, while the subject is standing erect. c) Foot height: -It is measured from spherion (Tip of medial malleolus) to the floor, while the subject is standing erect. d) Toe: - It is measured from metatarso-phalangeal joint to tip of respective toe.Methodology The study was conducted on 100 volunteers in the age group of 25-35yrs. Thestature, stature with arms raised, arm span and the measurements related with length,width, height of pada and their anguli were taken, these measurements were takenfrom the left side of the body and then converted in to angula unit by abovementioned three parameters which are collected from both right & left hand. Themeasurements were taken in the morning. The measurements were taken incentimeters for standardization as per metric system & then converted into AnguliPramana based on Swa-Anguli Pramana according to three direct and indirectreferences mentioned in the classics. Pramana of one angula was obtained bymeasuring the width of Madhyamaparva of middle finger, by measuring the width ofthe palm and dividing it by four and measuring the length of the middle finger anddividing it by five.Then these measurements are compared with the stature and analyzed statistically.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 31
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Observation & Results…. OBSERVATION & RESULTSOBSERVATIONS:RIGHTPramana of Anguli measured from: A) Width of proximal Inter-phalangeal joint of middle finger varies from 1.5- 2.1 cm with the mean 1.83 & SD 0.1392 cm. nd th B) Width of the palm at the level of metacarpophalangeal joints (2 -5 ) and dividing it by 4 varies from 1.7 - 2.3cm with the mean 1.9826 cm & SD 0.137 cm. C) Length of middle finger and dividing it by 5 varies from 1.6- 2.1cm with the mean 1.84cm &SD.12 cm.Height A) It varies from 76.8-101.1 angula with the mean 89.6& SD 4.8 angula. B) It varies from 72-92.7 angula with the mean 83 & SD 4.04 angula. C) It varies from 75.5-102 angula with the mean 89.4 & SD 4.7 angula.Height with standing on toes and arm raised A) It varies from 99.9-137.8 angula with the mean 118.3& SD 6.2 angula. B) It varies from 98.1-134.5 angula with the mean 110.6 & SD 6.4 angula. C) It varies from 105.6-139 angula with the mean 118.17 & SD 5.7 angula.Arm span A) It varies from 79.1-109.5 angula with the mean 92.6& SD 5.5 angula. B) It varies from 72.8-107.2 angula with the mean 86.7 & SD 5.3 angula. C) It varies from 80.5-106.8 angula with the mean 92.3 & SD 5 angula.Hasta (length) A) It varies from 8.8-12.7 angula with the mean 11.3& SD 0.8 angula. B) It varies from 8.6-12.7 angula with the mean 10.31 & SD 0.92 angula. C) It varies from 8.8-12.9 angula with the mean 10.9 & SD 0.8 angula.Hasta (width)A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 33
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Observation & Results…. A) It varies from 3.2-4.9 angula with the mean 4.2& SD 0.2 angula. B) It varies from 3.5-4.5 angula with the mean 3.9 & SD 0.12 angula. C) It varies from 3.5-4.9 angula with the mean 4.2 & SD 0.2 angula.Hasta Tala (length) A) It varies from4.4-7.5 angula with the mean 6.24 & SD 0.5 angula. B) It varies from 5.1-7.3 angula with the mean 5.8 & SD 0.4 angula. C) It varies from 5.1-7.3 angula with the mean 6.2 & SD 0.4 angula.Hasta - Angusta A) It varies from 2.3-4.1 angula with the mean 3.1& SD 0.2 angula. B) It varies from 2.4-6.1 angula with the mean 2.9 & SD 0.5 angula. C) It varies from 2.5-4.5 angula with the mean 3.1 & SD 0.2 angula.Hasta - Pradeshini A) It varies from 3.6-5.1 angula with the mean 4.3& SD 0.3 angula. B) It varies from 3.5-4.7 angula with the mean 4.07 & SD 0.2 angula. C) It varies from 3.3-5.1 angula with the mean 4.3 & SD 0.2 angula.Hasta - Madhyama A) It varies from 4.2-5.7 angula with the mean 4.9& SD 0.2 angula. B) It varies from 4-5.6 angula with the mean 4.6 & SD 0.2 angula. C) It varies from 4.4-5.4 angula with the mean 4.9 & SD 0.1 angula.Hasta - Anamika A) It varies from 3.7-5.3 angula with the mean 4.5& SD 0.3 angula. B) It varies from 3.1-4.8 angula with the mean 4.2 & SD 0.2 angula. C) It varies from 3.7-5.1 angula with the mean 4.5 & SD 0.2 angula.Hasta - Kanishtika A) It varies from 3.1-4.3 angula with the mean 3.6& SD 0.28 angula. B) It varies from 2.8-4 angula with the mean 3.3 & SD 0.2 angula. C) It varies from 3-4.1 angula with the mean 3.6 & SD 0.23 angula.Pada (length) A) It varies from 11.5-15.5 angula with the mean 13.4& SD 0.7 angula. B) It varies from 11.06-14 angula with the mean 12.5 & SD 0.7 angula. C) It varies from 11.5-15.1 angula with the mean 13.4 & SD 0.7 angula.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 34
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Observation & Results…. Pada (width) A) It varies from 4-6.5 angula with the mean 5.08& SD 0.4 angula. B) It varies from 3.7-5.7 angula with the mean 4.7 & SD 0.2 angula. C) It varies from 3.8-6 angula with the mean 5.05 & SD 0.3 angula.Pada (height) A) It varies from 3-5.2 angula with the mean 4.1& SD 0.38 angula. B) It varies from 3.1-4.6 angula with the mean 3.9 & SD 0.31 angula. C) It varies from 2.9-5 angula with the mean 4.1 & SD 0.39 angula.Pada - Angusta A) It varies from 2.5-4.1 angula with the mean 3.1& SD 0.29 angula. B) It varies from 2.4-3.9 angula with the mean 2.9 & SD 0.25 angula. C) It varies from 2.6-3.8 angula with the mean 3.1 & SD 0.24 angula.Pada - Pradeshini A) It varies from 2.5-4.5 angula with the mean 3.1& SD 0.3 angula. B) It varies from 2.4-3.9 angula with the mean 2.9 & SD 0.27 angula. C) It varies from 2.3-4 angula with the mean 3.1 & SD 0.26 angula.Pada - Madhyama A) It varies from 2-3.4 angula with the mean 2.67& SD 0.27 angula. B) It varies from 2-3.1 angula with the mean 2.48 & SD 0.22 angula. C) It varies from 2-3.3 angula with the mean 2.65 & SD 0.25 angula.Pada - Anamika A) It varies from 1.3-3.1 angula with the mean 2.2& SD 0.3 angula. B) It varies from 1.3-2.8 angula with the mean 2.1 & SD 0.2 angula. C) It varies from 1.3-3 angula with the mean 2.2 & SD 0.2 angula.Pada - Kanishtika A) It varies from 0.6-2.9 angula with the mean 1.9& SD 0.37 angula. B) It varies from 0.6-2.4 angula with the mean 1.78 & SD 0.31 angula. C) It varies from 0.6-2.6 angula with the mean 1.91 & SD 0.34 angula.LEFTA comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 35
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Observation & Results…. Pramana of Anguli measured from: A) Width of proximal Inter-phalangeal joint of middle finger varies from 1.5- 2.2 cm with the mean 1.88 & SD 0.13 cm. nd th B) Width of the palm at the level of metacarpophalangeal joints (2 -5 ) and dividing it by 4 varies from 1.7 - 2.3cm with the mean 1.9826 cm & SD 0.13 cm. C) Length of middle finger and dividing it by 5 varies from 1.84- 2.1cm with the mean 1.84cm &SD .13 cm.Height A) It varies from 76.5-92.5 angula with the mean 84.9 & SD 3.2 angula. B) It varies from 75.3-100.9 angula with the mean 85.6 & SD 4.8 angula. C) It varies from 75.5-102 angula with the mean 89.5 & SD 4.8 angula.Height with standing on toes and arm raised A) It varies from 102.1-137.8 angula with the mean 116.9 & SD 6.2 angula. B) It varies from 98.1-134.5 angula with the mean 111.8 & SD 6.3 angula. C) It varies from 104.5-139.1 angula with the mean 118.2 & SD 5.8 angula.Arm span A) It varies from 80.7-103.6 angula with the mean 89.5 & SD 4.8 angula. B) It varies from 74.6-107.2 angula with the mean 87.87 & SD 5.1 angula. C) It varies from 79.6-108.8 angula with the mean 92.4 & SD 5.07 angula.Hasta (length) A) It varies from 8.8-12.2 angula with the mean 10.8& SD 0.8 angula. B) It varies from 8.8-12.1 angula with the mean 10.4 & SD 0.8angula. C) It varies from 8.8-12.9 angula with the mean 11.04 & SD 0.8 angula.Hasta (width) A) It varies from 3.5-4.7 angula with the mean 4.1& SD 0.2 angula. B) It varies from 3.4-4.5 angula with the mean 3.9 & SD 0.1 angula. C) It varies from 3.4-4.9 angula with the mean 4.2 & SD 0.2 angula.Hasta Tala (length)A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 36
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Observation & Results…. A) It varies from 5.2-7angula with the mean 6.5 & SD 0.36 angula. B) It varies from 5.2-6.8 angula with the mean 5.9 & SD 0.36 angula. C) It varies from 5.1-7.3 angula with the mean 6.2 & SD 0.4 angula.Hasta - Angusta A) It varies from 2.5-4.1 angula with the mean 3.03& SD 0.28 angula. B) It varies from 2.5-4.1 angula with the mean 2.9 & SD 0.26 angula. C) It varies from 2.5-4.75 angula with the mean 3.1 & SD 0.2 angula.Hasta - Pradeshini A) It varies from 3.7-5 angula with the mean 4.2& SD 0.2 angula. B) It varies from 3.6-4.7 angula with the mean 4.1 & SD 0.2 angula. C) It varies from 3.6-5 angula with the mean 4.3 & SD 0.2 angula.Hasta - Madhyama A) It varies from 4.2-5.95 angula with the mean 4.9& SD 0.3 angula. B) It varies from 4-5.6 angula with the mean 4.7 & SD 0.2 angula. C) It varies from 4.4-5.25 angula with the mean 4.9 & SD 0.1 angula.Hasta - Anamika A) It varies from 3.9-5.3 angula with the mean 4.5& SD 0.3 angula. B) It varies from 3.7-4.8 angula with the mean 4.2 & SD 0.2 angula. C) It varies from 3.7-5 angula with the mean 4.5 & SD 0.2 angula.Hasta - Kanishtika A) It varies from 2.8-4.4 angula with the mean 3.5& SD 0.29 angula. B) It varies from 2.8-4 angula with the mean 3.4 & SD 0.22 angula. C) It varies from 3.1-4 angula with the mean 3.6 & SD 0.22 angula.Pada (length) A) It varies from 11.9-15.5 angula with the mean 13.4& SD 0.71 angula. B) It varies from 11.3-14.5 angula with the mean 12.7 & SD 0.72 angula. C) It varies from 11.3-15.1 angula with the mean 13.4 & SD 0.74 angula.Pada (width) A) It varies from 3.7-6 angula with the mean 5 & SD 0.36 angula. B) It varies from 3.7-6 angula with the mean 4.8 & SD 0.3 angula. C) It varies from 3.8-6 angula with the mean 5.07 & SD 0.37 angula.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 37
