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EVALUATION OF COMBINED EFFECT OF NIMBA TAILA NASYA AND BRINGARAJA TAILA SHIROABHYANGA IN AKALA PALITYA” AN OBSERVATIONAL CLINICAL STUDY BY SABAREESH M Department of Panchkarma, D.G.M. Ayurvedic ...

EVALUATION OF COMBINED EFFECT OF NIMBA TAILA NASYA AND BRINGARAJA TAILA SHIROABHYANGA IN AKALA PALITYA” AN OBSERVATIONAL CLINICAL STUDY BY SABAREESH M Department of Panchkarma, D.G.M. Ayurvedic Medical College, Hospital and P.G. Research Center, Gadag.

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  • “EVALUATION OF COMBINED EFFECT OF NIMBA TAILA NASYA AND BRINGARAJA TAILA SHIROABHYANGA IN AKALA PALITYA” AN OBSERVATIONAL CLINICAL STUDY BY SABAREESH M Dissertation Submitted to the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka. In partial fulfilment of the degree of AYURVEDA VACHASPATI IN PANCHAKARMA Under the guidance of DR. SURESH BABU S M.D. (AYU), FRAV (GOI, Delhi) Professor P.G. Dept. of Panchakarma And co-guidance of Dr. YASMEEN A PHANIBAND M.D. (Ayu)POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF PANCHAKARMAD.G M.AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE AND RESEARCH CENTER GADAG – 582103 2007-2010 I
  • DECLARATION BY THE CANDITATE I hereby declare that this dissertation / thesis entitled “Evaluation of combinedeffect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila Shiroabhyanga in AkalaPalitya.” An observational clinical study is a bonafide and genuine research workcarried out by me under the guidance of Dr. Suresh Babu. S M.D. (Ayu), FRAV (GOI, Delhi)Professor and the co-guidance of Dr. Yasmeen A Phaniband M.D(Ayu), Post GraduateDepartment of Panchakarma, Shri D.G.M.Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag.Date: Signature of the CandidatePlace: Gadag. (Sabareesh M) II
  • CERTIFICATE BY THE GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Evaluation of combined effectof Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya.” Anobservational clinical study is a bonafide research work done by Sabareesh M inpartial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspathi. M.D.(Panchakarma).Date: Signature of the GuidePlace: Gadag Dr. S. Suresh Babu M.D. M.D. (Ayu), FRAV (GOI, Delhi) Professor P.G. Dept of Panchakarma Shri.D.G.M. Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag. III
  • CERTIFICATE BY THE CO-GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Evaluation of combined effectof Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya.” Anobservational clinical study is a bonafide research work done by Sabareesh M inpartial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspathi. M.D.(Panchakarma).Date: Signature of the Co-GuidePlace: Gadag Dr. Yasmeen A Phaniband M.D. (Ayu). IV
  • J.S.V.V. SAMSTHE’S SHRI D.G.M. AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GADAG POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF PANCHAKARMA ENDORSEMENT BY THE H.O.D AND PRINCIPAL OF THE INSTITUTION This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya.” An observational clinical study is a bonafide research work done by Sabareesh M under the guidance of Dr. Suresh Babu S M.D. (Ayu), FRAV (GOI, Delhi) Professor, and co- guidance of Dr. Yasmeen A Phaniband M.D. (Ayu) , Post Graduate Department of Panchakarma, Shri D.G.M.A.M.C., Gadag and contributed good values to the Ayurvedic research. Dr. Sivaramudu M.D. (Ayu), M.A (San), M.A (Psy) Dr. G. B. Patil Prof. and H.O.D. Principal, P.G. Dept of Panchakarma Shri. D.G.M. Ayurvedic Medical College,Shri. D.G.M. Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag Gadag.Date: Date:Place: Gadag Place: Gadag V
  • COPYRIGHT Declaration by the Candidate I here by declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminate this dissertation /thesis in print or electronic format for academic / research purpose.Date: Signature of the CandidatePlace: Gadag. Sabareesh M © Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka. VI
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: There is hardly any task which is more pleasant than acknowledging mygratitude to all those who have helped in so many ways in preparing this work. At thisjuncture, first of all I would like to start expressing my gratitude by bowing my headon the feet of lord almighty. Without whose blessings i would have never been able tocomplete this work. I deserve my respectful greetings in the lotus feet of Jagadguru Shri.Abhinava Shivanandmahaswamiji to his holiness and divine blessings. It is beyond the words to express my gratitude towards my esteemed Parents,Shri. Unnikrishnan; Mother, Smt. Devayani; for their support, effort and never endinglove which are the driving forces behind my success and achievement. I also grab thisopportunity to express my feelings to my sisters, and all other members of my familyfor their constant inspiration and encouragement. I would like to avail the opportunity to express my profound and immensegratitude and whole hearted thanks to my respected guide Proff. Dr. Suresh Babu. S,M.D. (Ayu), FRAV (GOI,Delhi) for his excellent guidance, constant help, inspiration, valuablesuggestions, keen observation and logical interpretation rendered throughout mystudy. I express my thankfulness to my beloved principal Dr.G.B.Patil, for hisencouragement and support by providing all necessary facilities for this researchwork. I wish to express my deepest gratitude to Dr. P.Sivaramudu, M.D.(Ayu), HOD,Dept of Panchakarma for his timely advises and encouragement during this researchwork. I am extremely happy to express my deep sense of gratitude to my co-guideDr. Yasmeen .A. Phaniband, M.D.(Ayu), whose sympathetic, scholarly suggestionshave inspired me to accomplish this work in all aspects. I shall remain grateful to the affectionate guidance of my teachers Dr.Santosh N. Belavadi,M.D (Ayu) and Dr. Jairaj Basarigidad MD (Ayu), for their valuablesuggestions. Their invincible and radical thinking were very valuable in achieving thisresearch work. I am sincerely thankful to professor Dr.G.Purushothamacharyulu, M.D. (Ayu)who was former H.O.D. and Dr. Rajashekar C.V. MD (Ayu), who was former teacherin the department for their scholarly guidance. VII
  • I am grateful to all the PG teachers Dr. K. S. Prasad, Dr. M. C. Patil, Dr.Mulugund, Dr. G. S. Hiremath, Dr. R. V. Shettar, Dr. Girish Danappa Goudar, Dr.Jagadeesh Mitti, Dr. KuberSankh, Dr. Shashikanth Nidugundi, Dr. B. M. Mulkipatiland Dr. M D. Samudri, for their valuable inputs and suggestions. I extend my immense gratitude to Dr. V. M. Sajjan, Dr.Purad, Dr.Yarageri,Dr.Suvarna Nidugundi, Dr. Shakuntala and other teaching staff who helped during mystudy. My sincere thanks are extended to my beloved U.G.Teachers Dr. MuralidharPujar, Dr.B.S.Prasad, Dr.Prakash Mangalassery, Dr.Sajitha, Dr.G.V.Ramana,Dr.Ashwinkumar, Mr.Panduranga, and Dr. Tripati for their inspiration and valuablesuggestions. I express my sincere thanks to Sri. Nandakumar, for his help in statisticalanalysis of results. I take the privilege to thank Sri. Mundinamani, Librarian, whoprovided me all the necessary books and time for my literary work. I cannot move further before thanking to my intimate friends Mr. Shakthi(Local guardian), Dr.Sasisankar.MS, Dr.Sanathan sarma, Dr.Rahul, Dr.Sunil kumar,Dr.Sanand, Dr.Sajith kumar, Dr.Jibi, Dr.Sreekumar(Pappu), Dr.Sachin(Mangu),Dr.Sandeep Patil, Dr.Gautam alva, Dr.Hariprasad shetty, Dr.Pratap, Dr.Anatharamsarma who helped me in each and every circumstance and gave me a depth sense offriendship. I feel extremely thankful to seniors Dr. Ashok M.G, Dr. Prasanna V. Joshi, Dr.Devandrappa Budi, Dr. Prasanna Kumar, Dr. Siba Prasad, Dr. Payappa Gowdar, Dr.Madhushree, Dr. Nataraj, Dr. Sanjeev Chaudary, Dr. Udaya Ganesha, Dr. Adarsh, Dr.Shailej, Dr. Mukta Hiremath and others for valuable suggestions. I pay sincere regards to my fellow colleagues Dr. Sanath kumar, Dr. Rajesh,Dr. Jayasankar, Dr. Deepak, Dr. Ishwar Patil, Dr. Praveen Nayak, Dr. Bodke, Dr.Kanti, Dr. Shakunthala, Dr. Asha, Dr. C.C Hiremath, Dr. Rotti, Dr. Bupesh, Dr.Gorpade, Dr. Deepa, Dr. Jadav, Dr. Mahantesh Swami Hiremath and Dr. PraveenPalled for their truly help and co-operation. I thank my juniors Dr. Joshi Goerge, Dr. Bhaghyesh, Dr. Anish Joseph, Dr.Surej, Dr. Vijay raj, Dr. Raghavendrachar, Dr. Vishwajith, Dr. Renukaraj, Dr.Sangamesh, Dr. Vijay Mahanthesh, Dr. Jagadeesh, Dr.Maneesh, Dr. Paresh, Dr.Shilpa, and for their support. I also thank to my UG friends for their help and support. VIII
  • I am also very much thankful to Mr. Salimath, Smt. Lalithamma who mademy stay comfort through out my P.G. carrier. I extend my thanks to Sri Kulakarni, Sri Nabi, Smt. Sunanda and Smt Renukafor their timely help in Panchakarma theatre during the trail. Lastly I pay my deepest respect for those patients who took part in the studyand I share my success with them. “To err is Human” – certain names, who could be directly or indirectly helpedin this work, might have been missed unintentionally. Thanks are due, to all of them.Date : Signature of the scholarPlace : Gadag. (Dr. Sabareesh M) IX
  • LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED: A.H – Ashtanga Hrudaya A.S – Ashtanga Samgraha B.P – Bhavaprakasha B.S – Bhela Samhita C.S – Charaka Samhita M.N – Madhava Nidana S.S – Sushruta Samhita V.S – Vangasena Y.R – Yogaratnakara X
  • ABSTRACT: Hair has a tendency to lose its natural colour with advancing age. It istherefore natural for the hair to turn grey with age. But premature graying is a morbidcondition and it makes even the young looks older. This causes a great deal ofconcern to the effected persons. Akala Palitya is a burning problem as large numberof population especially young men and women in present times are suffering fromthis malady. Acharyas have mentioned Nimba taila Nasya is one of the best treatment forAkala Palitya along with Bringaraja taila Shiroabyanga as Bringaraja is one of thebest Kesharanjaka drug. Thus these drugs were considered for the study.Objectives of the study: • To evaluate the effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila Shiroabyanga in Akala Palitya. • To evaluate the adverse effect of Nimba taila Nasya, if any.Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients were selected from O.P.D and I.P.D. of D.G.M.A.M.C &H after fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria randomly. All the 30 patientswere included in a single group and given 3 courses of Nasya karma andShiroabyanga, each course of 7 days and 3 days gap in between each course. Alongwith 30 days Pariharakala.Assessments results: Assessment of results was done by considering the base line data of subjectiveand objective parameters to pre and post medication was analyzed statistically for ‘p’value using ‘t’ test. XI
  • Overall response of patients: In the study, no patients had very good as well as good response. Among 30patients 13 Patients (43.33%) had satisfactory response to the treatment (25%-50%improvement in all the parameters), 17 Patients (56.66%) had poor response to thetreatment (<25% improvement in all the parameters).Key words: Akala Palitya, Premature graying of hair, Nimba taila Nasya, Bringarajataila Shiroabyanga. XII
  • TABLE OF CONTENTS:1. Introduction 1-22. Objectives 3-43. Literary review 5-1034. Materials and methods 104-1135. Observations and results 114-1386. Discussion 139-1537. Conclusion 1538. Summary 155-1569. Bibliography 157-16810. Annexure 169-177 XIII
  • LIST OF TABLES: SI Table and content PageNo. No.1 Nasya classification according to various Acharyas 92 Seasonal schedule of Nasya 153 Time schedule of Nasya acco. to dosha 154 Time schedule of Nasya 215 Contraindications of Nasya 256 Time schedule of Nasya in different seasons 267 Time schedule according to Dosha vitiation 268 Course of Nasya Karma 269 Dose of Nasya 2710 Samyaka Yoga Lakshanas of Nasya 3011 Ayoga Lakshanas of Nasya 30-3112 Atiyoga Lakshana of Nasya 3113 Seven layers of skin 4714 Stages of hair growth 5915 Aharaja nidana of Palitya 6916 Palita lakshanas of Palitya acc. to Vagbhata 7617 Palita lakshanas of Palitya acc. to Yogarathnakara 7618 food items which will be helpful to maintain the health of hair 8819 Properties of Nimba 9920 Properties Bringaraja 10121 Properties of Narikela 10322 Subjective parameters 10823 Parameter Area of scalp involved 11024 Parameter Random hair count 11025 Distribution of patient’s age group 11526 Distribution of patients according to sex 11527 Distribution of patients by Religion 11528 Distribution of patients by Occupation 11629 Distribution of patients by Economical status 11630 Distribution of Patients by Dietary habit 11731 Distribution of Patients by Agni 11732 Distribution of Patients by Koshta 11833 Distribution of Patients by Nidra 11834 Distribution of Patients by Vysana 11835 Distribution of Patients by Deha prakrithi 11936 Distribution of patients by Satmya 12037 Distribution of patients by color of hair 12038 Distribution of patients by nature of hair 12139 Distribution of patients by Anubandha vedana 12140 Distribution of patients by Mode of onset 12241 Distribution of patients by Site of onset 12242 Distribution of patients by Kula vrutantha 12343 Distribution of patients by head bath 12344 Distribution of patients by Type of water for head bath 124 XIV
  • 45 Distribution of patients by Materials used for hair wash 12446 Distribution of patients by Methods of hair drying 12547 Distribution of patients by using hair oil 12548 Distribution of patients by using hair dye 12649 Distribution of patients according to response 12650 Before treatment and after treatment values of all Parameters. 12751 Statistical analysis of parameter value 12852 Demographic data in patients 12953 Demographic data in patients 13054 Demographic data in patients 13155 Demographic data in patients 13256 Demographic data in patients 13357 Demographic data in patients 13458 Demographic data in patients 13559 Demographic data in patients 13660 Demographic data in patients 13761 Demographic data in patients 138 XV
  • LIST OF FIGURES: SI Figure PageNo. No.1 Cross section of scalp with hair and its parts 472 Structure of the shaft of hair 513 Structure of the hair root 534 Drug Nimba 985 Drug Bringaraja 1006 Drug Narikela 1027 Olsen/Canfield visual aid 1088 Shiroabhyanga 1139 Nasya 11310 Distribution of patient’s age group 11511 Distribution of patients according to sex 11512 Distribution of patients by Religion 11613 Distribution of patients by Occupation 11614 Distribution of patients by Economical status 11715 Distribution of Patients by Dietary habit 11716 Distribution of Patients by Agni 11717 Distribution of Patients by Koshta 11818 Distribution of Patients by Nidra 11819 Distribution of Patients by Vysana 11920 Distribution of Patients by Deha prakrithi 11921 Distribution of patients by Satmya 12022 Distribution of patients by color of hair 12023 Distribution of patients by nature of hair 12124 Distribution of patients by Anubandha vedana 12125 Distribution of patients by Mode of onset 12226 Distribution of patients by Site of onset 12227 Distribution of patients by Kula vrutantha 12328 Distribution of patients by head bath 12329 Distribution of patients by Type of water for head bath 12430 Distribution of patients by Materials used for hair wash 12431 Distribution of patients by Methods of hair drying 12532 Distribution of patients by using hair oil 12533 Distribution of patients by using hair dye 12634 Distribution of patients according to response 126 XVI
  • IntroductionIntroduction: The face of an individual is a personal identity in which hair plays asignificant role. Therefore a perfect head with hair is an attribute of personality andbeauty. Genetically Indians are black haired and a dark head is any time better andgoes well on any dress.1 This feeling makes one especially Palitya persons to havedark black hair, that’s why they undergo various therapies with hope of getting blackhair. Akala Palitya is a burning problem as large percent of population especiallyyoung men and women in present times are suffering from this malady. Because ofthis effected persons feel social embarrassment and stigma. In present days because of altered life style and stressful occupation signs ofaging are seen much earlier. Increasing urbanization and industrialization has posedgreater danger, due to pollution and contamination of water and air, with variableboth extrinsic and endogenous factors, there is definite increase in the incidence ofPremature Graying of Hairs, especially in tropical and developing countries.Incidence as per W.H.O is largely between the age group of 25-30 years.Accordingly ‘Akala Palitya’ is such condition, which is prevailing more andencountered more in day to day clinical practice. Unfortunately contemporary medical science also does not offer anysatisfactory treatment other than artificial coloring of hair (Dyeing). This regulardyeing will leads to many adverse effects like hair fall and other scalp diseases.Understanding hair and related problems, is not merely cosmetic claim, but itreflects the psychological and pathological conditions of whole body system. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila Shiroabhyanga in 1 Akala Palitya
  • Introduction In such grim clinical situations while referring various Ayurvedic texts, I cameacross a few formulations and procedures for this Akala Palitya (Premature grayingof hair). The one and only Panchakarma procedure explained for Palitya is Nasya.Sharangadara Samhita2, Yogarathnakara3, Baishajyarathnavali4 and Chakradatta5have mentioned Nimbabeeja taila as one of the best treatments for Palitya as it is anUrdwajatrugatha vyadhi where in Nasya is specially indicated6. Basing on thisNimba beeja taila Nasya has been selected for the present study. Along with thisShirobyanga with Bringaraja taila is also selected, as daily Shiroabyanga with Snehawill prevent Palitya7 and Bringaraja is one of the best Kesharanjaka drug8. This twofold therapy has been done on selected 30 patients strictly in accordance with theprocedure laid-down in the Ayurvedic classics and duly following the researchmethodology8(a). Finally the result/data obtained has been statistically evaluated. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila Shiroabhyanga in 2 Akala Palitya
  • ObjectivesObjectives: • To evaluate the effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila Shiroabyanga in Akala Palitya. • To evaluate the adverse effect of Nimba taila Nasya, if any.Need for the study: In present days because of altered life style and stressful occupation signs ofaging are seen much earlier. ‘Akala Palitya’ is such condition, which is prevailingmore and encountered more in day to day clinical practice. The incidence ofpremature graying of hair as per W.H.O is between the age group of 25-30 years. Contemporary medical science does not offer any satisfactory treatment otherthan artificial coloring of hair (Dyeing). Hence this study has been undertaken with the title, “Evaluation of combinedeffect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila Shiroabhyanga in AkalaPalitya.” An observational clinical study.Previous researches on this topic: • Nalini C: A clinical study on akala palitya and its management, R.G.U.H.S, Bangalore, Dept.of Shalakya 1999. • Sunil Kumar S: Management of akala palitya with brungaraja taila nasya and internal use of kaseesa bhasma, A.P. university, Vijayavada. Dept.of Shalakya 1993. • Chawda Harsha: Role of nirgundi patra palitagna lepa and neeli taila in management of palitya, G.A.U., 2000. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 3 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Objectives• Kamala Kumari L: Clinical management of akala palitya (grey hair) with triphaladi lepa with and with out nimba beeja taila, A.P. university, Vijayavada. Dept.of Shalakya 2005.• Kaushal Randhir: A comparative and clinical study in between shirovirechana- poorvaka mahaneela taila shirobasti and brungaraja rasayana in palitya roga,Rajastan university Jaipur, Dept.of Kayachikitsa. 2000.Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 4 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of NasyaHistorical review: The meaning of historical review is to trace out a continuous chain ofknowledge and by that come to know that where at present. The history of medicine isas old as human civilization. Plenty of disorders have been found referred in theancient literatures of Vedic period, either directly naming the disease itself or byhinting the nature of the disorder.Historical Aspect of Nasya karma: Seeds of knowledge are implanted in Veda. Veda’s are ancient source ofknowledge. There is description of health and disease related topics in a variable formin all Vedas but proportion of such topics is significant in Atharvaveda. HenceAyurveda is considered as a subset of Atharvaveda. It is natural that growth ofknowledge of any topic occurs gradually and same is the case with Nasya karma,which has developed since Vedic era to Modern era. Before the historical review ofNasya that of Nasa through which it is given would be appropriate.Description of Nasa in ancient texts:Yajurveda: While describing the Indriyas, there is mention of two Netra, two Karna,two Nasika Chhidra and Jihva.Atharvaveda: Nasa is described among nine chhidras and Indriya.“A¹cÉ¢ü,lÉuɲÉU…….” (Atharvaveda, 10/2/32)Bhagvad Gita: While describing Indriyas, the Nasa is mentioned.“lÉuɲÉU mÉÔuÉÉïSåÌWû lÉåuÉÉ…….” (Bhagawat Gita 5/13) Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 5 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of NasyaDescription of Nasya in ancient texts:Rigveda: Although it is very difficult to say that the procedure of Nasya karmatherapy was in practice during Vedic period. But the few Mantras of Rigavedaindirectly refer towards the Karmas which are included under Panchakarma measures.There is a Mantra of Rigveda, in which eradication of Roga from the routes of Nasa(Nostrils), Chibuka (Chin), Shira (Head), Karna (ear) and Rasana (tongue) arementioned (Ri.V. 10-16-4). Thus one can think that the references of eradication ofdisease from the above mentioned routes most probably refers towards Nasa (nose) orShirovirechana.Krishna Yajurveda, Shatpatha Brahmana, Upanishad: In these texts, the termNasya karma has been used frequently.Ramayana: In Valmiki Ramayana, when Laxman became unconscious by the blowof Meghanada, Vaidya Sushena administered the juice of Sanjivani through nasalroute bringing him to consciousness instantaneously.Bauddha Kala: “Jeevaka” the famous Vaidya of Bauddha period had utilized Nasyakarma in many cases such as 1) In Shirahshoola, he prescribed Nasya of medicated ghrita to the wife of Shreshthi of Saketa Nagar. 2) Once, when Jeevak wanted to give Virechana to Lord Buddha, he gave him aushadhi by nasya for Virechana.Vinaya Pitika: In this book, it is mentioned that one utpala hasta of Nasya haspotency to induce 10 vegas of Virechana.Samhita Kala: Literature written during this period is the heart of ayurvedicliterature. In all the Samhita, Nasya karma has been elaborately described especiallyin Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita and Ashtanga Samgraha. The research Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 6 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Nasyaconducted on this therapy was at such a height that it was used to achieve desired sexof foetus. Nasya karma is utilized in treatment of many diseases in Brihattrayi such asin Charaka, in chikitsa of Jwara, Raktapitta, Kustha, Rajyakshama, Unmada,Apasmara, Shwayathu, Hikka, Shvasa, Kasa, Visha, Trimarmiya, Vata vyadhi,Trimarmiya siddhi etc,. In Sushruta Samhita, in Chiktisa of Dwivraniya, Sadyovrana,Bhagandar, Vata Vyadhi, Mahavata Vyadhi, Kustha, Udara, Granthi, Apachi, Arbudaganda, Vriddhi, Upadamsha, Shlipada, Kshudra Roga, Mukha Roga etc, . In AshtangaHridaya, in Chikitsa of Jwara, Raktapitta, Shvasa Hikka, Rajyakshama, Chhardi,Hridaroga, Trishna, Madatyaya, Shvitra, Krimi, Vata Vyadhi etc,.Etymology of Nasya Karma: In Sanskrit language each word is derived from a specific dhatu and eachdhatu bears an inherent meaning which is the crux of the word. The derivation of theword Nasya is from “Nasa” dhatu. It conveys the sense of Gati – motion. Vyapti bearsthe meaning pervasion. Here, the Nasa dhatu is inferred in sense of nose. Accordingto Vachaspatyam word “Nasata” means beneficial for nose. In Ayurveda, the word Nasya has been taken specifically to mention the nasalroute of administration of the drugs. According to Acharya Susruta medicines ormedicated oils administered through the nose is known as Nasya9. According toAruna Dutta and Bhava Prakasha all drugs and measures that are, administeredthrough the nasal passage are called Nasya10. Sharangdhara and Vaghbhata are also ofsame view11. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 7 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of NasyaSynonyms: • Prachchardana. • Shirovirechana. • Shirovireka. • Murdhavirechana. • Navana. • Nastaha Karma. Sushruta specify the word Shirovirechana to describe a particular variety ofNasya karma12. The word Virechana means elimination of morbid Doshas from thebody. This Shirovirechana or Murdhavirechana indicates its main function eliminationof morbid Doshas particularly from the Shira or parts situated above the clavicle. Charaka has used the term “Nastah Pracchardana” for Nasya13. This denotesShodhana done by Nasya. The words Nastah and Navana denote the site of administration. Nasta karma& Navana karma means the measures which are beneficial to nose, or region of thenose. On this basis it may be said that Nasya karma is a therapeutic measure inwhich the drug (medicated oil or other) administered through Nasa mainly toeliminate the vitiated Doshas situated in Shirah and its constituent parts, reliving thediseases of those parts (Urdhvajatrugata Vikaras). Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 8 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of NasyaClassification of Nasya: Nasya is classified in various ways by different Acharyas but ultimately all theprocedures are same. Mainly classified according to its mode of action i.e. Shodhana,Shamana, etc & on the basis of various forms of drug preparation utilized for theNasya karma e.g. Churna, Sneha, etc. The classifications according to variousAcharyas are shown in table.Table No. 01. Showing Nasya classification according to various Acharyas Name of Acharya ClassificationNo1 Charaka According to mode of action - Rechana, Tarpana, Shamana According to the method of administration – Navana, Avapidana, Dhmapana, Dhuma, Pratimarsha According to various parts of drugs utilized – Phala, Patra, Mula, Kanda, Pushpa, Niryasa, Twaka2 Sushruta Shirovirechana, Pradhamana, Avapida, Nasya, Pratimarsha3 Vagbhatta Virechana, Brimhana, Shamana4 Kashyapa Brimhana, Karshana5 Sharangadhara Rechana, Snehana6 Videha Sangya Prabodhaka, Stambhana,Charaka’s Classification of Nasya: According to Charaka the Nasya is of five types viz. Navana, Avapida,Dhmapana, Dhuma and Pratimarasa14. Navana is further divided in to Snehana andShodhana, Avapidana into Shodhana and Stambhana, Dhuma into Prayogika,Vairechanika and Sneihika while Pratimarsha is divided into Snehana and Virechana. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 9 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Nasya The above mentioned five types of Nasya are regrouped according to theirpharmacological action into three groups viz. – Rechana, Tarpana and Shamana15. Charaka has also mentioned 7 types of Nasya according to parts of the drugsto be used in Nasyakarma viz – Phala, Patra, Mula, Kanda, Pushpa, Niryasa andTwak16. Nasya Navana Avapidana Dhmapana Dhuma Pratimarsha Snehana Shodhana Prayogika Snaihika Vairechanika Shodhana Stambhana Snehana Virechana According to the action of Nasya therapy Rechana Tarpana Shamana According to various parts of the drugs utilized in Nasya therapy Phala Patra Mula Kanda Pushpa Niryasa TwakaClassification of Nasya according to Sushruta: According to Sushruta Nasya is also of 5 types Viz. Nasya, Avapida,Pradhamana, Shirovirechana and Pratimarsha. These 5 types of Nasya are furtherclassified according to their functions into two groups viz. Shirovirechana andSnehana. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 10 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Nasya Shirovirechana, Avapida and Pradhamana are used for Shirovirechana i.e. forthe elemination of morbid Dosha from Shira, Pratimarsha and Nasya type may beused for Snehana17. Nasya Shirovirechana Snehana Shirovirechana Pradhmana Avapida Nasya PratimarshaVagbhata’s Classification of Nasya: Ashtanga Sangraha has mainly classified Nasya according to the functions viz.Virechana, Brimhana and Shamana18. Snehana and Brimhana Nasya have been furthersubdivided according to the doses into two groups i.e. Marsha and Pratimarsha19. Avapidanasya may be given for both Virechana and Shamana whilePradhamana Nasya is given only for Shirovirechana. Ashtanga Hridaya has mainly classified Nasya in 3 types viz. Rechana,Brimhana and Shamana20. Nasya Virechana Brimhana Shamana Pradhamana Murdha Sneha Nasya Virechana According to Dose Pratimarsha Marsha Avapida Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 11 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of NasyaKashyapa’s Classification of Nasya: According to Kashyapa Samhita Nasya has been classified into two groups i.e.Brimhana and Karshana. These two types are also known as Shodhana and PuranaNasya21. Nasya Brimhana Karshana (Purana) (Shodhana)Sharangdhara’s Classification of Nasya: Sharangdhara has also classified Nasya according to their functions into twogroups viz. Rechana and Snehana. Rechana Nasya is further subdivied into Avapidaand Pradhamana. Snehana Nasya is subdivided into Marsha and Pratimarsha22. Nasya Rechana Snehana Avapida Pradhmana Marsha PratimarshaVideha’s Classification of Nasya: Videha has stated two types i.e. Sangyaprabodhaka and Stmabhana23. Nasya Sangyaprabodhaka Stmabhana Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 12 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of NasyaIt is clear from the above discription that two types of classification of Nasya Karmaare available in Ayurvedic literature. • Other is based on the preparation of drug and the method of its application e.g. Dhmapana (Powder is blowed) Avapida (Extracted Juice is used) Dhuma (smoking through nose) etc. • One is based on the pharmacological actions viz. Rechana, Tarpana etc. Classification of Nasya by Charaka into Navana, Avapida, Dhmapana, Dhumaand Pratimarsha while by Sushruta into Nasya, Shirovirechana, Pratimarsha , Avapidaand Pradhamana seems to be based on the type of preparation utilized or the way inwhich it is administered. For instance in Avapida Nasya as its name indicates generally expressed juiceis used. Pradhamana is so named because it requires blowing. Vagbhata has describedMarsha and Pratimarsha mainly on the basis of difference in the dose to be droppedinto the nostrils. Taking the Charaka’s classification as the basis, all the above mentioned typesof Nasya are being described here seperately.Navana Nasya:Definition: Navana is one of the important and well applicable therapies of Nasya Karma.Navana is administered by instilling the drops of a medicated oil or Ghrita in the nose.Instrument: Charaka has described Pranadi (pippet or dropper) for administration ofNasya24. Navana is generally the Sneha Nasya and is known as Nasya in general.Classification: It can be mainly classified into Snehana and Shodhana Nasya. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 13 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of NasyaSnehana Nasya: As the word Sneha suggests, Snehana Nasya gives strength to all the Dhatusand is used as Dhatuposhaka.Dose: The following is the dosage schedule for Sneha Nasya25 • Hina Matra – 8 drops in each nostril. • Madhyamamatra – Shukti Pramana - 16 drops in each nostril. • Uttama Matra - Panishukti Pramana – 32 drops in each nostril. According to Bhoja, Matra of Prayogika sneha nasya is 8 drops, while matraof Snahika Nasya 16 drops. According to Doshabala quantity can be doubled ortripled.Benefits of Sneha Nasya: It is used for the Snehana in the complaint of feeling ofhead lightness. It gives strength to neck, shoulder and chest and improves eyesight.Indications of Sneha Nays: Vatika Shirahshula, Keshapata, Dantapata,Shmashrupata,Tivrakarnashula, Timira, Nasaroga, Mukhashosha, Avabahuka, AkalajaValita,Akalaja Palita, Darunaprabodha and Vatapittaja Mukharoga26.Shodhana Nasya:Definition: This Nasya which eliminates the vitiated Doshas. Sushruta’sShirovirechana type is included in Shodhana type of Navana Nasya.Drugs: In this type of Nasya, oil prepared by Shirovirechana Dravyas like Pippali,Shigru etc. can be selected.Dose: It can be given in following dosage schedule accoding to Sushruta27. • Uttama - 8 drops • Madhyama - 6 drops • Hina - 4 drops. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 14 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of NasyaIndications: Kaphapurna Talu & Shira, Aruchi, Shirogaurava, Shula, Pinasa,Ardhavabhedaka, Krimi, Pratishyaya, Apasmara, Gandhagyana nasha andUrdhvajatrugata Kapharogas28; and Urdhvajatrugata Shopha, Praseka, Arbuda andKotha29. In healthy persons Navana Nasya should be given according to the followingseasonal schedule.Table No. 02. Showing the seasonal schedule of Nasya: Sl.No Season Nasya to be given at 1 Shita Kala Noon 2 Sharada and Vasanta Morning 3 Grishma Rutu Evening 4 Varsha Rutu Only when sun is visibleTime Schedule: Navana Nasya should be administered according to the followingtimeSchedule30, 31.Table No. 03. Showing the time schedule of Nasya acco. to dosha: Sl.No Roga Nasya to be given at 1 In Kaphaja Roga Fore noon 2 In Pittaja Roga Noon 3 In Vataja Roga After Noon Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 15 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of NasyaAvapida Nasya:Definition: In Avapida Nasya, juice is expressed from paste or kalka of a drug. The wordAvapida means it is expressed juice of leaves or paste (kalka) of required medicine.(Chakrapani). This Nasya can be utilized for both Shodhana and Shamana purposedepending upon the drug utilized.Method: For this purpose first Kalka of the required medicine is prepared which isplaced in white & clean cloth & is squeezed to obtain the required quantity of juice,directly in the nostril of the patient. The administration of the drug in this way isknown as Avapida Nasya32. This type of Nasya may also be given with Kalka(paste)33. It may also be given by diping the swab (pichu) into the Shrita (decoction) orSheeta (cold infusion), Swarasa (juice) of the required drug34.Types: It is mainly of two types35. • Stambhana Nasya • Shodhana Nasya.According to Chakrapani, three types. • Shodhana • Stambhana • ShamanaAccording to Videha two types. • Sangya prabodhana • Stambhana Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 16 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of NasyaDrugs: For Shodhana purpose Kalka of Tikshna dravyas like Saindhava, Pippali etc.have been mentioned as Avapida Nasya and for Stambhana purpose Stambhana drugshave been described.Dose: Avapida Nasya should be given in the following dose • Hina Matra - 4 drops • Madhyama Matra - 6 drops • Uttama Matra - 8 dropsIndications: Avapida Nasya is indicated in the following conditions36. Manasaroga,Apasmara, Shirovedana, Chitta- vyakulavastha, Moha, Mada, Murchha, Sanyasa,Bhaya, Krodha, Bhiru, Sukumara, Krisharogi, Stri, Raktapitta, Vishabhighata,Apatantraka. Sharangdhara recommends the Avapida Nasya for the patients suffering fromGalaroga, Vishamajwara Manovikara and Krimi37.Dhmapana Nasya:Definition: Dhmapana or Pradhamana is a specific Shodhana Nasya. This type ofNasya is instilled with churna (powder) specifically for Shirovirechana. Dhmapanamentioned in Charaka & Pradhamana described in Sushruta.Instrument: In this type, fine powder of drug is administered through nasal passage.For this purpose specific Nadi yantra, A tube like instrument with length of 6 angulasand with open ends is utilized.Method: In Pradhamana Nasya, Churna (powder of drugs) is administered (inhaled)by Nasal passage with the help of Nadi Yantra. The Churna (fine powder) of requireddrug is kept at one end, and air is blown from the other end, so that the medicine mayenter in to the nostrils38. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 17 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Nasya Videha has described another method for Pradhamana, in which fine powderof drug kept in a Pottali made of a thin cloth is used to inhale, so that smallestparticles of the medicine enter into the nostrils.Dose: According to Videha the dose of Dhmapana Nasya is three Muchuti (3 pinch).For the Pottali method Churna should be atleast 2 Tolas i.e. 20gms.Drug: Generally Tikshna drugs like Rock salt, Garlic, Guggulu, Maricha, Vidanga,etc are used for this type of Nasya. Hence cautions should be taken during itsadministration.Indications: Its indications are as follows39. Shiro Roga Nasa Roga Akshi RogaDhuma Nasya:Definition: Dhuma Nasya is defined as medicated fume taken by nasal route andeliminated by oral route. Acharya Sushruta has not described it as a type of Nasya.The smoking per mouth is known as Dhumapana and is not included in Nasya. It isharmful to eye sight.Types: Dhuma Nasya are of the following types • Prayogika • Vairechanika • SnaihikaInstrument: Acharya Charaka has mentioned special Dhuma Nadi for Dhuma Nasya.The length of the Nadi depends upon the type of the Dhuma Nasya, details of whichare as under40. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 18 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Nasya • Prayogika - 36 angula • Vairechanika - 24 angula • Snaihika - 32 angulaBreadth of the Nadi should be as per measurement of ones own angula.Dose: It should be given in the following dose • Two puffs are to be taken for Prayogika Dhuma. • 3 to 4 puffs are to be taken for Vairechanika Dhuma. • A single puff is advised for snaihika Dhuma.Drugs: For Prayogika Dhuma drugs like Priyangu, Ushira etc. should be used. ForSneihika Dhuma Vasa, Ghrita etc. and for Vairechanic Dhuma, drugs like Aparajita,Apamarga etc. should be used41.Indication: Dhuma Nasya is indicated in Shiroroga, Nasaroga and Akshiroga42.Marsha – Pratimarsha Nasya:Definition: Marsha and Pratimarsha both consists of introduction of oil through thenostrils. It is well tolerated and is very much convenient procedure. Pratimarsha and Marsha are same in principle, but the main differencebetween them is of dose. In Pratimarsha Nasya 1-2 drops are given while in MarshaNasya the dose is 6 to 10 drops.Pratimarsha Nasya: Pratimarsha Nasya can be given daily and even in all the seasons at morningand evening. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 19 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of NasyaMethod: A finger is dipped in the appropriate sneha up to 2 phalanges and then oil isallowed to drop from it in both nostrils. Patient is advised to expel out the sneha,which comes in oral cavity.Dose: 2 drops morning and evening.The Sneha should atleast reach from nose to gullet, but it should not be too much thatcan produce secretion in gullet43.Indications: Pratimarsha can be given in44 • Any age. • Any season • Even in not suitable time and season i.e. in Varsha and • Durdina • Bala • Vridhdha • Bhiru • Sukumara • Weak patients • Kshtakshama • Trishna Pidita • Mukhashosha • Valita and PalitaContraindications: it is contraindicated in45 • Dushta Pratishyaya • Krimija Shiroroga • Madhyapi (habitual drunkers) • Badhirya (deafness) Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 20 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Nasya • Bahudosha • Utklishta Doshas It is contraindicated in such persons because the Sneha Matra is quiteinsufficient to eliminate Doshas or Kriminasha and already aggravated Doshas mayget vitiated further46. Sushruta and Sharangadhara have described 14 suitable times for PratimarshaNasya, while Vagbhatta has mentioned fifteen Kala.Table No. 04. Showing the time schedule of Nasya:No Time for Pratimarsha Nasya Su. As. H. Sha.1 After leaving the bed in morning + + +2 After cleaning the teeth (with Dantadhavana) + + +3 Before going outside + - +4 After exercise + + +5 After sexual intercourse + + +6 After walking + + +7 After urination + + +8 After passing Apanavayu + - -9 After Kavala + + +10 After Anjana + + +11 After meal + + +12 After sneezing + - -13 After sleeping in the noon + + +14 In the evening + + +15 After vomiting - + +16 After Shirobhyanga - + -17 After defaecation - + +18 After laughing - + - Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 21 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of NasyaMarsha Nasya:The method of administration of Marsha Nasya resembles that of Pratimarsha but assaid earlier the dose varies.Dose: In Marsha Nasya, 6 to 10 drops of Sneha are administered.Drugs: Though all Sneha dravya like oil, ghee, etc. can be utilized but use of oil isadvisable because Shira is the place of Kapha and oil is inherently opposite to Kaphain properties. Marsha Nasya is quickly effective and more beneficial than pratimarsha47.Classification of Nasya according the Pharmacological action: Charaka and Vagbhata have classified Nasya into 3 groups according to theirpharmacological action48, 49. Nasya Rechana Brimhana Shaman Sangyaprabodhan Krimighna Stambhana Karshana a (Shodhana) Raktastambhan Doshastambhan The types Rechana, Tarpana and Shamana are described by Acharya Charakaand Vagbhatta. Sushruta has not described the Shamana Nasya. He has given onlytwo types viz. Shirovirechana and Snehana. Kashyapa has mentioned Brimhana and Karshana types of Nasya karma i.e.Sangya Prabodhana and Stambhana, according to their pharmacological action. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 22 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of NasyaRechana Nasya: The Nasya, which eliminates vitiated Doshas of Shira through the nasal routeis also called Rechana Nasya. It is also termed as Karshana Nasya.Drugs: Apamarga, Pippali, Maricha etc. are drugs of choice that can be used forRechana Nasya. Kwatha, Swarasa or Tikshna sneha of above drugs may also beutilized for the same50, 51.Indications: It is indicated specifically in Kaphaja type of Shiroroga like Stambha,Supti and Guruta of Shira52. According to Susruta, Talukantha and Shirokrimi, Arochaka, Shula,Shirogaurava,Pinasa, Pratishyaya, Urdhvajatrugata Kaphaja Vikara53.Brimhana Nasya: Tarpana is that type of Nasya, which is specially indicated in a Dhatukshaya(degeneration). Tarpana Nasya resembles Snehana Nasya described by Sushruta andSharangadhara and Brimhana Nasya mentioned by Acharya Vagbhatta in itsproperties and actions.Drugs: Drugs of Madhura skandha and Sneha prepared with Vata-Pittahara drugs areused for above type54, 55. Exudation of certain trees, meat soups and blood may also beadministered56.Indications: Vatika Shiroroga, Dantapata, Keshapata, Darunaka and other Vata-Pittaja roga. Sushruta advises Sneha Nasya for increasing general strength and toimprove the vision power and its acquity. It is also used for curing the Shirah kampaand Ardita57.Shamana Nasya: Shamana Nasya is used for the alleviation of Dosha situated in Shirah (head).The Sneha prepared with the beneficial drugs may be used for Shamana Nasya. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 23 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of NasyaIndication: It is used to stop bleeding in Raktapitta58. It is also indicated in AkalaValita, Palita and Khalitya, Darunaka, Raktaraji, Vyanga and Nilika.General indications of Nasya: Charaka has described the following general indications, where Nasya therapyshould be used. • Shirostambha Gadgadatva • Ardhavabhedaka Vaggraha • Shirahshula Grivaroga • Akshishula Swarabheda • Shukra Roga-Netragata Galashundika • Raji Galashaluka • Timira Galaganda • Vartmaroga Upajihvika • Pinasa Manyastambha • Nasa Shula Ardita • Danta Stambha Apatantraka • Danta Shula Apatanaka • Danta Harsha Karnashula • Danta Chala Arbuda • Hanugraha Skandharoga • Mukharoga Ansashula Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 24 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of NasyaGeneral contra Indications of Nasya: In all patients Nasya should not be given on Durdina (Rainy day) or in Anrutu(Viparita Kala).Table No. 05. Showing the contraindications of NasyaNo. Anarhas Charaka Sushruta Vagbhatta1 Bhuktabhakta + + +2 Ajeerni + + -3 Pitta Sneha + + +4 Pitta Mad + + +5 Pitta Toya + + +6 Snehadi Patukamah + - +7 Snatah Shirah + - +8 Snatukamah + + +9 Kshudharta + - +10 Shramarta + + -11 Matha + - -12 Murcchita + - -13 Shastradandahrita + - -14 Vyavayaklanta + - -15 Vyayamaklanta + +(Shranta) -16 Panaklanta + - -17 Navajwara Pidita + - -18 Shokabhitapta + - -19 Virikta + - +(Shuddha)20 Anuvasita + +(DattaBasti) +(Datta Basti)21 Garbhini + + +22 Navapratishyayarta + - -23 Apatarpita - + +(Shuddha)24 Pittadravah - + +25 Trishnarta + + -26 Gararta - + +27 Kruddha - + -28 Bala - + - Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 25 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Nasya29 Vriddha - + -30 Vegavarodhitah - + + (Vegarta)31 Raktasravita - - +32 Sutika - - +33 Shvasapidita - - +34 Kasapidita - - +Suitable time for giving Nasya: According to Charaka generally Nasya should be given in Pravrita, Sharadaand Vasant Rutu. However in emergency it can be given in any season.Table No. 06. Showing the Time schedule in different seasons59:SL.No Rutu Nasya to be given at1 Grishma Rutu Morning2 Shita Rutu Noon3 Varsha Rutu When day is clear4 Sharada + Vasanta Morning5 Shishira + Hemanta Noon6 Grishma + Varsha EveningTable No. 07. Showing the Time schedule according to Dosha vitiation60:SL.No Doshaja Vikara Nasya to be given at1 Kaphaja Vikara Morning2 Pittaja Vikara Noon3 Vataja Vikara Evening Sharangdhara has described same time schedule for different seasons asSushruta has mentioned. He further states that – Nasya can be given in night, if thepatient is suffering from Lalasrava, Supti, Pralapa, Putimukha, Ardita, Karnanadi,Trishna, Shiroroga and such conditions like excessive vitiated Doshas61. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 26 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of NasyaTable No. 08. Showing the Course of Nasya Karma62, 63, 64: No. Name of Acharaya Days 1 Sushruta 1,2,7,21 2 Bhoja 9 3 Vagbhatta 3,5,7,8 Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 27 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of NasyaDose of Nasya Karma: The dose of Nasya drug depends upon the drug utilized for it and the varietyof the therapy. Charaka has not prescribed the dose of the Nasya. Sushruta andVagbhata have mentioned the dose in form of Bindus (drops), here one Bindu meansthe drop which is formed after dipping the two phalanges of Pradeshini (index)finger65.Table No. 09. Showing the dose of Nasya: TYPE OF NASYA DROPS IN EACH NOSTRILNo. Hrasva Madhyama Uttam Matra Matra Matra1 Shamana Nasya 8 16 322 Shodhana Nasya 4 6 83 Marsha Nasya 6 8 104 Avapida Nasya (Kalka Nasya) 4 6 85. Pratimarsha Nasya 2 2 2 The common dose for Pradhamana Nasya is 3 Muchuti (here one Muchuti =the quantity of Churna which may come in between index finger and thumb = 2.4Ratti.)66Dose According to Sharangadhara: Sharangadhara has described the following dosage schedule forNasya Karma depending upon the variety of material used67. • Tikshnaushadhi Churna - 1 Shana (4 Masha)/(24 Ratti) • Hingu – 1 Yava (½ Ratti) • Saindhava – 1 Masha (6 Ratti) • Dugdha – 8 Shana (64 Drops) • Jala (Aushadha Siddha) – 3 Karsha (3 Tola) • Madhura Dravya – 1 Karsha (1 Tola) Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 28 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of NasyaNasyavidhi: The procedure of Nasya karma may be classified under following headings • Purva Karma (Pre-measures) • Pradhana Karma (Chief measure) • Pashchata Karma (Post-measures)Purva Karma (Pre-measure): It is advisable that all materials, drugs and equipmentslike napkin, utensils necessary for Nasya karma are collected in sufficient quantityprior to Nasya karma. Special room for Nasya should be prepared which should befree from atmospheric effects like direct blow of air or dust and it should be lightedproperly.Preparation of the Patient: Patient should have passed his natural urges like urineand stool. He should have completed his routine activities. Light breakfast prior (1hour) to Nasya karma is advised. After preparation of patient by above said regimens, snehana and swedanashould be done. Here, Snehana means, Mridu Abhyanga. It should be done on scalp,forehead and neck for 3 to 5 minutes by medicated oil68. After Abhyanga, Mridu Swedana should be done on Shira, Mukha, Nasa,Manya, Griva and Kantha. Though according to Ayurvedic texts, Swedana should notbe done on the head, but for the purpose of elimination and liquification of doshaMridu Swedana can be done as Purva karma of Nasya.Pradhana Karma: The procedure to be adopted for the Nasya karma is describedhere as per the statements of Charaka69, Vagbhata70 and susrutha71. Patient should lye down in supine position on Nasya table. The head of thepatient should be lowered (Pravilambita). The position of head should not beexcessively extended. After covering of eyes with a clean cloth, the tip of patient’s Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 29 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Nasyanose should be drawn upward by the left thumb of the Vaidya. At the same time withthe right hand Vaidya should instill lukewarm medicine in both the nostrils,alternately, with the help of proper instrument like pichu, dropper, shadangula nadietc. according the type of Nasya. The drug should be proper in dose and temperature.The patients should remain relaxed at the time of administration of nasya and heshould avoid speech, anger, sneezing, laughing and shaking his head.Paschat Karma72, 73, 74: According to Acharya Charaka, Acharya Sushruta, and Acharya Vagbhattafollowing regimen should be followed after administration of Nasya. Patient in lyingposition is asked to count up to 100 matra i.e. approximately 2 minutes. Afteradministration of Nasya feet, shoulders, palms and ears should be massaged. Againmild fomentation should be done on forehead, cheeks and neck. For pacifying Vatadosha, Rasna churna is rubbed on head. The patient is asked to expel out the drug which comes in oropharynx. Careshould be taken that no portion of medicated oil is left behind. Medicated Dhumapanaand Gandusha are advocated to expel out the residue mucous lodged in Kantha.Patient should be advised to stay in a windless place. A light meal and lukewarmwater are advised. One should avoid dust, smoke, sunshine, hot bath, anger, riding,excessive intake fat and liquid diet. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 30 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of NasyaSamyaka Yoga, Ayoga and Atiyoga of Nasya karma75, 76, 77, 78: After Nasya karma the symptoms of its Samyaka yoga, Ayoga and Atiyogashould be observed, which are being described here as under.Table No. 10. Showing the Samyaka Yoga Lakshanas of Nasya: Symptoms Ch. Su. As. H. Sha. B. P. Ka.Urah Laghuta + - - - + -Shiro Laghuta + + - - - -Netra Laghuta - + + - +Laghuta - - - + -Srotovishuddhi + + - + + +Swaravishuddhi - + - - -Vaktravishuddhi - + - - -Indriyaachchta-prasada + + - + + +Netrateja Vriddhi - + - - +Chitta Prasada - + - + + +Vikaropashama - + - + + -Sukha Svapna Prabodha - + + - - -Sukhachchvasa - + - - - -Arati - - - - - -Medha - - - - - -Bala - - - - - -Table No. 11. Showing the Ayoga Lakshanas of Nasya:Sl.No As. Symptoms Ch. Su. Sha. B.P. Ka. H.1 Shirogaurava and Dehagaurava + - - + + +2 Galopalepa + - - - - -3 Nishthivana + - - - - -4 Kandu - + + + + -5 Kaphapraseka - - - - - -6 Upadeha + - + + - - Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 31 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Nasya7 Rukshata + - - + + +8 Vata Vaigunya + - - - - -9 Srotoriktata - - - - + -10 Srotasamkaphasrava + - - + + +11 Nasashosha - + - - - -12 Asyashosha - + - - - -13 Akshistabdhata - + - - - -14 Shiroshunyata - + - - - -15 Vyadhi Vridhdhi - - - - - +Table No. 12. Showing the Atiyoga Lakshana of Nasya: Symptoms Ch. Su. As. H. Sha. B.P. Ka.Shirogaurava - + + + + -Shiroshunyata - + - + + -Shirovedana + - - - - +Netra Vedana + - - - - -Shankhavedana + - - - - -Suchitodavata Pida + - - - - -Indriya Vibhrama - + - + + +Mastulungagama - + - - - -Snehapurna Srotasa - - - - + -Karna Talu Upadeha - - - - - -Vata Vriddhi + - - - - +Kandu - + - - - -Praseka - + + + - -Pinasa - + - - - -Aruchi - - + - - -Deha Daurbalya - - - - - +Unmada - - - - - -Pitta Vriddhi - - - - - -Hridaya Shula - - - - - -Suryavarta Roga - - - - - -Atripti - - - - - - Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 32 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of NasyaVyapada: Vyapada (complication) after administration of nasya occurs in followingconditions79. • If patient breaches the protocol to be followed after Nasya karma. • On administration of Nasya in any contra-indicated condition. • Due to technical failure by any means.The complications occur through following two modes: Doshotklesha: This should be managed by Shodhana and Shamana chikitsa. Doshakshaya: This should be managed by Brimhana chikitsa80. If nasya is given in contraindicated conditions then many Vyapada can occursuch as: When Nasya is administered to the patient just after lunch or who is sufferingfrom indigestion than diseases like Kasa, Shvasa, Chhardi, Pratishyaya etc. may occurdue to obstruction of channels situated in upper part of body. If Nasya is given in season in which it is contra-indicated for e.g. cloudyatmosphere, then there is possibility of occurrence of Kapha roga like asthma.Treatment: In above-mentioned conditions treatment should be done with KaphaNashaka Upchara like use of Ushna, Tikshna Aushadha and Kapha Nashaka karma.If Nasya is given in Krisha, Kshina (emaciated), Virikta (patient who had takenvirechana} Aatura (anxious), Garbhini (pregnant lady), Vyayam klant (exhausted withexercise) and a thirsty person then vitiation of Vata dosha takes place which mayproduce vata-vikara.In this condition, Vatanashaka treatment like snehana, swedana, Brimhana should bespecially done, pregnant lady should be treated with ghrita and milk81. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 33 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of ShiroabhyangaShiroabhyanga:82Definition: Application of medicated or non-medicated Taila, Ghrita to the head is said tobe Shiroabhyanga. This procedure is most ideal for routine practice especially inhealthy persons. Mere smearing the oil with no following massage, smearing the oilfollowed by simple massage and smearing the oil followed by placing specific strokeson the head, all these three methods are known as Shiroabyanga Shiroabhyanga is one of the Snehana procedure. Snehana is further classifiedinto Bahya and Abhyantara types, obviously Shiro-abhyanga coming under theMoordhini taila of Bahyasneha. Shiroabyanga and its effects is explained in Charaka samhita83, Susrutasamhita84, and Astanga sangraha85.Abhyanga:Etymology of Abhyanga: The word Abhyanga is derived from ‘Anga’ Dhatu which is used to indicatemotion or movement. ‘Abhi’ Upasarga to ‘Anga’ Dhatu makes the word Abhyangawhich means to induce specific movements. Thus Abhyanga (massage) indicatessome movement done on the body with use of Taila, Ghrita etc.Indications: • In disease of hairs like Palitya, Khalitya etc. • In daily routine to maintain the health of the body. • Acharya Vagbhatta has indicated Shiro-abhyanga in dryness and itching of the scalp and in accumulation of Mala on head86. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 33 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of ShiroabhyangaBenefits of Shiroabhyanga:87 • A person who does Shiro-abhyanga daily is never affected with headache, hair falling or hair graying. • His hair becomes strong rooted, black and long. • All senses of that person become healthy. • His facial skin becomes soft, shiny and gets a good sleep.Shiroabhyanga in healthy persons: In healthy individuals the oil used for Shiroabhyanga may be prescribedaccording to the Prakruti of the person.Procedure of Shiroabhyanga:82 Shiroabhyanga may be performed at any time of the day before the bath. Eventhen early morning at the time of sunrise is the most ideal time for the procedure.Requirements: • Comfortable knee high chair. • Bowl of 100ml capacity to take oil. • Oil for application.Poorvakarma: Then the patient is made to sit on a knee high chair. The body of the patient iswrapped with a cloth bellow the neck. Procedure should be carried out by standingbehind the patient, which is the ideal position to carryout Shiroabhyanga.Pradhanakarma: The technique of Shiroabyanga includes smearing the oil to the portions of thescalp above the neck followed by placing specific strokes. The oil for the application is first heated on a water bath approximately up to40oC, to make lukewarm. Then the oil is pored in to the head of the patient and then Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 34 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Shiroabhyangaspread all over the head including the neck and ear pinna. Moving the palms frombefore backwards is enough to spread the oil on the head if the scalp has shorttrimmed hair. If the patient has long hair, fingers have to be poked between the hairsin an attempt to smear the oil to the scalp.Gharshana hasta (Massage from before backwards): After smearing the oil thetherapist then massage the whole head, moving the palmar surface of the hand frombefore backwards applying gentle as well as firm pressure. Thus the therapist shouldmassage the complete area of the scalp that includes vertex, temporal and occipitalportions of the head. The procedure is continued for a desired period.Mridvanguli Tadana (Picking strokes): Fingers of the both hands are moved as ifpicking up tuft of hair. For this the fingers are partially approximated, and then gentlyand firmly placed on the scalp. This is followed by withdrawing of fingers in anattempt to approximate the fingers, simultaneously effecting rubbing of the scalp.This maneuver should be gentle producing mild traction effect on the hair. Each areaof the head is similarly treated. Also this maneuver should effect a pleasant sensationto the patient and should not cause any sort of discomfort or pain.Dvihasta tadana (Flat palm strokes): Gentle strokes are placed with the palmarsurface on the scalp by both hands either simultaneously or alternatively. Strokes areplaced on the vertex, occipital and temporal region.Taranga hasta (Rocking strokes): Gentle strokes are placed on the patients head byrapid rocking movement of both the palms simultaneously. While placing the strokesonly the base of the little finger and thumb comes on contact with the patients head.Anguli kridana hasta (Finger strokes): Placing the gentle strokes on the patientshead by making rocking movements of both the palms with its fingers stretched. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 35 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of ShiroabhyangaWhile stoking only the palmar aspect of the little finger and thumb will touch thescalp.Mridu mushti tadana (Fist stroke): In this maneuver gentle strokes are placed on allareas of the head with the closed fist through the ulnar border. Initially the strokes areplaced with both the hands simultaneously, followed by placing the strokesalternatively with right and left fist.Ghatita hasta (Pressing): Flat of the palm is placed on the patients head, and ismoulded in to the shape of the scalp so that every portion of the palmar aspect of thepalm and fingers comes in contact with the head. This is followed by exerting gentleand firm pressure on the head. Every part of the head is treated by the similar manner.Squeeze strokes: This refers to grasping tuft of hair with hands followed by gentlesqueeze, producing comfortable traction on the hair. Every part of the scalp is treatedin this way.Karna-abyanga (Ear massage): Ear pinna is grasped between the thumb anteriorlyand the other fingers posteriorly. And the pinna is rubbed between the fingers.Further, supporting the pinna with the fingers posteriorly, thumb is firmly movedabove downwards in the anterior of the ear pinna.Duration: Each form of stroke is continued for about 4 to 5 minutes, and thus the wholeprocess of head massage takes about 30 to 40 minutes.Paschathkarma: The patient is asked to rest on the chair for about 15min, and then advice thepatient to take head bath with hot water. Alternative to the soap, herbal products canbe used. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 36 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaDisease review:Historical review: The history of medicine is as old as human civilization. Plenty of disordershave been found referred in the ancient literatures of Vedic period, either directlynaming the disease itself or by hinting the nature of disorder. Scattered information regarding the hair and its disorders are found indifferent texts. Historical study reveals, ancients have not neglected the cosmeticaspect of the life. They have mentioned important various formulations whichimprove growth of hair complex rather than etiology.The history can grossly be divided into: 1) Vedic period 3) Medieval period 2) Samhita period 4) Modern period.Vedic period: Atharva veda • A vegetable drug named Devatada was used in the management of Kesha Palitya and Khalitya by the physicians of that period. • Keshabramhani a herbal drug was widely used in treating Indralupta, Khalitya & also prescribed for the growth of hairSamhita period: No Acharyas had dedicated a separate chapter for Palitya or any other hairdisorders. But scattered references are available about diseases of hair in the differentchapters of Ayurvedic classics. • Etio-pathogenesis and treatment of Palitya are mentioned in Trimarmiya Chikitsa of Charaka Samhita88. • While explaining the Guna of LavanaRasa89. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 37 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palitya • While explaining about Anutaila90. • While explaining Nasya91, Shiroabhyanga. • While explaining Garbhopaghatakara bhavas, references about Palita by excess Lavana rasa sevana by garbhini is mentioned92. • In Bhela Samhita types of Palitya has been mentioned93. • In Sushruta Samhita Palitya roga has been considered as Kshudra Roga94. • In 20th chapter of Chikitsasthana of Susruta samhita he has explained the treatment of Palitya95. • Astanga sangraha has given reference about Indralupta, Palitya & Khalitya in Uttara tantra, Shirorogavignaniya96 and Shirorogapratishedha adhyaya97. • Astanga Hridaya has given reference about hair and its management in Uttaratantra98. So in Samhita Kala Both Acharya Charaka and Vagbhata mentioned this diseaseunder Shirogata Vyadhi where as Acharya Sushruta considers it in Kshudrarogadhikaras.Medieval period: • Madhavakara99 and Bhavamishra100 both have mentioned palita under Kshudra rogadhikaras. • Yogaratnakara101 also mentioned about palita in Kshudraroga nidana and Chikitsa. • Sharangadhara Samhita102 mentions palita in Kapalagata roga. • Chakradatta103 and Bhaishajyaratnavali104 listed the number of effective yogas for the treatment of Palitya in the Kshudraroga chikitsa. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 38 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaModern period: Recently modern science has developed a branch deal with pathophysiology,care and preservation of hair, known as Trichology. Earlier, hair and its disorderswere described under the heading of skin diseases. The hairs are elastic threads likestructure derived partly from undifferentiated cells of the foetal epidermis. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 39 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaPalitya:Vyutpatti : • mÉsÉ aÉiÉÉæ-kÉÉiÉÑ & YsÉlÉç-mÉëirÉrÉ (AqÉUMüÉãvÉ) • lÉqÉç-mÉÉsÉç pÉuÉã£ü ( vÉoSxiÉÉãqÉqÉWûÌlÉÍkÉ) • mÉsÉ-pÉÉuÉã (uÉÉcÉxmÉirÉqÉç)Nirukti: • mÉsÉÌiÉ vÉÉæMsrÉãlÉ vÉÉãpÉiÉã CÌiÉ mÉÍsÉiÉqÉç || Palitya means – The hair turned to sukla varna. • mÉÍsÉiÉÇ MåüzÉzÉÉæYsÉrÉqÉç || (Ayurveda Shabdakosha) Sukla varna of the hair is Palitya. • mÉÉÍsÉirÉqÉç MãüvÉ mÉÉMü: || (Bavaprakasha)Paribhasha: • mÉÍsÉiÉqÉç eÉUxÉÉ vÉÉæMüsrÉqÉç MãüvÉÉSÉæ|| Palitya is one of the lakshana of Jaravasta. (Amarakosha). • mÉÍsÉiÉqÉç mÉÉhQÒûUÉ: MãüvÉÉ: CÌiÉ|| Panduravarna of kasha is called Palitya. • MãüvÉÉSÉæ eÉUrÉÉ eÉÉiÉÉrÉÉqÉç µÉãiÉ-iÉÉrÉÉqÉç mÉÍsÉiÉqÉç|| In old age hair turns to white colour. (Vachaspatyam)Definition of Akala-Palita:AÉMüÉsÉã AxÉqÉrÉã mÉÍsÉiÉæuÉÉïkÉïYrÉæurÉÉïmiÉ: ÌmɨÉxrÉ FwqÉaÉÑhÉiuÉÉiÉç|| Palita occurs at the stage of vardhakya, but due to increased ushma guna ofpitta early graying (untimely) of hairs is observed.AMüÉsÉã iÉÂhÉÉuÉxjÉÉrÉÉqÉç mÉÍsÉiÉæ; µÉãiÉæ|| Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 40 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palitya Akala-palita means graying of hairs at the young age. (vÉÉ.xÉÇ.mÉë 7 (aÉÔ.SÏ.)MãüvÉÉlÉÉÇ vÉÑYsÉpÉÉuÉãlÉ mÉÍsÉiÉÍqÉirÉÑcrÉiÉã|| Palitya means Shukla bava of the hair. (vÉÉ.xÉÇ.mÉë 7 (aÉÔ.SÏ.)Thus Akala palita may be defined as untimely or early graying of hairs due to excessushnaguna of pitta. Here untimely means premature graying of hair. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 41 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaKesha Shariram: Before dealing with the disease palitya, which affects hair of human beingbrief knowledge of hair is essential.Etymology: The word Kesha has been derived from the root ‘Shi’ with ‘Ach’ prefix and‘Kuluk’ conjugation that which grow on head.Definition: Kesha are the elements that grow on the scalp, Mastak or Shirah.Synonyms: There are many synonyms of hair as far as literary texts are concerned. They maybe enlisted as follows –1) Kesha 2) Bala 3) Kacha4) Chikura 5) Kuntals 6) Shirorooha7) Ashrahs 8) Moordhaja 9) Shirasija The hairs growing on the different parts of the body are known by different namessuch as the hair growing on the scalp are known as Kesha, Kantal, Chikru etc. that on thebody are known by Roma, Romaraji, Loma etc. that growing on the eyelids are known asPakshma, the facial hairs are known as Shmashru, the hair on the eyebrows are known asBhrikuti, whereas the hair growing around the genetalia and in the armpits are known byVyanjana or Vyanjanana.Prashashtha Kesha Laxana:Acco. to Vagbhata;105 • Susnigdha ( Smooth, Glistening) • Mruduta ( Soft) • Sukshmata ( Fine & Precise ) Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 42 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palitya • Naikamulatwa / Prithanmulata • Sthiratwa/ DhridhataAcco. to Charaka;106 • Snigdha • Mrudu • Subaddha mula • Ekaikaja • KrishnaKesha Samkhya: In ancient classics, many controversies have been noticed on this topic. Thenumber of hair as per various texts may be summarized as under. Acharya Charaka has enumerated the total human hair to be 29956 and stated thatthe number of Kesha, Shmashru and Loma is equal107. Chakrapani, while commenting on this says that, this number of the mouths ofDhamani has been counted in macro-sense, whereas if minutely counted they are liable toincrease. According to Vidyotini Tika of Caraka Samhita the number of hair stated is72 crores108. • Acharya Sushruta believes that like the Dhamani Agras hairs are innumerable. • Ashtanga Samgrahakara holds same view as that of Charaka.Parts of Hair:Kesha can be divided into following parts: Keshaagra (Hair ends) Kesha Bhumi / Kesha Bhu (scalp / Skin) Roma Kupa / Kupaka / Loma Kupa (Follicle) Roma Meda (Roots of hairs) Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 43 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palitya These are different parts of Kesha told in different contexts and can becombined as above. Roma Kupa / Romachidra is embedded in twacha where thekesha utpatti sthana is present.Keshotpatti: Ayurveda believes that the human body is built of main seven body elements asDhatus viz. Rasa, Rakta, Mamsa, Meda, Asthi, Majja and Shukra. A specific manner hasbeen thought of for the commencement of each and every Dhatu and their variousmanifestations by the learned Acharya. Inspite of some controversies the major part ofthem believe that the production of the latter Dhatus occur from the former by thefunctions of their respective Agni i.e. the Rasagni turns the Ahara Rasa into Rasa Dhatu,then the Raktagni converts the suitable Rasa Dhatu in Rakta and so on. It has been further explained that, from the Poshakamsha of former Dhatu there isnot only production of latter Dhatu but consequently there is side by side production of itsUpadhatu and its Mala. There is no detailed description found in Ayurvedic classicsregarding the production of hair in particular, but it has been stated in the process ofDhatu Nirmana that when Paka of Asthidhatu occurs by its own Agni, the Majja Dhatuemerges from the Sara Bhaga and at the same time hair of scalp and body and nailemerges as Mala (waste product). According to ancient classics the hair is one of the“Pitruja Bhava” means the structure, color and quantity of hair of a progeny aredependent on paternal side109, 110. Acharya have considered the hair as “Parthiva Dravya” because of its qualitieslike roughness, steadiness, heaviness etc. The hair is directly related with skin. So a person with healthy skin is also shouldhave deep rooted, soft, fine and shiny hair. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 44 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaKeshotpatti Kala: According to Caraka the Keshotpatti kala in foetus is at seventh month111.While according to Vagbhata it is six months112.Keha Poshana: According to Acharya Charaka, from the ingested food there form an assimilablenutrition fluid (Ahara Rasa), which further divided into two parts, namely essential fluid(Sarabhaga) and the excretory matter/waste matter (Kitta). The waste matter isresponsible for the production and nutrition of so many things like sweat, urine, hair etc,and among them are the hair follicles the hairs of the head and beard, hairs of the bodyetc113. According to Maharshi Sushruta, Kesha get nutrition from the end part of theDhamanis which are attached to the Romakoopa114.Kesha Varnotpatti: The colour of hair differs in different Desha, Jati etc. An exotic range of color isseen in hairs viz. black, brown, red, golden etc. Ayurveda has adored the black colour ofhair, while describing the beauty of hair, the colour of hair like that of dragon-fly(Bhramara) has been much appreciated. Regarding the production of the color of hair, Ayurveda says that Teja Mahabhutais responsible for the colouration of hair. Bhrajaka Pitta, one of the manifestations of TejaMahabhuta, combines with Prithvi and Vayu Mahabhutas and produces black colour115,116 .Kesha In Relation to Prakriti:117 The colour and texture of hair varies from person to person and it is based on hisPrakriti. The Prakriti of a man is determined by the preponderance of the particularDoshas at the time of the generation (combination of the semen and ovum) and is madeby that preponderant Dosha. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 45 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaVata Prakriti: • According to Charaka they have rough hair on the head, face and body. • Acharya Sushruta states that persons of this Prakriti have often a rough and grisly beard and mustache, finger nails and hairs in him. • Vagbhatta and Sharangadhara mention that Vata Prakriti person have Sphutit, grey (dust), colour and in small number of hair.Pitta Prakriti: • According to Charaka, Sushruta and Sharangadhara Pitta Prkriti person have early wrenches, grey hair and baldness, and are possessed generally scanty, soft and tawny hair on the head, face and body. • Vagbhatta mention that colour of the Kesha is Pingala and in small number of Roma in Pittaja Prakriti.Kapha Prakriti: • Sushruta, Vagbhatta and Sharangadhara mention that the Kapha Prakriti have firm, fleshy, curly, Snigdha and dark black colour of the hair.In brief - Vata Prakriti person - Dry with low-density hair Pitta Prakriti person - Yellowish hair Kapha Prakriti person - Thick, black and curly hairs.Twacha:118 For the better understanding of the disorders of hair, it is necessary to have thebasic knowledge Twacha, as skin/Twacha is the Adhishtana for Roma/kesha.According to Ayurveda there are seven layers for the skin. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 46 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaTable No. 13. Showing the 7 layers of skin: Layers Pramaana VyadhiAdhisthana (vrihi dhanya) Avabhasini 1/18th part Sidma, Padmakantaka Lohita 1/16th part Tilakalaka , Nyaccha, Vyanga Shweta 1/12th part Charmadala, Ajagallika Tamra 1/8th part Kilasa , Shwitra, Kushta Vedini 1/5th part Kushta , Visarpa Rohini 1 Vrihi Granthi, Apachi, Arbuda Mamsadhara 2 Vrihi Bhagandara, Arsha , Vidradhi The roots of the Romakoopas are considered to be in the third and fourth layerof the skin, ie; Shweta and Tamra.Scalp: The scalp extends from the top of the forehead in front to the superior nuchalline behind. Laterally it projects down to the zygomatic arch and external acousticmeatus. It consists of five layers: skin, subcutaneous tissue, occipitofrontalis(epicranius) and its aponeurosis, subaponeurotic areolar tissue and pericranium.Figure No. 01. Showing the cross section of scalp with hair and its parts Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 47 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palitya The skin of the scalp contains the hair and associated glands. There are manysebaceous glands, and the scalp is the commonest site for sebaceous cysts. The densesubcutaneous connective tissue has the richest cutaneous blood supply in the body.The third layer contains occipitofrontalis its anterior and posterior muscularcomponents are connected by a tough, fibrous, epicranial aponeurosis, andconsequently this layer is called the aponeurotic layer (galea aponeurotica). Beneaththe aponeurotic layer is a layer of loose connective tissue over which the upper threelayers of the scalp can easily slide. The deepest layer is the periosteum of the skull. Itis very easy to raise a scalp flap within the plane between the galea and thepericranium without compromising the blood or nerve supply of the scalp, because allof these structures lie in the superficial fascia. Scalp flaps are used in craniofacialsurgery - e.g. for the correction of congenital deformity, for the release ofcraniosynostoses and for the treatment of craniofacial fractures - and also for repairingscalp defects following the excision of skin tumours. An anteriorly based scalp flapgives excellent access to the frontal bone and upper facial skeleton including theorbits and the infratemporal fossa and temporomandibular joint. Similar flaps are seenin traumatic scalp avulsions, which occur when the hair is trapped in movingmachinery, and are also used electively in surgery. The arterial blood supply to the scalp is particularly rich, and there are freeanastomoses between branches of the occipital and superficial temporal vessels. scalplacerations continue to bleed profusely because the elastic fibres of the underlyinggalea aponeurotica prevent initial vessel retraction: these wounds may be associatedwith significant blood loss which can result in clinical shock. When suturing scalplacerations it is essential to control all the bleeding points before repairing the scalpitself. Usually it is necessary to tie off any larger arterioles and use bipolar diathermy Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 48 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palityato control smaller arterioles and veins. Failure to control the bleeding as a separatestep can result in significant haematomas, often subgaleal, leading to breakdown ofthe original wound and sometimes necessitating surgical drainage. Repair of scalplacerations usually requires full thickness tension sutures because the galeaaponeurotica will otherwise gape as the occipital and frontal muscle bellies contract.However, a wound that does not involve epicranius or its aponeurosis does not gape. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 49 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaAnatomy of the Hair:119 Recently modern science has developed a branch deal with pathophysiology,care and preservation of hair, known as Trichology. Earlier, hair and its disorderswere described under the heading of skin diseases. Hair, nails and sudoriferous andsebaceous glands in particular situations grow in the skin in its process ofdevelopment and as such they are taken to be the integrated part of the skin and areusually described as appendages of the skin. The hairs are elastic threads likestructure derived partly from undifferentiated cells of the foetal epidermis. Hair is found on almost every part of the body surface except on the palms andthe soles. The dorsal surface of the terminal phalanges, the inner surface of the labia,the inner surface of the prepuce and the glans penis. Hair differs in length (short orlong), thickness (thick or thin) and colour (black, brown or blonde) in different partsof the body and in different races (curly or straight). There are three types of hair :1. Long medullated pigmented hair seen on the scalp.2. Short, fine, non-medullated and non-pigmented ‘lanugo’ hair seen in women, children and on the faces & trunks of adults (vellus hair). Even in bald persons vellus hair may be present.3. Thick bristles seen in the nose and ears.Structure of the hair: Structurally, the hair is entirely made up of epithelial cells. Each hair consistsof a shaft which is above the skin surface, a root (deepest part is called hair bulb) liesdeep inside the skin underneath the root. The skin forms a socket like structure,known as hair folide. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 50 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palitya Figure No. 02. Showing the structure of the shaft of hair:Shaft: The hair shaft is a dead cornified structure that extends from the follice toabove the surface of the skin. The shaft is the superficial portion of the hair, whichprojects from the surface of the skin. The shaft of straight hair is round in crosssection, that of wavy hair is oval and that of wooly hair is elliptical or kidneys shaped.It has 3 parts, medulla, cortex and cuticle.Medulla: The inner medulla is composed of 2 or 3 rows of polyhedral cells containingpigment granules and air spaces. It varies in thickness from 16-22 and occupies incentral axis of the hair. The medulla is absent in lanugo and fine hair. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 51 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaCortex: The middle cortex from the major part of the shaft and consists of elongatedcells that contain pigment granules in dark hair but mostly air in white hair. It consistsof that flat, spindle shaped epithelial cells containing pigment and fusifrom nuclei.Between these cells are air spaces and pigment granules.Cuticle: The cuticle of the hair, the outermost layer consists of single layer of thin, flatcells that are the most heavily keratinified, cuticular cells are arranged like shingles onthe side of a house, with their free edges pointing towered the end of the hair. In thelower part of the root of the hair, the cells are present where as in the upper part of theroot as well as in the shaft of the hair cuticular cells are scale like have to nucleus andappear to be transparent or featureless. They overlap each other in such a way thatthey appear as scales of fishes.Hair root: The portion that penetrates into the substance of the skin is known as the hairroot. The root of the hair at its lower end forms a bulbous enlargement, which iscalled the root bulb. It consists of polygonal and colimnar cells which are in activestate of proliferation. Their growth and proliferation displace more mature cellstowards the rests on the summit of a vascular papilla on which it is dependent for itsnutrition. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 52 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palitya Figure No. 03. Showing the structure of the hair root:Hair follicle: The hair is contained in the skin in a series of invaginations called the hairfollicles. If the hair root is of considerable length, the follicle may extend even intothe hypodermis. The hair follicle extends inwards from the surface of the epidermiswhere it is funnel shaped, either perpendicularly or in a curved fashion, the later incurly hair. It is dilated its inner end is known here as the hair pit. Hair follicle and itshair can be anatomically divided into three segments: • Infundibulum: Extends from pillar orifice above to the entrance of sebaceous gland below. • Isthmus: The short midsection of the follicle bounded superiority by the sebaceous duct and inferiority by the insertion of arrector pilorum muscle. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 53 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palitya • Inferior: This extends from the insertion of muscle to the base of the follicle. The upper segments of the isthmus and infundibulum are permanent. The entire follicle beneath the isthmus disappears during the involutionary stages of the hair cycle and again reforms during the growth cycle.The hair follicle consists of 2 coats.The outer corium or dermis: It consists of a hyaline basement membrane, external to which is a Compactlayer of connective tissue fibers & spindle cells, arranged circularly around thefollicles. It is highly vascular & is supplied by numerous minute nerves.The inner epidermis: The inner coat, which is intimately attached to the root of the hair, consistsfurther of an internal root sheath and an external root sheath.The internal root sheath: It is made up of 3 layers. • A fine cuticle composed of a single layer of imbricate scales with indistinct or no nuclei. • Huxley’s layer consisting of one or two layers of horny and flattened nucleated cells. • Henle’s layer consisting of a single layer of cubical cells with flattened nuclei.The external root sheath: The external root sheath corresponds to be polyhedral cells of the structuremalpighi which lies just deep to the connective tissue layer and form the continuationof the stratum germination. The outer cells are mere polygonal. When the hair is of considerable length the follicle extends into thesubcutaneous tissue. The ducts of one or more sebaceous glands open into the follicle, Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 54 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palityanear the skin surface. At the bottom of each hair follicle there is a small conicalvascular papilla similar in every respect to those found upon the surface of the skin. Itis continuous with the dermal layer of the follicle and is supplied with capillaries inthe papilla that the hair derives its nutrition. At the bases of each hair follicle is an enlarged, layered structure the bulb.This structure houses a nipple shaped indentation, the papilla of the hair whichcontains areolar connective tissue. The papilla of the hair contains many blood vesselsand provides nourishment for the growing hair. The bulb also contains a ring cellscalled the matrix, derive from the stratum. They are responsible for the growth ofexisting hair and produce new hair by cell division when older hairs are shed. Thisreplacement that occurred within the same matrix cells also give rise to the cells of theinternal root sheath.Muscles: Sebaceous glands and a bundle of smooth muscle cells are also associated withhair. The smooth muscle is called an arrector (arrector-to raise) pili (plured is arrectorpilorum). It extends from the superficial dermis of the skin to the side of the hairfollicle. The arrector pili muscle contracts under the strem of fright cold and emotionand pulls the hair into a vertical portion. This response makes a bury animal looklarger and thus it may appear more threatening to an aggressor. In people, with littlebody hair it serves in apparent purpose mostly causing goose bumbs or goose fleshbecause the skin around the shaft turns slight eration. Around each hair follicle are nerves ending called hair root plexus that aresensitive to touch. They respond if a hair shaft is moved. The contraction of thesemuscle fibers is also thought to squeeze all sebum from the duct of the sebaceousgland. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 55 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaHair physiology:120 Hair contributes significantly to the visual image of both males and females ofall ages. Every visible major body surface is covered with some type of hair,providing the creation of endless opportunities for cosmetic adornment. Hair isnonliving, yet is immersed in a cycle of constant renewal and shedding. Unlike vitalorgans, such as the heart, liver, or kidneys, where limited cellular renewal can occur,hair growth occurs at the amazing rate of 0.35mm/day allowing the removal of old,damaged hair that is readily replaced with new regrowth.1 Hair is the only bodystructure that is completely renewable without scarring, as long as the follicle remainsa functioning unit. For this reason, the hair can be subjected to insults that could notbe sustained by any other body organ. This constant renewal also means that inducedcosmetic alterations in shape, color, or texture are temporary until the chemicallyaltered hair is sloughed or trimmed. The hair follicle number that is present at birth remains constant throughoutyouth, slowly decreasing with age. Hair follicles are formed early in development ofthe fetus with eyebrow, upper lip, and chin follicles present at week 9 and the fullcomplement of follicles present by week 22. At this time, the total body number of 5million follicles is present with 1 million on the head, of which 100,000 are on thescalp.9 No additional follicles are formed during life. As body size increases, thenumber of hair follicles per unit area decreases. The hair grows from follicles, which resemble stocking-like invaginations ofthe epithelium enclosing an area of dermis, known as the dermal papillae. The area ofactive cell division, the living area of the hair, is formed around the dermal papillaeand is known as the bulb where cell division occurs every 23–72 hours. The folliclesslope into the dermis at varying angles, depending on body location and individual Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 56 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palityavariation, and reside at varying levels between the lower dermis and the subcutaneousfat. In general, larger hairs have more deeply placed follicles than finer hairs. Anarrector pili muscle attaches to the midsection of the follicle wall and ends at thejunction between the epidermis and dermis. In some body areas, a sebaceous glandand an apocrine gland attach above the muscle and open into the follicle. The point atwhich the arrector pili muscle attaches is known as the hair ‘bulge’ and is consideredto be the site where new matrix cells are formed and the hair growth cycle is initiated.It takes approximately 3 weeks for a newly formed hair to appear at the scalp surface. The sebaceous gland is intimately associated with each and every hair shaft.Sebum is important to the maintenance of the grown hair shaft, as it functions as anatural conditioning agent removing static electricity and imparting shine to newlygrown hair. Approximately 400–900 sebaceous glands per square centimeter arelocated on the scalp and represent the largest glands on the body. Sebum, composedof free fatty acids and neutral fats, is produced in increased amounts after puberty inmales and females and abundantly coats the hair shaft in youth. With advancing age,sebum production declines in the female with a less significant decrease in males.This leads us to the next topic of discussion, which is the hair growth cycle.Hair growth cycle: Hair growth occurs on a cyclic basis with periods of growth, impendingdormancy, and total dormancy occurring with clock-like accuracy. Each hair grows toa finite length depending upon predetermined genetic factors and age. The growthphase, known as anagen, lasts approximately 1000 days and the transitional phase, orcatagen, about 2 weeks. The resting phase, or telogen, lasts approximately 100 days.Scalp hair is characterized by a relatively long anagen and a relatively short telogenwith a ratio of anagen to telogen hairs of 90 to 1018. Only 1% or less of the follicles is Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 57 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palityain catagen at any given time. Thus, the healthy individual loses 100 hairs per day. It isestimated that each follicle completes this cycle 10–20 times over a life-time, but theactivity of each follicle is independent.Generations and types of the hair: Hair begins to appear first in foetal life and they are constantly shed placedsince them and the process continues through the whole span of life. There generationof hair known to exist such as:1) Lanugo: At about the middle of the foetus like the whole body surface is seen to be covered by fine hair, which are known as lanugo.2) Vellus down hair: At birth most of the lanugo hairs are replaced by another kind of fine known as vellus down or secondary hair, which persist during the early months of post natal life.3) Terminal hair: The secondary hair persists in most of the regions after early fustanated life. But during puberty the hair of scalp and eyebrow axilla. Pubic region and these in front of the chest and face in males are replaced by terminal hair. The terminal hairs are courser and more pigmented.Growth of the hair: Hair grows about 1-2 cm. per month. The growth varies in different people,race and also on the different parts of the body. Hair growth and development is underendocrine control. Fine balance of estrogens, androgens and gonado trophinsdetermines the pattern in an individual.1) Anagen phase : Growing phase During growth stage, a hair is formed by cells of the matrix that differentiate divide become keratinized and die. As new cell ferostiate as new cells that are Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 58 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palitya added at the base of the hair root, the hair grows longer. In time, the growth of the hair stops and resting stage begin.2) Telogen phase : Resting phase During the resting stage, the matrix is inactive and the hair follicle atrophies somewhat. During telogen phase the hair melanocytes cease to synthesize melanin. This function of melanin formation begins again with anagen phase. There fine the root of the anagen hair is pigmented, whereas the tip of the telogen hair is unpigmented.3) Catagen phase : Involutionary phase After the resting stage a new growth cycles begins in which a new hair replaces. The old hair is pushed out of the hair follicle. In general scalp hair grows for about 3 years rest for about 1-2 years.Table No. 14. Showing the hair growth: Hair growth phase Duration of growth phase Anagen 1000 days Catagen 14 days Telogen 100 days The mechanism signaling the progression from one phase to the next isunknown, but the duration of anagen determines the maximum length to which thehair can be grown. Hair growth can be affected by physical factors (severe illness,surgery, weight change, pregnancy, hormonal alterations, thyroid anomalies,dermatologic disease) and emotional factors, but is unaffected by physical alterationslimited to the hair shaft (shaving, curling, combing, dyeing, etc.). Plucking of the Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 59 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palityahairs from resting follicles can stimulate growth, but the composition of the hair shaftremains the same, as discussed below.Hair composition: Hair is a nonliving structure basically formed of protein. Specifically, it iscomposed of keratin, which is formed from insoluble cystine-containing helicoidalprotein complexes. The hair is made up of an amorphous matrix high in sulfurproteins in which the keratin fibers are embedded. These protein complexes, whichform 65–95% of the hair by weight, are extraordinarily resistant to degradation andare thus termed hard keratins, as opposed to the soft keratins that compose the skin.Under x-ray crystallography, the hair fiber helix has an alpha diffraction pattern,which changes to a beta diffraction pattern as the hair is stretched and the helix ispulled into a straight chain. Each hair shaft is composed of a variety of layers, which are formed fromclosely attached keratinized fusiform cells arranged to form a cohesive fiber. Thegreatest mass of the hair shaft is the central cortex, with some shafts also possessing amedulla. The cortex consists of closely packed spindle-shaped cells with theirboundaries separated by a narrow gap, which contains a proteinaceous intercellularlamella thought to cement the cells together. It is this structural organization of thecortex that provides mechanical strength to the hair shaft. The cortex in turn surrounds the medulla, which is formed from a proteinknown as trichohyalin. The function of the medulla remains unknown; however, itcontains glycogen and melanosomes. In older individuals, the medulla cells appear todehydrate and air-filled spaces are left behind in place of a functional medulla. Ingeneral, larger diameter hairs, such as those located on the scalp, are more likely tocontain a medulla than finer body hairs. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 60 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palitya Surrounding the cortex is a protective layer of overlapping, keratinized scalesknown as the cuticle, which can account for up to 10% of the hair fiber by weight.The cuticle free edges are directed outward with the proximal edges resting againstthe cortex. The cuticular scales are arranged much like roofing shingles to providefive to ten overlapping cell layers, each 350–450nm thick, to protect the hair shaftalong its entire length. The cell structure of the cuticle is composed of three majorlayers: the A-layer, the exocuticle, and the endocuticle. It is the clear A-layer, whichis high in sulfur containing proteins, which protects the hair from chemical, physical,and environmental insults. A healthy hair shaft is characterized by an intact, well-organized cuticle. It is this unusual structure of the hair shaft that provides for theunique physical properties of hair.Hair Pigmentation: Hair Pigmentation is a process, in which there is a precise interaction in thehair follicle unit between follicular melanocytes, keratinocytes, and dermal papillafibroblasts. Follicular pigmentation involves follicular Melanogenesis (FM) which issequential melanogenic activity of follicular melanocytes, the transfer of melaningranules into cortical and medulla keratinocytes, and the formation of pigmented hairshafts. Follicular pigmentation is under complex genetic control .This activity is inturn regulated by an array of enzymes, structural and regulatory proteins, transporters,and receptors and their ligands, acting on the developmental stages, cellular, and hairfollicle levels. FM is coupled to anagen stage of the hair cycle, being regression incatagen to remain absent through telogen. At the organ level FM is precisely coupledto the life cycle of melanocytes with changes in their compartmental distribution andaccelerated melanoblast/Melanocytes differentiation with enhanced secretory activity. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 61 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaThus Follicular Melanogenesis is characteristically cyclic in nature, as apposed to thecontinuous melanogenesis of epidermal pigmentation.Melanin: It is water- insoluble polymer of various compounds derived from the amino-acidTyrosine. It is a poly quinone, brown or red pigment and protein, formed by theoxidation of tyrosine and 3,4-dihydrxiphenylealaninein the presence of tyrosinase. It isone of the two pigment found in human skin and hair and adds brown to skin color; Theother pigment is Carotene, which contributes yellow color. There exist two main groupsof melanin; 1. Eumelanins-Insoluble (Black to Dark brown) 2. Pheomelanins- Alkali soluble ( Yellow to reddish brown)Melanin serves 2 main functions in the epidermis: 1. The pigment protects underlying structures from the harmful effects ofsunlight; 2. It serves to influence the color of the epidermis.The first mechanism by which hormones can influence the amount of melanin,involves changes in the activity to the enzyme tyrosinase. In the melanoblasts whichsynthesize the pigment. The second mechanism may involve changes in the activity ofkeratinocytes which engulf the melanin discharged from melanoblasts. The synthesis of melanin reactions is catalyzed by the tyrosinase; Tyrosine isfound in only one specialized type of cell, the melanocyte, and in this cell melanin isfound membrane –bound bodies called melanosomes. Melanosomes can betransferred from their site of synthesis in the melanocytes to other cell types. Thevarious hues and degrees of pigmentation found in the skin of human beings aredirectly related to the number, size, and distribution of melanosomes within the Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 62 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palityamelanocytes and other cells. Besides its role in the pigmentation, Melanin, whichabsorbs U.V light, plays a protective role when skin is exposed to the damaging raysof the sun.Hair color – biochemistry: In humans, all the different hair colors are due to just two types of pigment(melanin) called eumelanins and pheomelanins. Eumelanins are the dark brown andblack pigments while pheomelanins are the red and blonde pigments. The differentcolors of hair in different people are due to a combination of these two different basicbiochemical structures. By mixing the two types together in different concentrationsthe many different shades of hair color are made. Eumelanins are very strong, stable proteins made from tyrosine. The largeeumelanin biochemical structure is formed by processing the amino acid tyrosine intodopa and dopamine and connecting several of these molecules together to formeumelanin. The key enzyme in this process is tyrosinase. The more tyrosinase activitythe more eumelanin is formed. This is one method by which different people havedifferent shades of brown to black hair color. More tyrosinase activity results in morepigment production and so a darker hair color. As we get older, tyrosinase activityincreases. It is most active in middle age and thereafter tyrosinase activity decreases.There are also other biochemical mechanisms by which the shade of hair color isregulated. Several factors interact with tyrosinase to help regulate eumelaninproduction. In addition, another key limiting factor in hair color is the availability ofthe raw tyrosine ingredient. A lack of tyrosine availability means the tyrosinaseenzyme make eumelanin at full capacity. Pheomelanins are also made from the same tyrosine as eumelanins and theprocess is much the same with tyrosinase playing a key role. Pheomelanins are Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 63 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palityaproduced when an intermediate product in the eumelanin production pathwayinteracts with the amino acid cysteine. This results in the formation of a pheomelaninmolecule which contains sulfur from the cysteine. These molecules are yellow toorange in color. So this is another way by which different shades of hair color can beproduced. The more interaction there is between dopaquinone and cysteine the moreyellow and orange pigments are produced.Melanogenesis: The visual appearance of humans derives predominantly from their skin andhair color. The phylogenetical biochemical pathway underlying this phenomenon iscalled Melanogenesis and results in the production of melanin pigments in neuralcrest- derived melanocytes, followed by its transfer to epithelial cells. While melaninfrom epidermal melanocytes clearly protects human skin, but the biologic value ofhair pigmentation is less clear. There is complex regulatory control of the biosyntheticmachinery involved in melanogenesis. It involves hormones, neurotransmitters,cytokines, growth factors, cyclic nucleotides and nutrients. The hair follicle and epidermal melanogenic systems are broadly distinct. Theprimary distinguishing feature of Follicular Melanogenesis (FM) is the tight couplingof hair follicle melanogenesis to the hair growth cycle, compared to the continuousmelanogenesis in the epidermis. The cycle appears to involve periods of melanocyteproliferation (during early anagen), Maturation (mid to late anagen) and melanocytedeath via apoptosis (during early Catagen). Thus, each hair cycle is associated withthe reconstruction of an intact hair follicle pigmentary unit atleast for the first 10cycles or so. There after, gray and white hairs appear, suggesting an age related,genetically regulated exhaustion of the pigmentary potential of each individual hairfollicle. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 64 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palitya Soluble Melanogenesis regulators may reach the skin through localproduction, nerve ending release or Circulatory transport. Positive Melanogenesisregulators include alpha-MSH (melanocyte stimulating hormone), ACTH(AdrenoCorticoTropic hormone), Beta-endorphin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes,histamines, estrogens, Vitamin D3, and bone morphogenic proteins; In addition,nutritional factors L-tyrosine and L-dopa function as substrates for melanin, but alsoas positive regulators of the melanogenic apparatus in a proper genetic andenvironmental back ground. Melanin Synthesis and pigment transfer to bulb keratinocytes are to a largeextent controlled by signals intrinsic to the skin and represented by products ofkeratinocytes, immunocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells (Slominski and paus,1993).Melanocytes can reciprocally affect the surrounding cells, e.g.; by directmelanosome transfer (to keratinocytes), or by production of and secretion offunctional regulators. Thus anagen –coupled melanogenesis and its regulatorynetwork control Hair growth and Pigmentation. The Melanocyte component of thistissue interactive cell system in hair follicles is more sensitive to aging influences thanmelanocytes in the epidermis, resulting in hair graying / canities; Anagen follicle melanocytes are melanogenically active in the hair bulb formfunctional units and ultimately form pigmented hair shaft. Although follicularmelanocytes are derived from epidermal melanocytes during hair folliclemorphogenesis, these pigment cells make compartments called “Follicular MelaninUnit”. Hair bulb melanogenic melanocytes differ from epidermal ones by beinglarger, more dendritic. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 65 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaInfluence of hormones on Melanogenesis: Interstitial cell-stimulating hormones, estrogens, MSH and ACTH appear toincrease epidermal melanin by enhancing the activity of tyrosinase. Estrogens arecapable of accelerating the synthesis of melanin; it has been observed that the skincolor varies with the menstrual cycle. Such variations may result from the synergeticaction of estrogens and progesterone. A similar mechanism accounts for thepigmentation of pregnancy. ACTH processes some MSH activity, although it is much less potent thanMSH itself. These two hormones darken the skin in man. The influence of thyroxineupon epidermal melanin is complex and varies from species to species. The influenceof androgens, adrenaline and nor adrenaline on melanogenesis over mammalianmelanocytes, further investigations are needed.Aging of Hair: Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft and aging of the hairfollicle. The latter manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, anddecrease in hair production .The scalp is also subjected to Intrinsic or Physiologicaging and extrinsic aging caused by external factors. Intrinsic factors are related toIndividual genetic and Epigenetic mechanisms with inter individual variation.Montagna and Ellis have done studies of the capillaries surrounding the hair folliclesand have called attention to some of the striking changes that occur during the agingprocess in the human scalp. These observations have led to remarkable aging changesin the human male scalp such as a receding hairline, the gradual thinning and grayingof the hair, and, frequently, the partial or complete balding are quite apparent. Theseare changes that involve the hair follicle and are the result of interactions between thesex hormones of the male and the genetic constitution of the individual. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 66 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaThe Function of the hair: The real purpose of the hair is definitely protective. Around the hair rootsthere are a series of structures. There are designed to protect the scalp from heat rays,thermal and mechanical shock etc. The functions of the hair of the eyebrows andlashes is to protect the eyes, that of the nostrils and external ear filter out large dustparticles to stop them entering into body. The presence of hair protects the body from the extreme temperature of theenvironment by acting as a insulator, especially in animals of cold countries. When ananimal goes to fight his hair from a resitions and protective armour. The same thing isnoticed among men and women in the case of an intense fearfulness. When the shockis sufficient, the hair of a human being actually stands on end. The hair also does the tactile receptor functions. Hair serves a sexual functionin promotion the evaporation of the apocrine sweet and the accompanyingcharacteristic odour that goes along with it provides a sexual attraction for the loweranimal. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 67 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaNidana of Akala Palitya:121, 122, 123, 124 Nidanaparivarjana is the first and foremost treatment for any disease. Sounderstanding the etiology of the disease is very important to avoid the causativefactors and to give appropriate medicine for that disease. Acharya Charaka has classified the Nidanas mainly into two types; SamanyaNidana and Vishesha Nidana. The descriptions of Nidana that have been mentioned inthe Ayurvedic classics are not uniform for all the diseases. While explaining some ofthe diseases, both Samanya and Vishesha Nidana and in few of the diseases VisheshaNidana has been mentioned. Based on different classification according to different authors of Ayurveda,Akala Palita is both Swatantra and Paratantra Vyadhi and it is included under KshudraRoga and Kapalagata Roga. Here Paratantra Akala-palita refers to the disease causedby some other diseases like Shwitra etc…The Nidanas mentioned for thoserogadhikaras can be applied for that of Akala-palita. Also Akala Palita Nidanas can bestudied by eliciting Vegavarodhajanya Nidanas, Atiyoga-Ayoga of Indriyarthasamyoga, Rasavaha and Asthivaha srotodusthi karanas. Akala Palita is twachagataroga where Romakupas are lodged, so that some of the Kushtha Nidanas can also beconsidered. All the etiological factors can be elaborated in the following subtitles. • Aharaja (dietetic factors) • Viharaja (External and behavior factors) • Manasika (psychic factors) • Anya Hetuja (miscellaneous factors) Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 68 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaAharaja: The nidana in the form of different diet / food habits is included under Aharajanidanas. These nidanas affect the Rasa dathu. Here Rasa dathu is the main nourishingfactor for all the dathus, and it also gives nourishing for both Kesha and Kesha Varna.Apathya / Improper diet is a contributory factor for Akala-palitya. Food articles whichvitiates mainly pitta along with Tridosha. Thus which increase Dehoshma / which isthe cause for Rasadhatu Dushti / Asthidhatu Dushti especially Kesha poshaka Malabhaga Dushti are mainly responsible for Akala-Palitya.Table No. 15. Showing the Aharaja nidana Gunataha RasatahaAtiguru sevana AmlaAtisheeta sevanaTikshna sevana KatuUshna sevanaVidaha sevana LavanaLaghu sevanaRuksha sevanaKshara sevanaViharaja: The nidana in the form of Vihara or factors related to the habit and regimen of thepersons. Viharaja nidanas may be considered in the form of Viprakrishta i.e;indulgence of Hetu for longer duration.Viharaja nidanas are :- • Ratrijagarana. • Atapa sevana. • Rajo sevana. • Dhuma sevana. • Dushita Vayu sevana. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 69 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palitya • Shiro Abhyanga Ayoga. • Dushita Jala snana. • Ati Vyayama. • Upavasa. Ratrijagarana: Due to regular indulgence in ratrijagarana, Vata vriddhi takesplace which in turn causes Rasavaha Srotodushti .This may be the cause for Akala-palita. Atapa sevana: Due to excessive Atapa sevana, like continuous working infield farmers or other hard workers over hot sun may develop Akala-palita. ThisBahya Nidana directly increases Dehoshma in turn increases the ushma ofKeshabhumi and Roma kupa to produce Akala-palita. Rajo sevana, Dhuma sevana and Dushita Vayu sevana: These are BahyaNidanas, causing same impact as heat does. They make the scalp dry due to theincrease of sthanika Rukshata, in turn sthanika Vata prakopa, resulting in reduction ofsnigdhamsha may lead to Graying of hairs. Shiro Abhyanga Ayoga: This causes the improper nourishment of both scalpand Hair follicles. Dushita Jala snana: This is also the Bahya Nidana. In certain parts of Indialike Saurashtra, Balhika and Saindhava especially coastal areas suffer from lack offresh and soft water. This is because of Desha swabhava. It contains highconcentrated salt; continuous usage of such water is not helpful to scalp. Ati Vyayama and Upavasa: Due to excess physical work and continuousindulgence in upavasa cause vata vriddhi. The vikshepana karma of this vata to Shirascauses Sthanika Tridosha Dushti, which in turn causing Akala-palita. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 70 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaManasika: Krodha, Shoka, Adhika Chinta and Manasika Shrama are considered to beboth Pitta and Vata Prakopaka Nidanas which are responsible for early graying ofhairs. These are the Specific Nidanas for Akala-Palita mentioned in classics, • Krodha. • Shoka. • Adhika Mana Shrama. • Bhaya. Shoka: Due to Shoka Vata vriddhi takes place. This leads to Vishamagnicausing rasa-rakta Dushti and direct influence of Shoka on dehoshma vriddhi leads toAkala-palita. Krodha: Due to Krodha –swasthana sanchita pitta gets kupita along withvayu, and causing shariroshma vriddhi along with other symptoms like Trishna, Dahaetc. Shrama: Due to excess Shrama, vata gets vitiated, in turn vitiates Jatharagni& rasa dushti, and direct influence of Shrama on sharirika ushma vriddhi causingAkala-palita.Anya Hetuja: Akala-Palita is Janma Jaata Vyadhi. So genetically tendency can be elucidatedin the families having graying of hairs. Acharya Charaka in Indriyasthana hasmentioned according to Prakriti, Jaati, Kula, Desha, Kaala, and Vaya specific Bhavaswill differ. Those Bhava Vishesha are Varna, Swara, and Gandha etc. • Janmabala Pravritta Hetu. • Prakriti Hetu. • Jaati and Kula Hetu. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 71 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palitya • Desha Hetu. • Vayo Hetu.Janmabalapravrittahetu: Charaka accepts in the context of garbhahanikarabhavas, apregnant woman on taking continuous Lavana rasa may become responsible for anearly graying of hairs in offspring. While mentioning the types of Vyadhi, Sushrutahas considered Akala jarajanya vyadhis in Janmabalapravritta Vyadhis; these areconsidered into two, and Rasakrita and Douhrida apachaaraja. Achrya Vagbhata havemade the observations in regard with excess intake of Pittala Ahara by pregnant ladymay cause Kesha vikara in the progeny.Prakriti prasakta: Pitta Prakriti persons naturally develop Akala palitya of hairs.Jaati and kula prasakta: As far as Vamshaja / Kulaja / Hereditary factors areconcerned, there are no direct references available to consider the Hetu of the disease.But one can find that the heredity is considered to be one of the color deciding factors.However this factor can be considered indirectly for the formation of disease Akala-palita. Acharya Charaka mentions in Sharira sthana about beeja & beeja bhaga vikriticausing different avayava vikaras. So according to Charaka Vali palita roga can beconsidered under Adibala pravritta vyadhi.Desha prasakta: According to different Desha / Areas – The Color and Texture ofhair will change. While telling the excessive usage of Khsara, Pippali, and Lavana,Acharya Charaka told about the incidence of Akala-palita which is more prevailing inthe areas like Balhika , Saurashtra , Saindhava ,where Ushara / Lavanamsha is morein soil. In such conditions even though persons are having Lavana Satmya, theydevelop Akala-Palita.Vayo anupatini: According to age two types,Kaalaja - Swabhavika (Physiological) and Akaalaja - Vikritijanya (Pathological) Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 72 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaSamprapti: The Acharyas of Ayurveda are having more or less similar opinion about theSamprapti of Palitya. Samprapti is nothing but the pathogenesis, which occur atdifferent levels of the disease. The knowledge of Samprapti / understanding of eachsequence of Samprapti is essential in diagnostic and prognostic aspects of disease. The samprapti initiates with the continuous impact of emotional stresses likeShoka, Krodha and Shrama and physical causes like Asatmendriyartha Samyoga andBahya hetu. Acharya Sushrutha94 and Madhavakara99 have explained pathogenesis asfollowes, due to causative factors like Soka, Kroda and Srama, Pittadosha is agrivatedand there by increases Pittoshma and Shareeroshma. Vata which is also aggravated bySoka and Srama carries this Pittoshma to the Shiras. Stanika Kapha is also get vitiatedas the Shiras is the important location of Kapha. Thus vitiated tridosha settled in theromakoopa (Stanasamsraya). Locally settled Tridosha further vitiate locally availableBrajaka Pitta, which gives colour to the hair. In this way the natural colour of the hairis affected and Akala Palitya is caused. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 73 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaSamprapti ghatakas: Dosha: Sharirika Dosha - Tridosha (Pitta dosha pradhana) Sthanika Dosha - Bhrajaka Pitta. Dushya: Rasa and Asthi. Agni: 1) Jatharagni 2) Dhatwagni a) Rasagni. b) Asthyagni. 3) Bhutagni a) Prithvi. b) Teja. 4) Malagni a) Asthimala. Srotas: Rasavaha Srotas. Asthivaha Srotas. Manovaha Srotas. Srotodushthi prakara: Sanga. Roga marga: Bahya Rogamarga. Udbhava sthana: Amashaya. Sanchara sthana: Rasayanis. Vyadhi adhishthana: Shirogata Romakupa. Vyakta sthana: Shirogata Kesha. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 74 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaSchematic Presentation of Samprapti ofAkalapalita: Due to Soka,Krodha and Srama Prakopa of Vata and Pitta Pittoshma Sharira Ushma Vata carries pittoshma to Shiras Sthanika tridosha dusti Sthanasamshraya in Keshabhumi/Romakupa Sthanika Bhrajaka Pitta Dushti Keshamula Dushti/Romakupadushti Kesha Varna utpatti vikriti Akala Palitya Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 75 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaPurva-roopa: It refers to the features, which indicates the forth-coming disease. It usuallyhappens during fourth kriya kala called “Sthana samshraya”. Clinically, this is importantfor early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. No specific Purva Roopa has beenmentioned for Akala-palita in classics.Roopa: When the Vyadhi kriya kala is in fifth stage (Vyakthavastha), the disease willproduces the features called as “Roopa”. These roopa will indicate the manifestation ofdisease. These are the signs and a symptom of the disease. This is the stage when Dosha–Dushya Sammurchana is completed. Prakrita Palitya symptoms are developed in Vriddhapya. And Vaikrita Palityasymptoms are usually developed in Akala Vaya, that is nothing but Akala palitya. The lakshanas are as follows;Table No. 16. Showing the Palita lakshanas of Palitya acc. to Vagbhata Dosha Kesha Lakshanas Vataja Sphutita, Shyava, Khara, Ruksha, Jala Prabha.Vagbhata Pittaja Pitabha , Dahayukta. Kaphaja Snigdha , Sweta , Sthula ,Vivriddha Dwidoshaja Mixed laxanas of doshas Tridoshaja Sarva LaxanasTable No. 17. Showing the Palita lakshanas of Palitya acc. to Yogarathnakara Dosha Kesha LakshanasYogaratnakara Vataja Vishama , Ruksha Pittaja Pitabha Kaphaja Sarvarupanvita Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 76 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaClassification:According to Acharya Sushrutha; • Prakrita Palitya. • Vaikrita Palitya.According to Acharya Sharangadhara; • Kalajanita palita. • Akalajanita palita.According to Acharya Vagbhata;127 • Vataja. • Pittaja. • Kaphaja. • Dwandwaja. • Tridoshaja.According to Acharya Yogaratnakara; • Vataja. • Pittaja. • Kaphaja.According to Acharya Bhela;128 • Vataja. • Pittaja. • Kaphaja. • Tridoshaja. • Agantuja. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 77 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaSadhyasadhyata:129 The prognosis of the disease depends upon the factors like Nidana, Kala,Desha, Bala, Ashraya, and Lakshana etc. Here the wise physician must analyzesamprapti ghataka first. The knowledge of sadhya-sadhyata is essential whileselecting medicine and therapy for the particular disease.According to Acharya Vagbhata; • Vataja. • Pittaja. Sadya • Kaphaja. • Sannipataja Asadhya • Kalajanita palityChikitsa:According to Dosha involvement the Chikitsa sutra for Akala-palitya are carried out.The following are the Chikitsa Sutra to treat premature graying of hairs; • Sthanika Snehana / Abhyanga and sthanika Swedana. • Samshodhana (Sarvadaihika and Shirovirechana). • Nasya (Navana type). • Samana. • Palliative Measures (Shiro-lepa). • Preventive Measures.Pathyapathya: It plays an important role as much as of medicine and it is rightly mentionedthat, if one follows Pathya, then there is no need of medicine Pathya plays animportant role in preventing the recurrence of the disease. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 78 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaAhara: Shashtika shali, Mudga, Goghritha, Dugdha, Kushmanda, Dadima, Kharjura,Narikela.Vihara: Regular Hair washes, Regular shiro Abhyanga, Murdha Taila, PrayogikaDumapana, Anutaila pratimarshya nasya, Timely sleeping.Kesha Ranjana Drugs: Bhringaraja, Vibhita Majja, Amrasthi, Madayantika, Japa,Loha bhasma, Neelini, Saireyaka.Apathya:Ahara: Lavana rasa Atisevana, Katu rasa Atisevana, Amla Rasa Atisevana, Shushka,Ruksha,Viruddha ahara, Lashuna, Masha, Kulatta.Vihara: Exposure to Raja, Dhuma, Ati Atapa sevana, Ati Vyayama, Krodha, Shoka,Excess consumption of Alcohol & Smoking, Vegavarodha and Improper sleeping habits. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 79 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaPremature Graying of Hairs: Hair has a tendency to lose its natural colour with advancing age. It istherefore natural for the hair to turn grey with age. But premature graying is a morbidcondition and it makes even the young looks older. This causes a great deal ofconcern to the effected persons.Pathogenesis of premature Graying of Hairs: The timeframe of normal greying of hairs occurs independently of hair coloror gender, but it is, however, different among the various peoples of the world. Astudy of Australians in 1965 showed that among Caucasians, on average 50% of thepopulation are 50% gray by 50 years of age. In African Americans, onset is shifted toslightly later in life at 43.9 ± 10.3 years, whereas the late 30’s are the rule for Asians.In the individual, canities is usually first observed in the beard, followed by scalpinvolvement with the first gray hairs appearing over the temples, then the vertex, andfinally moving toward the occipit. In general, the age of onset of canities in theindividual is believed to be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Canities occurs secondary to a progressive decline in the number and functionof hair follicle melanocytes. In a recent article by Tobin and Paus, they suggest thatcanities occurs following an eventual fatigue of the follicular melanocyte reservoir’sability to repopulate the new hair matrix with pigment forming melanocytes. Theyexplain that the average hair follicle is able to produce 7-15 cycles of pigmented hairgrowth before melanocytes become unable to migrate and produce melanin allowingfor roughly 45 years of pigmented hair growth. For every decade after 30 years, thepigment-producing melanocyte population is reduced by 10-20%. This progressivedecline in the number and function of melanocytes can be explained perhaps using thefree radical theory of aging, in that successive cycles of melanogenesis produce large Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 80 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palityaamounts of reactive oxygen species capable of damaging both mitochondrial andnuclear DNA, leading to the accumulation of mutations and progressive loss offunction of melanocytes. Gray hairs show a reduction in tyrosinase activity (the ratelimiting enzyme of melanogenesis), whereas white hairs do not possess active enzymeat all. In general, the development of physiologic gray hair is permanent; however, itmay darken transiently following inflammatory processes, x-irradiation, and somechemotherapy. During early canities, hair may temporarily repigment withintermittent bursts of melanogenesis, but this is short lived and should not be taken asa reversal of the inevitable course of human graying. Although there is no treatmentfor physiologic canities, chemical dyes can provide a satisfactory cosmetic solution.Aging of the Hair Follicle Pigmentary Unit: Individual scalp hair follicles go through approximately 7-15 melanocytesseeding / replacements cycles, potentially produce sufficient melanin to intenselypigment up to 1.5m of hair shaft in the average “Gray free” life span of 45years.Ageof onset of graying also appears to be hereditary, developing in the fourth decade. There is a specific defect of melanosome Transfer in graying hair follicles, askeratinocytes may lack melanin granules despite their close proximity to melanocyteswith melanosomes. The remaining hair bulb melanocytes in canities-affected anagenhair follicles often appear enlarged. Melanocytes in graying and white hair bulbs maybe vacuolated, a common cellular response to increased oxidative stress, and maydisappear very rapidly. Gray hair may be more resistant to incorporating artificialcolor. Melanocyte aging may be associated with reactive oxygen species –mediateddamage to nuclear and mitochondrial DNA with resultant accumulation of mutationswith age, in addition to dysregulation of anti-oxidant mechanisms or pro/anti- Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 81 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palityaapoptotic factors within the cells. This dilution is due to a reduction in tyrosinaseactivity of hair bulbar melanocytes, sub-optimal melanocyte –cortical keratinocytesinteractions, and defective migration of melanocytes from a reservoir in the upperouter root sheath to the pigment permitting Microenvironment close to the dermalpapilla of the hair bulb. Dermatological studies are in advance to prove the ability togrow hair follicle melanocytes in vitro, that the possibilities of reversing canities havebeen raised. Melanocytes taken from gray and white hair follicles can be induced topigment invitro.Etiology of Premature Graying of Hairs: Although the pathophysiology of melanin depletion in hair follicles isunknown, genetic factors regulate the expression of this trait. Hair graying isconsidered a feature of aging. Early hair depigmentation, however, has been linked toseveral disorders, including vitiligo, pernicious anemia, and Graves disease.Regardless of pathophysiology, impaired production of melanin is inherited in anautosomal dominant pattern. The etiology of premature hair graying is unknown.Although some of the etiology can be predicted like;Causes of Premature Graying of Hair: • Nutritional deficiencies (especially iron or vitamin A, B vitamins, iron, copper, and iodine in the daily diet & Faulty diet are said to be a contributory factor. • Mental worries. • Unhygienic condition of scalp • Heredity • Stress (emotional and physical) • Hormonal imbalance, specifically androgen sensitivity Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 82 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palitya • Genetics • Immune system irregularities • Thyroid disorders • Cosmetics (allergies and harsh treatments) • Radiation/chemotherapy • Blood loss • Drugs • Disease • SurgeryEnvironment, weathering and hair color changes: While the primary causes of hair color are due to our genes and their effectson the amount and type of melanin pigment production, there can also be changes inhair color due to environmental influences. The environment can affect hair in twoways, by physical action and by chemical reaction. Chemical action on the hair isarguably becoming more of a problem with the increased frequency of chemicalexposure that individuals encounter with modern living. Melanin pigment can bealtered through interaction with acids and alkalis. Acid interaction darkens hair whilealkali lightens hair color. Whether acid and alkali in air are present in high enoughquantities to significantly interact with hair pigment remains to be determined, butacids and alkali are encountered in water supplies and as detergents in shampoos.Such exposure to acid and alkali solutions can affect hair color. The effect of sunlight on hair can have a direct effect on color that may beaccentuated in the presence of polluted air. With time, UV light degrades melaninpigment and bleaches the hair fiber. Black and dark brown hair may change into a Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 83 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palityalighter brown. Light brown and blonde hair can be bleached completely white withchronic sunlight exposure. Hair color may seem to change as a result of physical actions on the hair or"weathering". A healthy hair cuticle is fairly smooth and this gives hair a richer color.However, a poor cuticle is rough and flaky or sometimes the cuticle may becompletely stripped away. This rough surface to the hair fiber results in muchreflection and refraction of light. This gives an observer the impression that the haircolor is lighter than it actually is. The color also has a dull dry appearance. Suchphysical weathering and consequent hair color changes most commonly occurs inpeople with heavily processed hair, those who use harsh detergents for washing, andthose who excessively brush or otherwise manipulate their hair. In people with longhair the observer may see a color change from root to tip. The ends of the hair are theoldest hair and thus will be the most weathered hair. The hair roots are new hair andthe cuticle here should be least damaged. As a result, the hair ends may seem to havea lighter color than the hair roots. Bathing in salt water, whether it is sea water or high mineral salt containingtap water, can affect hair color. Whilst the salts dissolved in water might chemicallyinteract with the pigment in hair, they may also affect the physical properties of thehair fiber. As hair washed in salt rich water dries out the salts may crystallize withinthe hair fiber and cuticle. This may physically break down the structural integrity ofthe hair and lift up the cuticle. The result may be weathered hair and an apparentreduction in hair color. Some people are more susceptible to environment induced hair color changesthan others as a result of secondary internal factors such as hormones and generalgenetic disposition. So while some people can wash their hair with strong alkali Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 84 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palityadetergents with impunity, others with exactly the same hair color may find the sametreatment significantly affects their hair color. Premature graying has been observed in association with autoimmune disease.Patients with vitiligo may show generalized depigmentation of scalp hair withoutassociated amelonotic scalp macules. Premature graying has also been found among patients with hyperthyroidismand less commonly hypothyroidism. The pathophysiology of premature aging isunknown, but its association with various diseases and other traits has beenhypothesized to occur via genetic linkage. Premature graying also occurs in patients suffering from various geneticdisorders. This is a prominent feature of two premature aging syndromes, Werner’ssyndrome (pangeria) and Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome (progeria). Prematurely grayhair is often one of the earliest signs of Werner’s syndrome, a rare autosomalrecessive disorder, which usually presents in persons at about 20 years of age, butsometimes appears as early as 8 years. Other features include sclerodermoid andatrophic cutaneous changes, accompanied by early cataracts (mean age, 30 years),arteriosclerosis, osteoporosis, and an increased incidence of malignancy with areduced life expectancy.Stress responses: Almost any type of physical or mental stress can lead within minutes togreatly enhanced secretion of ACTH and consequently cortisol as well, oftenincreasing cortisol secretion as much as 20 fold. This is believed to result fromincreased activity in limbic system, especially in the region of Amygdala andHippocampus. The inhibitory effect of cortisol on the hypothalamus and on theanterior pituitary to cause decreased ACTH secretion. So Cortisol has –ve feed back Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 85 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palityaeffects on 1) The hypothalamus to decrease the formation of CRF and 2) The anteriorpituitary gland to decrease the formation of ACTH. Anterior pituitary hormone issecreting certain hormones along with ACTH and MSH. When cortisol secretions is depressed, the normal –ve feed back tohypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland is also depressed, therefore allowingtremendous rates of ACTH secretion as well as simultaneous secretion of increasedamounts of MSH. This causes most of the pigmenting effect because they stimulateformation of Melanin by Melanocytes. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 86 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaHair care: Beauty has very important role in our life. Hair plays very vital role in ourbeauty. A human body without hair would be seen just as a tree without leaves. Soeveryone has an ambition that his/her hair should be long, black and thick. As the hairis a beauty for women as well as men also, hair plays a significant role in personality.From the ancient time, hair has got exceptional place in our poetry especially fordescribing the beauty of women. It is important to know how we should take care of the hair for its lustrousness, blackness, neat, clean and devoid of various germs and diseases.To maintain the health the causative factors should be mined and due attention shouldbe paid for the care of hair. Ayurveda emphasizes self-knowledge and appropriate self-care to keep bodyboth inwardly and outwardly beautiful and healthy. The conventional practice ofAyurveda gives guideline to educate people about self-healthcare and providesmedicines or interventions to bring individuals back to a point from where self-healthcare can be continued. Ayurveda has given special importance to the hair carein Swastharritta i.e. Dinacharya, Ratricharya, Ritucharya, etc. Different methods andprocedures should be adopted for hair care, which are as follows,Diet: It is a fact that, living body requires nutrition and care. Hair is a growing parton the head of a living person. If the nutrition is not proper the growth is disturbed,and if the care is not taken at proper time the hairs stars to fall. Ayurveda says that beauty, health and a fully happy long life is achievableonly by understanding all the aspects of life. Contributing to bringing balance of thebody and mind. There are many guidelines given in the classics, but ultimately this Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 87 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palityainformation is useful only if it becomes part of our daily life. Getting results is thebest incentive for developing the self-discipline. Proper diet plays vital role in maintenance of our health. The illnessinfluences the health of hair.Table No. 18. Showing the food items which will be helpful to maintain the health ofhair: Vitamins/ Sign of deficiency in Found in hair Minerals A Dandruff, split hair Dark green & orange vegetables, butter, whole milk, corn soy, eggs. B-12 Hair Loss Corn Soy, whole wheat, wheat germ, almonds, beans, milk, nuts. B-5 Hair Loss Whole grains, corn, beans, cabbage, cauliflower, sunflower seeds, vegetable oils. B-6 Dandruff, thinning Brown rice, beans, carrots, cabbage, hair bananas, wheat germ, buckwheat. B-9 Hair loss, dull hair Whole grains, salad & green vegetables, wheat germ, milk, mushroom. C Weak hair roots Asparagus family, Cabbage family, red & green peppers, mung beans, tomatoes, citrus fruits, mangoes, papayas, pineapples, amala. D Weak hair Sunlight, whole grains, dark greens, butter eggs. Essential Brittle and lusterless Wheat germs, cod liver oil. fatty acids hair, dandruff Calcium Weak hair Sea vegetable, dark greens, sunflower seeds, milk, cheese, nuts, dried fruit, eggs. Copper Loss of hair colour Whole grains, eggs. Iron Brittle hair, thinning Leafy greens, nuts, egg yolk, whole grains. hair Silica Dull hair Horsetail herb Sulphur Brittle lusterless hair Fish, eggs, nuts, cabbage family, apples, beans, onions, currants, sea- food, mushrooms, wheat germ, sunflower seeds. Zinc Hair loss Seafood, mushrooms, eggs, wheat germs and sunflower seeds. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 88 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palitya Our diet is high in whole grains and other fibers rich foods that provide lastingenergy throughout the day. Fiber helps in proper digestion so Ama will not prepareand system will be clean. Diet, which is low in fat, helps to keep the blood clean and prevent a cloggingup of veins, arteries and organ, commonly associated with a diet rich in saturated fats.Good circulation and the circulatory system work efficiently to cleanse and nourishthe whole system and naturally help weight control. Low in refined sugars those are empty calories, which only serve to pack onthe weight. Food which is high in minerals that keeps the body looking a live and chargedwith energy. Minerals greatly contribute to that intangible radiant, fresh and magneticlook of a person in good health. Vegetable proteins fully nourish to body, beingquickly and efficiently metabolized. Highly salty diet tends to make the mind and body stiff and tight. Having aconstricting influence on the body, it tends to slow circulation and create retention offluid. High in fresh organic foods whenever possible we should eat. These arenutritionally the richest, coming from healthy soil and thus carry the strongest vitalenergy. A balanced diet rich in protein, minerals, vitamins especially iron, sulphur,zinc, B complex and vitamin C as well as essential fatty acids is essential for healthyhair. Our Acaryas mentioned regarding diets in Dincharya and Ritucharya. Theyalso stated that person can eat everything according to his own Prakriti but it should Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 89 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palityabe taken in particular season and in the day time according to the natural impact ofDosas at that time.Shiroabhyanga: Application of oil on head is called Shiroabhyahga. Acarya Carak stated thatwho oiliates his head daily, does not get headache, baldness, gray hair and hair fall.The strength of his cranial bones is greatly increased and his hair becomes firmlyrooted, flowing and very black83. So the massage is very important for hair. For thick, strong glossy hair theroots and scalp must be firm, healthy and well nourished. Too much sunlight exposuredries the hair and heats the head scalp and hair roots. In this case Massage isparticularly beneficial for hair roots and scalps. When oil is applied to the head, it gets absorbed deep into the scalp throughthe roots of the hair. This nourishes, lubricates and strengthens the hair roots and theskin of the scalp, preventing hair loss and premature graying. This helps to refreshboth the mind and the body relieving tension and fatigue and improving thecomplexion. This happens because massaging the head will increase fresh oxygen andglucose supply to the brain and improve the circulation of the spinal fluid around thebrain and spinal cord. Nutrients are key to the healthy hair, but to be effective they must reach theroots. Often tension in the scalp or fatty deposits block circulation, drying the sebumand thus literally starving the hair roots. Massage is the answer for tension relief toimprove circulation and freeing the hair roots of dry sebum. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 90 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palitya Oil massage (Abhyanga) is useful for hair because it gives softness, longness,blackness and good quantity of hair.Nasya: Nasya is a nasal administration of medicated powder or liquid drops. Theword referred here, in the context of hair care denotes the applying of oil through thenostrils. Nasya has been further classified various subtype. Pratimarsha nasya is one of them, which is most useful and advisable becauseit will be applied any time in the day, in very small dose. Acarya Susruta says that theproper use of Nasya leads to the stoppage of hair fall, increases length and number ofhair by preventing hair from being gray or white. According to Acarya Vagbhata, Nasya should be used for the treatment ofUrdhavjatrugataroga. Palitya is taken under this title. It will be Sodhana Karma forsrotas and also helpful to nourish the hair roots.Snana: The process of taking bath has been named of Snana in our literature. AcaryaSusruta beholds Snana as a cause of purification of blood. He has stated that itremoves baring sensation, sweating, itching, fatigue and excessive thirst. It is the bestcleaning medium. It relives drowsiness & evil and stimulates the digestive power130. But the advice against the washing of head and hair with hot water He forbidsthe use very cold water for overhead bath too. He further advises that bathing shouldbe done keeping in view the season and the place. Wash of the hair should be withwarm water that has been advised by our Acarya. The use of strong alkaline soap,shampoos and the use of dyes should be avoided. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 91 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palitya A massage & washing with herbal shampoo is good to give a thick, strong andglossy look to the hair, it also makes the scalp healthy and firms the roots of hair.Traditionally powdered herbs were used to cleanse the hair, lifting dirt withoutdisturbing the natural functioning of the scalp, such as Amala, Aritha, Heena,Shikakai, Bhringraj etc. Avoid shampoos that act as shedding agents such as sodium and ammoniumlaurel sulphate. The foam they make has little to do with their cleansing effect. Theyare simple harsh chemicals that strip the outer layer of protein of the hair and dry thescalp, making the use of conditioners necessary. conditioners do little more thenprovide an oily film that traps dirt and makes the hair look dull. They are notnecessary for healthy hair.Ushnishadarana : Acarya Susruta has stated that the wearing of Ushnisha gives protection fromwind, sun rays and dust etc. it maintains cleanliness and is beneficial for hair.131 Heat is the most detrimental factor for the hair. Too much sunlight exposuredries the hair and heats the head and makes the scalp and hair roots weakened. Highlevel of heat caused by Pitta within the body can also damage the hair from the roots.As Pitta naturally has the greatest amount of body heat, they are most prone topremature graying and balding who are naturally having high amount of Pitta in theirbody. Protection to the hair can be obtained by wearing a hat or head scarf. OtherAcarya have also mentioned Ushnisha as a Keshya (good for hair). Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 92 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of PalityaDhoomapana: The procedures of inhaling of medicated smokes to the nose through a smokestick are called Dhoompana. It has been described in the Dincharya. Acarya Caraksays that Dhoomapana is beneficial for Palitya and Khalitya. Further he added thatoral smoking might be useful to other parts of the body and head132. According to Acarya Susruta inhalation of medicated fumes improve thefirmness of hair on the head, beard and teeth133.Combing and Cutting: (Kshaura karma) The care of the hair includes good hygienic habits and also avoidance of badpractice that damage the scalp. Combs and brushes must be kept thoroughly clean.Accumulated hair and dandruff scales are made return to the scalp from uncleanedcombs and brushes may irritate the scalp and thus harm the hair. Combs and brushes are the tools for the care of the hair; they should beproperly made and well cared to accomplish this purpose. The comb should not be sosharp as to injure the scalp. Generally the teeth should be smooth and not be set tooclosely. Brushes should be made of stiff bristles, set for a part and should be keptclean and occasionally sterilized. The barbers, of course, use a common comb andbrushes, but that should also be sterilized them each time before use. A carelessbarber should be avoided thereafter. Cutting the hair & change the hairstyle is a fashion. But it is a harmful becausecombs & brushes used by barber, it may be causes for infection, dandruff and loss ofhair. In these cases, the nutritional state of the hair is below par. We should avoid thefrequent use of these. In Bhavaprakash Acarya Bhavmishra says that we have to use comb regularly,because it protects hair from Jantu & Mala etc. Acarya Susruta has explained a Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 93 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palityacombing procedure also. The management of hair (Keshprasaadhana) is said to bedone with Kesha Prasaadhani (Combs & Brushes) and believed to be “Keshya”,which increases the beauty of hair. By regularly cutting the hair (Keshavamarjana) aperson may achieve vigor, happiness, lightness and good look etc. Nowadays everyone use hair tonic/lotion/cream/dye etc. to make the hairhealthy. They are virtually cosmetic drugs, which give temporary improvement, but itbecomes harmful for hair when it is made by chemical. If improved appearance canbe accomplished without making the hair brittle or irritating the scalp, there is noobjection to their use. Hair spray may be used to smooth the hair to cause certainpattern of appearance. The spray contains various chemical substances, which is alsoharmful for hair.Tips to protect hair: Dietaries: • Balanced diet is basic requirement for keeping the hair halthy. • Frequent fasts should be avoided. • Food should be taken in time regularly as per routine schedule. • All the food items from the bazaar should be avoided and especially the items with acrid taste, Excessive oil, Soda bicarbonate, Citric acid and Sourness should be avoided. • Cold and unfresh food items kept in freeze should not be used. • Wheat, Ghee, Milk, Buttermilk, sprouted beans, Butter and Pulses are beneficial for hair. • All addiction like Tea, Coffee, Tobacco, Betel nuts, Smoking and Cold beverages, Ice-cream etc. must be restricted, as they are harmful for hairs. • The use of Vegetable ghee must be ceased and the intake of green vegetable, beans should be increased. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 94 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palitya Behavioral:• Oil should be applied only after the hair are properly dried after washing.• Hair and scalp must be oilated daily.• Oiling the hair before washing them is a must as washing dry hair is harmful.• If possible, the tender and warm rays of the sun of early morning should be seeked after massaging oil all over the body.• The massage must be done with the fingertips all over the scalp especially around the hair roots.• Vigorous massage or rubbing must be avoided.• The use of artificial chemical hair cream, hair lotion, hair dye etc. must be avoided. Washing the hair:• Always a luke warm water i.e. neither very hot nor very cold must be used to wash the hair according to the season.• Washing of hair with hard water should be avoid, because contain of water are harmful for hair.• If the hairs are greasy and itching is persistent, then the hair should be washed with slightly hot water.• While washing the hair, they must be rinsed by the tips of the fingers.• For washing the hair keep the head at slight high level or lower level and keep the hair in front side there after pour the water over the scalp.• The hair should be dried with the help of a clean towel, with very light hands, in open air.• Vigorous throbs, jerks or rubbing must be avoided.Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 95 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Review of Palitya• The use of shampoo, strong soaps etc. should be ceased for washing the hair and instead of that herbal drugs must be used.