Parpataka jwara-dg05 kop

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EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF THE JWARAGHNA [ANTIPYRETIC]
EFFECT OF VARIETIES OF PARPATAKA- [Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn.]
AND [ Fumaria indica Pugsley]- A COMPARATIVE STUDY -Dr. PALLAVI VARSHNEY, DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN DRAVYAGUNA
A.L.N.RAO MEMORIAL AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE KOPPA - 577126
CHIKMAGALUR DISTRICT, KARNATAKA, INDIA

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Parpataka jwara-dg05 kop

  1. 1. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF THE JWARAGHNA [ANTIPYRETIC]EFFECT OF VARIETIES OF PARPATAKA- [Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn.] AND [ Fumaria indica Pugsley]- A COMPARATIVE STUDY BY Dr. PALLAVI VARSHNEY BAMS ( Sampoornanand Sanskrit Vishwavidyalaya , Varanasi) Dissertation submitted to the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of “Ayurveda Vachaspati” M.D. [Ayurveda] in DRAVYAGUNA GUIDE Dr. H.R.Pradeep M.D.(Ayu) PROFESSOR DEPARTMENT OF DRAVYA GUNA DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN DRAVYAGUNA A.L.N.RAO MEMORIAL AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE KOPPA - 577126 CHIKMAGALUR DISTRICT, KARNATAKA, INDIA NOVEMBER - 2009
  2. 2. Department of Post graduate A.L.N.Rao Memorial AyurvedicStudies in DRAVYA GUNA Medical College Koppa – 577126 Dist: Chikmagalur DECLARATION I here by declare that this dissertation entitled “EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF THE JWARAGHNA [ANTIPYRETIC] EFFECT OF VARIETIES OF PARPATAKA – [Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn] AND [Fumaria indica Pugsley]- A COMPARATIVE STUDY.” is a bonafide and genuine research work carried out by me under the guidance of Prof.Dr.H.R.Pradeep ,Department of Post Graduate Studies in Dravya Guna, A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College and P. G. Centre, Koppa. Date: Dr. Pallavi Varshney Place: Koppa P.G.Scholar, Dept. of Dravya Guna, A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa – 577 126
  3. 3. Department of Post graduate A.L.N.Rao Memorial AyurvedicStudies in DRAVYA GUNA Medical College Koppa – 577126 Dist: Chikmagalur CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF THE JWARAGHNA [ANTIPYRETIC ] EFFECT OF VARIETIES OF PARPATAKA – [Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn] AND [Fumaria indica Pugsley ]- A COMPARATIVE STUDY” is a bonafide research work done by Dr. Pallavi Varshney in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspati MD (Ayurveda) in Dravya Guna of Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka. Date: Guide: Place: Koppa Dr. H.R.Pradeep M.D (Ayu.) Faculty of Post graduate studies in Dravya Guna A.L.N.Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College Koppa.-577126
  4. 4. Department of Post graduate A.L.N.Rao Memorial AyurvedicStudies in DRAVYA GUNA Medical College Koppa – 577126 Dist: Chikmagalur CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF THE JWARAGHNA [ANTIPYRETIC ] EFFECT OF VARIETIES OF PARPATAKA –[Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn] AND [Fumaria indica Pugsley] is a bonafide research work done by Dr.Pallavi Varshney under the guidance of Dr.H.R.Pradeep in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspati (M.D)in Dravyaguna Vijnana of Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka.. Date: PROF. M. VIDYASAGAR M.D. (Ayu), (Pbi.U) Place: Koppa H.O.D.Faculty of Post graduate studies in Dravya Guna A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa – 577 126
  5. 5. COPYRIGHT I here by declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminate thisdissertation in print or electronic format for academic / research purpose. Dr.Pallavi VarshneyDate: P.G.Scholar, Dept. of Dravya Guna,Place: Koppa A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa – 577 126 Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka
  6. 6. Department of Post graduate A.L.N.Rao Memorial AyurvedicStudies in DRAVYA GUNA Medical College Koppa – 577126 Dist: Chikmagalur ENDORSEMENT This is to certify that the dissertation entitled EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF THE JWARAGHNA [ANTIPYRETIC] EFFECT OF VARIETIES OF PARPATAKA –[Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn] AND [Fumaria indica Pugsley] is a bonafide research work done by Dr.Pallavi Varshney under the guidance of Prof.Dr.H.R.Pradeep , Dept.of Post Graduate Studies in Dravya Guna A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College and P. G. Centre, Koppa. Date: Dr.Sanjay K.S B.Sc , M.D(Ayu) Place: Koppa PROFESSOR AND PRINCIPAL Dept.of Dravya guna Faculty of Post Graduation A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa – 577 126
  7. 7. AROOR LAXMINARAYANA RAO MEMORIAL AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, KOPPA – 577 126 AFFILIATED TO RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, BANGALORE, GOVT. OF KARNATAKA & CCIM, NEW DELHI INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL ETHICAL COMMITTEE REGISTRATION NO. 191/CPCSEAIAEC Approval No: A.E.D.G. 01/07 Date: ……………                                             CERTIFICATE This to certify that Dr. Pallavi Varshney, final year PG Scholar of DravyaGuna Department had completed her experimental study on Anti-pyretic activity as apart of her Dissertation work titled, – “ EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF THE JWARAGHNA [ANTI-PYRETIC]EFFECT OF VARIETIES OF PARPATAKA – [Oldenlandia corymbosa. Linn.] &[Fumaria indica.Pugsley] – A COMPARATIVE STUDY”, in the Animal Houseattached to the PG faculty of A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College & PGCentre. The animal model used for the experimental study was Wister strain Albinorats, maintained under standard hygienic conditions, fed with standard, regular diet &sufficient water. Experimentation was carried out on Albino rats after inducing Pyrexiawith Brewer’s Yeast. The observations & Parameters for evaluation were accuratelyrecorded for statistical evaluation.Dr. Hari Venkatesh. K. R. MD (Ay) Prof. Sanjaya. K. S. B.Sc., MD (Ay)Scientific Incharge – Animal House Principal / Chairman, IAEC
  8. 8.   ACKNOWLEDGEMENT To embark upon, I lay down this work with all its merits and demerits at theholy feet of Lord Ganesha , the vanquisher of all obstacles. This work is dedicated to my paternal grand parents Sri Kirorimal Varshneyand Srimati Gujari Devi, my maternal grand parents Dr.Ram Chandra Gupta, SrimatiSushila Gupta and my uncle Sri Dhruv Kumar Gupta who unfortunately are notphysically with me today to share my happiness. My deep sense of gratitude is due to my parents Shri Prem Chandra Varshneyand Dr.Sadhana Varshney who are the architects of my career and who haveinculcated in me the qualities of discipline, perseverance and dedication. I am highlyindebted to my elder brother Anurag Varshney whose enthusiasm and affectionprovides me with moral support .I am heartly grateful to my uncle Shri Ashok GuptaShri Shyam Pratap Singh , my aunts Dr.Purnima Varshney , Dr.Neelima Varshneyand my dear sisters Shreya and Shruti whose cheerful voices make me happy. I consider myself fortunate to have Prof. Dr. H.R.Pradeep as my guide .Helooks upon his students as his close friends and therefore one is free of all inhibitionsto interact with someone of such academic stature. My work and dissertation owesmuch to his support, criticism and guidance. Prof. Mullugo Vidyasagar (HOD of Dravyaguna Dept.), who literally is whathis name suggests, has been a great beacon of inspiration for me. His simplicity andlove is a great decorum to his great learning. I thank him whole heartedly for hisguidance and criticisms.  