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Observation & Results…. Pada (height) A) It varies from 3-5.2 angula with the mean 4 & SD 0.37 angula. B) It varies from 3.1-4.6 angula with the mean 3.9 & SD 0.32 angula. C) It varies from 3.1-5 angula with the mean 4.1 & SD 0.36 angula.Pada - Angusta A) It varies from 2.5-3.9 angula with the mean 3 & SD 0.27 angula. B) It varies from 2.4-3.7 angula with the mean 2.9 & SD 0.26 angula. C) It varies from 2.6-3.9 angula with the mean 3.1 & SD 0.23 angula.Pada - Pradeshini A) It varies from 2.5-4.4 angula with the mean 3 & SD 0.31 angula. B) It varies from 2.4-4 angula with the mean 2.9 & SD 0.26 angula. C) It varies from 2.6-4 angula with the mean 3.1 & SD 0.24 angula.Pada - Madhyama A) It varies from 2-3.4 angula with the mean 2.58& SD 0.28 angula. B) It varies from 2.05-3.2 angula with the mean 2.51 & SD 0.23 angula. C) It varies from 2-3.1 angula with the mean 2.64 & SD 0.24 angula.Pada - Anamika A) It varies from 1.3-2.9 angula with the mean 2.21& SD 0.29 angula. B) It varies from 1.4-2.8 angula with the mean 2.14 & SD 0.27 angula. C) It varies from 1.3-3 angula with the mean 2.26 & SD 0.29 angula.Pada - Kanishtika A) It varies from 0.6-2.5 angula with the mean 1.86 & SD 0.35 angula. B) It varies from 0.7-2.4 angula with the mean 1.81 & SD 0.3 angula. C) It varies from 0.8-2.6 angula with the mean 1.92 & SD 0.33 angula.DETERMINATION OF HEIGHT FROM HASTA (Hand length)A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 38
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Observation & Results…. STANDING HEIGHTRight side A-A1 A- Measurement of height A1- Length of handCol 1 = 85.207 + (0.402 * Col 2)Y= 85.207 + (0.402 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 4.823 Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 85.207 6.189 13.768 <0.001Col 2 0.402 0.559 0.718 0.474 2D Graph 1 105 100 95 YData 90 85 80 75 8 9 10 11 12 13 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1 Plot 1 RegrX- Length of the hand, Y- StatureRt side B-B1Col 1 = 82.379 + (0.0624 * Col 2)Y= 82.379 + (0.0624 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 4.062 Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 82.379 2.734 30.127 <0.001Col 2 0.0624 0.267 0.233 0.816A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 39
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Observation & Results…. 2D Graph 2 95 90 85 YD ta a 80 75 70 8 9 10 11 12 13 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1 Plot 1 RegrX-hand length, Y-StatureRt side C-C1Col 1 = 83.567 + (0.533 * Col 2)Y= 83.567 + (0.533 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 4.757 Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 83.567 5.991 13.949 <0.001Col 2 0.533 0.544 0.980 0.329 2D Graph 3 105 100 95 90 Y Data 85 80 75 70 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1 Plot 1 Regrx- Hand length, Y- StatureLeft dide A-A1Col 1 = 86.314 - (0.131 * Col 2)Y= 86.314 - (0.131 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 3.216A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 40
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Observation & Results…. Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 86.314 4.073 21.194 <0.001Col 2 -0.131 0.376 -0.347 0.729 2D Graph 4 94 92 90 88 86 Y Data 84 82 80 78 76 74 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1 Plot 1 RegrX- Hand length, Y- StatureLt Side B –B1Col 1 = 85.828 - (0.0165 * Col 2)Y= 85.828 - (0.0165 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 4.861 Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 85.828 5.783 14.842 <0.001Col 2 -0.0165 0.552 -0.0299 0.976 2D Graph 5 105 100 95 90 YData 85 80 75 70 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1 Plot 1 RegrA comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 41
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Observation & Results…. X-Hand length, Y-StatureLt side C_ C1Col 1 = 80.156 + (0.848 * Col 2)Y= 80.156 + (0.848 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 4.812 Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 80.156 6.398 12.528 <0.001Col 2 0.848 0.578 1.467 0.146 2D Graph 6 105 100 95 90 YData 85 80 75 70 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1 Plot 1 RegrX-Hand length, Y-StatureHeight with standing on toes with arms raised (Anguli)Rt side A-A1Col 1 = 123.333 - (0.454 * Col 2) Y= 123.33 - (0.454 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 6.283 Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 123.333 8.062 15.298 <0.001Col 2 -0.454 0.729 -0.623 0.535A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 42
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Observation & Results…. 2D Graph 7 140 130 120 Y Data 110 100 90 8 9 10 11 12 13 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1 Plot 1 RegrX-Hand length, Y- Height with standing on toes with arms raised (Anguli)Rt Side B-B1Col 1 = 120.868 - (0.988 * Col 2) Y= 120.868 - (0.988 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 6.420 Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 120.868 7.250 16.670 <0.001Col 2 -0.988 0.700 -1.411 0.161 2D Graph 8 140 130 120 YD ta a 110 100 90 8 9 10 11 12 13 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1 Plot 1 RegrX-Hand length, Y- Height with standing on toes with arms raised (Anguli)Rt Side- C-C1Col 1 = 121.306 - (0.285 * Col 2)Y= 121.306- (0.285 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 5.731A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 43
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Observation & Results…. Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 121.306 7.218 16.807 <0.001Col 2 -0.285 0.655 -0.435 0.664 2D Graph 9 150 140 130 Y Data 120 110 100 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1 Plot 1 RegrX-Hand length, Y- Height with standing on toes with arms raised (Anguli)Lt Side- A-A1Col 1 = 129.580 - (1.168 * Col 2)Y= 129.580 - (1.168 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 6.225 Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 129.580 7.883 16.437 <0.001Col 2 -1.168 0.727 -1.607 0.111 2D Graph 10 140 135 130 125 Y Data 120 115 110 105 100 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1X-Hand length, Y- Height with standing on toes with arms raised (Anguli)Lt Side- B-B1A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 44
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Observation & Results…. Col 1 = 123.228 - (1.091 * Col 2) Y= 123.228 - (1.091 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 6.282 Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 123.228 7.473 16.490 <0.001Col 2 -1.091 0.714 -1.528 0.130 2D Graph 11 140 130 120 Y Data 110 100 90 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1 Plot 1 RegrX-Hand length, Y- Height with standing on toes with arms raised (Anguli)Lt Side C-C1Col 1 = 116.106 + (0.196 * Col 2)Y= 116.106 - (0.196 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 5.918 Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 116.106 7.868 14.757 <0.001Col 2 0.196 0.710 0.276 0.783A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 45
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Observation & Results…. 2D Graph 12 150 140 130 Y Data 120 110 100 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1 Plot 1 RegrX-Hand length, Y- Height with standing on toes with arms raised (Anguli)DETERMINATION OF HEIGHT FROM PADA (Foot length)STANDING HEIGHTRt side A-A1Col 1 = 78.863 + (0.799 * Col 2)Y= 78.863 + (0.799 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 4.795 Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 78.863 8.301 9.501 <0.001Col 2 0.799 0.614 1.300 0.197 2D Graph 13 105 100 95 YData 90 85 80 75 11 12 13 14 15 16 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1 Plot 1 RegrX- Foot length, Y- StatureA comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 46
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Observation & Results…. Rt sidet B-B1Col 1 = 77.930 + (0.404 * Col 2)Y= 77.930 + (0.404 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 4.053 Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 77.930 7.196 10.829 <0.001Col 2 0.404 0.571 0.707 0.481 2D Graph 14 95 90 85 Y Data 80 75 70 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1 Plot 1 Regr X- Foot length, Y- StatureRt side C-C1Col 1 = 75.015 + (1.070 * Col 2)Y= 75.015 + (1.070 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 4.719 Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 75.015 9.015 8.321 <0.001Col 2 1.070 0.669 1.600 0.113A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 47
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Observation & Results…. 2D Graph 15 105 100 95 90 Y Data 85 80 75 70 11 12 13 14 15 16 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1 Plot 1 Regr X- Foot length, Y- StatureLt side A-A1Col 1 = 98.484 - (1.010 * Col 2) Y= 98.484 - (1.010 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 3.135 Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 98.484 5.946 16.563 <0.001Col 2 -1.010 0.441 -2.287 0.024 2D Graph 16 94 92 90 88 86 Y Data 84 82 80 78 76 74 11 12 13 14 15 16 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1 Plot 1 RegrA comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 48
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Observation & Results…. X- Foot length, Y- StatureLt side B-B1Col 1 = 90.231 - (0.359 * Col 2)Y= 90.231 - (0.359 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 4.854 Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 90.231 8.623 10.464 <0.001Col 2 -0.359 0.675 -0.531 0.596 2D Graph 17 105 100 95 90 Y Data 85 80 75 70 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1 Plot 1 Regr X- Foot length, Y- StatureLt side C-C1Col 1 = 86.143 + (0.250 * Col 2) Y= 86.143 + (0.250 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 4.861 Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 86.143 8.825 9.761 <0.001Col 2 0.250 0.653 0.383 0.703A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 49