• Hair must be washed regularly. Management of hair:• The cogs of the combs and the bristles of the brushes must not be very hard and sharp and round ended. They must be blunt at the tips.• Hairs should be combed or managed with soft and light hands.• The hair must be combed and managed properly before going to bed at night.• The Brushes, Combs etc. must be kept separate for each individual and they must be washed with the help of germicide at least once in week in hot water.• The Brushes, Clips, Combs etc. should not be borrowed from others.• The use of Clips, Curling the hairs and the use of hot and dryers is harmful to hairs.• Frequent hair cutting, repeated use of hair dyes, change of hairstyles, use of various hair sprays etc. are harmful for hairs. Miscellaneous:• The bed sheets, pillows etc. should be neat and clean.• Open air or properly ventilated place must be sought for sleeping.• Loitering on moist lawn early in the morning is beneficial for hair.• Getting up early in the morning is good.• Regular and proper sleep must be taken. Waking up till late in night and sleeping during the day, both are equally harmful for hair.• One should always keep away from anger, worries, grief, and mental stress and strain as well as lead a calm and quite life full of joy.• Roaming with open head in sun light and excessive labor are the risk factors for hair loss.Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 96 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Drug reviewDrug review: Charaka has said that for the successful management of the disease, it isessential to select proper medicine134. The treatment without drug would be same asciphers without figures. Etymological derivation of the word “Drug” is from theFrench word “Drogue”. It may be defined as “any substance which when taken by aliving organism may modify one or more functions”. Acharya Charaka has assertedthat each substance on this earth is useful in combating illness when applied withplanning and for a specific purpose135. In Ayurveda, the success of Chikitsa depends totally upon ChikitsaChatushpada. Drug is a part of quadruped of the treatment, which has been placednext to the physician136. The selection of the proper drug in the management ofdisease is very important. W.H.O. defines drug as a substance or product that is used or intended to beused to modify or explore physiological system or pathological status for the benefitof the recipient.’ Ayurveda was the first to give an elaborate description of varioustherapeutic measures not merely of radical removal of the causative factors but also atthe restoration of Dosha equilibrium. To have an idea about the qualities of the drugs used in this study thedescription of those drugs are given here below. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 97 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Drug reviewNimba:137, 138 Latin Name: Azadirecta indica. Family: Meliaceae. Figure No. 04. Showing the drug Nimba: Synonyms: Pichumarda, Aristha, Tiktaka Gana: Shirovirechaka gana (Cha.Vi.8) Chemical composition: It contains glycerides of Saturated and Unsaturated fatty acids. The main fatty acids are Oleic acid-50% and Stearic acids- 20%. It contains 2% of bitters, which are Sulphur compounds, having Anti viral, insecticide Antimicrobial, and Nematicide actions. The unsaponifiable part contains chemical Nimbosterol (0.03%). It is Steroidal Alkaloid. Useful parts: Beeja, Twak, Patra, Pushpa. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 98 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Drug reviewTable No. 19. Showing the properties of Nimba: Dravya Nimba Nimba Taila Nimba beeja Rasa Tikta , Kashaya Tikta Tikta Guna Laghu Laghu Laghu Virya Sheeta Ushna Ushna Vipaka Katu Katu Katu Doshagnata Kapha –Pitta Vatahara, Vatahara Kaphahara Karma Grahi, Bahya: Kushtagna Krimi, Krimigna, , Vranaropana, KushtaShodhana. Keshya Yoni Vishodhana, Twagdoshahara, Garbhashaya Antaha :Nasya – Uttejaka Palitya ,Khalitya , Rasayana • ÌlÉqoÉ . . . . . . . .iÉæsÉÉÌlÉ iÉϤhÉÉÌlÉ sÉbÉÔÌlÉ EwhÉuÉÏrÉÉïÍhÉ MüOÕûÌlÉ MüOÒûÌuÉmÉÉMüÉÌlÉ xÉUÉÍhÉ AÌlÉsÉ MüTüM×üÍqÉMÑü¸ mÉëqÉåWû ÍzÉUÉåUÉåaÉWûUÉÍhÉ cÉåÌiÉ || (xÉÑ.xÉÔ45/115) • ÌlÉqoÉxrÉ iÉæsÉÇ mÉëM×üÌiÉxjÉqÉåuÉ lÉxrÉå ÌlÉÌwÉ£ÇüÌuÉÍkÉlÉÉ rÉjÉÉuÉiÉç | qÉÉxÉålÉ aÉÉå¤ÉÏUpÉÑeÉÉå lÉUxrÉ rÉjÉÉaÉëpÉÔiÉÇ mÉÍsÉiÉÇÌlÉWûÎliÉ || (pÉæ.U) Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 99 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Drug reviewEvaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 100 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Drug reviewBringaraja:139, 140 Latin Name: Eclipta Alba. Family: Compositae. Figure No. 05. Showing the drug Bringaraja: Synonyms: Markava, Kesharanjana, Markav, Bhringha, Keshya. Chemical Constituents: Alkaloids like Ecliptin and Nicotin. Useful parts: Panchanga Swarasa. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 101 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Drug reviewTable No. 20. Showing the properties Bringaraja: Dravya Bhringaraja Rasa Katu , Tikta Guna Ruksha , Laghu Virya Ushna Vipaka Katu Doshagnata Kapha – Vata Karma Keshya , Varnya , Rasayana , Twachya • pÉ×…¡ûUÉeÉÉxiÉÑ cɤÉÑwrÉÉÎxiÉ£üÉåwhÉÉÈ MåüzÉUgeÉlÉÉÈ| MüTüzÉÉåTüÌuÉwÉblÉÉ¶É iÉ§É lÉÏsÉÉå UxÉÉrÉlÉ|| (UÉ.ÌlÉ) Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 102 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Drug reviewNarikela taila:141 Latin name: Cocos nucifera. Family: Palmaeae.Figure No. 06. Showing the drug Narikela:Synonyms: Narikela taila ,Narikera taila ,shriphala taila, Sadaphala tailaChemical composition: Matured fruit contains 60-70% oil, Oil ontains Vit-A&B,lipids-100gms, Iron-0.04gms,VitA-0.28gms, fattyacids-86.5gms, coproice-600gms,caprolice-7.5gms, capric-6.0gms,lauric-44.6gms, miristic-8.2gms,palmitic-8.2gms, steamic-2gms, monounsaturated fattyacids-5.8gms,linoleic -1.8mgs,phytosterol-86.0mg. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 103 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Drug reviewTable No. 21. Showing the properties of Narikela: Dravya Narikela Rasa Madhura Guna Guru, Snigdha Virya Sheetha Vipaka Madhura Doshagnata Vata – Pitta shamakalÉÉËUMåüsÉÉå°uÉÇ iÉæsÉÇ oÉ×ÇWûhÉÇ oÉsÉuÉkÉïlÉqÉç |MåüzrÉÇ ÌmɨÉÉÌlÉsÉWûUÇ SlirÉÇ qÉSÒUqÉåuÉ cÉ|| (Mæü.ÌlÉ) Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 104 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • MethodologyMethodology:Materials used for the study: The materials used for the study were;Nimba beeja Taila(Moorchita) – For Nasya.Bringaraja Taila – For Shiroabyanga.Materials used for Nasya karma: • Nasya Shayana table. • Bashpasweda yantra. • Gokarna.Materials used for Shiroabyanga: • A chair. (for sitting the patient) • Small bowl. (to take oil)Moorchana of Nimba beeja Taila: Nimba Taila was collected from the market and done Moorchana in thedepartment of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya kalpana, D.G.M.A.M.C. and H. Gadag,according to the classical method explained in Sharangadara Samhitha142. For the Taila Moorchana 1/16 part of manjishta, 1/64 part of Haritaki,Vibhitaki, Amalaki, Musta, Haridra, Lodra, Vatankura, Hrivera, Nalika,Ketakipushpa, 1 part of Nimba Taila and 4 parts of Jala was taken and reduced forTaila avasesha.Preparation of Bringaraja Taila:Ingredients: Coconut oil. Bringaraja swarasa. Bringaraja kalka. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 104 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Methodology A total of 15 liter of taila was prepared in the department of Rasashastra andBhaishajya kalpana, D.G.M.A.M.C. and H. Gadag. The taila was prepared accordingto the tailapaka method of Sharngdhara Samhita. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 105 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • MethodologyMethods:Type of study: An observational clinical study.Source of data: Patients suffering from Palitya were selected from O.P.D & I.P.D, Dept ofPanchakarma, P.G.S & R.C, Shri D.G.M.A.M.C. & H, Gadag after following theInclusion and Exclusion criteria.Sample size: 30 patients of Palitya irrespective of sex, aged between 15-35 year wereselected in a single group.Selection of patients: After fulfilling the criteria set in the form of inclusion and exclusion criteria,30 patients were randomly selected and distributed in single group.Inclusion criteria: • All males and females with premature graying of hair. • Patients aged between 15-35 years. • Patients fit for Nasya and Shiroabyanga.Exclusion criteria: • Hereditary diseases like Albinism. • Nutritional deficiency. • Diagnosed case of infertility. • Patients with infectious diseases of the scalp. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 104 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Methodology • Patient unfit for Nasya and Shiroabyanga.Diagnostic criteria: Diagnosis is made on the basis of the classical signs and symptoms asmentined in ayurvedic classics, like • Split/broken hair (spuditha) • Ash colored hair (shyava varna) • Hair resembling like water (jala prabham) • Yellowish hair (peetabham) • White hair (sukla varna)Posology: Nasya: 8 drops of Nimba taila in each nostril143.Study duration: 3 Courses of Nasya- Each course of 7 days with 3 days rest in between eachcourse.Follow up: 30 DaysAssessment of result: Assessment of results was done on the basis of readings of subjective andobjective parameters before and after the treatment. The outcome of the observationwere analysed statistically for ‘p’ value using‘t’ test. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 105 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • MethodologySubjective parameters: The following four parameters were taken as subjective parameters for theassessment of results. The readings before and after the treatment were assessed forresult.Table No. 22. Showing the subjective parameters: Assessment Score Krishna varna 0 Color of the hair Ash colored hair (zrÉÉuÉ uÉhÉï) 11 (Kesha varna) Yellowish/Copperish hair (mÉÏiÉÉpÉÇ) 2 White hair (zÉÑYsÉ uÉhÉï) 3 Assessment Score Normal 02 Dry splited hair Dryness visible 1 (RookshaSpudita) Dryness felt by touch 2 Dryness felt with splitted hairs 3 Assessment Score Normal 0 Unctuous thick Unctuous visible 13 hair Unctuous felt by touch 2 (Snigda Sthula) Unctuous felt with splitted hairs 3 Assessment Score Burning- No burning sensation 0 sensation Mild (localized burning without disturbed sleep) 14 (Daha) Moderate (localized burning with disturbed sleep) 2 Severe (burning all over the scalp with disturbed 3 sleep) Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 106 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • MethodologyObjective parameters: 1. Area of scalp involved (%) The percentage of the effected scalp area was estimated with Olsen/Canfieldvisual aid144. In this the scalp is divided in four regions: frontal (F), bitemporal (T),midscalp (M), and vertex (V).Figure.7. showing Olsen/Canfield visual aid: Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 107 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Methodology Using this diagram, the percentage of scalp grey hair in a given quadrant wasdetermined and multiplied this by the total scalp area delineated by that quadrant andsum the resultant numbers for each quadrant to give the total percent of grey hair inthe scalp. Then the percentage difference was calculated before and after thetreatment.Table No. 23. Showing the parameter Area of scalp involved: Assessment Very good Response >75%Area of scalp involved Good Response 50-75%(%) Satisfactory Response 25-50% Poor Response <25% 2. Random hair count: One square centimeter area of scalp was chosen where more gray hairs arepresent from this site gray hairs were counted randomly before and after thetreatment.Table No. 24. Showing the parameter random hair count: Assessment Score No hairs gray 0Random hair count 1-10 gray hair 1 More than 10 and less than 25 gray hairs 2 More than 25 gray hairs 3Overall assessment of clinical response:Very good Response : >75% improvement in overall clinical parameters.Good Response : 50-75% improvement in overall clinical parameters.Satisfactory Response : 25-50% improvement in overall clinical parameters.Poor Response : <25% improvement in overall clinical parameters. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 108 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • MethodologyProcedure: Previous day patients were examined and explained about the Shiroabyangaand Nasya briefly and were asked to bring extra clothing, napkin, towel etc.preferably the time chosen was morning hours.Shiroabyanga : Requirements: 1. Comfortable knee height chair. 2. Bowl of 100ml capacity. 3. Bringaraja taila – 20ml approximately.Poorvakarma: • Patient asked to evacuate the bowel and urine. • Mangalacharana.Pradhanakarma: Patient made to sit on a Knee height chair. Procedure was carried out bystanding behind the patient. Approximately 20ml of lukewarm Bringaraja taila wastaken in the hands and applied over the head of the patient. Then the oil was spread allover the head including neck, ear pinna and face. After that mild massage was donewith fingers for 15min.Paschathkarma: • Rest for 10min. • Prepared the patient for Nasya karma. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 109 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • MethodologyNasya karma: Requirements: 1. Table with the facility to lower the head portion. 2. Nimba taila (8 drops). 3. Cotton towel for Swedana. 4. Nasya droper. 5. Dhooma netra. 6. Spittoon.Poorvakarma: • Abyanga over face, scalp and neck. • Mrudu Swedana over face, scalp and neck.Pradhanakarma: Patient made to lye down in supine position on Nasya table. The head of thepatient is lowered (Pravilambita) up to an extent. Eyes of the patient were coveredwith a clean cloth, the tip of patients nose was drawn upward by the left thumb. At thesame time with the right hand instilled 8 drop of lukewarm Nimba taila in both thenostrils, alternately and asked the patient to inhale deeply.Paschathkarma: Patient in lying position is asked to count up to 100 matra i.e. approximately 2minutes. After administration of Nasya feet, shoulders, palms and ears weremassaged. Again mild fomentation was done on forehead, cheeks and neck. Forpacifying Vata dosha, Rasna churna was rubbed on head. The patient was asked toexpel out the drug which comes in oropharynx. Medicated Dhumpana and Gandushawere advocated to expel out the residue mucous lodged in Kanta. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 110 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Methodology Procedure of Shiroabhyanga and Nasya Fig.8. Shiroabhya Fig.9. Nasya karmaEvaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 111 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Observation & Results Observation: The observation of the patients and the disease was done by providing thequestionnaire to those patients who can fill the case sheet and from those who can’tfill; the information was collected by translating the questions in the local language.The case sheet is attached in the appendix. All the patients were examined thoroughlybefore their inclusion in the study. The observation was done by considering thesubjective and objective parameters strictly. The observations were done and are depicted in form and graphs are usedwhere ever necessary. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 114 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Observation & Results Observation of demographic data: Table No 25: showing the distribution of patient’s age group: Age Group No of Patients Percentage 15 - 25 21 70 26 - 35 09 30 Among 30 patents 21 (70%) were from 15-25 age group, 9 (30%) from 26-35 age group. Fig No 10: showing the distribution of patient’s age group:2520 15-251510 26-35 5 0 Table No 26: showing the distribution of patients according to sex: Sex No of Patients Percentage Male 12 40 Female 18 60 Among 30 patients Distribution of sex was; male 12 (40%) and females were 18 (60%) Fig No 11: showing the distribution of patient’s sex group:20 Male1510 5 Female 0 Table No 27: showing distribution of patients by Religion: Religion No of Patients Percentage Hindu 27 90 Muslim 02 6.6 Christian 01 3.3 Others 00 00 Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 115 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Observation & Results Among 30 patients, Hindus were 27 (90%), were Muslims were 02 (6.6%), and Christians were 01 (3.3%). Fig No 12: showing the distribution of patient’s Religion:30 Hindu2520 Muslim15 Christian10 5 others 0 Table No 28: Showing distribution of patients by occupation: Occupation No of Patients Percentage Labor 00 00 Student 28 93.3 Executive 00 00 Sedentary 02 6.6 Among 30 patients, no labors, no executives, students were 28 (93.3%), and sedentary workers were 02 (6.6%) Fig No 13: showing the distribution of patient’s Occupation: 30 Labour 25 20 Student 15 Executive 10 5 Sedentar 0 y Table No 29: showing distribution of patients by Economical status: Economical status No of Patients percentage Poor 00 00 Middle class 30 100 Higher class 00 00 Among 30 patients all were from middle class family. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 116 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Observation & Results Fig No 14: showing distribution of patients by Economical status: 30 25 Poor 20 15 middle class 10 5 higher class 0 Table No 30: Showing the distribution of Patients by Dietary habit: Diet No of Patients Percentage Vegetarian 22 73.3 Mixed 08 26.6 Among thirty patients 22(73.3%) were vegetarian, 08(26.6%) were having mixed dietary habit, Fig No 15: Showing the distribution of Patients by Dietary habit:2520 Vegetarian1510 Mixed 5 0 Table No 31: Showing the distribution of Patients by Agni: Agni No of Patients Percentage Mandha 03 10.00 Teekshna 00 00.00 Vishama 01 03.33 Sama 26 86.66 Among thirty patients 03(10%) were having Mandha agni, 00 (00%) were having Teekshna agni, 01 (3.3%) were having vishama agni and 26 (86.66%) were having sama agni . Fig No 16: Showing the distribution of Patients by Agni: 30 Mandha 25 Teekshna 20 15 Vishama 10 5 Sama 0 Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 117 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Observation & Results Table No 32: Showing the distribution of Patients by Koshta: Koshta No of Patients Percentage Mrudu 00 00 Madhyama 30 100 Krura 00 00 Among thirty patients all were having Madhyama koshta. Fig No 17: Showing the distribution of Patients by koshta: 30 25 Mrudu 20 15 Madhyama 10 5 Krura 0 Table No 33: Showing the distribution of Patients by Nidra: Nidra No of Patients Percentage Prakruta 10 33.3 Alpa 19 63.3 Ati 00 00 Diwaswapna 01 3.3 Among thirty patients 19(63.3%) were having Prakrutha nidra, 10 (33.33%) were having Alpa nidra, none were having Ati and 01 (3.33%) Diwaswapna category. Fig No 18: Showing the distribution of Patients by Nidra:20 Prakruta15 Alpa10 Ati 5 Diwaswapna 0 Table No 34: Showing the distribution of Patients by Vysana: Vysana No of Patients Percentage None 22 73.3 Tea 00 00 Coffee 00 00 Tobacco 03 10 Smoking 02 6.6 Alcohol 03 10 Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 118 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Observation & Results Among 30 patients 22 (73.33%) patients were not having any habits, 03 (13.33%) patients were had Tobacco chewing habit, 02 (06.66%) were had smoking habit and 03 (10.00%) were had the habit of taking alcohol. Fig No 19: Showing the distribution of Patients by Vysana:25 None20 tea15 coffee10 tobacco5 sm oking alcohol0 Table No 35: Showing the distribution of Patients by Deha prakrithi : Deha prakriti No of Patients Percentage Vata 00 00% Pitta 00 00% Kapha 00 00% Vata-pitta 14 46.66% Vata-kapha 04 13.33% Pitta-kapha 12 40% Sannipataja 00 00% Among 30 patients, 14 patients of Vata–pitta prakriti (46.66%), 04 patients of Vata– kapha prakriti (13.33%) and12 patients of Pitta–kapha prakritti (40%). No patients reported with Vata, Pitta , Kapha, sannipatha prakriti in this study. Fig No 20: Showing the distribution of Patients by Deha prakrithi: 14 Vata 12 Pitta 10 Kapha 8 Vata-pitta 6 Vata-kapha 4 Pitta-kapha 2 Sannipataja 0 Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 119 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Observation & Results Table No 36: Showing the distribution of patients by Satmya: Satmya No of patients Percentage Ekarasa 00 00 Sarvarasa 00 00 Vyamisra 30 100 Among 30 patients all the patients were i.e.30 (100%) Vyamisra satmya. None of them were in other two catogary. Fig No 21: Showing the distribution of patients by Satmya: 32 ekarasa 24 sarvarasa 16 8 vyamisra 0 Data Related to Disease: Table No 37: Showing the distribution of patients by color of hair: Color No. Of Patients Percentage Krishna varna 00 00.00 Shyava varna 01 03.33 Peeta varna 08 26.66 Shukla varna 21 70.00 Among the 30 patients, 21 patients had the shukla varna(70%) and 08 patients were having peetha varna(26.66%) and one patient was having Shyava varna(03.33%). Fig No 22: Showing the distribution of patients by color of hair:25 krishna20 shyava15 peetha10 5 shukla 0 Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 120 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Observation & Results Table No 38: Showing the distribution of patients by nature of hair: Nature of hair No of Patients Percentage Sphuditha 10 33.33 Khara 00 00.00 Rooksha 18 60.00 Snigdha 12 40.00 Stoola 00 00.00 Among the 30 patients, 10 patients had Spuditha hair(33.33%) and 18(60%) patients had the Rookshata of hairs and 12 (40%) were having Snigdhata of hairs, and nobody was having khara and stoola type of hair. Fig No 23: Showing the distribution of patients by nature of hair: 20 khara 15 rooksha 10 snigdha 5 stoola 0 10 Table No 39: Showing the distribution of patients by Anubandha vedana: Anubandha vedana No. of Patients Percentage Shirashoola 07 23.33 Kapala daha 07 23.33 sparshanasha 00 00.00 Among 30 patients 07 patients had Shirashoola (23.33%).07 patients had Kapala daha(23.33%) and no patients were suffering from sparshanasha. Fig No 24: Showing the distribution of patients by Anubandha vedana: shirashoola86 kapala daha4 sparshanas2 aha0 Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 121 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Observation & ResultsTable No 40: Showing the distribution of patients by Mode of onset: Mode of onset No of Patients PercentageSudden 00 00.00Gradual 30 100Insidious 00 00.00Among 30 patients all the patients were i.e.30 (100%) having gradual onset. None ofthem were in other two catogary.Fig No 25: Showing the distribution of patients by Mode of onset: 2 sudden 1.5 gradual 1 0.5 insidious 0Table No 41: Showing the distribution of patients by Site of onset: Site of onset No of Patients PercentageVertex 12 40.00Frontal 11 36.66Temporal 09 30.00Parietal 07 23.33Occipital 06 20.00Among the30patients, 12 patients had onset on vertex (40%), 11 patients had onset onfrontal (36.66%) 09 patients had onset on temporal (30%) 07 patients had onset onparietal (36.66%) and 06 patients had onset on occipital (20%)Fig No 26: Showing the distribution of patients by Site of onset:12 vertex10 frontal 8 tempora 6 l 4 parietal 2 occipital 0 Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 122 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Observation & Results Table No 42: Showing the distribution of patients by Kula vrutantha: Kula vrutantha No of Patients Percentage Maternal 18 60.00 Paternal 19 63.33 Among the 30 patients, 18 patients (60%) had maternal history and 19 patients (63.33%) had paternal history Fig No 27: Showing the distribution of patients by Kula vrutantha: 19 maternal18.5 18 paternal17.5 Table No 43: Showing the distribution of patients by head bath: Head bath No of Patients Percentage Daily 13 43.33 Occasionally 17 56.66 Among the 30 patients, 13 patients had (43.33%) daily head bath, and 17 patients had (56.66%) occasional head bath. Fig No 28: Showing the distribution of patients by head bath:20 daily1510 occasionall 5 y 0 Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 123 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Observation & Results Table No 44: Showing the distribution of patients by Type of water for head bath Type of water No of Patients Percentage Cold 04 13.33 Hot 26 86.66 Hard water 30 100 Soft water 00 00.00 Among the 30 patients 04 patients (13.33%) were using cold water for head bath, 26 patients (86.66%) were using hot water for head bath, all 30 patients (100%) were using hard water for head bath, and none of them were using soft water for head bath. Fig No 29: Showing the distribution of patients by Type of water for head bath:30 cold20 hot hard10 soft0 TableNo45:Showing the distribution of patients by Materials used for hair wash: Materials No of Patients Percentage Shampoo 22 73.33 Soap 11 36.66 Herbal 01 03.33 Among the 30 Patients, 22 patients (73.33%) were using shampoo for hair wash, 11 patients (36.66%) were using soap for hair wash, and 01patient(03.33%) was using herbal material for hair wash. Fig No 30: Showing the distribution of patients by Materials used for hair wash: 25 shampoo 20 15 soap 10 5 herbal 0 Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 124 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Observation & Results Table No 46: Showing the distribution of patients by Methods of hair drying: Methods of hair drying No of Patients Percentage Towel 30 100 Electric hair dryer 08 26.66 Sunlight 09 30.00 Among the 30 Patients, all 30 patients (100%) were using towel for drying the hair, 08 patients (26.66%) were using electric hair dryer, and 09 patient(30%) were using sunlight for drying the hair. Fig No 31: Showing the distribution of patients by Methods of hair drying30 towel2520 electric15 hair dryer10 sunlight50 Table No 47: Showing the distribution of patients by using hair oil: Hair oil No of Patients Percentage Daily 14 46.66 Occasionally 16 53.33 Among the 30 patients, 14 patients were (46.66%) using hair oil daily head, and 16 patients (53.33%) were occasionally using hair oil. Fig No 32: Showing the distribution of patients by using hair oil 16 daily 15 14 occasionally 13 Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 125 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Observation & ResultsTableNo 48: Showing the distribution of patients by using hair dye: Hair dye No of Patients percentageHerbal 08 26.66Chemical 06 20.00Not applies 18 60.00Among the 30 patients 08 patient (26.66%) were using herbal hair dye, 06 patient(20%) were using chemical hair dye and 18 patient (60%) were not applies any hairdye.Fig No 33: Showing the distribution of patients by using hair dye 20 herbal 15 10 chemical 5 not applies 0Data Related to Overall Response to the treatment:TableNo 49: Showing the distribution of patients according to response Response No. Of Patients PercentageVery good 00 00.00Good 00 00.00Satisfactory 13 56.66Poor 17 43.33In the study, no patients had very good as well as good response. Among 30 patients13 Patients (43.33%) had satisfactory response to the treatment (25%-50%improvement in all the parameters), 17 Patients (56.66%) had poor response to thetreatment (<25% improvement in all the parameters).Fig No 34: Showing the distribution of Overall Response to the treatment v good ery 20 15 good 10 satisfactory 5 poor 0 Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 126 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Observation & ResultsObservation of the statistical out comes of the study:Table No 50: Showing the before treatment and after treatment values of allParameters. Clinical parameters Color of Dry Unctuous Burning Random Area of Sl. OPD the hair splited thick hair sensation hair scalp No. No. hair count involved (%) B A B A B A B A B A B A01. 