  9. 9.   I express my deep sense of gratitude and heartfelt thanks to Prof. Dr.SanjayK.S, Principal, A.L.N.R.M.A.M.C for his kind help and encouragements during myPost Graduate program. I also thank Dr. D.K.Mishra, Vice Principal of P.G.Faculty and HOD ofRasashastra &Bhaishajyakalpana Department and Dr.P.K.Mishra, HOD ofDepartment of Kayachikitsa for their valuable support and academic inputs. I whole heartedly thank Prof.Radha Krishnan Rao and Dr.Prashant Kumar Jha,(HOD of Quality Control Lab.) for their valuable guidance in the pharmacognosticalaspect of this work. I thank Dr.Pai for helping me with the statistical work regardingthe animal experimentation. Sri Aroor Ramesh Rao, President Aroor Education Trust continues to inspireus all with his dedication and spirits. I thank him for all the support he provides uswith. I also remember with gratitude the contributions of Dr.Vinayak Bhatt,Dr.Illenchezhiyan, Dr. Hari Venkatesh ,Dr.Bhanu, Dr.Kareem, Dr.Srinivas andDr.Roshy in the completion of this work. I would like to thank my classmates Dr.Dayanand , Dr.Sushruta Dr.Madhu ,Dr.Priyalatha , Dr.Nisha babu, Dr.Prashant, Dr. Mahesh , Dr.Gotur , Dr.Mahantesh ,Dr.Arun for their support and guidance during my work . My heartfelt thanks is dueto my seniors Dr.Brijesh , Dr.Praveen , Dr.Roopesh and Dr.Vibhu who helped meduring my animal experimental studies. I extend my thanks to my juniors Dr.Sunanda,Dr.Anupma, Dr. Sree parvathi, Dr.Vidyavati Hiremath, Dr.Deepa , Dr.NarrappaReddy, Dr.Kiran, Dr.Jagdeesh Maiyya, Dr.Shukla , Dr.Prafulla and Dr. Sri Krishna I whole heartedly thank Miss Bhavya , who has been great support in thetimely completion of my laboratory studies and to the librarians Miss Manjamma ,  
  10. 10.  Miss Ameena yasmeen , Mr. Abdul Basheer who have all played their part byproviding me with all references. I also take the chance to express my sincere gratitude to the countless oneswho have all been directly or indirectly involved with my work and helped to makethis work what it is today.Date: Dr.Pallavi VarshneyPlace: Koppa  
  11. 11. LIST OF TABLES, CHARTS , GRAPHS AND PHOTOGRAPHS SL. TABLE CONTENTS PAGENO. NO. NO.01 3.1 Gana/varga of Parpataka in various texts 1202 3.2 Synonyms of Parpataka in various texts 1403 3.3 Guna-karma of Parpataka 1604 3.4 Prayoga of Parpataka mentioned in different texts 1605 3.5 Prayojyanga of Parpataka used in various texts 1806 3.6 Visishtayogas according to “Charaka Samhitha”. 1907 3.7 Visishtayogas according to “Susrutha Samhitha” 1908 3.8 Visishtayogas according to “Astanga Hridaya” 2009 3.9 Visishta Yogas according to “Sharangadhara Samhitha” 2010 3.10 Visishta Yogas according to Bhaishaja Ratnavali 2111 3.11 Chemical constituents of Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn. 2712 3.12 Chemical constituents of Fumaria indica Pugsley 3913 3.13 Deepana and Pachana drugs. 4714 3.14 Name of diseases which can be cured by Deepana 47 Pachana drugs15 3.15 Types of Jwara 5516 3.16 Jwara in various diseases 5917 3.17 Purvaroopa (premonitory symptoms) of jwara 6218 3.18 The Vishista Purvaroopa (special premonitory 63 symptoms)19 3.19 Causes of fever 7720 3.20 Different types of method of induction of fever in 79 animals21 4.1 Observations during preparation of kashaya 9422 4.2 Hourly mean temperature of albino rats of group 1 and 2 104 to evaluate the action of yeast on temperature in pilot study23 4.3 Showing behavioral changes of rats 10824 5.1 Mean hourly temperature in different groups of rats 11425 5.2 Statistical data of experimental groups 11626 5.3 Statistical analysis of obtained data 116
  12. 12. List of Charts SL. CHART CONTENTS PAGE NO. NO. NO.01 3.1 Types of Jwara 5602 3.2 Pathogenesis of Jwara 6003 3.3 Stages of treatment of Jwara 6504 3.4 Mechanism of pyrexia 7405 3.5 Mechanism in Brewer’s yeast induced 82 pyrexia List of GraphsSL. GRAPH NO. CONTENT PAGENO. NO.01 4.1 Effect of brewers yeast on body temperature 104 in albino rats02 5.1 Average initial temperatrure in five groups of 110 albino rats03 5.2 Average hourly temperature pattern in 111 control group04 5.3 Average hourly temperature pattern in 111 standard group05 5.4 Average hourly temperature pattern in trial 112 group 106 5.5 Average hourly temperature pattern in trial 112 group 207 5.6 Hourly mean temperature of albino rats of 113 CG, SG, TG1, TG208 5.7 Average temperature in individual rats in 115 different groups09 5.8 Grand average temperature in individual rats 115 in different groups List of PhotographsSl. No. Photo 01 Photographs of Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn. 02 Photographs of Fumaria indica Pugsley 03 Microscopy of Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn. 04 Microscopy of Fumaria indica Pugsley 05 TLC of Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn and Fumaria indica Pugsley 06 Photographs of Trial Drugs 07 Experimental study photos 08 Experimental study photos
  13. 13. ABBREVIATIONA.H - Astanga HridayaA.N - Ashtanga NighantuA.P.I - Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of IndiaA.S - Astanga SangrahaB.N - Bhavaprakasha NighantuBhai.Rat. - Bhaishajya RatnavaliC.C.R.A.S - Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and SiddhaC.S. - Charaka SamhitaCD - Chakra DattaD.N - Dhanvantari NighantuI.M.M - Indian Materia Medica by K.M.NadkarniI.M.P - Indian Medicinal Plants by Kirtikar &BasuK.N - Kaiyyadeva NighantuK.S - Kashyapa SamhitaM.N - Madanapala NighantuN.A - Nighantu AdarshaP.N - Priya NighantuR.M - Raja MartandaR.N - Raja NighantuS.B - Siddha Bheshaja ManimalaS.S - Sushruta SamhitaSha.Sam - Sharangadhara SamhitaSha.N - Shaligrama NighantuSl. No - Serial Number
  14. 14. So.N - Shodhala NighantuSou.N - Soushrutha NighantuUtt.tan. - UttaratantraV.M - VrindamadhavaW.O.I - Wealth of IndiaY.R - Yogaratnakara+ - Mentioned-  - Not Mentioned
  15. 15.    ABSTRACTBACKGROUND In the present day jwara is common complaint brought by patients to theclinical practitioner. There is hardly any person of either sex who may not havesuffered from jwara in one or the other stage of his life. It often occurs as a diseaseitself or as a symptom of some other disease. In both the cases however, it has to bedealt with accurately else it may lead to fatal consequences. Jwara has been described in detail in both Brihatrayees and Laghutrayees. Ithas been called Rogaraja -King of all diseases. Acharya Charaka says that jwara ispresent both at the time of birth and death .This shows the prevalence and dominanceof jwara in those days. In the book Indian medicinal plants and Indian materia medica we get lots ofreferences regarding Parpataka. Almost all the classical books have mentioned aboutthe jwaraghna effect of Parpataka. Although many medicinal plants are used to overcome jwara still there is needfor a sufficiently potent, safer, cost effective and commonly available drug which canbe easily administered and assimilated in the body and does the therapeutic actionswithout any side effects. In the present study two varieties of Parpataka (Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn.and Fumaria indica Pugsley) have been taken to evaluate their jwaraghna effect .Bothof these are commonly available in their respective areas .In the present study it isintended to draw the attention of people towards these commonly growing herbswhich can be easily collected and used to prepare the required formulation    
  16. 16.   OBJECTIVES 1. The main objective of the study is to experimentally evaluate and compare the Jwaraghna (antipyretic) effect of two varieties of Parpataka – Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn and Fumaria indica Pugsley in Albino rats where pyrexia has been induced by administering yeast. 2. To evaluate and establish most efficient drug among the two varieties of Parpataka- Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn and Fumaria indica Pugsley.METHODS Ayurvedic and other related modern texts were screened for the literaryresearch regarding the varieties of Parpataka as Jwaraghna. Efficacy of the drugs wasconducted experimentally on four groups of albino rats, each group consisting of sixrats, to evaluate its Antipyretic i.e. Jwaraghna property. For all the rats pyrexia isinduced by injecting 20% of Brewers yeast solution subcutaneously at the thighregion. Four groups are assigned as follows, namely, G1 - Control group – Distilled water (Placebo) G2 - Standard group – Paracetamol suspensions G3 - Trial group 1 – Kwatha of Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn. G4 - Trial group 2 – Kwatha of Fumaria indica Pugsley    
  17. 17.   RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Four groups were evaluated for their Jwaraghna i.e. antipyretic property andfollowing results were obtained.No decrease in temperature was found in the control group (G 1) even at the end of14th hour. Both the trial drugs showed significant antipyretic effect when compared toControl group. Both the trial drugs i.e. Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn. And Fumaria indicaPugsley showed similar results upon statistically comparing with each other.However, the grand average of temperature in Fumaria indica Pugsley was the leastand so it had better efficacy in controlling the temperature.CONCLUSION Oral administration of Paracetamol suspension for Jwara is undoubtedly verybeneficial, but its side effect cannot be escaped from, its contra-indications cannot beignored and many patients are sensitive to it. So, Parpataka panchanga Kwatha, whichis natural and safe, and has showed beneficial action on Jwara by reducing thetemperature to normalcy within stipulated time, is considered best among all thegroups. The result of this study, through animal experimentation has its ownlimitations; hence further clinical evaluation must be carried out to study its efficacybefore administering to fever patients successfully.KEY WORDS Jwaraghna property; Antipyretic; Parpataka panchanga kwatha; Distilledwater; Paracetamol suspension; Temperature; Brewer’s yeast.    