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Observation & Results…. 2D Graph 18 105 100 95 90 Y Data 85 80 75 70 11 12 13 14 15 16 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1 Plot 1 Regr X- Foot length, Y- StatureHeight with standing on toes with arms raised (Anguli)Rt Side A-A1Col 1 = 93.044 + (1.874 * Col 2) Y= 93.044 + (1.874 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 6.120 Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 93.044 10.594 8.782 <0.001Col 2 1.874 0.784 2.391 0.019 2D Graph 19 140 130 120 Y Data 110 100 90 11 12 13 14 15 16 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1 Plot 1 RegrA comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 50
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Observation & Results…. X- Foot length, Y- Height with standing on toes with arms raised (Anguli)Rt Side B-B1Col 1 = 57.955 + (4.187 * Col 2) Y= 57.955 + (4.184 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 5.742 Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 57.955 10.165 5.701 <0.001Col 2 4.187 0.806 5.195 <0.001 2D Graph 20 140 130 120 Y Data 110 100 90 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1 Plot 1 Regr X- Foot length, Y- Height with standing on toes with arms raised (Anguli)Rt Side C-C1Col 1 = 84.046 + (2.535 * Col 2) Y= 84.046 + (2.535 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 5.444 Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 84.046 10.402 8.080 <0.001Col 2 2.535 0.772 3.285 0.001A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 51
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Observation & Results…. 2D Graph 21 150 140 Y Data 130 120 110 100 11 12 13 14 15 16 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1 Plot 1 RegrX- Foot length, Y- Height with standing on toes with arms raised (Anguli)Lt Side A-A1Col 1 = 101.572 + (1.144 * Col 2)Y= 101.572 + (1.144 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 6.253 Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 101.572 11.859 8.565 <0.001Col 2 1.144 0.880 1.299 0.197 2D Graph 22 140 135 130 125 Y Data 120 115 110 105 100 11 12 13 14 15 16 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1 Plot 1 Regr X- Foot length, Y- Height with standing on toes with arms raised (Anguli)A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 52
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Observation & Results…. Lt Side B-B1Col 1 = 66.281 + (3.574 * Col 2)Y= 66.281 + (3.574 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 5.802 Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 66.281 10.308 6.430 <0.001Col 2 3.574 0.807 4.428 <0.001 2D Graph 23 140 130 120 Y Data 110 100 90 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1 Plot 1 Regr X- Foot length, Y- Height with standing on toes with arms raised (Anguli)Lt Side C-C1Col 1 = 80.401 + (2.807 * Col 2) Y= 80.401 + (2.807 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 5.531 Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 80.401 10.041 8.007 <0.001Col 2 2.807 0.743 3.777 <0.001A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 53
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Observation & Results…. 2D Graph 24 150 140 130 Y Data 120 110 100 11 12 13 14 15 16 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1 Plot 1 Regr X- Foot length, Y- Height with standing on toes with arms raised (Anguli)Determination of stature by following SI UnitHand lengthCol 1 = 120.582 + (2.207 * Col 2)Y= 120.582 + (2.207 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 7.885 Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 120.582 8.853 13.620 <0.001Col 2 2.207 0.434 5.082 <0.001 2D Graph 25 200 190 180 Y Data 170 160 150 140 16 18 20 22 24 26 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1 Plot 1 Regr X- Hand length, Y- Standing HeightA comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 54
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Observation & Results…. Foot lengthCol 1 = 77.814 + (3.508 * Col 2)Y= 77.814 + (3.508 * X)Standard Error of Estimate = 6.439 Coefficient Std. Error t PConstant 77.814 9.377 8.298 <0.001Col 2 3.508 0.375 9.362 <0.001 2D Graph 26 200 190 180 Y Data 170 160 150 140 20 22 24 26 28 30 X Data Col 2 vs Col 1 Plot 1 Regr X- Foot length, Y- Standing HeightCOMPARISON WITH ANCIENT LITERATURE:RIGHT: HEIGHT-A) Height measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from76.8-101.1 angula with the mean 89.6& SD 4.8 angula. This does not satisfy the measurement mentioned in the classics.B) Height measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the valueA comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 55
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Observation & Results…. by 4, varies from 72-92.7 angula with the mean 83 & SD 4.04 angula. To a certain extent only it satisfies the measurements mentioned in our classics.C) Height measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 75.5-102 angula with the mean 89.4 & SD 4.7 angula. This does not satisfy the measurement mentioned in the classics. HEIGHT WITH STANDING ON TOES AND ARMS RAISEDA) Height with standing on toes and arms raised measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 99.9-137.8 angula with the mean 118.3& SD 6.2 angula. This is comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics.B) Height with standing on toes and arms raised measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 98.1- 134.5 angula with the mean 110.6 & SD 6.4 angula. This does not satisfy the measurement mentioned in the classics.C) Height with standing on toes and arms raised measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 105.6-139 angula with the mean 118.17 & SD 5.7 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. But the stature measured when standing on toes and arms raised with angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger is more accurate. HAND LENGTHA) Hand length measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 8.8-12.7 angula with the mean 11.3& SD 0.8 angula. This is comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 56
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Observation & Results…. B) Hand length measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 8.6-12.7 angula with the mean 10.31 & SD 0.92 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.C) Hand length measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 8.8-12.9 angula with the mean 10.9 & SD 0.8 angula. This is also comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics. But the hand length measured with angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger is more accurate. HAND WIDTHA) Hand width measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 3.2-4.9 angula with the mean 4.2& SD 0.2 angula. To a certain extent only it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.B) Hand width measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 3.5-4.5 angula with the mean 3.9 & SD 0.12 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.C) Hand width measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 3.5-4.9 angula with the mean 4.2 & SD 0.2 angula. To a certain extent only it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. HASTA TALA (LENGTH)A) Hasta tala (length) measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from4.4-7.5 angula with the mean 6.24 & SD 0.5 angula. To a certain extent only it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 57
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Observation & Results…. B) Hasta tala (length) measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 5.1-7.3 angula with the mean 5.8 & SD 0.4 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.C) Hasta tala (length) measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 5.1-7.3 angula with the mean 6.2 & SD 0.4 angula. To a certain extent only it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. ANGUSTA (HASTA)A) Angusta measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 2.3-4.1 angula with the mean 3.1& SD 0.2 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.B) Angusta measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 2.4-6.1 angula with the mean 2.9 & SD 0.5 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.C) Angusta measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 2.5-4.5 angula with the mean 3.1 & SD 0.2 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. PRADESHINI (HASTA)A) Pradeshini measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 3.6-5.1 angula with the mean 4.3& SD 0.3 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.B) Pradeshini measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 3.5-4.7 angula with the mean 4.07 & SD 0.2 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. But theA comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 58
