Parada sthayikarana rs-bel


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Parada sthayikarana rs-bel

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION Majority of the scholars believe that the origin anddevelopment of Rasasastra is for the attainment ofpositive health (Deha Siddhi) and conversion of lowermetals into higher metals (Lohasiddhi). The recentscholars and Sri Hari Sharananda & other IndianScholars claim lolavedha was the main aim of theevolution of Rasasastra. The original inventors of the science are yogies(spiritualists). The honourable Rsis were aware that bodyand luxuries are not only unstable but cause mainobstacles in Moksa marga (Salvation). However it wasnecessity to have stable body for attainement ofsalvation. “Iti ghanasareere bhogan matva nityan sadaivayataneeyam Muktistasya jnanat Tachhabhyasat sa chasthire dehe”. Rasesvardarsankara SriSayanamadhavacharya also supports this concept as “Nacha rasasastram dhatuvadarthamevetimantavyamdehavedhadvara muktereva parama parayojanam”. Thus 1
  2. 2. the origin of Rasasastra is not only for dhatuvada, butalso for attainment of moksa by dehasiddhi. After long time observations the Rishis thoughtabout attaining of positive health. When the body sufferswith diseases, it affects both body and mind and the aimof life i.e., moksaprapti (salvation) also is affected.Chaturvidha purusartha (Dharma, artha, kama, moksa)are the main objectives of life. Dharma artha and kamacan be achieved easily, but very few people succeeded inattaining moksa which is the ultimate goal of human life.This is only possible when the body is healthy and freefrom ailments for longer period. For this goal the Rsis identified parada danda as theonly means. Paradanancha paradaha. Before consumingparada it is essential to make this parada stable and inconsumable form, which facilitates penance for longerduration to attain moksa. This is mentioned inResesvaradarsana. As Apare mahesvarahaparamesvaratadatmyavadino PindsthairyesarvabhimatahaJeevanmukthi setsyateetyasthaya pindasthairyoroopayamparadadi padavedaneeyam rasameva samgirante (R.D.) 2
  3. 3. The rishis observed miraculous properties in parada;which they couldn’t see in any other drugs. They didvarious types of experiments on parada; their main aimbeing Dehasiddhi (immortal body). Before consumptionthe parada was tested of its property in converting lowermetals into higher metals. The logic was if parada iscapable of converting lower metals into higher metals,then that parada is definitely sufficient in making bodydevoid of ruja, jara and mrtyu. Rasarnavakara explains that “Yatha Lohe tatha dehekartavyam sootakaha sada samanam kurutedevi pravisandehalohayeho poorvamlohe pareekset tato deheprayojayet”. Thus there is no difference of opinion insaying that lohaveda arised as an experimental studyduring dehaveda. However, it is not important which siddhi hasoriginated first (Dehasiddhi or Lohasiddhi), there is nodifference of opinion in respect of their values, as bothsiddhies are quite essential. 3
  4. 4. If lohasiddhi is attained then Dehasiddhi is possiblewithout much difficulty. Lohasiddhi the art of makingtremendous wealth and the effort of attaining Dehasiddhi,both are not an easy task. To achieve this highest goalsthe Rsis did many experiments and found manymethdologies refered to as samskaras and recoreded forthe benefit of humanity. Therefore today these twoachievements have became the topics of discussion. Most of the people are attracted by these siddhiesbut failed to attain both. Majority of the efforts went invain because of the intricacies of the proceedures andthe main reason for this failure is the absence ofSadguru the teacher. Dehasiddhi and Lohasiddhi can be achieved only bythe grace of a Guru. When Guru transforms his fullknowledge heartly to his deciple, then only thesesiddhies are attained. This fact is supported by “Guroutuste sivastustaha sivetuste Rasasastustaha. Rase tustekriyaha sarvaha siddhyante natra samsayaha”. Theliterature available is scattered here and there in differentbooks. Some rasavadies feel the main cause for failure 4
  5. 5. in gaining deha and lohasiddhi, is because of lack ofidentification of dravyas employed in the procedures.The main aim of parada anskaras is to make it devoid ofdosas. Sanskarita parada alone is incapable of giving bothsiddhies. It is necessary to add agnisthayi gandhakadialong with Sanskarita parada to increase its Achintyasiddhiparada gunas. One should proceed on DehalohaSiddhi Kriyas only after making the employed dravyascompletely Agnisthayi. This important secret for successin attaining Dehalohasiddhi is explained in Sootraroopaby Acharya siddha Nagarjuna as- “RasaschaRasakaaschobhou Yenagni SahanoukrtouDehalohamayee Siddhirdasi tasya na Samshayaha” Bythe above sloka it is very clear that one will become amaster of Dehalohasiddhis only when he makes Rasa andRasaka both agnisthayi (stable in fire). The process of parada bhasmeekarana forconsumption can be done only when its both chanchalyaor durgrahatva and Asahyagni dosas are removed, which 5
  6. 6. means when parada is made Baddha and Agnisthayi,then only parada bhasmeekarana is possible. Both the Rasabandhana and Agnisthayikaranavidhies are closely guarded secrets and complecatedprocedures, However a try has been made to revealthese processes for the benefit of man kind. 6
  7. 7. REVIEW OF LITERATURE SECTION - A HINGULAVarga : 1) Maharasa (ref), R.D; 1 R.J.N; R.V; G.S. 2) Uparasa : (ref), R.M; 1 R.Sa.; S; A.K; A.P; B.Y.T.Paryayanamani :Hingula. Hingulam.Hingoola. Ingula.Mlenchha. Rakta.Suranga, Chitranga.Churnaparada. Rasodbhava.Rasasthana. Ranjana.Kapiseershaka. Raktatkaya.Hamsapada. Darada. (R.T.)Hingulu.Darada.Shukatunda.Rasagandha sambhootaHingul.Daityaraktaka (ref : R.Sa. S.) 7
  8. 8. VERNACULAR NAMESSanskrita : Hingula.Hindi : Hingoola, singaraf, Ingura, Hingoola.Marathi : HingulaBengali : HingulaGujarathi : HingulaKannada : InguliyakaTelugu : IngitakamuEnglish : CinnabarLatin : Sulphuratum Hydrargyrum.Sp./gr 8H.D. : 2.2 Odourless, Tasteless, insoluble in water and alcohol; chief ore of mercury.Formula : Hgs.Description : Cinnabar is clear in thin section.Variety : Hepatic variety is a compact variety with aliver- brown colour, and a brownish streak. 8
  9. 9. Physical properties :Crystal structure : TrigonalForm and habit : Rhombohedral or trigonal prisms common ; the crystal often tubular; usually massive, granular or encrusting.Colour : Cochineal red, sometimes brown or dark coloured.Streak : ScarletCleavage : Prismatic {1010} perfectFracture : Subconchoidal to uneven.Lustre : Admantime (of crystals) dull if massive.Transparency : Sub transparent to opaque.Tenacity : SectileHardness : 2.0-2.5Sp. Gravity : 8.09Occurrence : Cinnabar occurs as disseminations impregnations,and stock works in a variety of rocks, but in many casesunder circumstances indicate that it is the result ofvolcanic activity. It occurs in low-temperaturehydrothermal viens, inpregnation and replacementdeposits, often associated with recent volcanics. It often 9
  10. 10. replaces quartz and sulphides and is associated withnative mercury, mercurian tetrahedrite, stibnite, pyriteand marcassite. The most important locality is Almaden inSpain, where the mineral occurs as impregnations ofsmall viens in quartzite ; other important localaties areIdria in Italy western states of the USA especiallyCalifornia.Uses : Cinnabar supplies practically all the mercury ofcommerce. The paint, vermilion, which has the samecomposition is prepared from this ore.Hingula Bheda : Texts Types1. Rasatanangini Khanija Krutrima -2. Rasaprakasha Shukatunda Hansapad Charmara Sudhakara a3. Rasaratnsamuchhya Shukatundakhy Hanspada - 3/65 a4. Bhava prakash 74/232 Charmara Shukatund - a5. Rasa kama dhenu 273 Charmara Sh ukan tund a Hanspada6. Anandakanda Charmara Shukatund Hansapad a a 10
  11. 11. Hingula bheda in majority of the Rasagranthas.Charmara, shunkatunda ; and Hamspada these threetypes of Hingula are mentioned. 11
  12. 12. a) Hamsapada : It resembles the colour of a Japakusuma ; this is the original variety of Hingula according to the Ayurvedeya rasasastra. Crystals are usually rhombohedral ; often being tubular usually massive, or encrusting, along with this impurities of clay, bitumen etc. Hardness 2-5. 8-9.b) Charmaraha : (Metacinnabar) : This is the black variety of Hingula, this seems to be a Rasatantrokta charmara. Rasakamadhenukara explained as – “Charmaraha Krishnaroopaha syath!” Crystals are usually tetrahedral. It occurs usually with cinnabar mixed clay and other impurities. Its hardness 3 & is 7-8.c) Darada, Yakrudakarahingula : (Hepatic Cinnabar) When bitumen is more with the cinnabar crystals, then it attains deep colour. This is called as hepatic 12
  13. 13. cinnabar; which may be compared with the Rasaratnasamuchhayokta Daradajateeya Hingula.d) Coral ore : In the Idria region of Italy korallenerz ore is available, which is called as coral ore. Korallenerz is a German word; which means moonga grain like soil. Probably resembles the Rasaratna Samuchhayokta Hanspada ; (Sveta Rekhaha Pravalabho Hanspadaha Sa erita) Variety. It contains Hingula 2% bitumen 5%, and phosphate of lime 56%. This type of hingula is available widely in Italy.e) Estahlerz (Steel Ore) : Daityendra Rakta In this mineral it is estimated about 75% of mercury is found. It is the richest mercury mineral. Kaviraj pratap sinhaji, compared this to Diatyendra Rakta.f) Girisindhoora (Brick ore) – (Ziegelerz) :- This mineral is red grannular. In pure form it contains 68% of mercury. Alum & Dilomite where as it doesn’t contain bitumen. Girisindhoora should not 13