  18. 18. CONTENTS TOPIC PAGE NO.1. Chapter 1 – INTRODUCTION 1-62. Chapter 2 – OBJECTIVES 73. Chapter 3 – REVIEW OF LITERATURE a) DRUG REVIEW 8-45 b) DISEASE REVIEW 46-864. Chapter 4 – MATERIALS AND METHODS 87-1095. Chapter 5 – RESULTS 110-1186. Chapter 6 – DISCUSSION 119-1257. Chapter 7 – CONCLUSION 126-1278. Chapter 8 – SUMMARY 128-130 BIBLIOGRAPHY
  19. 19. Introduction CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine native to India. It is the sciencewhich deals with the principles and practices of the ways of happy and healthy living.It is a systematic line of treatment considered as the upveda of atharvaveda. Etymology of the term Ayurveda is “Ayus” means span of life and “Vedas”means science. Hence it is the science of life which deals not only with the preventionof diseases but also with the promotion of health and longevity. Ayurveda is a tradition of health. The tradition started from the creator ofthe earth himself – Bramha and went upto many holy sages. These sages had freedthemselves of all wordly desires by means of spiritual endeavours and acquiring thegift of universal knowledge. According to the shastras the knowledge of Ayurveda was imparted byBramha to Daksha prajapati. From him it descended to two Ashwini kumars and laterto lord Indra. The sages like Atri, Bharadwaja etc. moved by the afflictions of peopledue to various diseases approached lord Indra and brought Ayurveda down to theearth. This legend depicts the origin of Ayurveda which has since then continued onthe earth. Ayurveda is a science which advocates the maintainence of health andrelieves the sufferings of human beings which includes both shariraka (physical) andmanas (mind) ailments. Written documentation of Ayurveda in a more rational manner in the formof Sanskrit shlokas is available in the Brihattrayees. Later laghutrayees and nighantushave further elaborated the medicine related matter. Page 1 
  20. 20. Introduction The concepts mentioned in Ayurveda as dincharya, ritucharya, sadvritta areunique to it alone. In no other science do we find such elaborate discussion anddescription of the daily regimen to be followed by individuals. These and many moreare the ancient wisdoms the treasure knowledge of which is still in acceptance andrecognition. SÉåwÉkÉÉiÉÑqÉsÉqÉÔsÉÇ ÌWû zÉUÏUqÉç | ( xÉÑ.xÉÔ.15/3 ) Dosha, dhatus, malas are the three basic units of the human body. Both theuniverse and the human body are formed of the panchmahabhutas- Akasha, vayu,agni, jala and prithvi So naturally there is harmony between the universe and man.The balance or imbalance in either of them equally affects the other one. A person isseen in Ayurveda as a unique individual made up of the five mahabhutas . Ayurvedagives us a model to look at each individual as a unique make up of three doshas andto thereby design treatment protocols that specifically address a persons healthchallenges. When any of the doshas get aggravated Ayurveda will suggest specificlife style and nutritional guidelines to assist the individual in reducing the doshas.Also aushadhis (medicines) will be suggested to cure the imbalance and the disease. Ayurveda aims at keeping equilibrium in the doshas, dhatus and malas astheir imbalance may lead to disintegration of the body or death of the individual.Themain aim of Ayurveda is to maintain the health of a healthy person and to give reliefto the people suffering from illness. Ayurveda believes that the excellence of heathforms the basis of the chaturvidha purushartha – dharma, artha, kama and moksha.These incorporate the entire achievements of human life and on the other hand illhealth annhiliate the wellbeing of the people. Page 2 
  21. 21. Introduction The principles and philosophy of Ayurveda view man as an intricate wholetogether with our external and internal environments .The doctrines are derived fromthe universal laws of nature that have not changed a little with time. The human being comprises of three parts namely –body, mind and the soul.For all these Ayurvedic scholars developed different types of treatment as follows-1.Yuktivyapashraya chikitsa – treatment using herbs, food items, drinks like- milk,buttermilk and even water.2. Daivavyapashraya chikitsa – treatment by doing yajnas(holy rituals), offerings to the natural powers and reciting the chants .3. Satwawajayachikitsa – treatment by keeping mind away from bad ideas. Ayurveda has the following unique concepts-(1) To pacify the vitiated doshaswithout disturbing the normal one (2) To reverse the pathology and get back thephysiology of the body (3) To eliminate the doshas that have exceeded the normallimit (4) To bring the harmony among different body parts after cure of a disease(5) During treatment no other disease should appear i.e. there should be no sideeffect. Plants have been used for medicinal purpose ever since man began caring forhis body and health .For centuries the world has depended on plants as a source ofhealing. Ayurveda continues to depend on medicinal plants as raw material forformulation of drugs. Large numbers of medicinal plants have been screened byscientists of various disciplines as agriculture, botany, chemistry, pharmacology andtoxicology. Today people look upon drugs of synthetic origin as substances thathinder the functions of the body. Such is not the case with drugs of vegetable origin,which in their natural state meets nutritional conditions of the system. The present day has showed the necessity of using herbs and plants inpreference to synthetics. There is great to study the plants both carefully and Page 3 
  22. 22. Introductionsystematically .Botanical description and vernacular nomenclature, illustrations provegreat help in identifying them. The next step is to study their properties and uses. Weshould consider the uses to which the plants were put to by our Acharyas. Plants owetheir virtues as medical agents to certain characteristic principles present in them.These should be isolated .The chemical analysis help in determining actions ofmedicines in health and disease. The modern method of therapeutic evaluation is firstto observe the action of a drug in a healthy animal and then to make the resultsapplicable to man. While explaining the chatushpadas all the samhitakaras have givenimportance first to physicians and then to dravya. Complete knowledge of dravya ismuch necessary to the physician. The physician who knows about the selection andadministration of drugs in accordance to time, place, nature of drug and person etc. isconsidered as the best physician in Ayurveda. From 19th Century onwards researches have been carried out on plants on thebasis of modern scientific parameters to prove their therapeutic efficacy as analgesics,antipyretics, wound healers etc. This helps in proving the efficacy of Ayurvedic drugsby modern methods. Jwara is the most common disease as well as symptom of manydiseases which affects anyone regardless of age or sex. Keeping all this in mind the present study has been taken up related toantipyretics i.e. drugs curing pyrexia (fever). Fever can be defined as a regulatedelevation in body temperature above the customary set point of the hypothalamicthermostat, which means a body temperature above the usual range of normal. It maybe caused by abnormalities in the brain itself or by toxic substances that affecttemperature regulating centers. These include bacterial diseases, brain tumors, andenvironmental condition that may terminate in heat stroke. Page 4 