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Observation & Results…. pradeshini measured with angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger is more accurate.C) Pradeshini measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 3.3-5.1 angula with the mean 4.3 & SD 0.2 angula. This is comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics. MADHYAMA (HASTA)A) Madhyama anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 4.2-5.7 angula with the mean 4.9& SD 0.2 angula. This is comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics.B) Madhyama anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 4-5.6 angula with the mean 4.6 & SD 0.2 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. But the Madhyama anguli measured with angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger is more accurate.C) Madhyama anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 4.4-5.4 angula with the mean 4.9 & SD 0.1 angula. This is comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics. ANAMIKA (HASTA)A) Anamika anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 3.7-5.3 angula with the mean 4.5& SD 0.3 angula. This is comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics.B) Anamika anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 3.1-4.8 angula with the mean 4.2 & SD 0.2 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. ButA comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 59
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Observation & Results…. the Anamika anguli measured with angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger is more accurate.C) Anamika anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 3.7-5.1 angula with the mean 4.5 & SD 0.2 angula. This is comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics. KANISHITIKA (HASTA)A) Kanishtika anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 3.1-4.3 angula with the mean 3.6& SD 0.28 angula. This is comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics.B) Kanishtika anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 2.8-4 angula with the mean 3.3 & SD 0.2 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. But the Kanishtika anguli measured with angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger is more accurate.D) Kanishtika anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 3-4.1 angula with the mean 3.6 & SD 0.23 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. But the Kanishtika anguli measured with angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger is more accurate. PADA (length)A) Pada length measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 11.5-15.5 angula with the mean 13.4& SD 0.7 angula. This is comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 60
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Observation & Results…. A) Pada length measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 11.06-14 angula with the mean 12.5 & SD 0.7 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.B) Pada length measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 11.5-15.1 angula with the mean 13.4 & SD 0.7 angula. This is also comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics. PADA (width)A) Pada width measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 4-6.5 angula with the mean 5.08& SD 0.4 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.B) Pada width measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 3.7-5.7 angula with the mean 4.7 & SD 0.2 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.C) Pada width measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 3.8-6 angula with the mean 5.05 & SD 0.3 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.PADA (height)A) Pada height measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies 3-5.2 angula with the mean 4 & SD 0.37 angula. This is comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics.B) Pada height measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 3.1-4.6 angula with the mean 3.9 & SD 0.32 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 61
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Observation & Results…. C) Pada height measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies 3.1-5 angula with the mean 4.1 & SD 0.36 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. ANGUSTA (Pada)A) Angusta measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 2.5-3.9 angula with the mean 3 & SD 0.27 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.B) Angusta measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 2.4-3.7 angula with the mean 2.9 & SD 0.26 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.C) Angusta measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 2.6-3.9 angula with the mean 3.1 & SD 0.23 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. PRADESHINI (Pada)A) Pradeshini measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 2.5-4.4 angula with the mean 3 & SD 0.31 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.B) Pradeshini measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 2.4-4 angula with the mean 2.9 & SD 0.26 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.C) Pradeshini measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 2.6-4 angula with the mean 3.1 & SD 0.24 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 62
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Observation & Results…. MADHYAMA (Pada)A) Madhyama anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 2-3.4 angula with the mean 2.58 & SD 0.28 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.B) Madhyama anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 2.05-3.2 angula with the mean 2.51 & SD 0.23 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.C) Madhyama anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 2-3.1 angula with the mean 2.64 & SD 0.24 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. ANAMIKA (Pada)A) Anamika anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 1.3-2.9 angula with the mean 2.21& SD 0.29 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.B) Anamika anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 1.4-2.8 angula with the mean 2.14 & SD 0.27 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.C) Anamika anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 1.3-3 angula with the mean 2.26 & SD 0.29 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. KANISHITIKA (Pada)A) Kanishtika anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies 0.6-2.9 angulaA comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 63
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Observation & Results…. with the mean 1.9& SD 0.37 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.B) Kanishtika anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 0.6-2.4 angula with the mean 1.78 & SD 0.31 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.C) Kanishtika anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 0.6-2.6 angula with the mean 1.91 & SD 0.34 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. LEFT: HEIGHT-A) Height measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies 76.5-92.5 angula with the mean 84.9 & SD 3.2 angula. This is comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics.B) Height measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 75.3-100.9 angula with the mean 85.6 & SD 4.8 angula. To a certain extent only it satisfies the measurements mentioned in our classics. But the stature measured when standing on toes and arms raised with angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger is more accurate.C) Height measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 75.5-102 angula with the mean 89.5 & SD 4.8 angula. This does not satisfy the measurement mentioned in the classics. HEIGHT WITH STANDING ON TOES AND ARMS RAISEDA) Height with standing on toes and arms raised measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middleA comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 64
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Observation & Results…. finger varies from 102.1-137.8 angula with the mean 116.9 & SD 6.2 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.B) Height with standing on toes and arms raised measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 98.1-134.5 angula with the mean 111.8 & SD 6.3 angula. This does not satisfy the measurement mentioned in the classics.C) Height with standing on toes and arms raised measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 104.5-139.1 angula with the mean 118.2 & SD 5.8 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. HAND LENGTHA) Hand length measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 8.8-12.2 angula with the mean 10.8& SD 0.8 angula. This is comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics.B) Hand length measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 8.8-12.1 angula with the mean 10.4 & SD 0.8angula. This is comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics.C) Hand length measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 8.8-12.9 angula with the mean 11.04 & SD 0.8 angula. To a certain extent only it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. HAND WIDTHA) Hand width measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 3.5-4.7 angula with the mean 4.1& SD 0.2 angula. To a certain extent only it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 65
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Observation & Results…. B) Hand width measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 3.4-4.5 angula with the mean 3.9 & SD 0.1 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. But the width of hasta measured with angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger is more accurate.C) Hand width measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 3.4-4.9 angula with the mean 4.2 & SD 0.2 angula. To a certain extent only it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. HASTA TALA (LENGTH)A) Hasta tala (length) measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 5.2- 7angula with the mean 6.5 & SD 0.36 angula. To a certain extent only it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.B) Hasta tala (length) measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 5.2-6.8 angula with the mean 5.9 & SD 0.36 angula. This is comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics.C) Hasta tala (length) measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 5.1-7.3 angula with the mean 6.2 & SD 0.4 angula. To a certain extent only it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. ANGUSTA (HASTA)A) Angusta measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 2.5-4.1 angula with the mean 3.03& SD 0.28 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.B) Angusta measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the valueA comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 66