  14. 14. be confused with naga Sindhoora, which is Red Oxide of mercury.Hinguladrasakarshan Vidhi : (Ancient method).(Extraction of mercury from hingula) In ancient days the only source of mercury washingula (Cinnabar). Since olden days it is accepted thatHingulakrsta parada is pure, devoid of saptakanchukidosas and believed to possess with the property ofjeernagandha gunaha. (Jeerna gandha samo gunaihi 1).In rasaratnakara also it is advised to use hingulakrstaparada for all purposes without doing ashta sanskara. The methodology of obtaining parada from hingula isexplained in Rasarnava 12 t h century) Anandakanda, (12 t hCentury). Rasaratnakara (12 t h Century A.D.), Rasaprakasha Sudhakara, (13-14 A.D.) Ayurveda prakash (17A.D) etc. For this purpose patana yantra, Vidyadhara yantra,Damaru yantra, etc are indicated. The construction orform of all these yantras is more or less similar. 14
  15. 15. Prior to the extraction of parada from Hingula, itshould be triturated for 3 hours, either with the juice ofcitrus acida fruit or leaves; which enables to reduce thehingula to its fine state of division ; by this maximumamount of parada can be extracted. Citrusacida fruitjuice contains citric acid where as citrusacida leavesjuice contains organic sulphur. The effect of triturationwith these juice has to be evaluated scientifically which isa separated entity. It is advised to keep cold pads overthe top of urdhvapatana yantra, by which paradacoalesces over the inner surface of the upper vessel ofdamaru yantra. Dr. Kartik Chandra basu in his work “BharatiyaBhaishajya Tantra” advised Tiryak patana yantra forextracting parada from Hingula; Dr. VasudevaMoolashankar Dwivedi Rachayita of parada vignaneyamtext also support this method.Brief description of modern methods : From ancient description it is very clear that thesource of extraction of mercury was only hingula 15
  16. 16. (cinnabar). In Spain, Italy etc., parada is extracted fromhingula by various methods.First it was heated with oxygen. Second method was heating of hingula with Loha(Fe) or Sudha (Ca). By these two methods most part ofthe parada separates from sulphur and remained paradais taken out by distillation. For this purpose various typesof furnaces are employed. There is a vast change in themethodology and equipments employed for this purposenow a days. The equation of heating hingula in air is as followsHgs+O 2 --> H g + So 2 and heating with calcium and ferrumis as follows :- 1. 4 Hgs + 4Cao ----- 4Hg + 3 Cas + Ca So 4 . 2. Hgs + Fe + O 2 ----- Hg + Fe + So 2 . After these methods the remnent unseparated partof mercury is obtained by distillation. This process ofdistillation is called vacuum distillation. In purification ofmercury reduced pressure and vacuum distillation is 16
  17. 17. major invention. Now a days readymade equipments areavailable for this purpose. This is the brief description ofextraction of parada from hingula.Parada Pareeksha (Grahyagrahya Vimarsha) : Grahya parada swaroopa is explained as below inRasaratna pradeepika. “Antaha Suneelo Bahirujwalo yo Madhyahna sooryapratima prakishaha” Shuddha parada from inside seemsblue tinged, but from outside it is lustrous and shines likea midday sun. Which resembles with the properties ofmercury explained in modern chemistry texts. Mercury is a silver white liquid metal, with a slightbluish tinge. In thin films, it transmits violet light” (Dict ofapplied chemistry Vol IV Page 270). Scientificexamination whether ancient or modern both are same,which can be confirmed by the above description relatingto the properties of mercury. 17
  18. 18. PARADA (HYDRARGYRUM)Vernacular Names : Sans Parada ; Rasa Eng. Mercury ; quick silver Fr Mercure Arab Abuk ; Zibakh Pers Simab ; Zeebaq. Hind, Beng, duk & Para Mah Guj Paro Mal Rassam Tel Padarasam Tam, kan & can Padrasa Para means that which protects mankind from allsorts of diseases.Synonyms :-Achintya Dehada Yosada SantaAnanta Deva Rasa SivaAmara Dhuttura Rasadhatu SivtejaAmrta Paramamrta Rasaraja SivabeejaIndra Parada Rasalouha SuvaranKalantra Pavana Rasayanasrest Soota a 18
  19. 19. Khechara Brabhoo Rasendra Sootakarajen draKhechari Beejendra Resesa SootarajaChanchala Bhava Rasesvara SootendraChapala Mahateja Rasottama SooksmaJaitra Maharasa Rudrateja SoubhagyaGnanam Mahavahni Lokanatha SkandaTrinetra Misraka Lokesha SkandesaTrilochana Mukunda Sambhuja HarajaDivya Mrtyunasana Sasihemanid Harabeeja hi (Ref :- A.K.; S.S; R.T; R.R.S.)Source :- Mercury is sometimes met with free in nature in theform of small, shining, silvery globules when it is calledquick silver; it is found in small quantities. But it is mostlyfound as sulphide or native cinnabar. If is scatteredthrough different kinds of stones, clay or ores.Character :- It is a shining, silver white metal liquid at ordinarytemperature, divisible into spherical globules, mobile,without any odour or taste, slowly volatizing at ordinary 19
  20. 20. temperature, insoluble in water hydrochloric acid or coldsulphuric acid, but soluble in mitric acid and hot sulphuricacid. It readily volatizes at a temperature of red heatwithout any residue. Mercury as found in the marketcontains impurities such as tin, lead, stone etc. Ifadministered in an impure state it brings number ofdiseases hence it is purified before use by Asta orAstadasa sanskaras. “Hinguloth parada” or “hingula krsta rasa” meansmercury obtained by sublimation of cinnabar isconsidered pure, devoid of lead, tin, sand etc and ispreferred to prepare various medicines for internaladministration (Ref R.T; R.C.) Cinnabar, ie., red sulphide of mercury occurring innature as a mineral ore, in many parts of the worldparticularly in California, China and Spain, is first rubbedwith lemon juice for three hours, and then sublimed in theapparatus called “Urdhva patana yantra. The mercurydeposited within the upper pot of the apparatus, as a 20
  21. 21. blackish colour. This is collected by scarping, rubbed withlemon juice and boiled in water, when it is fit for use.Preservation:- In ancient times purified mercury was used to bepreserved in the hallow spaces of horns, teeth orbamboo. Nowadays mercury is preserved in a glass bottlewith air tight corks.Preparations: Generally many physicians calls – Kajjali,Rasakarpura, Rasasindura, svarnavanga as krishna,Sveta, rakta and peeta varna Rasabhasma respectively;which is not actually true, because apart from thesepreparations, Rasamarana is separately described indetail in all the rasa granthas; of 15 t h , 16 t h , 17 t h , 18 t hcentury. The colour of the paradabhasma is only due tothe nature of the different drugs used in the process ofmarana. 21
  22. 22. Methods of parada bhasmekarana by rasousadhies and Kastousadlies It is highly impossible to give the total no. ofmethods bhasmekarana described in various rasa textsby using Rasasousadhies, where as the no ofkastousbdhies, named as Divyousadhies or Rasamarakaor Rasaniyamaka or ousadhies, in different texts islimited. Rasendra chudamanikara enumerated “Thekastousadhies which kills mercury without the use ofsulphur” i.e. 64 plants of various types vrksa, valli, lata,gulma, trna, kanda; out of which any ten ousadhies maybe employed at a time for the incineration of mecury. Parada Samhitakara apart from describing 65 plantsexplained in Rasendra chudamani, enumerated 131plants as divyousadhies, 100 plants as Niyamaka vargaand instructed to use these plants alone or all mixed oratleast more then 18 plants in parada, bhasme karanaand parada bandhana. Niyamaka varga dravyas should 22
  23. 23. be used in parada siddhikriyas brings after trituratingplants parts with the urine of a calf (aparasootagomutra). 23
  24. 24. Mrtaparada laxanas ie qualities of properlyincinerated mercury : - Properly incinerated mercury possess the followingqualities. Nirdhuma – Should not emit smoke when kept over fire in a crucible or spread over mica leaf. Niscahandra – Should not posses any shining particles. Nischala – Should be devoid quickness. Gurugunayukta – should be heavy. Agnibandha – Should not lose wt. When heated over fire and there should not be any change in its form and colour (Ref - R.T.7/3-4 Rasaratnakar explains a special test for this. Inorder to examine whether mercury has been completelykilled or not, it has to be heated over gentle fire for 3hours. If the wt. Remains constant, know then that it hasbeen completely killed. In otherwords, it means that if there be any freemercury present, it would volatizes off and thus therewould be a loss in wt. 24
  25. 25. Detection and determination of mercury :- Mercury is usually detected by obtaining theseparation of the metal. This can be done by warmingcopper foil with a solution of mercury salt, when themercury is deposited on the copper as Grey layer whichbecomes bright when rubbed, and may be vaporized tocondense in globuls on the sides of a small test tube.Similarly mercury compounds when heated with sodiumcarbonate yield the metal. Mercury can also be determined similarly, theexperiment being carried out in a crucible covered by aweighed, water cooled silver plate, on which mercurycollects. It is however, usually determined as mercuricsulphide. (Ref Mellars modern inorganic chem by G.D.Prakas Ch.31 P.No.723) 25
  26. 26. GANDHAKAVERNACULAR NAMES :. Sans Gandhaka Eng. Brimstone ; sublimed sulphur Hind Gandhaka ; Gundhak Ben Gandhaka Tel & Mal Gandagum Tam Gardakam Tel Gondhakam Punj Gandhak; Kibrit : Anwalasar : Gogird Arab Kibrika Pers Gowgird ; Gougird. Burm Kau Malaya Balirang Sulphuric acid (H 2 So 4 ) is called asGandhakadravakam in Tam, Tel & Can; in Hindi –Tezab. Rasataranginikarta described in detail themethodology of preparation of gandhakadravakam(H 2 So 4 ) and its therapeutic uses. 26