  23. 23. Introduction The reorganization of fever as a sign of disease goes back to ancient times.Depending upon the periodicity, severity, causative factors Acharya Charaka,Sushruta, and Vagbhata described various types of fevers. Modern texts also givemuch importance to fever. Acharya Charaka has given prime importance to Jwara because according tohim, Jwara is suppose to be present both during the time of birth and death, it is asymptom of all somatic diseases and recognized it as most important cause for death.The father of medicine Hippocrates also has given the importance to Jwara bycharting the temperature pattern of different fevers. Jwara was said to be born from the anger of lord Rudra who was insulted byDakhsha. It is of eight kinds, in which obstruction to perspiration, increase in bodytemperature and pain all over the body are found to be the main symptoms. Pitta issaid to be the main Dosha involved in producing ushnata in sharira. Amatva is the root cause for Jwara. Swedavarodha, santapa are the result ofpathogenesis of Jwara. Irregular food habits and regimens result in vitiation ofdoshas. These get mixed up with Jataragni; the resulting Rasa dhatu which is invikruta condition obstructs the channel of sweda and suppresses the activity of Agni,thus dispelling the heat from the site of digestion. The Anna rasa thus produced incirculation spreads the heat all over the body resulting in Jwara. Charakacharya has mentioned a group of 10 plants which are jwaraghna andhas called them jwaraghna dasemani. Susrutacharya mentions sarivadi, patoladi, andamalakyadi ganas as jwaraghna .These groups contain drugs that are bitter in tasteand cold in potency beneficial in reducing the body temperature. Acharya Charakahas mentioned Parpataka in trishnanigrahana mahakasaya and Acharya Vagbhatta(A.H) in trishaghna gana. Page 5 
  24. 24. Introduction For the present study Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn and Fumaria indicaPugsley have been taken to conduct a comparative study on the efficacy of theirjwaraghna effect.In the last few decades increasing use of synthetic drugs for treatment has been foundto have various side effects sometimes leading to fatal consequences. So, Ayurvedahas acquired greater importance which uses naturally growing plants as the mainsource of treatment. The main criteria for evaluating this plant parpataka as jwaraghna was itsmedicinal properties and pharmacodynamics according to the classics and no sideeffects as found with the use of synthetic drugs. The kwatha (decoction) of thepanchanga (whole plant) of Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn and Fumaria indicaPugsley have been taken up for the present study. A comparative study to evaluate theefficacy of the drugs is undertaken on wister strain albino rats in which pyrexia isinduced artificially by brewers yeast method of Gerhard vogel. As most of the population in the universe suffers from fever at least once in ayear and for getting a good relief every one has to depend on medicine likeParacetamol etc, whose side effects can not be ignored. So here an attempt is made toarrive at a herbal alternative for modern antipyretics. They are devoid of side effects,can be collected easily and are commonly available in domestic surroundings, makingthem very cost effective. After considering the above facts, these drugs are taken upfor research study in experimental trials. So in this dissertation work, an attempt hasbeen made to determine and establish the Jwaraghna property of the drugs and theirefficacy as a single drug. Page 6 
  25. 25. Objectives CHAPTER –II OBJECTIVESThe present study is based on the following objectives:  To experimentally evaluate and compare the Jwaraghna (antipyretic) property of varieties of Parpataka through biostatistical analysis. Its panchanga (whole plant) kwatha is given to albino rats where pyrexia is induced by administering yeast.  To carry detailed literary research on the drugs Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn and Fumaria indica Pugsley on reviewing contemporary and modern publication under drug profile.  Detailed analysis of the panchanga of Parpataka under pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies.Hypothesis: NULL HYPOTHESIS -The selected two drugs do not have antipyretic activity. ALTERNATE HYPOTHESIS - The selected two drugs have antipyretic activity. Page 7 
  26. 26. Drug Review CHAPTER III.A DRUG REVIEW Parpataka is a commonly available drug described in detail in Ayurvedicclassical texts. The references of this drug are also available in the Samhitas, andNighantus. It is having significant role in treating different diseases. Oldenlandiacorymbosa Linn and Fumaria indica Pugsley are commonly available in theirrespective areas and are used in the form of both single drugs and compoundformulations. The literatures regarding Parpataka obtained from different texts arecompiled under the following headings: Historical Review Gana Varga Nirukti and Paryayas Vernacular names Morphology Varieties Parts used Matra Pharmacognosy Guna Karma Therapeutic indications Uses in other systems of medicine Page 8 
  27. 27. Drug Review Cultivation and propagation Research works ReferencesPARPATAKA HISTORY 1,2,3,4 VEDIC PERIOD There are no references regarding Parpataka during the Vedic period. SAMHITA PERIODCHARAKA SAMHITA Acharya Charaka has mentioned Parpataka as an ingredient of manyformulations in the treatment of Jwara , Raktapitta , Kushtha , Yakshma , Grahani ,Daha , Arsha , Bhagandara , Visphota , Hikka , Swasa , Atisara etc.SUSHRUTA SAMHITA Acharya Sushruta has mentioned this drug as an ingredient of manycompound formulations in the treatment of Jwara , Raktapitta , Kushtha , Yakshma ,Grahani , Arsha , Pandu , Swasa and Atisara in chikitsa sthana. Parpataka has beentold in Uttara tantra also.ASHTANGA SANGRAHA Acharya Vagbhata has highlighted this drug for the treatment of Pittaja jwaraas a compound formulation in combination with other drugs in Chikitsa sthana Page 9 
  28. 28. Drug ReviewASHTANGA HRIDAYA Acharya Vagbhata has indicated this drug for relieving Jwara , KushthaAruchi , Grahani , Daha , Swasa , Atisara and Gulma in chikitsa sthana.NIGHANTUSDHANWANTARI NIGHANTU Parpataka along with its synonyms, guna, karma and yogas has beenmentioned in this nighantu.RAJA NIGHANTU Parpataka along with its guna and prayojyanga has been mentioned in thisnighantu.KAIYADEVA NIGHANTU It has been mentioned along with its synonyms, guna and karma.BHAVAPRAKASHA NIGHANTU It has been enlisted in this nighantu along with guna, karma and paryayas.Different plants used in different areas in the name of parpataka have also beenmentioned.MADANAPALA NIGHANTU Parpataka along with its synonyms and karmas has been mentioned in thisnighantu.MAHAUSHADHI NIGHANTU It has been enlisted in this nighantu along with its guna , karma and paryayas.NIGHANTU ADARSHA It has been explained in two vargas along with its guna and karma Page 10 
  29. 29. Drug ReviewPRIYA NIGHANTU It has been explained in this nighantu along with its guna and karmaMODERN PERIOD Recent books like Dravyaguna Vijnana by Prof. P.V.Sharma, IndigenousDrugs of India, Classical Uses of Indian Medicinal Plants, Database on Medicinalplants used in Ayurveda and others have covered the drug Parpataka in detail alongwith its chemical constituents. In the local market we get the following plants in the name of Parpataka-Justicia procumbens(Acanthaceae), Rungia repens (Acanthaceae), Mullugooppositaefolia (Ficoideae), Polycarpea corymbosa(Polygonaceae), Glossocardiaboswellia (Asteraceae).GANA – VARGA 1,2,3,4 Acharyas have used different criterias such as habitat, morphology, actionsfor classifying drugs in their samhitas. Acharya Charaka has enumerated 50Mahakashayas each of which contains 10 drugs. Specific names have been assignedto each based on the common pharmacological action that they perform. Acharya Sushruta has grouped several drugs into 37 ganas and named themby 1st. drug mentioned in the group. Vagbhatta has followed both the styles and listeddrugs in different groups based either on action or known by first drug in the gana. Nighantukaras have also classified drugs on the basis of different criteriassuch as habitat, morphology etc.SAMHITAS  Charaka – Trishnanigrahana mahakashaya , Shaka varga  Vagbhatta (A.S.) – Trishnaghna gana ; (A.H.) – Shaka varga Page 11 