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Observation & Results…. by 4, varies from 2.5-4.1 angula with the mean 2.9 & SD 0.26 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.C) Angusta measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 2.5-4.75 angula with the mean 3.1 & SD 0.2 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. PRADESHINI (HASTA)A) Pradeshini measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 3.7-5 angula with the mean 4.2& SD 0.2 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.B) Pradeshini measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 3.6-4.7 angula with the mean 4.1 & SD 0.2 angula. This does not satisfy the measurement mentioned in the classics.C) Pradeshini measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 3.6-5 angula with the mean 4.3 & SD 0.2 angula. This is comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics. MADHYAMA (HASTA)A) Madhyama anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 4.2-5.95 angula with the mean 4.9& SD 0.3 angula. This is comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics.B) Madhyama anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 4-5.6 angula with the mean 4.7 & SD 0.2 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. But the Madhyama anguli measured with angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger is more accurate.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 67
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Observation & Results…. C) Madhyama anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 4.4-5.25 angula with the mean 4.9 & SD 0.1 angula. This is comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics. ANAMIKA (HASTA)A) Anamika anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 3.9-5.3 angula with the mean 4.5& SD 0.3 angula. This is comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics.B) Anamika anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 3.7-4.8 angula with the mean 4.2 & SD 0.2 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. But the Anamika anguli measured with angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger is more accurate.C) Anamika anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 3.7-5 angula with the mean 4.5 & SD 0.2 angula. This is comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics. KANISHITIKA (HASTA)A) Kanishtika anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 2.8-4.4 angula with the mean 3.5& SD 0.29 angula. This is comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics.B) Kanishtika anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 2.8-4 angula with the mean 3.4 & SD 0.22 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. But the Kanishtika anguli measured with angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger is more accurate.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 68
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Observation & Results…. C) Kanishtika anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 3.1-4 angula with the mean 3.6 & SD 0.22 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. But the Kanishtika anguli measured with angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger is more accurate. PADA (length)A) Pada length measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 11.9-15.5 angula with the mean 13.4& SD 0.71 angula. This is comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics.B) Pada length measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 11.3-14.5 angula with the mean 12.7 & SD 0.72 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.C) Pada length measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 11.3-15.1 angula with the mean 13.4 & SD 0.74angula. This is also comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics. PADA (width)A) Pada width measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 3.7-6 angula with the mean 5 & SD 0.36 angula. This is comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics.B) Pada width measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 3.7-6 angula with the mean 4.8 & SD 0.3 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 69
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Observation & Results…. C) Pada width measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 3.8-6 angula with the mean 5.07 & SD 0.37 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. . But the padatala (width) measured with angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger is more accurate. PADA (height)A) Pada height measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies 3-5.2 angula with the mean 4 & SD 0.37 angula. This is comparable to the measure mentioned in the ancient classics.B) Pada height measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 3.1-4.6 angula with the mean 3.9 & SD 0.32 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.C) Pada height measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies 3.1-5 angula with the mean 4.1 & SD 0.36 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. ANGUSTA (Pada)A) Angusta measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 2.5-3.9 angula with the mean 3 & SD 0.27 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.B) Angusta measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 2.4-3.7 angula with the mean 2.9 & SD 0.26 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.C) Angusta measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 2.6-3.9 angula with the meanA comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 70
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Observation & Results…. 3.1 & SD 0.23 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. PRADESHINI (Pada)A) Pradeshini measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 2.5-4.4 angula with the mean 3 & SD 0.31 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.B) Pradeshini measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 2.4-4 angula with the mean 2.9 & SD 0.26 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.C) Pradeshini measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 2.6-4 angula with the mean 3.1 & SD 0.24 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. MADHYAMA (Pada)A) Madhyama anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 2-3.4 angula with the mean 2.58& SD 0.28 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.B) Madhyama anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 2.05-3.2 angula with the mean 2.51 & SD 0.23 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.C) Madhyama anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 2-3.1 angula with the mean 2.64 & SD 0.24 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. ANAMIKA (Pada)A) Anamika anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies from 1.3-2.9 angulaA comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 71
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Observation & Results…. with the mean 2.21& SD 0.29 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.B) Anamika anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 1.4-2.8 angula with the mean 2.14 & SD 0.27 angula. To a certain extent it satisfies the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.C) Anamika anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 1.3-3 angula with the mean 2.26 & SD 0.29 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature. KANISHITIKA (Pada)A) Kanishtika anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger varies 0.6-2.5 angula with the mean 1.86 & SD 0.35 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.B) Kanishtika anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by 4, varies from 0.7-2.4 angula with the mean 1.81 & SD 0.3 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.C) Kanishtika anguli measured by using the angula pramana measured by taking the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5, varies from 0.8-2.6 angula with the mean 1.92 & SD 0.33 angula. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in the ancient literature.COMPARISON WITH MODERN ANTHROPOMETRY:1) Comparison of hand length with stature- The hand length ranges from 16.9-25.4cmwith mean 20.3cm and SD - 1.8cm. Comparison of hand length ranges from 13.82-18.01cm, mean 16.34cm and SD -0.8cm. The stature ranges from 147.4-189 cm with mean165.39cm and SD – 8.1cm. Comparison of stature ranges from 145.45-177.50 cm, mean156.02cm and SD -6.13cm.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 72
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Observation & Results…. 2) Comparison of foot length with stature- The foot length ranges from 21.4-29.2 cmwith mean 24.9 cm and SD - 1.7 cm. Comparison of foot length ranges from 21.2-27.4cm, mean 24.44 cm and SD - 0.99 cm. The stature ranges from 147.4-189 cm with mean165.39cm and SD – 8.1cm. Comparison of stature ranges from 155.7-183.5 cm, mean170.9cm and SD – 5.13 cm.INFERENCE –In relation to estimation of stature on the basis of angula pramana On an average the stature is 8.12 times the length of the hand when stature ismeasured from the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the right middle fingerand it is 7.8 times the length of the hand when stature is measured from the width of theproximal interphalangeal joint of the left middle finger. On an average the stature is 6.27times the foot length when stature is measured from the width of the proximalinterphalangeal joint of the right middle finger and it is 6.31 times the foot length whenstature is measured from the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the left middlefinger.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 73