  27. 27. GANDHAKAVarga - UparasaParyayanamani : Synonyms of gandhaka can be classified as below according to the meaning they express.1) Bhavanatmaka : Gouripuspa , Gouribeejam, Sivabeeja2) Upatmaka : Bali, balivasa, sukhapuchha, balivatsa, vasa,3) Svabhadarsaka : Vaigandha, gandhaka, atigandha, kruragandha, pootigandha, sougandha, sougandhika, gandhamadana, gandhamohana, leli , leleetaka, lelina.4) Karyadarsaka : Dhatuha, dhatuvari, dhatumari, lohahara, sulbasatru sulbari, rasabandhaka, sootajita.5) Gunadarsaka : Pamari, kusthari, krumigna,Types : Majority of rasacharyas accepted four types1. Svetagandhaka : Svetavarna, heenaguna, used for bahyalepana.2. Peetagandhaka : Peetavarnayukta, uttamagunayukta or Amalsara used in ousadhi yogas. Gandhaka3. Raktagandhaka : Tamravarna, used in dhatvada.4. Krisnaghandha : Krishnavarna, durlabha, jara, ka mrtyunasaka. 27
  28. 28. The change in colour of gandhaka is due to theeffect of heat. Gandhaka liquefies at 115 0 C forms gas at440 0 C. It sublimed becomes pure, and called aspuspagandhaka. If given excess heat it turns black, at 250 0 C ifbecomes hard and liquefies again. At 500 0 c it turns red. Itis heated at 350 0 C and poured in cold water becomesplastic like, hence the name plastic sulphur.Source :- A nonmetallic element found free in beds of gypsumand in a state of sublimation in regions of extinctvolcanoes; also in combination with several ores calledpyrites, as sulphates and sulplides of iron, copper, lead,zinc, mercury etc., In India it occurs naturally in someparts, in Nepal, Kashmir, Afghanistan and in Burma. It isa constituent of various vegetable and animal substancessuch as albumen etc. It is obtained by roasting, fusion orby sublimation. 28
  29. 29. Characters :- As met in bazaar and in rasa texts, it is of four kinds:-1) Yellow variety or vitreous or precipitated sulphur or amlasar gandharka, occurs in semi-transparent crystals resembling the translucent ripped fruits of the Amalaki. This is employed for internal use in combination with mercury.2) Sveta Gandhaka :- The white variety known as roll sulphur is found in sticks about two inches in width and 3 to 5 inches long, the taste is bitter and astringent and the smell is nauseous. It is very brittle; it is some what sticky to touch. It being inferior to the yellow variety is preferred for external application.3) The Rakta Gandhaka :- The red variety is called Lal Gandhaka or rati hirakasi; it occurs in small, flat or irregular crystalline pieces of a shining red, orange red, purple or brick dust colour. The taste is acrid and bitter. It burns with a faint blue flame and emits the smell of sulphur. 29
  30. 30. 4) The Krishna Gandhak :- The black variety, ie. Sublimed sulphur (Gandhaka – ka – phul) is purified form of sulphur and is prepared by washing gandhaka in milk. It is first dissolved in an iron ladle smeared with ghee and then gradually poured into a basin of milk. When cooled and solidified it is fit for use. It is a light yellow powered of a bitter astringent taste and of a peculiar smell.Actions :- Sulphur is described as of bitter astringent tastewith a peculiar strong smell. It increases bile, acts as alaxative and alliterative, diuretic and insecticide sulphurwhen taken internally and in small doses, becomesabsorbed and may be detected in the sweat, milk, andurine. It is a stimulant to the secreting organs such as theskin and bronchial mucous membranes. It has a specificaction on the rectum and increases the haemorrhoidalsecretions. The sulphurous and mineral waters as theycontain early and alkaline sulphates out as laxative anddiuretic, while the sulphurous acid disengaged from themact as a purgative. 30
  31. 31. 31
  32. 32. Uses :- In combination with mercury it is used in almost alldiseases. It readily combines and fixes metallic mercuryand is therefore extensively used in combination with thatmetal. In skin diseases sulphur is used both internallyand externally. It is used in leprosy, psoriasis, cough,asthma, ksaya, general debility; also in enlargement ofliver and spleen, chronic fevers, rheumatism. Sulphur isused in the manufacture of fertilizers, which is by far it’sgreatest use. Other uses are in fibres, pigments,metallurgical, plastic and oil industries.Impurities :- Ayurveda prakasakarta described two types ofimpurities (dosas) in gandhaka; physical and poisonousi.e., sand etc., bhoutikadosa sand, clay etc., andvisadosa arsenic, selenium etc.Purification :- It is first liquefied in an iron ladle smeared withghee and them gradually poured though cloth into a basin 32
  33. 33. containing any one of the following liquid Milk, ghee,karji, citrus acida fruit juice, juice of eclipta alba, forseven times (ref. R.R.S). It can also be purified bysublimation with the help of damaruyantra (ref. R.T). Thepurificatory procedures can be selected by the physiciansaccording to their need.Tests :- Sulphur may be recognised when present in amineral by the silver coin test. In this method, thepowdered mineral is fused with sodium carbonate oncharcoal; the fused mass is then placed on a silver coinand a black stain is produced when moistened. On roasting in the open tube or on charcoal,sulphides give a sharp pungent odour of sulpherdioxide. 33
  34. 34. SECTION - B Bandha, baddha & Paksaklinna parada Different methods of parada agnisthayekarana aredescribed in the literature. These methods are generallytermed as parada bandha, baddha and paksaklinna. Rasahridayatantrakara explained in detail regardingthe paksaklinna parada. Rasaratnasamuchhayakara mentioned 25 types ofparada bandhas in eleventh chapter. The writer referredthe word bandha in many procedures which coulderradicate the chanchalya and durgrahatava of parada. It is very clear that the aim of parada bandha is toremove its liquidity and make it solid form by any of themethods. The main aim of bandhana samskara is to destroy itschanchalya dosa; but here the intention is not totallyrelated to agnisthayekarna; although parada attains moreor less agnisthayitva guna by khota bandha referredamong the 25 bandhas. 34
  35. 35. Khota Bandha Laxana is explained as “Agnimadhye yadatishtet. Khotabaddhasya laxanam”. Which meanskhotabadha parada is one which is stable in fire. Among25 bandhas agnisahatva guna, present in the VrddhaBandha, Agnibandha and Mahabandha parada.Remaining bandhas are only capable of removing the‘Dravatva” of parada. In Rasarajashankara four types of parada bandhasare explained viz Pota, Khota, Jaluka, and Bhasma.Parpati bandhita parada is called Pota bandha, Pistibaddha parads is Khota, pankavat parada is Jalukabandha and Bhasmaroopa is called as Bhasmabaddhaparada. This opinion is also accepted by other paradasamhitakara. The goal of bandhas mentioned in 11 t h chapter ofRasaratna samuchhaya is “Vyadhinirharnartha”. InRasarnava, Rasakamadhenu parada bandhanaprocedures are described using vaikranta and gandhakaetc. There is no clear idea or justification regarding 35
  36. 36. whether there is any agnisahatva guna present or not inthis type of bandha parada. Though there is no definition of “Baddha parada”available in texts; there is a description of baddharasalaxana as which is Guru, Arunavarna, Lustrous, andwhich is not Volatized in Teekshagani. This baddhaparada is refered as “nectar”. In Rasaratnakara it is said that the parada which ismadhura, gurugunayukta, lustrous, and which is stable infire is called as baddha parada. Rasamanjarikarta explained that – parada whichdoesn’t lose weight when kept in fire, liquefy quickly,lustrous, clean, heavy and which should become pastelike; even when repeated with the process ofbaddhakarma twice is called as Baddha parada. By theselaxanas it is very clear that baddha parada may be liquidor solid, but it should posses agnisahatvaguna which is ofprime importance. 36
  37. 37. If is obvious to paksaklinna parada that it shouldpossess “agnisthayi guna to such an extent that it can’tbe obtained by urdhavadhapatana, which is stable inyantra, and which doesn’t makes udgara and stable (ref.P.S. 18/57). This is done by Abrakjarana and thisAbrakajeerna, parada is called “Pakshaklinna parada. To prepare Paksaklinna parada the “Abhrakasatva iswidely used. Preparation of agnisthayi parada is nothing but tomake it paksaklinna. This paksaklinna parada may beeither in solid or liquid state which depends on theamount of abhrakasatva used. If more satva is used the parada will be in solidform, and if less amount is used it will be in liquid form,there is no importance regarding its solidity or liquidstate. In ‘Dharaneedhar Samhita’ there is a descriptionregarding the amount of abhrakasatva used. Parada 37
  38. 38. becomes Pakshaklinna when subjected to ‘Jarana’ withdviguna Abhrakasatava. This is stable in fire. There seems a little difference among these Bandhaparada, baddha parada, and pakshaklinna parada. It can’t be presumed that “Bandha parada” isagnisthayi; But in this the dravatva of parada isabsolutely removed. In some bhanda prakriyas paradamay attain agnisthayi guna; where as in baddha paradathere is no criteria regarding it’s form i.e. solid or liquid,but should posses “Agnisthayiguna”. Rasamanjari Rachayita explained “baddha paradaSeeghradravi”, by this it seems that baddha paradashould be in solid form, and liquefy quickly while doingbaddha second time. But the main property of baddhaparada is having Agnisthayiguna. If paksaklinna parada is also like baddha parada,then the question arises what is the difference betweenthese two ? 38