  30. 30. Drug ReviewNIGHANTUS  Dhanwantari Nighantu :- Guduchyadi varga  Raja Nighantu :- Parpatadi varga  Kaiydeva Nighantu :- Aushadhi varga  Shaligrama Nighantu :- Guduchyadi varga  Bhavaprakasha Nighantu :- Guduchyadi varga  Madanapala Nighantu :- Haritakyadi varga  Mahaushadhi Nighantu :- Bilwadi varga  Nighantu Adarsha :- Parpatadi varga  Priya Nighantu :- Shatpushpadi vargaThe gana/vargas of Parpataka in various texts have been shown in the table below Gana / Varga C A A D R K B M MH N P SH S S H N N N N N N A N N Trishnanigrahana + - - - - - - - - - - - Shaka varga - - + - - - - - - - - - Guduchyadi - - - + - - + - - - - + varga Parpatadi varga - - - - + - - - - + - - Aushadhi varga - - - - - + - - - - - - Haritakyadi - - - - - - - + - - - - varga Bilwadi varga - - - - - - - - + - - - Shatpushpadi - - - - - - - - - - + - varga Trishaghna varga - + - - - - - - - - - - Manjishthadi - - - - - - - - - + - - varga Table no. 3.1 Page 12 
  31. 31. Drug ReviewPARYAYAS 5,9,14,16,24,26 In olden days there was no system of morphological description andidentification of plants by means of photographs as done nowadays. The purposehowever was fulfilled by coining synonyms based on the salient features of the plantsuch as habitat, morphological characters, potency and properties. Nighantus made the task of identifying the plants easy for the physician bycoining synonyms based on these criterias. The process was continuous and newsynonyms were being coined from time to time. In some cases this has resulted inconfusion as the same synonym has been assigned to different plants, yet these stillremain a useful tool in ascertaining the correct identity of plants. NIRUKTI-1. mÉmÉïOûMÇü – mÉmÉïÇ –mÉÚ mÉÉsÉlÉÉSÉæ | mÉmÉï +AOûlÉç | (AOûlÉÇ =pÉëqÉhÉÇ) (zÉ.Mü.SìÓ.) It grows in many places or mÉmÉïÌiÉ aÉcNûÌiÉ zÉÏiÉsÉiuÉÉÌSaÉÑhÉÉlÉç CÌiÉ | mÉmÉï aÉiÉÉæ | (ÌlÉ.AÉ) It is known for its cooling effect2.xÉÔ¤qÉmÉ§É - xÉÔ¤qÉÉÍhÉ AhÉÔÌlÉ mɧÉMüÉÌlÉ xÉlirÉxrÉÉÈ (Sì.aÉÑ.Wû) Its leaflets are small in size3.euÉUÉËU -euÉUxrÉ AËUÈ zɧÉÑÈlÉÉzÉMüÉå uÉÉ CÌiÉ (ÌlÉ.AÉ.) It is the enemy of jwara4. uÉUÌiÉ£üÉ – uÉUÉ ´Éå¸É ÌiÉ£üÉæwÉÍkÉ È | (pÉÉ.mÉë.ÌlÉ.) It is one of the best bitters5. MüOÒûmÉ§É –MüOÒûMüÉÌlÉ mɧÉÉhrÉxrÉÉÈ | (UÉ.ÌlÉ.) The leaves are katu in taste6. U£åümÉÑwmÉMüÈ -U£üÉÌlÉ mÉÑwmÉÉhrÉxrÉÉÈ | (pÉÉ.mÉë.ÌlÉ.) Page 13 
  32. 32. Drug Review Flowers are red in colour.7.iÉ×whÉÉËU – iÉ×whÉÉÇ WûliÉÏÌiÉ | (UÉ.ÌlÉ.) It passifies thirst8.ÌmɨÉÉËU – ÌmɨÉlÉÉzÉMüÈ | (UÉ.ÌlÉ) It destroys pitta or diseases caused due to aggravated pitta.The synonyms of Parpataka used in various texts have been shown below Paryaya C S A D R MH K B M P Sha. N S S H N N N N N N N N A Parpataka + + + + + + + + + + + + Varatikta - - - + - + + + + - + - Sutikta - - - + + - - - - - - - Renu - + - + + + + - + - - - Kavacha - - - + + + - + + - + - Varma kantaka - - - + + - - - + - - - Himapriya - - - - - + - - - - - - Pamshu - - - + + + - + - - + - Shitavallabha - - - - - + + - - - - - Jwarari - - - - - + - - - - - - Sheetapriya - - - - + - - - - - - - Kalapangi - - - - + - - - - - - - Raktepushpaka - - - - + - - - - - - - Katupatra - - - - + - - - - - - - Krishashaka - - - - + - - - - - - - Tishnari - - - - + - - - - - - - Sukshmapatra - - - - - - - - - - - - Rajah - - - + + - + - - - - - Pittari - - - - + - - - - - - - Page 14 
  33. 33. Drug Review Triyashti - - - - - + - - - - - - Charaka - - - - + - - - - - - - Tiktaka - - - - - - - - - - - - Varaka - - - - - - - - - - - - Kharaka - - - - + - - - - - - - Prithwika - - - - - - - - + - - - Charmakantaka - - - - - - + - + - - - Table no. 3.2GUNA- KARMA 1, 2, 3,4,5,9 The pharmacological properties of drugs which are responsible for all actions ofany drug are rasa , guna , virya , and vipaka. Whether a drug is used as ahara oraushdha whatever actions it performs is due to its guna and karma. These guna andkarmas vary according to the panchbhautika composition of the drug. Rasa, guna,virya and vipaka form the base of pharmacology in Ayurveda. Due to these propertiesa drug acts in a disease .For eg. If there is a vitiation of doshas then drugs withopposite properties are used to subdue them. Likewise if there is kshaya of doshasthen the drugs with same gunas are used to raise them to the required level. All theseactions of drugs are dependent on rasa , guna , virya and vipaka. The pharmacological actions of rasa , guna, virya and vipaka of parpataka arementioned in detail in the samhitas and nighantus. In this study they are presented inthe following table Page 15 
  34. 34. Drug Review Guna Karma C S A D R MH K B M P N S S H N N N N N N N A Rasa Tikta + + + + + + + + + + + Guna Sheeta + + + + + + + + + + + Usna - - - - - - - - - - - Laghu + - - - + + + + - + Guru - - - - - - - - - - - Veerya Sheeta + + + + + + + + + + + Vipaka Katu + - - - - - + + - + + Karma Pitthara + + + + + + + + + + + Jwaraghna + + + + + + + + + + + Dahahara + - + + + + + + + + + Kusthagna + + + - - - - - - - + Shothara + + - - - - - - - - - Arshoghna + + - - - - - - - - - Grahi + + + - - + + + + + + Swasaghna + + + - - - - - - - - Pipasahara + - + + - + + + - + + Sulahara + + - + - - - - - - - Table no.3.3THERAPEUTIC INDICATION 1,2,3,4,5,9Prayoga C S A A D R MH K B M P SH S N S S S H N N N N N N N N N AJwara + + + + + + + + + + + + + +Raktapitta + + + + + + + + + + - + + +Kushtha + + - + - - - - + - - - - + Page 16 
  35. 35. Drug ReviewAruchi - - + + + + - + - - - - - +Rajyakshma + + - - - - - - - - - - - -Grahani + + - + - - - - - - - - - -Daha + - + + + + + + + + + + - +Shotha + + + + - - - - - - - - - -Arsha + + - + - - - - - - - - - -Bhagandara + - - + - - - - - - - - - -Raktapradara + - - + - - - - - - - - - -Visphota + - - - - - - - - - - - - +Pleehavriddhi - + - - - - - - - - - - - +Kasa + + + + - - - - - - - - + -Pandu + + - + - - - - - - - - - -Hikka + - + - - - - - - - - - - -Shwasa + + + + - - - - + - - - - -Atisara + + + + - - + + - + + - + +Visarpa + + - + - - - - - - - - + +Madatyaya + - - - + + - + - - - + - -Pipasa + - + + + - + + + + + + + +Amsashula + - - - - - - - - - - - - -Parshwashula + + - + - - - - - - - - - -Gulma - + - + - - - - - - - - - -Napumsakta - + - - - - - - - - - - - -Urdhwajatru- - + + + - - - - - - - - - -gata rogaPittaja roga + + + + + + - + + + + + + +Shirah shula + + - - - - - - - - - - -Kaphavataja - + + + + + + + + + - - + -JwaraGandamala - + - - - - - - + - - - - -Hridaroga + + - + - - - - - - - - - -Unmada + + - + - - - - - - - - - -Apasmara + + - + - - - - - - - - - -Kandu + + - + - - - - - - - - - -Pama + + - + - - - - - - - - - -Nadivrana - - - + - - - - - - - - - - Page 17 
  36. 36. Drug Review Apachi - - - + - - - - - - - - - - Kamla + + - + - - + - - - - - - - Mukhroga + - - + - - - - - - - - - - Table no.3.4 PARTS USED 6,9,15,16 D R MH K B M N P W K I Parts used N N N N N N A N O & M I B M Moola - - - - - - - - - - + Kanda - - - - - - - - - - + Patra - - - - - - - - - - + Panchang + + + - + + + + + + + a Table no.3.5 POSOLOGY 6,7,9,16 The word posology is derived from the Greek word “posos” means “howmuch” and “logos” means “science”. It is the branch of science that deals with dosesor quantity of drug that is to be administered to patients to produce requiredpharmacological action. DOSAGE OF PARPATAKAAccording to Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India-Powder =1-3 g.According to Database on medicinal plants used in Ayurveda-Powder =3-6gDecoction = 50-100ml. Page 18 
  37. 37. Drug ReviewAccording to Dravyaguna Vijnana by Y.T.Acharya-Powder =5-7mashaDecoction =5 tola VISHISHTA YOGASVishishta yogas according to Charaka Samhita are given in the table below: Sl.No. YOGAS INDICATIONS REFERENCES 1. Trishnanigrahana Trishna in jwara Su.Sth. 4/13 Mahakasaya 2. Shadanga paniya Jwara , Pipasa Chi.Sth. 3/145 3. Baladi ghrita Jwara , Ksaya , Chi.Sth. Kasa 3/225,226 4. Kiratatiktadi kwatha Punravartaka Chi.Sth. 3/343 jwara 5. Hriberadi paniya Pipasa in Chi.Sth. 4/31 Raktapitta 6. Kiratatikadi churna Raktapitta Chi.Sth. 4/74 7. Tiktashatpala ghrita Kushtha ,Arsha Chi.Sth. 7/142 Pandu 8. Mahatiktaka ghrita Vatarakta , Pandu Chi.Sth. 7/148 9. Mahakhadira ghrita Kushtha Chi.Sth. 7/153 10. Duralabhadya ghrita Jwara , Kasa , Chi.Sth.8 /106 Amsashula 11. Kiratadya churna Grahani , Gulma Chi.Sth. 15/139 ,Kamla 12. Bhunimbadi kshara Grahani Chi.Sth. 15/182 13. Katukadya ghrita Bhagandara, Chi.Sth. 16/48 Raktapradara 14. Katphaladi kwatha Kasa ,Swasa, Chi.Sth. 18/112 Hikka 15. Drakshadi kwatha Visarpa Chi.Sth. 21/57 Table no.3.6Vishishta yogas according to Sushruta Samhita are given in the table below: Sl.No. YOGAS INDICATIONS REFERENCES 1. Mahatiktaka ghrita Kushtha , Vishama Chi.Sth. 9/8,9 jwara , Gandamala Page 19 