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Discussion… DISCUSSIONDISCUSSION ON CONCEPTUAL STUDY:CONCEPT OF PRAMANA: Ayurveda followed swa-angula pramana as the unit of measurement formeasuring different parts of body which is the prime step in assessing patient beforetreatment. Charaka & Vagbhta stated 84 angulas as the height of an individual. Chakrapaniwhile commenting on it has given the criterion to measure the stature as “it should betaken from padatala to shirahparyanta”. Vagbhata has given the idea regardingassessment of stature from hasta of individual and mentioned height of the person isequal to 3½ hasta. Sushruta has stated the stature of an individual should be of 120angula. Dalhana while commenting on this has stated that while measuring the height theindividual should be standing on the toes and he should raise his arms above the head. Assessing the individual height of all body parts & adding them to ascertain thewhole body measurement is not feasible as it exceeds 84Angula. Because in the usualbuilt up the height of each individual parts of body at times submerges into the height ofanother part. Ayama, parinaha, vistara and utsedha are the four dimensions of pramana whichfollowed in the context of pramana shareera. Ayama is used for length (ayamodairghyam), Parinaha is used for circumference (parinaha parivartulata), Vistara is usedfor width (vistara vyasah), Utsedha is used for prominence, elevation, height (Utsedhaityuchhtah).DISCUSSION ON SWA-ANGULA PRAMANA: The swa-angula pramana concept is explained in the context of pramana shareera.This concept of measuring the individual with individual specific unit seems to be morescientific & applicable rather than measuring one’s body with some other standards.Ayurveda in its principles has given importance to individualistic approach rather than aA comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 74
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Discussion… generalized. Application of this principle can be clearly seen like even though twopatients suffering from same disease, the treatment modality may change depending uponthe results of Dashavidha pareeksha. Application of this swa angula concept can be seenin different contexts like in preparing the different shastras, yantras related to shalya,shalakya and pancha karma, and probably these are prepared by assessing the swa-angulapramana of rogi who is under treatment. Specificity is the characteristic property of swa-angula pramana. This can beapplicable in present era. If a person loses both his legs then rather than using the presentanthropometric knowledge to make average based artificial limbs we can utilize the swa-angula based pramana shareera concept and prepare proportionate artificial limbs. Swa-angula concept can also be utilized in the field of sports and designing industries etc. DISCUSSION ON HASTA Ayama and Vistara of Hasta is 12 and 4 angula respectively as mentioned byCaraka and Vagbhata but in patabheda of Caraka Samhita it is mentioned that ayama is of10 angulas. Whereas Sushruta explained the ayama of hasta as 24 angulas but this is thedistance between kurpara sandhi to the tip of the finger whereas according to carakasamhita it is the distance between manibhanda sandhi to tip of finger which is againsupported by shabda kalpadruma. Dalhana explaines manibhanda as the panimula; thisindicates towards the proximal transverse crease of the wrist which corresponds roughlyto the radio-carpal (wrist) joint. The parameter which has been selected for measuring thelength of hand is from stylion (A point in the distal margin of the styloid process ofradius) to tip of the middle finger. The stylion corresponds to proximal crease of wristjoint. So, the anthropometric parameter to measure the length of hand, selected for thestudy matches with that of Caraka, Vagbhata & Shabda kalpadrumas opinion. AlthoughSushruta has quoted the hand length to be 24 angulas, as it is the distance betweenkurpara sandhi to tip of finger it is not considered here. Regarding the width of the hand and length of individual finger Sushruta &Vagbhata have the same opinion. Sushruta & Vagbhata have opinion like middle finger is5 angula, ring & index fingers have 4 ½ angula and thumb & little finger have 3 ½A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 75
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Discussion… angula in length and width of hand is 4 angula. No landmarks have been mentioned,neither by the authors nor the commentators so the modern anthropometric procedure andtechnique were used.DISCUSSION ON PADA Ayama Vistara and Utseda of Pada is 14, 6 and 4 angula respectively asmentioned by Caraka, Sushruta and Vagbhata. No landmarks have been mentioned,neither by the authors nor the commentators so the modern anthropometric procedure andtechnique were used. Regarding the length of individual finger Sushruta & Vagbhata have the sameopinion. Length of great toe and 2nd toe is 2 angula, that of 3rd, 4th & 5th fingers are 9/5,8/5, 7/5 angula respectively. No landmarks have been mentioned, neither by the authorsnor the commentators so the modern anthropometric procedure and technique were used.RELATION BETWEEN AYU & PRAMANA: There is a definite relationship between ayu & pramana; pramana pareeksha isconsidered one among the Dashavidha pareeksha and the ultimate goal of this tenfold ofexamination is to get an idea regarding the ayu. Observatory study of Ayu, Pramana &their relation is beyond the scope of this work as it is time bound.DISCUSSION ON ANTHROPOMETRY: Anthropometry is a systemized body of teqniques for measuring and taking theobservations on man, his skeleton, the limb and trunk etc. by most reliable means andscientific methods. It concentrates on the observations and measurement of the physicalvariations both within and between human populations seeking to understand the originsand mechanisms of survival of the variations. In view of the fact that no two individuals are ever alike in all their measurablecharacters and that the later tend to undergo change in varying degrees, hence personliving under different conditions and members of different ethnic groups frequentlyA comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 76
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Discussion… present interesting differences in body form and proportions. The anthropometry forms ameans of giving quantitative expression to the variations exhibited by such traits.DISCUSSION ON METHODOLOGY: The study was conducted on 100 healthy volunteers in the age group of 25-35years. As according to Sushruta the man attains vitality and maturity at the age of 25 yrsand female at the age of 16 yrs and that of Vagbhatas opinion stating by the end of 2nddecade the individual attain full growth. In modern anthropometry also the sample isselected between 25-50 yrs of age. This verifies the viability of Sushruta & Vagbhata’sopinion. As the age progresses there is a slight decrease in the stature, this is generallyregarded to be approximately 6 mm per decade after the age of 30 yrs which is resultedfrom decrease in the elasticity & water content of intervertebral disc and decrease inmuscle tone. There is tendency of the stature to reduce during the period of getting up to goingto bed. This variation is due to diurnal variation in the water content of the disc.Generally the reduction is 1.5-2 cm. But it may be up to 10 cm also if heavy loads arecarried, usually seen in laborers. The height usually diminishes in the day time andincreases in the morning after rest at night. So, all the measurements were taken in themorning. All the measurements are taken on the left side so as to avoid any occupationaldeformities.DICUSSION ON OBSERVATION:CONVERSION IN TO ANGULA PRAMANA BY RIGHT SIDED PARAMETERS: For the three parameters used for measuring the angula pramana, the angulapramana ranges from 1.5-2.3 cms with SD 0.12- 0.13. Height by all the three parameters ranges from 72-102angulas with SD between4.04-4.8 angulas. Measurement taken with angula pramana measured from the width ofA comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 77
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Discussion… the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the value by4 was found to be more accurate of the three. Height with standing on toes with arms raised from all the three parametersranges from 98.1-139 angulas with SD between 5.7-6.4 angulas. Measurement taken withangula pramana measured from the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint was foundto be more accurate of the three. Arm span by all the three parameters ranges from 72.8-109.5 angulas with SDbetween 5-5.5 angulas. Measurement taken with angula pramana measured from thewidth of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing thevalue by 4 was found to be more accurate of the three.Hasta: Hand length by all the three parameters ranges from 8.6-12.9 angulas with SDbetween 0.8-0.9 angulas. Measurement taken with angula pramana measured from thewidth of the proximal interphalangeal joint was found to be more accurate of the three. Hand width by all the three parameters ranges from 3.2-4.9 angulas with SD 0.12-0.2 angulas. Measurement taken with angula pramana measured from the width of theproximal interphalangeal joint was found to be more accurate of the three. Length of hasta tala by all the three parameters ranges from 4.4-7.5 angulas withSD 0.4-0.5 angulas. Measurement taken with angula pramana measured from the widthof the proximal interphalangeal joint was found to be more accurate of the three. Ayama of Angusta by all the three parameters ranges from 2.3-6.1 angulas withSD 0.2-0.5 angulas. Measurement taken with angula pramana measured from the widthof the proximal interphalangeal joint was found to be more accurate of the three. Ayama of Pradeshini anguli by all the three parameters ranges from 3.3-5.1angulas with SD 0.2-0.3 angulas. Measurement taken with angula pramana measuredfrom the length of the middle finger and dividing the value by 5 was found to be moreaccurate of the three.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 78