  39. 39. The difference between these two is that baddhaparada is one which is made agnisthayi with the help ofvanaspaties. But for pakshaklinna parada Abhraka satvais must. So, rasacharyas clearly mentioned that “vinaikaabhrakasatvam nanyo rasa paksakartene samarthaha”(ref. P.S. 18/55). Which means there is no dravya exceptAbhraka satva which is capable of parada pakshachhedana. From this it is understood that to have paksaklinnaparada abhraka jarana in parada is necessary. After going through in detail it will be very clearlyseen that, by bandhana parada becomes ghanaroopa, bymaking baddha, parada attains agnisthayiguna. As thetime passed the writers used the word bandha in place ofbaddha and started presuming as bandha and baddha aresynonysms. Dravavarga is subdivided into two, one is prakrtaand another one is aprakrta drava. Chandrodaka, 39
  40. 40. shailodaka etc are prakrta; in aparkrta jala jayaneera isimportant. These two jala are employed foragnisthayekarana. Parada can be made agnisthayi with visavarga;among these sarpavisa and vatsanabha visa are main. In rasadravyas maharasa, uparasa, sadharana rasaare used. First these dravyas are made agnisthayi. Lateron these sthayidravyas are subjected to form of satva,dhruti, or bhasma and employed for agnishayeekarana ofParada. Ref. of ksaravarga is available in niyamanasamskara of parada & in this swarjiksara is main. By all this it is very clear that in parada bandhakriyathe drugs mentioned in rasasastra are utilised. Thesedrugs are used by siddhas, but whether they achievedagnisthyekarana of parada or not with all these methodsis a different issue. 40
  41. 41. Rasasiddhas used all the drugs either singly or incombination or by making other kalpas according to theirown knowledge and convenience. So, in differentgranthas different methods of parada bandhana areexplained. Among these procedures certain procedure arewidely used. Such as kalini stree, vanaspati, druti, satvaand agnisthayi rasadravys. Classification of parada sthayekaranartha useful dravyas Parada sthayeekaranartha useful dravyas can beclassified mainly in nine divisions as :- Jangama varga. Loha varga. Ratna varga. Ousadhi varga Pasana varga Drava varga Visa varga Rasa varga Ksara varga 41
  42. 42. Among the jangam dravyas. Artava is widely used.Sukra, mootra, mala, nakha, danta, kesa or any othermatter is used in many methods. In lohavarga saptaohasand kanta loha is used. Generally lohadhruties or lohabhasmas are used for parada agnisthayeekarana. According to Agastya sampradaya sudha loha isemployed for this purpose. Among Ratnavarga – maharatna and uparatnas areused. Parada bandhana can be achieved withratnadhruties, ratna bhasma, satva is also used. Among vanaspaties mainly divyousadhies, niyamakaousadhies and rasabandhak ousadhies are popular, withthe swarasa of these oshadhies svedana, mardana etc.,are done 64 pasanas dravyas are considered & amongthese pullatotti pasana, tusu pasana and lavana pasanaare main. In parada bandhana prakriya jangama vargadravyas also are refered. In this group artava and sukraare mainly used. 42
  43. 43. In Rasarnava, Rasaratnasamuchhaya, laxanas ofKalini Stree are described. Kalini stree laxanas are shyavavarna, curley hairs,kamala mukhi, beautiful, young, and also whose breast,buttock, are well developed, and whose chumbana,alingana etc. are very soft to feel, has madhuravani andmrduyoni & who menstruate in krishnapaksha. In making parada badha and rasayoninirmana thiskind of stree is necessary. Rasarnava explained making Rasabandha ispossible with kalimi, kukini, and kachinin stree. A lady who menstruate in krisnapaksa is called askanlini, and the lady who menstruate in both paksas isknown as keekini. A lady who menstruate in shuklsa paksa is called askanchini. All these laxanas are more or less similar tokalini stree described in Rasarnava dviteya patala 17 –25. 43
  44. 44. In absence of this type of stree there are otherrelaxation in rasa texts explained such as mantra visesa.It is advised to chant mantra one lakh time beforekulaksana stree to convert her into sulaxana stree.Rasaratnasamuhayakara recommended one tolagundhaka ghrta to the lady for 21 days to convert her intoa kalini stree. Rasabandhanakari Kalini streedescription is available in may other granthas but allthose laxanas are more or less the sameRasaratnasumuchhayakara advised to take rasavidyadeeksa only after getting Kalini stree. It is clear thatrasabandha or rasasiddhi are possible only with kalinistree. After knowing that rasabandhana is possible withstree, then the question arises how to make paradabandhana with the help of stree. What factor isresponsible far rasabandhana. Rasarnavakarta opinesthat raja of the lady who has consumed gandhaka for 21days is capable of making parada bandhana and jarana.The procedure of paradabandhna with raja is mentionedin parada samhita in a symbolic manner i.e. if parada is 44
  45. 45. triturated with raja it becomes bandhita. The descriptionof rajobandha parada nirmana refered in Yogaratnakara,Rasaraja Sankara, Nigantu ratnakara etc., is alsoavailable in parada samhita, which goes like this “Duringthe time of menstruation parada should be kept in theyoni of a stree, & with the prabhava of raja paradabecomes baddha”. Raja is described as which stay in giriguha, neitherlion, nor Naga, though possess as two paksha is notpakshiraja; which is in the middle of the sky likearunavarna say.. Parada become baddha with this. Inparada samhita this is known as rajata; this is not knownhow he described this as rajata. Commentator is alsodoubtful how acharya compared rajas with rajata. InRasa-kama-dhenu, Ayurveda prakasa, Todarananda andVastuguna Prakasika there is description regardingparada baddha with Raja. To know more about this when questioned to manyrasavaidyas no satisfactory explanation could be found.Dhatuvadies believe that “only prathama rutumati artava 45
  46. 46. is helpful in this kriya. To understand which supernatural guna in artava is capable of making paradabandhana, it is essential to study the constituents ofartava. The main constituents of artara are calcium, arsenicand iodine, (ref. British obst and gyn pract). Calcium ishaving naturally parada bandhaka guna. In thisksarabaddha parada is popular. There is a referenceregarding paradabandhana with malla. Gouripashina issupposed to be a good parada bandhaka. This principleis available in artava. Tried to get practical experiencefrom rasavadies but no satisfactory response andexplanation received from any of the rasavadies. Itseems present rasavadies are not doing paradabandhana with Artava. After considering the kalini streelexanas, it seems rasavidyas might be probably SouthIndian because Savavarna, Curley hairs etc., are signs ofSouth Indian ladies. There is a necessity of research in relation toparada bandhana with artava. If paradabandhana is 46
  47. 47. achieved with this method, there is no necessity ofsearching paradabandhaka vanaspaties, and also whichsolve the problem of making other dravyas agnisthyi,satvapatana, jarana etc.,.Agnisthayi :- Agnisthayi this word is formed by combination of twowords agni & sthayi. This word is gativachaka, that alsospecially conforms upward movement. The function ofAgni generally is dahaka, pachaka. & spread in all fourdirections. But its upward movement is predominant. Sthayi word formed by root ‘stha’ and ‘Ma’, Vadi,parasmaipada. Which shows to stop to control orrestricting of gati. Agnisthayi is combination of twowords, agni and sthayi :- Both these words indicates opposite meaning : Agni the function of which is “moving” where as themeaning of sthayi word is restricting the gati. Though 47
  48. 48. agni is one among panchmahabhoota it is of three typesdepending upon sthana and upadi. 1) Sunrays form agni – spreads all-round. 2) Bahya sthulagni. 3) Dehastha kayagni. Prakrtistha agni - Anatariksha vyapi, Komala,Prakashaprada, posaka and jeeva raksaka. This is not dahaka but sosaka. Bahyagni is dahaka,teeksna and svaroopavidhvamska. Kayagni is available in all anu and parmanu of thebody. Among these three types of agni, which type of‘Agni’, one should use for “Dravya Sthayikarna; Thisshould be understood first. In rasavada as and whenrequired all these three type agnies are used wherevernecessary.To dry up :- Ardradvaya, bhavana dravya antarikshagniis used. To give required shape to “Rasaka” Bahyagni isimportant. Lastly digesting siddharasas and in makingthem useful to body kayagni plays a vital role. Like this 48
  49. 49. in rasavada all these types of agni are constantly oralways required. The meaning of agnisthyi is stable inbahya sthulagni. But the other two agnies antarikshigani& kayagni are not related to “Agnisthayi”. There is adifference in the meaning of agnisthiyi in sanskritalanguage and in rasavada. In sanskrit meaning ofagnisthayi doesn’t explain the time & type of agni (mrdu,madhyama, teeksna) Rasavadies agnisthayi literature has been adoptedand developed by modern scientists, which has explainedthat a particular drug boils at certain temperature. Eg.Boiling point of yashad is 419 0 c x M.P . is 607 0 c. this isproved by the present day scientist. This is known as“Agnisthayi” But in sanskrit literature, this is notexplained however there is one explanation regarding thechanging of dravya form & absolutely stopping of the gati. 49