  38. 38. Drug Review 2. Mrinaladi taila Pittaja roga Chi.Sth. 37/31 3. Nagardi kwatha Shwasa , Kasa , Utt.tan. 39/193 Kantha shotha 4. Kalashyadi ghritam Jirna jwara , Kasa , Utt.tan39/226 Kshaya 5. Triphaladi ghritam Visarpa , Kushtha , Utt.tan39/246 Pleeha vriddhi 6. Patoladi ghritam Netra roga , Vrana Utt.tan. 39/253 Table no. 3.7Vishishta yogas according to Ashtanga Hridaya are enlisted in the table: Sl.No. YOGAS INDICATIONS REFERENCES . 1. Shadanga paniya Jwara , Pipasa Chi.Sth. 1/15 2. Patoladi churna Grahani, Gulma Chi.Sth. 10/34 3. Tiktaka ghrita Kushtha, Pandu Chi.Sth. 19/3-8 Visphota, Vidradhi 4. Patoladi ghrita Visarpa , Timira, Utt.tan. 13/7 Apachi Table no. 3.8Vishishta yogas according to Sharangdhara Samhita are enlisted in the table below Sl. YOGAS INDICATIONS REFERENCES No. 1. Parpatadi kwatha Pipasa yukta jwara Sha.Sam.Mad.2/15 2. Panchabhadra kwatha Vatapittaja Jwara Sha.Sam.Mad.2/20 3. Katphaladi kwatha Hikka , Kasa , Sha.Sam.Mad.2/45 Swasa , Galagraha Page 20 
  39. 39. Drug Review 4. Guduchi kwatha Jeerna jwara Sha.Sam.Mad 2/47 5. Brihadkshudradi kwatha Sheeta jwara Sha.Sam.Mad 2/53 6. Guduchyadi kwatha Jwaratisara Sha.Sam.Mad 2/61 7. Brihanmanjishthadi kwatha Kushtha , Vatarakta Sha.Sam.Mad Updamsha , 2/142 Pakshghata 8. Dhanyakadi hima Raktapitta , Daha Sha.Sam.Mad 4/8 9. Sudarshana churna Jwara , Swasa, Sha.Sam.Mad 6/36 Pandu 10. Mahatiktaka ghrita Vatarakta , kushtha Sha.Sam.Mad 9/45 11. Ushirasava Raktapitta , pandu , Sha.Sam.Mad prameha 10/14-17 Table no. 3.9Vishishta yogas according to Bhaishajya Ratnavali are enlisted in the tableSl.No. YOGAS INDICATIONS REFERENCES1. Mustparpatakadi kwatha Jwara Bhai.Rat.5/682. Drakshadi kwatha Daha, jwara , Bhai.Rat. 5/99 raktapitta3. Hriberadi kwatha Jwara , pipasa, Bhai.Rat. 5/101 daha4. Kiratadi kwatha Pittaja jwara Bhai.Rat. 5/105 Page 21 
  40. 40. Drug Review5. Lodhradi kwatha Pittaja jwara Bhai.Rat. 5/1126. Ghanachandanadi kwatha Trishna , aruchi Bhai.Rat. 5/1607. Bharangyadi kwatha Pittakapha Jwara Bhai.Rat. 5/1828. Darvyadi kwatha Hikka ,Swasa Bhai.Rat 5/2039. Padmakadi kwatha Sannipata jwara Bhai.Rat. 5/28310. Dasyadi kwatha Jeerna jwara Bhai.Rat. 5/35511. Ushirasava Pandu ,Kushtha, Bhai.Rat. 13/163 Prameha12. Baladya ghrita Kshaya ,kasa, Bhai.Rat. 14/240 parshwa shoola13. Tiktaka ghrita Shotha ,Arsha Bhai.Rat. 54/239 Grahani, Pandu14. Mahatiktaka ghrita Visarpa, Amlapitta, Bhai.Rat. 54/243 Vatarakta15. Somaraji ghrita Amavata, Bhai.Rat. 54/250 Aptantraka ,Pradara16. Mahakhadiraka ghrita Kushtha Bhai.Rat. 54/26217. Bhaskaramritabhrakam Amlapitta Bhai.Rat. 56/38 ,Visphota ,Kushtha Table no. 3.10AMAYIKA PRAYOGA (Therapeutic Uses) 1,2,3,4,23 JWARA  Parpataka itself is sufficient for alleviation of Pittaja jwara let alone if it is combined with Balaka , Chandana , Shunthi .(V.M 1.97 , B.P Chi.1.348 )  Parpataka with shunthi is recommended for alleviation of all types of fever. (R.M.21.3) Page 22 
  41. 41. Drug Review Habitual intake of decoction of Parpataka, Musta, Kiratatikta, Amrita cures punaravartaka jwara. (C.Chi 3.333 ) Decoction or infusion of musta and Parpataka given in the morning alleviates jwara. (C.Chi 3.197) Parpataka can be used as vegetable by the patients of jwara. (S.U.39.152) Parpataka alone or combined with Guduchi, Amalaka alleviates fever caused by pitta. (A.S.Chi1.75 , V.M.1.94,99 , B.P.Chi 1.347 ) RAKTAPITTA Parpataka with equal quantity of Chandana, sugar and tandula as infusion or decoction cures Raktapitta. (C.Chi 4/75) TWAK VIKARA Patient of visarpa having thirst should drink infusion of Duralabha, Parpataka, Guduchi, and Vishvabheshaja. (C.Chi 18/6) Cold decoction of Draksha, Parpataka, Shunthi, Guduchi and Dhanvayasa are useful for treating visarpa. (C.Chi 21/58) GRAHANI Powder of Parpataka, Bhunimba, Rohini, Tikta, Patola is triturated with buffalo’s urine and cooked to make kshara (alkali).Intake of this alkali promotes agni. (C.Chi 15/181) ATISARA Water well cooked with Vacha, Prativisha, Musta, Parpataka should be given to drink in diarrhoea. (A.H.Chi.9/8) Decoction of musta and Parpataka are useful in paittika atisara. (C.Chi.19/22 ) Page 23 
  42. 42. Drug Review PIPASA  Infusion of Draksha, Parpataka, Shunthi, Guduchi and Dhanvayasa are useful for cure of morbid thirst. (V.M.) MADATYAYA  Patients should be given water boiled with Musta and Parpataka for pachana of doshas in kaphaja madatyaya. (C.Chi.24/166) CHARDI  Cooled decoction of parpata mixed with honey checks vomiting .(V.M.) TAXONOMICAL CLASSIFICATION 25Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn.  Kingdom -Plantae  Division -Embryophyta Siphonogama  Sub-division -Angiospermae  Class -Dicotyledonae  Order -Rubiales  Family -Rubiaceae  Genus -Oldenlandia  Species -corymbosaVERNACULAR NAMES OF PARPATAKA 8,28Arabic - Baglatulmulk, BagslatulmulkBengal - BansulphaBombay - Pitpatra Page 24 
  43. 43. Drug ReviewDeccan - Pitpapra, ShahtraEnglish - Five leaved fumitoryGoa - Kazuri, PopataGujarat - Khasudlio, PittapapdoHarboi hills - KafutkawaHindi - PittapapdaIndo china - Tuy sha tu chinhKannada - Parpataka hulluKumaon - Khair uwaMalaya - SibuMalayalam - Parpataka pulluMarathi - PitpapdaNepal - PiriengoPersian - ShahatraPushtu - Papra , ShahtaraSanskrit -Parpata , Charaka, Kalpanga, KatupatraSindhi - ShahatraSinhalese -ValpatpaadagamTamil - TuraTelugu - Chatrasi , VerrinelavemuUrdu - ShahatraFAMILY CHARACTERS OF RUBIACEAE –Habit – Trees or shrubs, sometimes lianous, infrequently herbsLeaves – Opposite or whorled, simple, entire or rarely toothed. Stipules present, interpetiolar or intrapetiolar, sometimes foliaceous and not indistinguishable Page 25 
  44. 44. Drug Review from leaves, distinct or connateInflorescence – Basically a dichasial cyme, sometimes aggregated into globoseheadsFlower – Bisexual, usually actinomorphic or rarely zygomorphicCalyx – 4-5 lobed, lobes or segments open in aestivationCorolla – Gamopetalous, usually salver form, rotate or funnel shaped, 4-5 lobed (rarely 8-10), aestivation various and providing sectional charactersAndroeciumStamens – As many as corolla lobes and alternate with them, epipetalous on corolla tubeAnthers – 2-celled, dehiscing longitudinally, introrse, usually indistinctCarpels – 2 or more, locules usually 2 with axile or seemingly basal placentationGynoeciumStigma – Usually linear, 1 on each style branch or solitary and 2 lobedStyle – 1 and slender, often 2 branchedOvary – Inferior (rarely superior or half inferior)Fruit – A loculicidal or septicidal capsule or indehiscent separating into 1- seeded segments, a fleshy berry in some generaSeeds – Sometimes winged, endosperm usually copious and fleshy or Nearly cartilaginous IDENTITY OF Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn. (syn.Hedyotis corymbosa)Habit -Annual, diffuse or prostate herbs, varying from 7.5 -38 cm high.Stems -Terete, numerous, slender, erect ascending or spreading. Glabrous or pubescent often rooting at lower nodes. Page 26 
  45. 45. Drug ReviewLeaves - Subsessile, linear or linear lanceolate, acute , often with recurved and frequently scabrous margins, stipules short , membranous ,truncate with few short bristles.Inflorescence – Corymbose cymesFlowers – Bisexual, usually actinomorphic, white, solitary, or in axillary pairs, on filiform pedicels , longer than the calyx, Usually 2-3 on the top of a slender axillary, solitary peduncle. Bract beneath the pedicels 1.25-1.5 mm. long, subulateCalyx – 2mm. long, pubescent, teeth narrowly triangular, about equalling the calyx tube when in flower , 4-5 lobed, lobes or segments open in aestivation.Corolla – White, 2.5 mm long, rotate, campanulate or funnel shaped,lobes 4-5 valvate,acute about 1.25 mm. longStamens – 4-5 in the throat of corolla tube, inserted or exertedStigma and style – Much shorter than the calyxOvary – 2- celledOvules – Numerous on placentas attached to the septumFruit – Capsules, globose or sometimes pyriform, sometimes didynamous, top rather flat and not protruded beyond the calyx , glabrous ,dehiscing septicidallySeeds- Minute, ususally many, pale brown ,smooth or angular, albumen fleshy. DISTRIBUTION 33,34- Pantropical, common weed in wet lowlands ofChikmagalur, Coorg, Hassan, Shimoga and in cultivated fields of India, Ceylon,Tropical East Asia, Java and the Phillipines. Page 27 