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Discussion… Ayama of Madhyama anguli by all the three parameters ranges from 4-5.7angulas with SD 0.1-0.2 angulas. Measurement taken with angula pramana measuredfrom the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint was found to be more accurate of thethree. Ayama of Anamika anguli by all the three parameters ranges from 3.1-5.3 angulaswith SD 0.2-0.3 angulas. Measurement taken with angula pramana measured from thewidth of the proximal interphalangeal joint was found to be more accurate of the three. Ayama of Kanishtika anguli by all the three parameters ranges from 2.8-4.3angulas with SD 0.2-0.28 angulas. Measurement taken with angula pramana measuredfrom the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint was found to be more accurate of thethree.Pada: Foot length by all the three parameters ranges from 11.06-15.5 angulas with SD0.7 angulas. Measurement taken with angula pramana measured from the width of theproximal interphalangeal joint was found to be more accurate of the three. Foot width by all the three parameters ranges from 3.7-6.5 angulas with SD 0.2-0.4 angulas. Measurement taken with angula pramana measured from the width of theproximal interphalangeal joint was found to be more accurate of the three. Foot height by all the three parameters ranges from 3-5.2 angulas with SD 0.32-0.37 angulas. Measurement taken with angula pramana measured from the width of theproximal interphalangeal joint was found to be more accurate of the three. Ayama of Angusta by all the three parameters ranges from 2.4-3.9 angulas withSD 0.23-0.27 angulas. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in theancient literature. This difference may be due to difference in considering theanthropometric points. Ayama of Pradeshini anguli by all the three parameters ranges from 2.4-4.4angulas with SD 0.24-0.31 angulas. This is not comparable with the measurementsA comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 79
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Discussion… mentioned in the ancient literature the difference may be due to difference in consideringthe anthropometric points. Ayama of Madhyama anguli by all the three parameters ranges from 2-3.4angulas with SD 0.23-0.28 angulas. This is not comparable with the measurementsmentioned in the ancient literature. This difference may be due to difference inconsidering the anthropometric points. Ayama of Anamika anguli by all the three parameters ranges from 1.3-3 angulaswith SD 0.27-0.29 angulas. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned inthe ancient literature the difference may be due to difference in considering theanthropometric points. Ayama of Kanishtika anguli by all the three parameters ranges from 0.6-2.9angulas with SD 0.31-0.37 angulas. This is not comparable with the measurementsmentioned in the ancient literature the difference may be due to difference in consideringthe anthropometric points.CONVERSION IN TO ANGULA PRAMANA BY LEFT SIDED PARAMETERS: For the three parameters used for measuring the angula pramana, the angulapramana ranges from 1.5-2.3 cms with SD 0.13. Height by all the three parameters ranges from 75.3-102angulas with SD 3.2-4.8angulas. Measurement taken with angula pramana measured from the width of theproximal interphalangeal joint was found to be more accurate of the three. Height with standing on toes with arms raised from all the three parametersranges from 98.1-139.1 angulas with SD 5.8-6.3 angulas. Measurement taken with angulapramana measured from the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint was found to bemore accurate of the three. Arm span by all the three parameters ranges from 74.6-108.8 angulas with SDbetween 4.8-5.1 angulas. Measurement taken with angula pramana measured from thewidth of the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing thevalue by 4 was found to be more accurate of the three.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 80
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Discussion… Hasta: Hand length by all the three parameters ranges from 8.8-12.9 angulas with SD 0.8angulas. Measurement taken with angula pramana measured from the width of theproximal interphalangeal joint was found to be more accurate of the three. Hand width by all the three parameters ranges from 3.4-4.9 angulas with SD 0.1-0.2 angulas. Measurement taken with angula pramana measured from the width of theproximal interphalangeal joint was found to be more accurate of the three. Length of hasta tala by all the three parameters ranges from 5.1-7.3 angulas withSD 0.36-0.4 angulas. Measurement taken with angula pramana measured from the widthof the palm at the level of 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints and then dividing the valueby 4 was found to be more accurate of the three. Ayama of Angusta by all the three parameters ranges from 2.5-4.75 angulas withSD 0.2-0.28 angulas. Measurement taken with angula pramana measured from the lengthof the middle finger and dividing the value by 5 was found to be more accurate of thethree. Ayama of Pradeshini anguli by all the three parameters ranges from 3.6-5 angulaswith SD 0.2 angula. Measurement taken with angula pramana measured from the lengthof the middle finger and dividing the value by 5 was found to be more accurate of thethree. Ayama of Madhyama anguli by all the three parameters ranges from 4-5.6angulas with SD 0.1-0.3 angulas. Measurement taken with angula pramana measuredfrom the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint was found to be more accurate of thethree. Ayama of Anamika anguli by all the three parameters ranges from 3.1-5.3 angulaswith SD 0.2-0.3 angulas. Measurement taken with angula pramana measured from thewidth of the proximal interphalangeal joint was found to be more accurate of the three.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 81
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Discussion… Ayama of Kanishtika anguli by all the three parameters ranges from 2.8-4.4angulas with SD 0.22-0.29 angulas. Measurement taken with angula pramana measuredfrom the width of the proximal interphalangeal joint was found to be more accurate of thethree.Pada: Foot length by all the three parameters ranges from 11.3-15.5 angulas with SDbetween 0.71-0.74 angulas. Measurement taken with angula pramana measured from thewidth of the proximal interphalangeal joint was found to be more accurate of the three. Foot width by all the three parameters ranges from 3.7-6 angulas with SD 0.3-0.37 angulas. Measurement taken with angula pramana measured from the width of theproximal interphalangeal joint was found to be more accurate of the three. Foot height by all the three parameters ranges from 3-5.2 angulas with SD 0.32-0.37 angulas. Measurement taken with angula pramana measured from the width of theproximal interphalangeal joint was found to be more accurate of the three. Ayama of Angusta by all the three parameters ranges from 2.4-3.9 angulas withSD 0.23-0.27 angulas. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned in theancient literature. This difference may be due to difference in considering theanthropometric points. Ayama of Pradeshini anguli by all the three parameters ranges from 2.4-4.4angulas with SD 0.24-0.31 angulas. This is not comparable with the measurementsmentioned in the ancient literature the difference may be due to difference in consideringthe anthropometric points. Ayama of Madhyama anguli by all the three parameters ranges from 2-3.4angulas with SD 0.23-0.28 angulas. This is not comparable with the measurementsmentioned in the ancient literature. This difference may be due to difference inconsidering the anthropometric points. Ayama of Anamika anguli by all the three parameters ranges from 1.3-3 angulaswith SD 0.27-0.29 angulas. This is not comparable with the measurements mentioned inA comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 82
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Discussion… the ancient literature the difference may be due to difference in considering theanthropometric points. Ayama of Kanishtika anguli by all the three parameters ranges from 0.6-2.6angulas with SD 0.3-0.35 angulas. This is not comparable with the measurementsmentioned in the ancient literature the difference may be due to difference in consideringthe anthropometric points.COMPARISON WITH ANCIENT LITERATURE:1) Height measured with angula pramana measured from the width of the proximalinterphalangeal joints of both the hands satisfies the measurement mentioned in theancient literature.2) Height with standing on toes with arms raised measured with angula pramanameasured from the width of the proximal interphalangeal joints of both the hands satisfiesthe measurement mentioned in the ancient literature.3) Hand length measured with angula pramana measured from the width of the proximalinterphalangeal joints of both the hands satisfies the measurement mentioned in theancient literature.4) Hand width measured with angula pramana measured from the width of the proximalinterphalangeal joints of both the hands satisfies the measurement mentioned in theancient literature.5) Length of hasta tala with angula pramana measured from the width of the proximalinterphalangeal joints of right hand and width of the palm at the level of 2nd-5thmetacarpophalangeal joints and dividing the value by 4 in the left hand satisfies themeasurement mentioned in the ancient literature.6) Angusta (hasta) angula pramana measured from the width of the proximalinterphalangeal joints of right hand & length of the middle finger and dividing the valueby 5 satisfies the measurement mentioned in the ancient literature.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 83