  50. 50. Vyapakata of agnisthayekaran” Though agnisthayekaran is a very complex anddifficult it has been utilised by different acharyas ofvarious region & religion. The knowledge of which isavailable in their granthas. In sanskrit language too the word agnisthayi isexplained as baddha, Paksaklinna, paksadanda. In Tamil – Agnisthayekarna is called as “Katu”, afterevery drug. ‘katu’ is added such as “Talaka katu” etc., Kerala and Telugu writers have followed Tamilliterature and referred agnisthayekarana as “Katu”. Agnisthayekarana was well developed and known toKarnataka rasavadies, and vaidyas also, where in it wascalled as “Hogekattu”. i.e “doesn’t emit smoke”. This is also popular in Maharastra & North Indianvaidyas. 50
  51. 51. What are the drugs to be made agnisthayi ? As there are many dravyas in Rasasastra, it isnecessary to know which dravyas among rasa, maharasa,uparasa, sadarnarasa should be made agnisthayi.Maharasa :- Abhraka, vaikranta, makshika, vimala, adrija,sasyaka, chapala and rasaka, these eight dravyas arecalled as maha rasa. Among these first, four drugs havegot high degree of agnisahatva guna’ these drugs doesn’tgets volatized while doing marana, so there is nonecessary to make these drugs agnisthayi. Remainingfour dravyas change shape etc., even with less heat , sothese should be made agnisthiyi. But there is noreference regarding the agnisthayikarana of adrija andchapala’ so it can’t be explained anything about thesetwo. Rasaka agnithayikarana is popular since the time ofacharya Nagarjuna. No description regarding tuthaagnisthayikarana can be found. In agnisthayikarna sidhasystem of South Indian is having its own special position.The preparation methods, properties etc are described 51
  52. 52. separately in texts. In Unani Hakeem also the treasure ofagnisthayi is available. These people calls agnisthayi as – kayam karana,kayamutunarsabita karana. In Urdu rasavada sahityaakabaralchemiya, kustejatahajari etc are described. In“Adhunika siddha rasendra vignana” different proceduresof agnisthiyikarana are explained by Unani methods. Withthese facts one will come to know that Unani alsoaccepted the importance of agnisthiyikarana.Uparasa : Gandhaka, gairika, kaseesa, kanksi, tala, sila,anjana and kankusta are uparasas. Apart from gairika,anjana, kaseesa, and kanksi all dravyas in uparasavarga emit smoke when kept over fire, that mean it is notpossible to make marana of these because of theirvolatile nature. Gairika, anjana, kaseesa, are more stablein fire than gandhaka. So, the marana of these dravyas iseasily made. Therefore there is no necessary to makethese agnisthaye. 52
  53. 53. Kanksi, though it becomes flower like withagnisamyoga. It is necessary to make it agnisthayi. Butthere is no reference regarding kanksi sthayikarana.Gandhakadi agnishayikarana methods are explained.Anjana agnisthayikarana methods are mentioned in Unanisystem. But it seems there is no necessity to makeanjana sthayi, because it can be reduced to bhasmaeasily.Sadharana rasa :- Kampillaka, Gouripasana, Navasagara, kapardi,agnijar, girisindhura, hingula, mrdarshinga are sadharanasasa. Among these it is necessary to make Hingulaagnisthayi. Agnisthayikarana of other khanijadravyas isnot necessary as they can be subjected to marana easily.Pranija and vanaspatija dravyas is not required.Kampillaka, agnijara dosen’t requires sthayikarana. Askapardi is also marana siddha, doesn’t requiressthayikarana, Remaining are Gouripasana, Navasagar,Girisindhura, Hingula and mrdashringa. Mrddashringa is anaga yougik. Some people say it should be made sthayi;but it is not widely used in dehavada and lohavada. Some 53
  54. 54. rasacharyas feels it necessary to make mrddashringaagnisthasyi, as the colour of it changes when giventeeksagni where as it is possible to make marana ofmrddashringa there is no necessary to make it sthayi.Now, remaining are gouripasana Girisindhura andHingula. Except girisindhura, agnithayikarana ofremaining drugs is explained in detail; There is noreference regarding girisindhura agnisthayikarana. It maybe done like Hingula sthayikarana as it is a parada yogik. Apart from maharasa, uparasa, sadharanarasa,agnisthayikarana of suryaksara, saindhava, samudralavana, tankana, rasakarpura and savveera is available inliterature. When kept over fire suryaksara has got burningproperty, samudra lavana gets utksipta & lose weight,tankana becomes flower like & Rasakarpura, savveera,are volatile, so it is necessary to make these drugsagnsthayi. 54
  55. 55. Agnisthiyikarana of naga vanga, yasada, and otherlohas comes under dhatuvada so it is not described here. 55
  56. 56. Essentiality of sodhana before agnisthayikarana. Generally khanija and vishadravya sodhana ismentioned in rasagranthas. There are many importantreasons for this. These dravyas are available inbhoogarbha. Naturally some harmful, unwanted,dangerous materials are mixed with them. In order toavoid the harmful effects of these apadravyas on thebody it is necessary to purify them. Apart from this another intention of sodhana is thatnirindriya rasadravyas are purified with the help ofvividha swarasa and taila etc., by sendriya dravyasamyoga; the sendriya guna get transmitted intorasadravyas. Apart from gaining sendriyatva rasadravyasbecomes brittle; by which marana would be easy .Because of these reasons sodhana is a prime importantfactor in rasashastra. When we proceed for rasa-rasadi dravyaagnisthayikarana; the important question arises before usis that whether sodhana karma is essential prior to the 56
  57. 57. process of agnisthayikarana & if the sodhana isnecessary then when it should be done, before or afterthe agnisthayikarana. It is necessary to know aboutthese two things. The writer of ‘Marmakalabhodini’explained that whether in lohavada or dehavada it isnecessity to purify dravyas before agnisthayikarana. Where as some dhatuvadies doesn’t accept thisopinion and feels that there is no necessary to makedravyas purification before agnisthayikarana. Whateverthis dosas (Visadi) present in the dravyas will beeliminated by samskara we do while makingagnisthayikarana. Due to the prabhava of samskararasadi dravya becomes devoid of the dosas. Sothere is no necessity to make sodhana prior to theagnisthayikarana. Even if one can accept this view thatvisadi dosas gets eliminated by the agnisthayikaranasamskarana; but it may not eliminate the apadravyasmixed with rasadravyas, which should be noted. Ofcourse before agnisthayikarana there seems no problemin making sodhana; any how many sodhana vidhies arementioned in rasashastra. One can choose suitable 57
  58. 58. method for sodhana, because some sodhana methods areas such, that cause inconvenience in agnisthayikaranafor example it is said that hingula can be purified bygiving a bhavana of stanya; but hingula khanda isneeded for its agnisthayikarana where as when it ispurified with above method it becomes powder. The mainintention of taking hingula khanda is to enable to givechoya either with svarasa or jayaneera or to makepachana in a svarasa. Some times it is subjected topachana by keeping amidst the kalka etc., or it issubjected to svedana with the help of dolayantra. It isinconvenient to take hingula powder. If we take hingulachurna it partly gets mixed with the svarasadi dravyas; bywhich sthireekarana becomes difficult. Along with thisduring the process of hingula sodhana with stanya,snehamsa present in stanya get mixed with hingula.While making agnisthayikarana due to the burning ofsnehamsa present in hingula causes the change in itscolour, or there may be an interaction between the drugsused in sodhana & sthayikarana. So there exists doubt inattaining desired result. 58
  59. 59. Even though Gandhaka sthayikarana is done alongwith the impurities present in it. for example sand etc., itcan’t be successfully used as vedhopayogi because ofthe impurities present with it even after sthayikarana. We know that sodhana karma is essential andsodhana can’t create any problem in agnisthayikarana.Keeping in mind above all factors sodhana is essentialand good prior to the process of agnisthayikarana. Butsodhana of rasa dravyas should be made in such a waythat it should get rid of the impurities and donot cause orcreate inconvenience in the process of agnisthayikarana . There are different methods of sodhana for a singledrug; one has to choose the suitable method. Thedravyas purified in this way are necessary foragnisthayikarana. Saindhava, samudralavana, sphatika, suryaksara,navasagara, tankana, and tutha etc., are soluble in water.The best method of sodhana of these dravyas is finepowder of dravyas solution of these dravyas should beprepared by mixing with water and get filter either by 59
  60. 60. using chaturguna vastra or filter paper then the solutionis heated till evaporation of water. This kind of sodhitadravyas can be used for agnisthayikarana without anydifficulty. For gandhaka shodha it is liquefied in iron vesselsmeared with ghee or oil it is and is poured in a vesselcontaining milk through the cloth; tied over the mouth ofthe vessel. After purification by this method gandhakashould be washed thoroughly with warm water to removessnehamsa. If gandhaka khanda is required forsthayikarana. The required quantity gandhaka is liquefiedand given a shape of “Pinda”. Before agnisthayikarana parada may be purified byany of the methods. Then the process ofagnisthayikarana becomes easy. Parada may be purifiedby using any dravadravyas, but care should be taken thatno snehamsha of bhavanamsha of dravya remainsmixed with parada. After svedanadi proceedures theagnisahatva guna in parada gradually goes on increasing.So, it is accepted to purify parada by different methods. 60
  61. 61. Prior to agnisthayikarna sodhanakarma should be donewithout any hesitation; by this dehavedha and lohavedhaguna are incorporated in sthayi dravyas. 61