  46. 46. Drug ReviewChemical constituents of Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn are shown below10 Aerial parts Iridoids Asperuloside Scandoside methyl ester Asperulosidic acid Geniposidic acid Scandoside Deacetyl asperulosidic acid Air dried plant Biflorine Biflorone γ-sitosterol Oleanolic acid Ursolic acid Asperglaucide(0.0001%) Whole plant 6-α hydroxygenoposide Deacetylasperuloside 10-o-benzoylscandoside methyl ester 10-o-p-hydroxybenzoyl scandoside methyl ester (+)-lyoniresinol-3-α -o-β -glycopyranoside rutin Table no. 3.11 Page 28 
  47. 47. Drug ReviewAsperulosideScandoside methyl esterGeniposidic acid Page 29 
  48. 48. Drug ReviewBiflorineγ- sitosterolOleanolic acid Page 30 
  49. 49. Drug ReviewUrsolic acid Rutin Protopine Page 31 
  50. 50. Drug ReviewTraditional uses of Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn-8 1. In the konkan , the juice is applied in burning of palms of the hand and soles of the feet from fever. 2. In burning at the pit of the stomach the juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar.(dose 1 tola of the juice obtained by pounding the plant with water ) 3. The decoction is given in remittent fever and is also applied to the surface of the body. 4. Decoction given internally to cure heat eruptions. 5. Plant juice is also given in jaundice and diseases of the liver and used as an anthelmintic. 6. Throughout Indo-china plant decoction is used as a febrifuge. 7. In the Martinique plant is considered as vermifuge. 8. A decoction of whole plant is given as an alternative in low forms of fever i.e. remittent fever with gastric irritability and nervous depression and also in chronic malaria as a good febrifuge.Recent Research Activities101. Sadasivan , Latha PG, Sasikumar, Rajashekhar, Shyamal, Shine V, “Hepato- protective studies on Hedyotis corymbosa (L)”, Journal of Ethno- pharmacology,2006 June, vol.106, page245-249.2. “Quantitation of oleanolic acid in Oldenlandia corymbosa whole plant powder by HPTLC”, Journal of Planar Chromatography Modern TLC, 2006,Feb.,DOI- 10.1556/JPC.19.2006.1.123. “Shortening of phenobarbitone induced sleeping time and anti-lipid peroxidant Page 32 
  51. 51. Drug Review effect in vitro in mice.”Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2006, June, page 240-2454. Mishra Kirti, Dash Kashyap ,Swain Bijay K, Dey Nrisingha, “Anti malarial activities of Andrographis panniculata and Hedyotis corymbosa extracts and their combination with curcumin.”, Malaria Journal,2009,Feb.,8:26,DOI:10.1186/1475- 2875-8-265. “Effect of methanolic extract of whole plant of Oldenlandia corymbosa against PCT induced liver damage in wistar rats”, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2006, June, vol.106, Issue 2, page 245-2496. Dharmananad Subhuti, “Inhibitory action of crude preparation of Oldenlandia corymbosa against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and Jitian carcinoma in vitro”, Institute for Traditional medicine, Portland, Oregan.Fumaria indica Pugsley  Kingdom - Plantae  Division -Embryophyta Siphonogama  Sub –division -Angiospermae  Class -Dicotyledonae  Order -Rhoedales  Family - Fumariceae  Genus -Fumaria  Species -indica Page 33 
  52. 52. Drug ReviewFAMILY CHARACTERS OF FUMARIACEAE-Habit - Annual or perennial herbs, often diffuse or scandent, glaucous , with watery juiceLeaves - Alternate, in basal rosettes or cauline, multisect, segments usually narrow.Inflorescence -In terminal or leaf opposed racemes.Flower - Small, irregular, white, rosy or purplish, bisexual, transversely zygomorphic, usually racemose, perianth triseriate.Calyx - 2, small, petaloid or scarious, caducous.Corolla - 4 in dissimilar pairs, 2-outer large, 1 or both of them gibbous or spurred, inner 2 small, erect, tips often cohering.AndroeciumStamens -6 diadelphous, in 2 bundles, 3 on each side of pistil, opposite the outer petals. Basal spur enclosed in the spur of the petals. Filaments somewhat winged and coherent to connate for much of their length .1 or 2 nectar glands usually present at the base of androecium.GynoeciumStigma -1, entire or shortly 2- lobed, stigmatic surfaces 2, 4 or 8Style -1 filiform and slenderOvary - Superior, 1- loculed, placentation parietal, ovules 2- manyFruit - Indehiscent ,1 seeded nut or a 2- valved many seeded capsule.Seeds - With minute embryo and copious soft, watery fleshy endospermIDENTITY OF Fumaria indica Pugsley –Habit - An annual herb, suberect or diffuse, scarcely scandent.Leaves- Multifid, more or less glaucous, leaflets 2-4 pinnatisect, segments long, linear Page 34 
  53. 53. Drug Review or linear oblong, flat, acuteInflorescence- Terminal or leaf opposed racemes; 15-25 flowered, rather denseBracts - Lanceolate, subulate, slightly acuminate, pedicels 2-2.5 mm. rarely 4.5mm.long, erect, patent, thickened at the apexCalyx - About 1.5mm long, 0.5-1mm. broad, lanceolate, or ovate lanceolate, acuminate , rose coloured often persistant in young fruit.Corolla - 5-6 mm long, rose coloured , superior petal obtuse ,rose coloured ,rarely purplish, more or less upward reflexed ,longer then keel, spur long curved, not ascending ,lower petal with spreading margins, obtuse spathulate, often free and deflexed,inner petals black purple at the apex ,curved.Androecium- 3+3, with staminal sheath, subacute aboveGynoecium- Stigma- 2 lobed Style – filiform Ovary – ovoid, 1-celled, ovules 1 or 2 on parietal placentae.Fruit – About 2.5mm. broad, sub-rotund, quadrate, subtruncate an sometimes obscurely retuse, abruptly narrowed below, slightlcompressed but much keeled, especially towards the apex, rugose when dry.Seed – 1 seededApplication of classical paryayas to confirm the identity of Parpataka fromamongst the botanical sources available in the market.The plant parpataka has been given various synonyms based on different charactersThese are as –Krisha shakha -the plant has slender branchesSukshmapatra -the leaves are very smallRaktepushpaka -flower is red in colour Page 35 
  54. 54. Drug ReviewPamshu -the pollen grains are sand likeVaratikta -the plant is bitterSutiktaka - the plant is bitterKatupatra -the leaves are pungent in tasteJwarari -it cures feverTrishnaari -it cures excessive thirstPittari -it cures diseases due to vitiation of pittaA detailed study of the morphological and pharmacological characters of various botanical sources of parpataka is being carried out as-1.Fumaria indica Pugsley (Fumariaceae) Habit –Annual herb , suberect upto 1 feet in height. Leaves –Multifid , linear –oblong Flowers – In racemes, red in colour Fruit – Nutlet , rugose when dry Actions- Anti pyretic , coolant , diaphoretic, anthelmintic, diuretic2. Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn. (Rubiaceae) Habit- Annual , diffuse herb, from 7.5 to 38 cm .in height Leaves – Linear , sub-sessile Flower- In cymes , white in colour Fruit – Capsule Actions- Antipyretic , used in diarrhoea, dysentery , arthritis and rheumatism Page 36 
  55. 55. Drug Review3. Justicia procumbens (Acanthaceae) Habit- Perennial herb , stem diffuse and slender, 10-40cm longLeaves- Entire , oblong ovateFlowers- In cylindrical spikes , violet or pink in colourFruit – CapsuleActions- Alterative, laxative, diuretic, expectorant, infusion used inActions- Alterative, laxative, diuretic, expectorant, infusion used in rheumatism4. .Rungia repens (Acanthaceae) Habit – Annual herbs, stem usually decumbent rooting near the base Leaves- Subsessile, oblong lanceolate , oppositely arranged Flowers – In spikes, white, blue or pink Fruit-CapsuleActions – Anti pyretic, anti inflammatory, vermifuge, diuretic anti dote for snake bite5. Glossocardia boswellia (Asteraceae) Habit- Annual diffusely branched prostrate or erect glabrous herb Leaves- Linear, alternate, 1-2 pinnatisect Flowers – Terminal or axillary heterogamous heads, Whitish yellow Fruits- Achenes, oblong ,ciliate at marginsActions- Coolant, Emmenagogue, antipyretic6. Mullugo oppositaefolia (Ficoideae) Habit – Annual or perennial Herb , diffusely branched , prostrate or ascending Page 37 