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Discussion… 7) Pradeshini (hasta) measured with angula pramana measured from the length of themiddle finger and dividing the value by 5 of both the hands satisfies the measurementmentioned in the ancient literature.8) Madhyama (hasta) measured with angula pramana measured from the width of theproximal interphalangeal joints of both the hands satisfies the measurement mentioned inthe ancient literature.9) Anamika (hasta) measured with angula pramana measured from the width of theproximal interphalangeal joints of both the hands satisfies the measurement mentioned inthe ancient literature.10) Kanishtika (hasta) measured with angula pramana measured from the width of theproximal interphalangeal joints of both the hands satisfies the measurement mentioned inthe ancient literature.11) Foot length measured with angula pramana measured from the width of the proximalinterphalangeal joints of both the hands satisfies the measurement mentioned in theancient literature.12) Foot width measured with angula pramana measured from the width of the proximalinterphalangeal joints of both the hands satisfies the measurement mentioned in theancient literature.13) Foot height measured with angula pramana measured from the width of the proximalinterphalangeal joints of both the hands satisfies the measurement mentioned in theancient literature.14) The length of toe doesn’t correspond with that of the ancient literature this may bebecause of difference in fixing the anthropometric points for the measurement. In thepresent study anthropometric points available in the modern text is followed as noAyurvedic texts specified this point. But it is observed in the study that madyamanguli is0.42 angula less than pradeshini, Anamika is 0.37 angula less than madyama andKanishtika is 0.35 angula less than Anamika which satisfies ancient literature.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 84
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Discussion… COMPARISON WITH MODERN ANTHROPOMETRY:The methods mentioned for determining stature of an individual according to modernscience have been satisfied in the study:1) The height was found to be approximately equal to 8.12 times the hand length.2) The height was found to be approximately equal to 6.27 times the length of the foot.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 85
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Conclusion…. CONCLUSION The present study includes 100 healthy volunteers between the age group of 25-35 years. The maximum numbers of the volunteers are being in between the age group of25-30 years. There is a positive relation between the stature and the length of hand and foot,the stature is 8.12 times of the hand length and is 6.27 times of foot length. The hand &foot can be used to determine the stature by using the equations in the observation. The angula pramana is calculated by following three procedures. For the righthand the angula pramana by using first method ranges between 1.5-2.1cms with astandard deviation of 0.13 cms. For the second method it ranges from 1.7- 2.3 cms with astandard deviation of 0.13 cms. Then for the third method it ranges from 1.6- 2.1 cm witha standard deviation of 0.12 cms. For the left hand by first method it ranges from 1.5-2.2cms with a standard deviation of 0.13 cms. By second method it ranges from 1.7- 2.3 cmswith a standard deviation of 0.13 cms. By third one it ranges from 1.84-2.1 cms with astandard deviation of 0.13 cms. Difference was noticed between three procedures but notmuch difference between corresponding procedures in right & left hand hands. The measurements taken with the help of angula pramana measured by measuringthe width of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint (madhyama parva of the madhyamaanguli), is found to be more accurate than the two other parameters used for measuringthe angula pramana. The measurements of toe are not found to be exactly matching with the classicalreferences like angushta was 3 angula in length, this is probably because of theevolutionary changes in human anatomy or probably the landmarks used in the presentstudy are not matching with those used by our Acharyas. In the present study though,where 100 healthy volunteer were involved, the result to a greater extent proves theviability of the concept of swa-angula pramana shareera as the mean stature rangesbetween 83-89.6 angulas which is matching with classics. Further studies with a largersample size may give a better picture.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 86
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Summary…. SUMMARY The study entitled “A comprehensive study on pramana shareera w.s.r todetermination of stature from hasta & pada” comprises of 8 chapters namelyIntroduction, Objectives, Review of literature, Methodology, Observations & Result,Discussion, Conclusion & Summary.Chapter-1: Introduction It gives compact idea of the subject of discussion namely pramana shareera. Therelevance of this topic especially based on their anatomical importance also highlighted.Chapter-2: Objectives It gives an idea about Aims & Objectives of the study.Chapter-3: Review of literature Review of literature is sub divided into Historical review, Ayurvedic review, andModern review. Historical review – It consists of references pertaining to Pramana in variousancient literatures of Vedic period, Samhita period and Sangraha Kala. Ayurvedic Review- It elaborates the details & importance of Pramana in variousancient Ayurvedic texts, it also detailed regarding available references related to hasta &pada. This chapter also contains the table which details the pramana of different parts ofbody. Modern Review- It deals with details of Anthropometry and its utility.Chapter-4: Methodology This chapter explains method of Data collection, Inclusion criteria, Exclusioncriteria, Assessment criteria and methodology. Chapter-5: Observations & Result It embraces the inference drawn based on the studies conducted.A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 87
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Summary…. Chapter-6: Discussion It is subdivided in to discussion on conceptual study, discussion on methodology,discussion on observation and comparison with ancient and modern literature. Itcomprises the details of the collected data and comparison with those mentioned in theancient literature & contemporary science, also dealt with the relevance in this era.Chapter-7: Conclusion It consists of conclusion drawn from the work carried out.Chapter-8: Summary It summarizes the entire work. A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 88
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PROFORMA DEPT.OF PG STUDIES IN SHAREERA RACHANA, S.D.M COLLEGE OF AYURVEDA, UDUPI. “A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON PRAMANA SHAREERA W. S. R. TO DETERMINATION OF THE STATURE FROM HASTA & PADA”Scholar: Dr.Seetharama Mithanthaya I Guide: Dr. U Govindaraju Name of the Person: Address:Age: Date:Sex: Male / Female Religion: H / M / C / OthersHabitat: Urban / Rural Education:-UE/PR/H/HS/G/PG.Occu: Stud /Empl /H w /Labors Socio Economic Status: U/ M/LPlace of Birth: Jangala/Aanupa/ sadharana Marital status: Married/UnmarriedPresent illness (if any): -Past illness (if any): -Measurement of Anguli (in cm): -Right hand - A) Width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of middle finger ₌ B) Width of the palm at the level of metacarpophalangeal joints (2nd -5th) ₌ /4 C) Length of the middle finger ₌ /5 Left hand - A’) Width of the proximal interphalangeal joint of middle finger ₌ B’) Width of the palm at the level of metacarpophalangeal joints (2nd -5th) ₌ /4 C’) Length of the middle finger ₌ /5 106
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Name of the Conversion of cms into anguli Conversion of cms into anguli pramana(right hand) pramana(left hand) body part A B C A’ B’ C’ Hasta Hasta (Length) Hasta (Width) Hastatala(Length) Angushta Pradeshini Madhyamanguli Anamika Kanishtika Pada Pada(Length) Pada(height) Padatala(width) Angushta Pradeshini Madhyamanguli Anamika Kanishtika 107
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Conversion of cms into anguli Conversion of cms into anguli Stature pramana(right hand) pramana(left hand) A B C A’ B’ C’ Standing Standing on the toes with arms raised Arm span 108
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Annexure……. ANGULA PRAMANA OBTAINED FROM THREE PARAMETERS ANGULI A B C Angula measurement by 1.84cm &SD 1.83 & SD 1.9826cm &SD parameters obtained from the 0.1392 cm 0.137 cm. 0.12 cm. right hand Angula measurement by 1.84cm&SD 1.88 & SD 1.9826 cm & parameters obtained from the 0.13 cm. SD 0.13 cm 0.13 cm. left hand A comprehensive study of pramana shareera w.s.r to determination of stature from hasta & pada Page 113
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