  62. 62. If asodhita dravyas are made agnisthayi, then theremay be delay or failure in desired results and in the sameway if asodhita agnisthayi dravyas subjected to sodhanaafter sthayikarana instead of good result one will get lossonly. The main cause for this is that afteragnisthayikarana if it is subjected to sodhana there maybe loss or decrease in their properties. Dravyas whichhave been taken for sthayikarna after different samskarasautomatically imbibes some properties due to samskaras.If dravyas purified after sthayikarana, the propertieswhich have gained during the prior samskaras will eitherbe lost or decreased. Some dhatuvadies feel that thedravyas becomes parisuddha when purified aftersthireekarana. It is different to believe this. After seeingall these facts it becomes clear that dravyas should bepurified prior subjecting them to sthayikarana. Thepurification prior to sthireekarana is essential forachieving deha – loha siddhi. 62
  63. 63. Necessity of Agnisthayikarana of Rasadi drvayas. Shivateja padavi vibhoosita parada is such amiraculous drug because of its prabhava it can fulfill thewills of sadhaka within no time. Its area of action is twofold, one is dhatuvada and another one is dehavada.Conversion of heena guna tamradi dhatu into utkrishtaguna rajata & swarana in the same way making vyadhipeedita sareera to healthy one is dehavada. Dhatuvada isnot a separate entity; i.e. nothing but only the method oftesting siddha rasas used in dehavada. Parada issupposed to be the only drug for dehavada & lohavada,but there is a difference between sadhana and prakriyasamong deha and lohavedha. Parads does the function of deha and lahovedhaonly when it is made completely agnisthayi and canconsume rasoparasadi dravyas. Because of this reasonrasacharyas advised to make vividha samskaras. Apoisonous drug parada becomes nectar due to differentsamskara kriya, which eliminates the poisonous 63
  64. 64. properties of parada. Secondly parada siddhi is done withdivyousadhies, but it consumes a lot of time andLaborious, seems to be impossible. The identification ofdivyoushadhies itself is highly difficult. Even if available,divyoushadies may be available in small quantity, indurgama pradesha. Where we can’t make paradaanusandhna kendra. Even when we try to cultivate the divyoushadhies bychanging their natural place, there is a fear of change ordecrease in their guna karma – prabhava and kartrutvashakti. In these circumstances preparation of siddha rasa,baddha and bubhuksita – parada by divyoushadhiesseems to be a mrgatrsna or gaganakusuma. To get rid ofthis severe problem rasasiddhas invented differentprocedures that is first gandhaka, hingula, talakadidravyas are made agnisthayi, then with the help of theseattaining the siddhi i.e., making paksa chhedana ofparada, bubhuksiteekarana later on along with jaranadikriya parada is also made vedhopayogi. Dhatuvadies 64
  65. 65. believe siddha parada made by these vidhies is capableof converting or changing the colour, molecular weightSp. Gravity, boiling point, melting point etc of metals. Like this it cures the sareerika rogas and giveshealth, vigour & longevity. In this method there is nonecessity of making time consuming laborious astadasa,samskara or khechari, bhucheri, jarnadi complicatedprocedures & also no need to go into durgama pradesasfor searching divyoushadhies. So agnisthayikarana of gandhaka, hingula talakadidravyas is always needed. Parada which is havingashayagni dosa or alpa agnisthayi guna still show verygood results in chandradayarasa, siddhamakara dvajaetc., This is only a combination of anagnisthayi paradaand gandhakadi rasadravyas. But in preparing chandrodayadi parada is subjectedto kupi pakva after samanya sodhana. Where as paradaattains higher powers like asadhya roga nasaka gunaonly after visesa samskaras (particular purifications). 65
  66. 66. So to prepare this kind of divyagunayukta (Supernatural power) parada, first it is necessary to makeGandhaka, Tala, Manasila, Yasada, Sora, Navasagara,Hingula, Malla etc. agnisthayi, before being brought inuse with parada. Whatever siddhi or power being attained it may notbe more than taking a conch shell to ocean. Some rasavadhies claim that “Rogaha sarve apijayante mande agnou”. Which means all diseases occursdue to agnimandya only. It is primarily need of aphysician to achieve samprapti vighatana by bringing thevisama or mandagni to samyavasta and whenanagnisthayi dravya nirmita rasousadhies are used.Jatharagni and dhatvagni becomes manda. “Yatra yatradhoomaha tatra tatra vahnihi”. When agni is intensifieddhoomra itself vanishes. Gandhaka the dravya emitsSmoke when kept over fire; because of this they causeagnimandya, by which they causes disease. Thereforerasoudhies should be made agnisthayi. If rasaousadhiesprepared by using agnisthayidravyas, are used definitely, 66
  67. 67. it should eradicate the diseases and brings in goodhealth. Rasousadhies are called as nirindriya dravyas.Tamradi dhatus are used after making shodhana maranaetc., by this nirindriya dravyas becomes laghu,sookshma. Which are easily absorbed by the body; thereason for this is that vanashpati taila svarasa etc., areused for bhavana and subjected to putas. By thisrasousadhies becomes sendriya dravyas by losingnirindriyatva. Body absorbs sendriya dravyas easily. Where as in khalveeya or kupipakva rasousadhinirmanana nirindriya gandhaka, hingula etc are used onlyafter sodhana for preparing kalpas, which is really a greatmistake. Because neither laghutva, nor sookshmatva andsendriyatva will be incorporated in the kalpas. No significant result can be achieved with theserasas, even if there is a little result that may be due tothe presence of the choornadi dravyas mixed while givingbhavana; or anupana or due to the pathyahara vihara 67
  68. 68. followed by the patient. So it is necessary to makemarana of hingulatuladi dravyas by using vananspathies,hinguladi dravya loses jadata and attains sendriyatva. But it is very much difficult to make marana of thesedravyas, because they get burnt immediately afteragnisamyoga as they burn suddenly, no bhasma can beprepared. Where as with out preparation of basama wecan’t expect good result. Hence agnisthayikarana ofgandhakadi drvayas is of immense necessity. These canbe handled easily like lohas only after agnisthayikarana. “Marmakalabodhini” dhatuvadi granthakarta explainsthat 99%- of the dhatuvadies fail in attaining dhatusiddhi.The main reason for this is that people doesn’t use theagnisthayi dravyas in the methods. They simply take thedrugs mentioned in the literature and give puta and theywon’t get anything at the end. There is a possibility of failure even after subjectingsidda rasa or siddha bhasmas in the processes. Peoplewho doesn’t get siddhi start blaming the science, without 68
  69. 69. trying to know the intricacies of the sastra. Fordhatusiddhi wherever rasadravyas are used or indicated,they should be understood only as agnisthayidravyas.This is only known to an expert rasasastra teacher. So,for attaining siddhi it is necessary to haveagnishtayidravyas. Marmakalabodhinikarta is of the opinion thatwhatever kriyas one does for rasasiddhi, there comes theagnisathayikarana. Therefore it is necessary to make thedravyas agnisthayi when used for vedhakriya. Such aswhich dravyas we use for rajata vedha, they should dothe vedha karma without doing marana of rajata. For thispurpose it is required to make the dravya agnisthayi. Ifthe dravya get burnt after vedhana then there will be noloss. In rasasatra which dravyas are not stable in fireshould be made sthayi first. There is a reference indhatuvada granthas, which many resasiddhas alsobelieve, that if agnisthayi gandhaka tali is used forvedhana over melted rajata, it is converted into svarana. 69
  70. 70. But when anagnisthayi gandhaka taila is preparedand tried vedhana, that rajta neither converts into svarnanor remains as rajata instead it vanishes. Prof. Dr. D. A. Kulkarni in his vignana bodhini teekaof Rasaratnasamuchheya while explaining the propertiesof rasaka and parada as sresta siddha rasas. Deha andlohavedha both become slaves of a person who does theagnisthayi karana of rasa and rasaka. Rasaka is alsohaving many important properties like rasa. But toextract maximum properties of these two, it is obligatoryto make their sodhana & marana. These two process arenot possible without agnisthayikarana; as both thesevolatizes when kept over fire. So, the bhasmeekarana ofthese two should be done with great care. The one whomakes agnisthiyikarana of these two will attain deha &loha siddhi. Prof. Kulkarni’s intentions is to eliminate volatilizingproperty of parada and remarks, agnisthayikarana isessential, then only it is possible to attain deha lohsiddhi.If they are not stable in fire, it is impossible to prepare 70
  71. 71. their bhasma. By this essentiality of parada and rasakaagnisthayikarana becomes very clear. Prof Kulkarni’sopinion also confirms, strengthen & supports the opinionof marmakala bodhini. While writing hindivyakhya of rasaratnasamuchhayakaviraj. Ambikadatta sasatri while explaining theproperties of rasaka states that, a man who preventskharpara and parada’s volatizing guna or a man whodigests these two drugs, the dehasiddhi will be a slave ofsuch persons. Ambikadattaji’s opinion is to prepare “Sthoolagniand pachakagni sahanagunayukta parada & kharpara. Hisindirect statement is that kharpara & parada both arevolatile. In rasesvradarsana it is written that “Poorvam loheparikset paschat deha prayojayet” first try on loha thenuse on deha. Siddharasa which does the lohavedha willautomatically do dehavedha. 71