  56. 56. Drug Review branching from the base Leaves-Whorled ,opposite ,basal leaves usually largest , cauline leaves reduced distally Flowers - In axillary or terminal umbels or cymes, white in colour Fruits -Capsule , 3-valvedActions- Antipyretic , coolant ,in skin disorders7. Polycarpea corymbosa (Polygonaceae) Habit - Annual or perennial herb, usually erect , somewhat woody at base Leaves - Linear or spathulate, opposite usually entire Flowers- Many , small , white , rosy , or purple in colour Fruits - Capsule , 3 valved Actions- As coolant , used in wound healing ,in jaundice , in calculi The study reveals that Fumaria indica Pugsley possesses the maximumcharacters of the classical parpataka as krishshaakha , raktepushpaka , sukshma patra ,varatikta , katupatra , jwarari , trishnaari, pittari . So Fumaria indica Pugsley can betaken as the classical parpataka. Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn also satisfies many characters of theclassical Parpataka except raktepushpaka and is also wide available in this region.So Fumaria indica Pugsley and Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn have been taken for thepresent study. DISTRIBUTION 15- Over greater part of India upto 8000 feet in the Himalayas, Baluchistan, Afganistan, Persia, Turkistan, Sangaria and Mangolia. Page 38 
  57. 57. Drug ReviewFound in the Indo-gangetic plains down to the Nilgiri Mountains. Found as a weed onthe roadsides and in the paddy fields.Chemical Constituents of Fumaria indica Pugsley are shown below10- Whole plant Benzylisoquinoline alkaloid-fumarazine Phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid-(+)-papraine Secophthalide isoquinoline alkaloid-papracine Oxyhydrastinine Noroxyhydrastinine Fumaramine Stylopine Bisnorqrgemonine Fumaratine Aerial parts Papracine Paprazine β-Sitosterol Stigmasterol Campesterol Roots Protopine β-Sitosterol Octacosanol Narceimine Narlumidine (+)-adlumidine Norsanguinarine Stem Narlumicine Narlumidine D2-Tetrahydrocoptisine Protopine Protopine nitrate Seeds Fumaraline Page 39 
  58. 58. Drug ReviewNarceimineDihydrocoptisine(-)tetrahydrocoptisineProtopineBicuculline(-)-8-methoxydihydrosanguinarineDehydrocheilanthifolineCoptisine Table no. 3.12 Page 40 
  59. 59. Drug ReviewBeta sitosterolCoptisineCryptopine Page 41 
  60. 60. Drug ReviewDehydrocheilanthifolineNoroxyhydrastinineOxyhydrastinine Page 42 
  61. 61. Drug ReviewParfumineStigmasterolStylopine Page 43 
  62. 62. Drug ReviewPROPOGATION AND CULTIVATION-Propogation is through the seed. The plant is found growing commonly. Socultivation practices are not known.Flowering and fruiting is in January and Februry. Harvesting is done in March.Traditional uses of Fumaria indica Pugsley8-1.Whole plant after drying in the shade is made into powder by grinding .The powderis taken with cold water to prevent vomiting.2. Powder of the shoot is given with cold water in dyspepsia3. Cold infusion of the plant is given in wasting diseases of the children.4. It is used as a blood purifier for skin diseases and applied externally in leucodermaand as fomentation for swollen joints.5. Cold infusion of the plant is used in treatment of constipation and dyspepsia.6. Plant juice is used as anthelmintic, diuretic, diaphoretic.7. With black pepper it is used in jaundice.8. The tincture is good against plague, colic and griping of the guts whether in young or old.Ethnoveterinary Uses1. In Assam plant is used as fodder for animals and leaf used in user infections ofruminants.2. Plant is used to overcome constipation and urinary problems in cattle. Page 44 
  63. 63. Drug ReviewRecent Research Activities101. Rathi Anshu,Srivastava,Kumar Arvind ,”Hepatoprotective potential of Fumariaindica Pugsley whole plant extracts , fractions and an isolated alkaloid protopine”,Phytomedicine :International Journal of Phytotherapy and Pharmacology, 2008, June2. Gilani A.H, Bashir.S, Janbaz K.H, Khan .A, “Pharmacological basis for the use ofFumaria indica Pugsley in constipation and diarrhea”, J.Ethnopharmacology96(2005)585-589: DOI:10.1016/j.jep 2004. 10.0103. Sousek J, Guedon D , Adam T , Bochorakova H, Taborska E , Valka L , SimanekV “Alkaloids and organic acid content of eight Fumaria species”,PhytochemicalAnalysis .1999, 10:6-114. Fumarilline produced dose related anti- convulsant effect against electro- shockinduced seizures in rats; at 10.0 to passivity and decrease in motility . It is CNSdepressant without any significant muscle relaxation activity. (Planta. Med. 1986, 52,324 )5. Nimbkar S.R, Juvekar A.R. , Jogalekar S.N., “Hepatoparotective activity ofFumaria indica in hepatotoxicity induced by anti-tubercular drugs treatment”, Indiandrugs 37(2000) 537-542 Page 45 
  64. 64. REFERENCES1. CHARAKA- Charaka Samhita with the Ayurveda deepika commentary ofChakrapanidatta and with Vidyotini Hindi commentary by Kashinatha ShastriEdited by Dr. Ganga Sahaya Pandey, 8th Edition , 2004.Published byChaukhambha Sanskrit Samsthana,Varanasi.2. SUSHRUTA-Sushruta Samhita Hindi Translation by Mehta PranajeevanaManekchanda Vol 1 and 2, 9th Edition 1995 Published by Chaukhambha SanskritSamsthana, Varanasi.3. VAGBHATTA- Ashtanga Sangraha English translation by Prof. K.R.SrikantaMurthy, Vol.2, 5th Edition, 2005, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi.4. VAGBHATTA- Ashtanga Hridayam, English translation, by Prof. K.R.SrikantaMurthy, Vol. 2, Reprint 2006, Chaukhambha Krishnadas Academy, Varanasi5. Slokas mÉrÉÉïrÉ mÉmÉïOûÈ xrÉÉimÉmÉïOûMüÉå uÉUÌiÉ£üÈ xÉÑÌiÉ£üMüÈ | UeÉÉå UåhÉÑ¶É mÉÉÇzÉÑ¶É MüuÉcÉÉå uÉqÉïMühOûMüÈ || (D.N. 45) mÉmÉïOû¶ÉUMüÉå UåhÉÑxiÉ×whÉÉËUÈ ZÉUMüÉå UeÉÈ | zÉÏiÉÈ zÉÏiÉÌmÉërÉÈ mÉÉÇzÉÑÈ MüsmÉÉÇXûÏ uÉqÉïMülOûMüÈ|| M×üzÉÉZÉÈ mÉmÉïOûMüÈ xÉÑÌiÉ£üÉå U£ümÉÑwmÉMüÈ|
  65. 65. ÌmɨÉÉËUÈ MüOÒûmɧÉzÉcÉ MüuÉcÉÉå¹ÉSzÉÉÍpÉkÉÈ || (R.N.9) mÉmÉïOûÈ MüuÉcÉÉå UåhÉÑÈ ÌmÉiÉWûÉ uÉUMühOûMüÈ| uÉUÌiÉ£üÈ mÉmÉïOûMüÈ mÉ×ÍjÌuMüzcÉqÉMçüïühOèMüÈ|| (M.N.39) mÉmÉïOûÈ MüuÉcÉÉå UåhÉÑÈ uÉUÌiÉ£üÉå ÌWûqÉÌmÉërÉÈ| euÉUÉËUÈ mÉÉÇzÉÑmÉrÉÉïrÉÎx§ÉrÉÌ¹È zÉÏiÉuÉssÉpÉÈ|| (MH.N ) mÉmÉïOûÉå uÉUÌiÉ£Üè xrÉÉiÉç ÌmÉiÉWûÉ zÉÏiÉuÉssÉpÉÉ | cÉqÉÉïÀûrÉÉå UeÉÉå UåhÉÑÈ MüuÉMü¶ÉqÉïMÇühOûMüÈ || (K.N.1107 ) mÉmÉïOûÉã uÉUÌiÉ£ü¶É xqÉ×iÉÈ mÉmÉïOûMü¶É xÉÈ MüÍjÉiÉÈ mÉÉÇzÉÑmÉrÉÉïrÉxiÉjÉÉ MüuÉcÉlÉÉqÉMüÈ || mÉmÉïOûÉå uÉUÌiÉ£ü¶ÉxqÉ×iÉÈ mÉmÉïOûMü¶É xÉÈ MüÍjÉiÉÈ mÉÉÇzÉÑmÉrÉÉïrÉxiÉjÉÉMüuÉcÉlÉÉqÉMüÈ || aÉÑhÉ-MüqÉï mÉmÉïOûÈ zÉÏiÉsÉÎxiÉ£ È ÌmɨÉzsÉåwqÉeuÉUÉmÉWÈ|........ pÉëqÉÌuÉlÉÉzÉlÉ È || (D.N. 46) zÉÏiÉuÉÏrÉïÈ mÉmÉïOûMüÈ iÉ×whÉÉblÉÈ xÉÔ¤qÉmɧÉMüÈ | (A.N. 209) mÉmÉïOûÈ zÉÏiÉsÉÎxiÉ£ È ÌmɨÉzsÉåwqÉeuÉUÉmÉWûÈ|......qÉSpÉëqÉÌuÉlÉÉzÉlÉÈ || (R.N.10) mÉmÉïOûÉå WûÎliÉ ÌmɨÉÉx§ÉpÉëqÉiÉ×whÉÉMüTüeuÉUÉlÉç | xÉÇaÉëÉWûÏ zÉÏiÉsÉÎxiÉ£üÉå SÉWûlÉÑiÉuÉÉiÉsÉÉå sÉbÉÑ ||( M.N.240)
  66. 66.  mÉmÉïOûÈ zÉÏiÉsÉÎxiÉ£üÉå SÉWûlÉÑiÉuÉÉiÉsÉÉå sÉbÉÑÈ |....pÉëqÉiÉ×whÉÉMüTüeuÉUÉlÉç || mÉmÉïOûÈ MüOÒûMüÈ mÉÉMåü UxÉå ÌiÉ£åü ÌWûqÉÉå sÉbÉÑÈ||..........U£üÌmɨqÉSpÉëqÉÉlÉç|| (K.N.1109) mÉmÉïOûÉå WûÎliÉ ÌmɨÉx§ÉpÉëqÉiÉ×whÉÉMüTüeuÉUÉlÉç | xÉÇaÉëÉWûÏ zÉÏiÉsÉÎxiÉ£üÉå SÉWûlÉÑiÉuÉÉiÉsÉÉåsÉbÉÑÈ|| mÉmÉïOûÈ zÉÏiÉsÉÎxiÉ£üÉå SÉWûeuÉUÌuÉlÉÉzÉlÉÈ|........MüTüÌmɨÉÉqÉrÉÉmÉWûÈ|| (P.N.140) mÉërÉÉåaÉ mÉmÉïOûÈ zÉçÏiÉsÉÎxiÉ£üÈ ÌmɨÉzsÉåwqÉeuÉUÉmÉWûÈ| U£üSÉWûÉÂÍcÉasÉÉÌlÉqÉS- -pÉëqÉÌuÉlÉÉzÉlÉÈ|| ( D.N.46) çWûÎliÉ ÌmɨÉx§ÉpÉëqÉiÉ×whÉÉMüTüeuÉUÉlÉç| xÉÇaÉëÉWûÏ zÉÏiÉsÉÎxiÉ£üÉå SÉWûlÉÑSuÉÉiÉsÉÉå sÉbÉÑÈ|| mÉmÉïOûÈ zÉÏiÉsÉÎxiÉ£üÉå.....|xÉÇaÉëÉÌWû WûÎliÉ ÌmɨÉx§É pÉëqÉiÉ×whÉÉMüTüeuÉUÉlÉç|| xÉÇaÉëÉWûÏ uÉÉiÉsÉÉå WûÎliÉ SÉWûÌmɨÉMüTüeuÉUÉlÉç | ÌmÉmÉÉxÉÉUÉåcÉMücNÌSïû- U£üÌmɨÉqÉSpÉëqÉÉlÉç|| mÉmÉïOûÉå........SÉWûeuÉUÌuÉlÉÉzÉlÉÈ | iÉ×whÉÉWûU¶É xÉÇaÉëÉWûÏ MüTüÌmɨÉÉqÉrÉÉmÉWûÈ || lÉÉaÉUkÉluÉrÉuÉÉxÉMüqÉÑxiÉmÉmÉïOûMü.......CÌiÉ SzÉåqÉÉÌlÉ iÉ×whÉÉÌlÉaÉëWûhÉÉÌlÉ pÉuÉÎliÉ | (C.S.4/29) qÉÑxiÉmÉmÉïOûMüÉåzÉÏUcÉlSlÉÉåSÏcrÉlÉÉaÉUæ È | ´ÉiÉzÉÏiÉÇ eÉsÉÇ S±ÉiÉç ÌmÉmÉÉxÉÉeuÉUzÉÉliÉrÉå || (C.Chi.3/145) ......euÉUblÉÉ......SÉåwÉmÉÉcÉlÉÉÈ| iÉ×whÉÉÂÍcÉmÉëzÉqÉlÉÉ qÉÑZÉuÉæUxrÉlÉÉzÉlÉÉÈ |(C.Chi.3/197-199)

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