  72. 72. Parada agnisthayikarana with vanaspaties Vaidyasamudaya believes that if parada is madebandha with venapaties, it possess miraculousproperties. There is a description texts that – ‘Uttamomoolika bandho manibandhastu madhyamaha’. There is adetailed description of the vanaspaties used for thispurpose, these are described as divyousadhies. There isa difference of opinion about these vanaspaties. Theseousadhies are not more than 64 to 84 in numbers.Vanaspaties which are capable of giving dehasiddhi andlohasiddhi are called as divousadhies. Among these someare capable of making parada bandhana and agnisthayialso,and some are famous to possess as soota niyamakagana. The meaning of this section drug is not clear,whether these vanaspaties only does the function ofremoving parada chanchalagati by niyamana or whetherparada becomes devoid of its asahyagniguna and attainsagnisahatva. 72
  73. 73. But there is no confusion regarding the vanaspatieswhich are explained as paradabandhanayogya. Whichvanaspaties eradicates dravatva of parada and make itsolid are called as bandhana guna sampanna. Apart fromthis which vanaspaties introduce agnisthayi guna inparada may also be called as parada bandhaka. There may not be any problem in calling thesevanapaties as divyoushadies which removes dravatva ofparada or makes parada agnisthayi. The parada bandhana vanaspaties are innumerable.There are may vanaspaties in use among the vaidyas.Many people experimented by taking these vanaspaties,but it seems they have not obtained satisfactory results. To have satisfactory results while triturating paradawith divyousahadhies and niyamaka ousahadhies alongwith parada; saindhavalavana, should be added.Specially when swarasa of these vanaspaties is used in. 73
  74. 74. Majority of the vanaspaties. Such as rudravanti,latabooti, loni, bathua etc., are ksarapradhana and alsodifficult to identify. While triturating parada with these svarasa & whenwashed with kanji or amla dravyas, salts will form.Parada captures more or less quantity of dhatvamsapresent in the plant juices and parada starts solidifying.This is the secret of ghaneekarana. Parada can be solidified by using many vanaspaties,but with some prabhavi vanaspaties parada get rid of itsdravatva and becomes solidified by which one can makegutika of parada. There are some other, vanaspaties which will makeparada bandhana and baddha. The parada becomesstable even in high degree temperature. This is theopinion of the Bhasmavignana granthakarta. Before starting to make parada bandhanaprakriyawith the help of vanaspaties, at first it is essential to 74
  75. 75. know its shastrik name, then and which part of that plantpossess the parada bandhana guna should be identified.Next the duration of swedana, mardana etc., should beunderstood. Apart from this there are so many practicalproblems. Separate or different vanaspaties have the samesynonyms which creates confusion in selectingvanaspaties, this is the one of the main hindrance inpreparing mulika baddha rasa. There is no description in literature regarding theduration, procedure and the part in by which paradabandhana is achieved. 75
  76. 76. Drutidwara parada agnisthayikarana. Druti is also used for parada agnithayikarana. Liquidstate of original dhatu or mineral is Druti, which remainsin liquid form only. When prepared by combining withdivyoushadies with melted svarnadi loha or any otherkhanija dravyas. (R.R.S. 8/81). Specially preparation of ratna and loha druti ismentioned in the texts. Druties are used in 13 t h samskaraof parada. This samskara is known on “Bahyadruti”.Druties mixed in arotabandha makes parada bandhana.(R.R.S. 8/80). Acharyas explained the following 5 laxanas of druti(R.R.S. 8/82).1. Nirlepatvam : Druti should not get attached to parada.1. Drutatvam : Should remain in drava vastha only2. Tejasvi : Should be lustrous.3. Laghuta : Should be lighter than original material4. Asamyoga : Should not form amalgumation with parada. 76
  77. 77. After seeing the above laxanas it become very clearthat acharyas not explained about druti varga and alsohow to prepare druti. But mentioned that druti shouldposses the colour of the draya from which its has beenprepared. It is difficult or it may not to possible to remainin dravavastha for druti prepared by different proceduresthat is why method or of keeping. Druti in liquid form isexplained as – all druties should be kept in a bottlecontaining kusumbha tila. Whenever necessary it istaken out & used. Ratnavarga druties and abhraka druties are famousand are used in parada jarna and parada bandhana. But among vaidya samudaya or dhatuvadies nopractical experience seems to exist regarding thepreparation of druti. One can’t say anything about druties unless anduntil than intense research work is done in this matter. In olden day also it seems there was no rasavadieswho successfully prepared druties, so there is adescription in literature that – druties are not formed 77
  78. 78. without the blessings of lord shambhu. (P.S.17/3). Shri. Harisharanada in his bhasmavigna on pageNo.130 state that vajradruti will never be formed. Unlessand until any other matter is mixed with vajra, it can’tremain in dravaroopa. There is a detail description ofpravala and mukta druti. Paravala and mukta are given abhavana of amlavetas swaras for one week. Then a bolusis prepared after mardana, kept in the jambeer, again it iscovered with samputa. After wards samputa is kept in aheap of dhanya for one week. Again the bolus removedout and subjected to svedana to get water like druti. Parada agnisthayikarana by satva Generally vajrabraka and bhoonaga satva are widelydescribed for this purpose. Parada becomes agnisthayiby abhrakasatva jarana. This description is clearlymentioned in texts, which is a very complicatedprocedure. 78
  79. 79. Though there is a description of making paradapaksaklinna by abhraka satva. But this is very vast workand requires years together time. According to theopinion of rasavadhies abhraka satva is made paradabhaxana yogya, even though after makingbhakshanayoga abhrakasatva; parada will not consume it.So abhrakasatva triturated with different types of tailas,vasa and made brittle powder like. Even after makingbhaksana yogya; parada will not consume satva, soparada mukheekarana is needed. Even when paradaMukheekarana is done by different visas. Parada will beincapable in abhrakasatva bhakshana. Living beings evenwhen possesses mukha and bhaksahara, will notconsume ahara without kshudha, like this mukheekaranakrta parada will not ingest abhrakasatva. That is whyparada bhubhuksitikarana samskara is done. In this stageonly parada will consume abhrakasatva easily. Parada will not yield any phala (siddhi) even afterconsuming abhrakasatva; as ingested food is not capableof sareera posana unless and until it is properly digestedlike this the abhrakasatva becomes useful Only when 79
  80. 80. parada properly digests the abhrakasatva during abhrakajarana. Jaranakarma is done by using different yantras. Though there is a special description of thoseprocedures, but no success is seen practically. Parada bhubhuksitikarana and jarana are all not aneasy procedures. For this purpose “Guru” is specially needed thangranthas. Rasahrudaya tantrakara described theabhrakasatva jarana kriye clearly. But after studying theprocedure in detail, the procedures seems incomplete. Sothere is difficulty for sadhakas in experimenting. Parada agnisthayikarna may be done bybhoonagasatva in a manner by which parada pakasachhedana is done by using abhrakasatva. There is no description of method of paradaagnisthayikarana by bhoonagasatva. 80
  81. 81. In kakachandeesvari tantra there is reference ofparada agnisthayikarana by bhoonagasatva. Paradataken along with bhoonagasatva in a darvi and kept overagni parada becomes sthayi. There is symbolic adescription of making parada baddha and vedhaka bybhavana of different vanaspaties. Vaikranta, makshikadi satva are also used forparada agnisthayikarana. But acharyas given moreimportance to parada agnisthayikarana withabhrakasatva. Parada and abhrakasatva are supposed tobe veerya of shiva and parvati respectively. As purusha is obedient to stree so in the same wayshivaveerya parada becomes bandhita when combineswith the parvati verya abhraka. It is necessary to know that which principle factor ispresent in abhraka satva is capable of making paradapaksachhedana. 81
  82. 82. Abhrakasatva contains magnesium, ferrum, andaluminum, these dhatus are useful in giving paradaagnisthayiguna, but it cant be explain how this heavymetal becomes mixed with parada. This is only possibleafter detail study. It is difficult to say anything about thiswithout experiments or research. Parada agnisthayikarana by agnishtayi rasoushadhies. Agnisthayi rasas either alone or in combination areused in loharanjanakriya, other than loharanjanaagnisthayi rasasoushadies makes other dravyasagnisthayi. Also apart from these two kriyas they makeagnisthayikarana of rasendra too. But there is no clueabout which of the sthayi rasasoushadies makes paradaagnisthayi. The references regarding this is available inliterature. But there is no clarification regarding theprocedure or technique of making parada agnisthayikarnawith sthayi rasasoushadies; where as there is nodescription how agnisthayi dravyas are used inlohavedha. 82
  83. 83. Among rasavadies there are another two methodsused for this purpose. One is parada is triturated withagnisthyi rasas, and subjected to 3 hours pachana withthe help of “damanuyantra”. After svangaseeta dravysahas to be examined for agnisathavaguna after openingsamputa. If the parada is sublimed, then again it is collected,triturated with the underlying dravya & the wholeprocedure is repeated till parada doesn’t sublimes whichmeans parada doesn’t get urdhvapatita. Generally for thismethod hingula, maksika, ganghaka, tala, and malldidravyas should be previously made agnisthayi. Second method which is most widely used, which isdone by keeping parada amidst the powdered agnisthayirasadravyas, then do sandhibondhana properly. Later onit has to be subjected to one day pachana with deepagni. After svangaseeta parada is examined foragnisthayitva. If it is not properly attained sthayitva, the 83
  84. 84. process is repeated again in the same manner. By thisparada become agnisthayi. 84
  85. 85. MATERIALS & METHODSLIST OF EXPERIMENTS DONE :1. Name of the : Hingnlotha parada experiment2. Sl. No. of experiment : 13. Reference : Sharangadhar, Madhyam khanda 12/16,174. Date of : 8.4.99 commencement5. Date of completion : 12.4.996. Equipments : 1. Equal sized two mrt handika. 2. Agnichulhika 3. Khalvayantra 4. Darvi. 5. Vastra.7. Dravyanama : Quantity Hingula 500 gms Citrus acida fruits 20 85
  86. 86. 8. Procedure : on 8-4-99 two mrthandikas whose inner surface was smeared with gopichandana, and allowed to dry. Hingula triturated for 3 hours with citrus acida – fruit juice saperately. On 9-4-99 triturated hingula was placed in one mrt. Handika; the second handika placed over the mouth of the vessel containing hingula in such a way that the mouths of both vessel face each other and fits without leaving any gap between. Sadhibandhana was done with piece of cloth, smeared with a Gopichandan. Totally 4 layers of cloth applied and allowed to dry for a day this looked like Damaruyantra. On 12.4. 99 at 9 a.m. Damaruyantra was placed over the LPG Gas stove, and started giving heat with large burner. A cold pad prepared out of thick cloth (4” x4” site) placed over the top upper vessel. At every 10- 15 minutes water is poured over the cloth pad, without the water drops folling down. Heating stopped at 5 p.m. 86
  87. 87. Next day morning ( 13.4.99) sandibhandhana removed carefully, vessels separated. Parada deposited on the interior surface of the upper vessel was collected by scraping with a plastic spatula. Collected parada squeezed out through a double layered cloth and stored in a clean glass bottle. The portion of the remnant Hingula present in the lower vessel was taken and again repeated with the process of trituration of Hingula with citrus acida fruit juice and subjected to the process of urdhvapatana repeated to extract parada present in the Hingula.9. Observation : After opening damaruyantra, parada globules seen adhered to the whole inner part of the upper vessel along with black precipitate of Gandhaka. After scraping parada mixed along with the black precipitate of Gandhaka turned to black coloured, when squeezed through the cloth the 87
  88. 88. silvery white shining of parada could be seen saperated.10. Tests : Hinguloth parada, and bandhita parada taken out separately in a moosa and kept over the furnace by keeping both moosas over the sand bath. After 4 minutes parada present in both moosas volatized without leaving any residue. By this it is clear that Hinguloth parada is not possessing any Agnisthayiguna.11. Precautions : 1. Care should be taken to keep cold pad over the upper vessel of the damaruyantra throughout the period of urdhva patana. 2. While pouring water over cold pad one should be cautious, so that the water poured should not drain down and damage the sandhibandhana. 3. Parada have to be collected by scraping the vessel. 88
  89. 89. Quantity of Resultant dravya : 230 gmsDravyanyunatamana : 270 gmsFeatures of Resultant dravya : Silvery white liquid.Result : Successful in extracting parada from Hingula with damaruyantra. 89
  90. 90. Discussion It is advised to triturate Hinugula either with citrusacida fruit juice or leaves juice, but generally majority ofRasavaidyas prefer fruit juice. So it was decided totriturate Hingula with citrus acida fruit juice. The mainreason for this, may be it is easier to extract fruit juicethan the juice of leaves. However the use of leaves juiceor fruit juice for trituration is a separate entity whichrequires further evaluation. Though I have extracted parada from Hingula 3-4times apart from this experiment, it was possible for meto extract 45-46% of parada from Hingula. This ancient methodology of extraction of parada fromHingula with urdhvapatana yantra is nothing but avacuum distillation of modern method of extraction ofmercury by Hingula. 90
  91. 91. 1. Name of the experiment : Gandhaka sodhana2. Sl. No. of experiment : 23. Reference : Rasatarangini 8/23,24,254. Date of commencement : 20.4.995. Date of completion : 23.4.996. Equipment : 1. Mrt handika – 2 of equal diameter LPG Gas Stove Vastra – Q.S Gopichandana Jala Q.S Darvi7. Name of the Dravyas Quantity Amalsar Gandhaka 250 gms.8. Procedure : On 20.4.99 the interior surface of both handikawas smeared with thin layer of Gopichandana andallowed to dry for a day on. 21.4 99 at 9 a.m. powderedGandhaka placed in one mrt handika, the second emptymrt handika placed over the mouth of the first vesselin such a way that the mouths of both vessels faces eachother and fits without leaving any gap in between. 91
  92. 92. Sandhibandhana was done with cotton cloth stripessmeared with Gopichandana. Totally 4 layers of clothapplied and left for a day to dry. On 22.4.99 at 8 a.m. damaruyantra was placedover the LPG gas stove on large burner. A cold padprepared out of thick cotton cloth (4”x4” size) placed overthe top of the upper vessel, at every 10-15 minuetswater poured over the cloth pad throughout the heatingprocess. Heating stopped at 8 p.m. and allowed to cool. On 23.4.99 at 9 a.m. sandhibandhana removed andyellow coloured sulphur sublimate (Gandhaka pushpa)collected carefully by scraping the interior part of theupper vessel.1. Observations : After opening sandhibandhana yellow coloured clear,flower like sulphur sublimate seen deposited on theinterior of upper mrt pot. 92
  93. 93. 2. Tests : About 10 gms of Asuddha Gandhaka andurdhvapatita Gandhaka powdered separately. Both samples of powdered Gandhaka spread overthe two abhraka patras separately. Heat applied to bothabhraka patras simultaneously by holding the abhrakapatras with sandamsa yantra. Ashodhita GandhakaVolatized earlier than urdhvapatita Gandhaka, whichshows urdhvapatita Gandhak, possesses someAgnisahatvaguna than asodhita Gandhaka.9. Precautions : 2. Cold pad should be placed on top of upper vessel, and water to be poured on it every 10-12 minutes interval without fail. 3. Water poured over cold pad should not damage sandhibandhana.3. Quantity of Resultant dravya : 200 gms4. Dravyanyunatamana : 50 gms5. Features of resultant dravya : Puspavat, peetavarna 93
  94. 94. 15. Result : Successful in purifying Gandhak as per reference. 94
  95. 95. DISCUSSION Generally gandhaka is purified by liquifying it in aniron vessel smeared with Ghee, and poured through thecloth tied over the mouth of an earthen pot containingany of these liquids i.e., Godugdha, GoghrtaBhrnagarajaswarasa etc., later after cooling Gandhak isremoved from the liquid and washed thoroughly withwarm water. The reason for selecting this method of Gandhaksodhana was to purify Gandhak without using oilysubstances and make Gandhaka to attainAgnisahatwaguna to some extent, which will aid in paradamarana as Gandhaka is purified by subjecting it athigher degree of temperature in this method ofpurification (upward sublimation) 95
  96. 96. 1. Name of the experiment : Parada bandhana2. SL. No. of the experiment : 33. Reference : Anubhoota4. Date of commencement : 2.5.995. Date of completion : 2.5.996. Equipments LPG Stove Loha darvi Loha patra Mrt patraDravyanama Quantity of dravyas Hingulotha parada : 100 gms Tuttha : 200 gms Samudra Lavana : 100 gms Jala : 1 litre Citrus acida fruit juice: 5 ounceMode of preparation : On 2.5.99 at 9 AM Tutha and Lavana powdered separately. Then added to a litre of water to prepare solution. At 11 AM lohapatra kept over 96
  97. 97. stove. When it becomes red hot, Tuta and samudra lavana dravana poured along with 100 gms of parada poured into the heated Loha patra solution. After get heated stirring with a loha darvi at 11.15A.M. hot dravana was transferred to another vessel carefully. Parada deposited in the loha patra scraped out, washed thoroughly and rubbed well in a mortar. After removing all parada taken in a double fold cloth, squeezed to form pattali, by which abhaddha parada came out and baddha parada remained in the vastra collected and Guti was prepared with baddha parada and kept in citrus acida fruit juice at 11.40 AM. Abaddha parada was made baddha again by pouring in the same dravan and repeating the process.9. Observation : After Lavana Mardana, when Tutha was powdered in the same Khalva without washing, the colour of Tutha turned whitish. When lavana 97
  98. 98. and tutha mixed in a water, it turned to bluecolour. Parada started adhering at the bottom of theloha patra. Dravana, poured in a separate vessel.Bandhitha parada rubbed in a mortar and washedwith water, started yielding first yellow colour,then blackish water. Baddha parada when squeezed through acloth with fingers, immediately Abaddha paradastarted coming out through the pores of the clothas fine globules, while baddha parada remainedin vastra was like a butter silvery white colourgradually started fading. Gutikas prepared out ofBaddha parada kept in a citrus acida fruit juice. Second day when observed gutika werevery hard and turned to an ash colour. Whengutika rubbed over cloth it started shining. 98