4247 3 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 2 22 1702. 5064 3 3 3 0 0 0 1 0 3 2 34 2903. 5065 3 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 37 3004. 4046 3 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 44 3905. 4048 3 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 22 1806. 4053 3 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 25 1807. 4054 3 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 1 42 3508. 7576 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 40 3509. 7577 3 3 3 0 0 0 1 0 3 3 50 4510. 8843 3 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 1 21 1511. 8981 2 1 0 0 3 1 1 0 2 2 34 2812. 13259 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 23 1813. 13261 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 16 1214. 13262 3 3 0 0 2 0 2 0 2 2 20 1815. 13265 3 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 40 3616 13403 3 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 2 30 2617 14638 2 2 2 0 0 0 1 0 3 3 42 3718 15220 3 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 20 1619 15222 2 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 3 2 35 3020 15224 3 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 21 1621 15231 2 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 2 2 14 1122 15232 3 3 2 0 0 0 2 0 2 1 27 2023 15233 2 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 28 2324 15318 3 3 0 0 3 1 2 0 2 2 26 1925 15322 2 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 3 2 31 2426 15324 3 3 3 1 0 0 0 0 3 2 30 2227 15327 2 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 22 1928 15331 3 3 0 0 3 1 0 0 3 2 33 2929 15336 3 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 27 2030 18228 3 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 26 22Abbrevation Used:B- Before treatmentA- After treatment Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 127 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Observation & ResultsTable No 51: Showing Statistical analysis of parameter value: Parameter Mean Net SD SE T- P-value Remarks BT AT Mean value Colour of 2.666 2.466 0.2 0.406 0.0742 2.695 <0.02 HS Hair Dry 1.366 0.066 1.3 1.118 0.204 6.375 <0.001* HS splitted Hair Unctuous 0.966 0.1 0.8667 1.105 0.201 4.311 <0.001* HS thick Hair Burning 0.333 0.0 0.333 0.660 0.120 2.775 <0.01 HS Sensation Random 2.466 1.933 0.533 0.5074 0.0926 5.755 <0.001* HS Hair count Area of 29.4 24.233 5.166 1.464 0.267 19.348 <0.001* HS Scalp involved* = More highly significant. To know on which parameters the combined efficacy of Nimba taila Nasyaand Bringaraja taila Shiroabyanga is more effective, the statistical analyses is done byusing paired t-test, by assuming that the treatment procedure is same in all theparameters. From the analyses all parameters shows highly significant as P<0.05. There isa more highly significant in the parameters Area of Scalp involved, Dry splitted hair,Random Hair count and Unctuous thick Hair (as P<0.001). The parameters color ofHair and Burning sensation shows less highly significant (By comparing P-value andT-value).Conclusion: This study will be more effective on Area of Scalp involved, Dry splitted hair,Random Hair count and Unctuous thick Hair parameters with this treatmentprocedure. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 128 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Demographic data Table No. 52. Showing Demographic data in patients: Sl. OPD Age Sex Religion Occupation Economical Response no No. Yrs status M F H M C O St L E S P M H V G S P01 4247 15 - + + - - - + - - - - + - - - + -02 5064 17 + - + - - - + - - - - + - - - - +03 5065 17 + - + - - - + - - - - + - - - - +04 4046 26 + - + - - - + - - - - + - - - - +05 4048 27 + - + - - - + - - - - + - - - - +06 4053 27 + - - - + - + - - - - + - - - + -07 4054 26 + - + - - - + - - - - + - - - - +08 7576 25 - + + - - - + - - - - + - - - - +09 7577 30 + - + - - - + - - - - + - - - - +10 8843 20 - + + - - - + - - - - + - - - + -11 8981 24 + - + - - - - - - + - + - - - - +12 13259 20 - + + - - - + - - - - + - - - + -13 13261 20 - + + - - - + - - - - + - - - + -14 13262 20 - + - + - - + - - - - + - - - - +15 13265 23 - + + - - - + - - - - + - - - - + Abbreviations used: Sex: M – male, F – female. Religion: H- Hindu, M – Muslim, C – Christian, O – others. Occupation: S – student, L – labor, E – executive, S – sedentary. Economical status: P – poor, M– middle class H– higher class. Response: V– very good, G – good response, S– satisfactory response, P– poor response. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya 129
  • Demographic dataTable No. 53. Showing Demographic data in patients:Sl. OPD Age Sex Religion Occupation Economical Responseno No. Yrs status M F H M C O St L E S P M H V G S P16 13403 22 - + + - - - + - - - - + - - - - +17 14638 23 - + + - - - + - - - - + - - - - +18 15220 27 + - + - - - + - - - - + - - - + -19 15222 27 + - + - - - + - - - - + - - - - +20 15224 26 + - + - - - + - - - - + - - - + -21 15231 22 - + + - - - + - - - - + - - - + -22 15232 22 - + + - - - + - - - - + - - - + -23 15233 23 - + + - - - + - - - - + - - - - +24 15318 21 - + - + - - + - - - - + - - - + -25 15322 22 - + + - - - + - - - - + - - - + -26 15324 22 - + + - - - + - - - - + - - - + -27 15327 22 - + + - - - + - - - - + - - - - +28 15331 27 - + + - - - + - - - - + - - - - +29 15336 21 - + + - - - + - - - - + - - - + -30 18228 23 + - + - - - - - - + - + - - - - +Abbreviations used:Sex: M – male, F – female.Religion: H- Hindu, M – Muslim, C – Christian, O – others.Occupation: S – student, L – labor, E – executive, S – sedentary.Economical status: P – poor, M– middle class H– higher class.Response: V– very good, G – good response, S– satisfactory response, P– poor response. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya 130
  • Demographic dataTable No. 54. Showing Demographic data in patients:Sl. OPD Ahara Vihara Agni Koshta Nidra Vysanano No. V M H M S S M T V Mr M K P A Ad D T C A S TO01 4247 + - - + - + - - - - + - + - - - - - - - -02 5064 + - - + - + - - - - + - - + - - - - - - -03 5065 + - - + - - + - - - + - + - - - - - - - -04 4046 + - - + - + - - - - + - - + - - - - - - -05 4048 + - - + - + - - - - + - - + - - - - - - -06 4053 - + - + - + - - - - + - - + - - - - - - -07 4054 + - - + - + - - - - + - + - - - - - - - -08 7576 + - - + - + - - - - + - - + - - - - - - -09 7577 - + - + - + - - - - + - + - - - - - - - +10 8843 - + - + - + - - - - + - - + - - - - - - -11 8981 - + - + - - + - - - + - + - - - - - + + -12 13259 + - - + - + - - - - + - - + - - - - - - -13 13261 + - - + - + - - - - + - + - - - - - - - -14 13262 - + - + - + - - - - + - - + - - - - - - -15 13265 + - - + - + - - - - + - - + - - - - - - -Abbreviations used:Ahara: V –Vegetarian, M –Mixed.Vihara: H- Hard, M – Moderate, S –Sedentary.Agni: S – Sama, M – manda, T – teekshna, V –vishama.Koshta: Mr – mridu,M– madhyama, K– krura.Nidra: P– prakruta, A – alpa, Ad – adhika,D–diwasapna.Vysana: T – tea, C– coffee, A–alcohol, S – smoking, T – tobacco. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya 131
  • Demographic dataTable No. 55. Showing Demographic data in patients:Sl. OPD Ahara Vihara Agni Koshta Nidra Vysanano No. V M H M S S M T V Mr M K P A Ad D T C A S TO16 13403 + - - + - + - - - - + - - + - - - - - - -17 14638 + - - + - + - - - - + - + - - - - - - - -18 15220 - + - + - + - - - - + - - + - - - - - - -19 15222 + - - + - + - - - - + - - + - - - - - - -20 15224 - + - + - - - - + - + - + - - - - - + - +21 15231 + - - + - + - - - - + - - + - - - - - - -22 15232 + - - + - + - - - - + - - - - + - - - - -23 15233 + - - + - + - - - - + - - + - - - - - - -24 15318 - + - + - + - - - - + - - + - - - - - - -25 15322 + - - + - + - - - - + - + - - - - - - - -26 15324 + - - + - + - - - - + - - + - - - - - - -27 15327 + - - + - + - - - - + - - + - - - - - - -28 15331 + - - + - + - - - - + - + - - - - - - - -29 15336 + - - + - - + - - - + - - + - - - - - - -30 18228 + - - + - + - - - - + - - + - - - - + + +Abbreviations used:Ahara: V –Vegetarian, M –Mixed.Vihara: H- Hard, M – Moderate, S –Sedentary.Agni: S – Sama, M – manda, T – teekshna, V –vishama.Koshta: Mr – mridu,M– madhyama, K– krura.Nidra: P– prakruta, A – alpa, Ad – adhika,D–diwasapna.Vysana: T – tea, C– coffee, A–alcohol, S – smoking, T – tobacco. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya 132
  • Demographic dataTable No. 56. Showing Demographic data in patients: Sl. OPD Prakruti Sara Samhanana Satmya Satva Ahara Vyama Vaya no No. shakti shakti 01 4247 VP MS M V M M M M 02 5064 PK MS M V M M M M 03 5065 PK MS M V M M M M 04 4046 VP A M V M M M M 05 4048 VK A M V M M M M 06 4053 VP MS M V M M M M 07 4054 PK MES M V M M M M 08 7576 PK MS M V M M M M 09 7577 VP A M V M M M M 10 8843 VK MS M V M M M M 11 8981 VP A M V M M M M 12 13259 VP A M V M M M M 13 13261 PK MES M V M M M M 14 13262 PK MES M V M M M M 15 13265 PK MES M V M M M MAbbreviations used:Prakruti: V – vataja, VP – vatapittaja, VK – vatakaphaja, PK – pittakaphaja.Sara: T – twak sara, R – raktasara, MS – mamsasara, MES – medasara, A – asthisara, MJS – majjasara, S –shukrasaraSamhanana: S – susamhata, M – madhyama, A – asamhata.Satmya: S – sarvarasa, E – ekarasa, R – rooksha, S - snigda V – vyamishra.Satwa: P – prvara, M – madhyama, A – avara.Ahara shakti: P – prvara, M – madhyama, A – avara.Vyamashakti: P – prvara, M – madhyama, A – avara.Vaya: B – bala, M – madhyama, V – vruddha Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya 133
  • Demographic dataTable No. 57. Showing Demographic data in patients: Sl. OPD Prakruti Sara Samhanana Satmya Satva Ahara Vyama Vaya no No. shakti shakti 16 13403 VP MS M V M M M M 17 14638 PK MS M V M M M M 18 15220 PK MES M V M M M M 19 15222 VP MS M V M M M M 20 15224 PK MES M V M M M M 21 15231 VP A M V M M M M 22 15232 VP A M V M M M M 23 15233 VK MS M V M M M M 24 15318 VK MES M V M M M M 25 15322 PK MS M V M M M M 26 15324 VP MS M V M M M M 27 15327 PK MES M V M M M M 28 15331 VP A M V M M M M 29 15336 VP A M V M M M M 30 18228 VP MS M V M M M MAbbreviations used:Prakruti: V – vataja, VP – vatapittaja, VK – vatakaphaja, PK – pittakaphaja.Sara: T – twak sara, R – raktasara, MS – mamsasara, MES – medasara, A – asthisara, MJS – majjasara, S –shukrasaraSamhanana: S – susamhata, M – madhyama, A – asamhata.Satmya: S – sarvarasa, E – ekarasa, R – rooksha, S - snigda V – vyamishra.Satwa: P – prvara, M – madhyama, A – avara.Ahara shakti: P – prvara, M – madhyama, A – avara.Vyamashakti: P – prvara, M – madhyama, A – avara.Vaya: B – bala, M – madhyama, V – vruddha Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya 134
  • Demographic data Table No. 58. Showing Demographic data in patients: Sl. OPD Mode of onset Site of onset Anubandhi vedana Kula vruttanta no No. S G I V F T P O SH K SP M P 01 4247 - + - + - + - - + - - + - 02 5064 - + - - + - + - - + - + - 03 5065 - + - - - + - - - - - + - 04 4046 - + - + - - - + + - - - + 05 4048 - + - + - - - - - - - + + 06 4053 - + - + - + - - - - - - + 07 4054 - + - - + - - + + - - + - 08 7576 - + - - + - - - - - - - + 09 7577 - + - + - - + - - + - + - 10 8843 - + - - - - + - - - - + + 11 8981 - + - + - + - - - + - - + 12 13259 - + - + - - - - - - - - + 13 13261 - + - - + - - + + - - - + 14 13262 - + - - - + - - - + - + - 15 13265 - + - + - - + - - - - + -Abbreviations used:Mode of onset: S– sudden, G – gradual, I – insidious.Site of onset: V – vertex, F – frontal, T – temporal, P – parietal, O – occipital.Anubandhi vedana: SH – shirashoola, K – kapala daha, SP – sparshanasha.Kula vruttanta: M – maternal, P – paternal. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya 135
  • Demographic dataTable No. 59 Showing Demographic data in patients: Sl. OPD Mode of onset Site of onset Anubandhi vedana Kula vruttanta no No. S G I V F T P O SH K SP M P 16 13403 - + - - + - - - - - - + + 17 14638 - + - - + + - - - + - - + 18 15220 - + - - - - + + - - - + + 19 15222 - + - - - - - + + - - - + 20 15224 - + - + + - - - - - - + - 21 15231 - + - - + - - - - - - + - 22 15232 - + - + - - - - - + - - + 23 15233 - + - - + + - - - - - + + 24 15318 - + - - - + - - + + - + - 25 15322 - + - + + - - - - - - + - 26 15324 - + - - + - - - - - - + + 27 15327 - + - - - - + - + - - - + 28 15331 - + - + - - - + - - - - + 29 15336 - + - - - - + - - - - + + 30 18228 - + - - - + - - - - - - +Abbreviations used:Mode of onset: S– sudden, G – gradual, I – insidious.Site of onset: V – vertex, F – frontal, T – temporal, P – parietal, O – occipital.Anubandhi vedana: SH – shirashoola, K – kapala daha, SP – sparshanasha.Kula vruttanta: M – maternal, P – paternal. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya 136
  • Demographic dataTable No. 60. Showing Demographic data in patients: Sl. OPD Head Cold Hot water Type of Hair wash Hair drying Hair oil Hair dye no No. bath water water D O E G F S H S SH SO H T E S D O H C N 01 4247 - + - - - - + + - + - - - + - - + - - + 02 5064 - + - - - - + + - - + - + - - - + - - + 03 5065 - + - + - - - + - - + - + - - - + - - + 04 4046 + - - + - - - + - + - - + - - + - - + - 05 4048 + - + - - - - + - - + - + - - + - - - + 06 4053 + - - + - - - + - + - - + - - + - - - + 07 4054 - + - - - - + + - - + - + - - + - - - + 08 7576 - + - - - - + + - + - - + + - - + + - - 09 7577 + - - - - - + + - + - - + - - + - + - - 10 8843 - + - + - - - + - + - - + - + - + - - + 11 8981 + - + - - - - + - - + - + - - - + - + - 12 13259 - + - - + - - + - + - - + + - - + - - + 13 13261 + - - - - - + + - + - - + - + + - + - - 14 13262 - + - + - - - + - + - - + - - - + - - + 15 13265 + - - - - - + + - + - - + + - + - - - + Abbreviations used: Head bath: D – daily, O – occasionally. Hot water: E – electric heater, G – geyser, F – firewood, S – solar. Type of water: H – hard, S – soft. Hair wash: SH – shampoo, SO – soap, H – herbal. Hair drying: T – towel, E – electric hair dryer, S – sunlight. Hair oil: D – daily, O – occasionally. Hair dye: H – herbal, C – chemical, N – not applies. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya 137
  • Demographic dataTable No. 61. Showing Demographic data in patients: Sl. OPD Head Cold Hot water Type of Hair wash Hair drying Hair oil Hair dye no No. bath water water D O E G F S H S SH SO H T E S D O H C N 16 13403 - + - - - - + + - + - - + + - + - - - + 17 14638 - + - + - - - + - + + - + - + - + - - + 18 15220 + - - + - - - + - - + - + - - - + - - + 19 15222 + - - - - - + + - + - - + - - + - - + - 20 15224 + - + - - - - + - - + - + - - - + - - + 21 15231 - + - - - - + + - + - - + - + - + + - - 22 15232 + - - - - + + - + - - + + - - + - - + 23 15233 - + - + - - - + - + - + + - + + - - - + 24 15318 - + - - - - + + - + - - + - + - + + + - 25 15322 + - - + - - - + - + - - + + - + - - - + 26 15324 - + - - - - + + - + + - + - + - + + - - 27 15327 - + - + - - - + - + + - + + - + - + + - 28 15331 - + - - - - + + - + - - + - + - + - - + 29 15336 - + - + - - - + - + - - + - + + - + - - 30 18228 + - + - - - - + - - + - + - - + - - + - Abbreviations used: Head bath: D – daily, O – occasionally. Hot water: E – electric heater, G – geyser, F – firewood, S – solar. Type of water: H – hard, S – soft. Hair wash: SH – shampoo, SO – soap, H – herbal. Hair drying: T – towel, E – electric hair dryer, S – sunlight. Hair oil: D – daily, O – occasionally. Hair dye: H – herbal, C – chemical, N – not applies. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya 138
  • DiscussionDiscussion: Discussion is the most important part of any research where the observationsare discussed and given reasons by the researcher. Here researcher conveys thepractical experience with special reference to textual explanations. The significantresults and insignificant results will be discussed in the same section with reasons.Hence it becomes important to discuss the clinical study in detail.Discussions on this study are made under the following headings:1. Akala palitya and Premature grying of hair (Canitis).2. Discussions on the materials and methods.3. Discussion on clinical study.4. Discussions on the patients of Akala palitya who underwent the trial.5. Mode of Action of Nimba taila Nasya.6. Mode of action of Bringaraja taila Shiroabyanga.Akala Palitya and Premature graying of hair (Canitis): There is no much elaborated descriptions are available in Ayurvedic classicsabout Akala Palitya. Acharyas had explained this disease under different headings,Susrutacharya in Kshudrarogadhikara and Vagbhatacharya in Kapala roga. Butcosmetic consciousness might have increased by the time of Sharangadhara period.We get perfect definitions for Akala-Palitya i.e Palitya occurs at the stage ofvardhakya, but due to ushma guna of pitta, Palita symptoms are observed early i.eduring young stage. Sushruta specifies Jarajanyavyadhis under Janmabala pravritta Vyadhi. AlsoCharaka accepts excess Lavana Rasa sevana during pregnancy is the causative factorfor the Akala-Palita. These all references of Acharya Charaka and Sushruta indicateAkala palitya is more due to genetically predisposed. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 139 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Discussion Acharya Vagbhata had classified the disease according to the Doshapredominance. This shows even though Pitta Prakriti persons are prone for thisdisease but other Prakriti persons are also included. And also Kapha dusthi isnecessary for Kesha shuklata. So in Kaphaja Akala Palitya, Kesha Shuklata and Swetalaxanas have told. By this one can understand different levels of samprapti where theinvolvement of different Doshas at each levels. The Nidanas of Akala Palitya can be discussed mainly under three headings. 1.Aharaja Nidana like excessive use of Amla, Lavana and Katu rasa, Viruddhahara,Apatyahara etc. 2. Viharaja Nidana like excessive Atapasevana, Ratrijagarana,Vegavarodha etc. 3. Manasika Nidana like excessive Soka, Bhaya, Kopa etc. alongwith Atiyoga-Ayoga of twacha Indriya, Rasavaha and Asthivaha srotodusthi karanas. Akala Palitya is Twachagata roga where Romakupas are get lodged, so theKushtha Nidanas can be elicited for Akala-palita. In the present society Bahyanidanas are very common due to busy life style peoples are not able to follow theDinacharya and Rthucharya. For E.g.; in our classics regular Shiro Abhyanga hasbeen told in Dinacharya chapters. But now a day cosmetic consciousness amongyoung people is increased. They use cosmetics which are devoid of oil base. Thiscauses both externally and internally improper nourishment to the roots. Furtherexposure to the sunlight (U.V rays), Dushita jala sevana, Dushita jala snana, Dhumasevana, Dushita vayu sevana are the contributory causative factors for Akala Palitya. But in classics aetiopathogenesis of Akala-Palita are specifically mentioned asKrodha (Excess Anxiety/ Mental stress), Shoka (Emotional Stress) and Excessivephysical exertion. Contemporary science also has the similar idea about any type ofphysical or mental stress can lead within minutes to greatly enhanced secretion ofACTH and consequently cortisol as well, often increasing cortisol secretion as much Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 140 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Discussionas 20 fold. The inhibitory effect of cortisol on the hypothalamus and on the anteriorpituitary to cause decreased ACTH secretion. So Cortisol has –ve feed back effects on1) The hypothalamus to decrease the formation of CRF and 2) The anterior pituitarygland to decrease the formation of ACTH. This ACTH is responsible for Melaninproduction. The Acharyas of Ayurveda are having more or less similar opinion about theSamprapti of Palitya. Samprapti is nothing but the pathogenesis, which occur atdifferent levels of the disease. Acharya Sushrutha and Madhavakara have explained pathogenesis with theincrease of Vayu especially due to excess of Shoka and Shrama. At the same time thePitta is being increased in its ushma guna. This provokated pitta circulates throughoutthe body through Rasayanis by the virtue of vikshepana guna of provokated vata toincrease the Sharira ushma. This Sharirika ushma reaches to Shiras and vitiates sthanikavata karya and Shleshma karya. By this, twacha sthita romakupas are affected especiallytaamra twacha where Bhrajakagni is situated. The sthanika pitta and kapha dushanahappens, causing Bhrajakagni dushti. Bhrajaka pitta works are hindered and causingvikrita kesha Varna utpatti. This samprapti emphasizes the involvement of dehoshma inthe disease pathology. Another Samprapti of akalapalita initiates with Jatharagni dusthi due to pittaPradhana Tridosha dushti resulting adyadhatwagni dusthi to vitiate Asthi poshakaRasa specifically kesha poshaka Rasa. During Asthi dhatwagni Vyapara, theposhakamshas which nourish Asthidhatu are converted into three parts viz; the Sthulabhaga, Suksma bhaga and kitta bhaga. This kitta bhaga is processed by the action ofMalagni to produce kesha. As there is Dushti of Kesha poshaka bhavas and Dushti ofsthanika Bhrajaka pitta, shleshma and Vata, vikrita varna of kesha takes place. If the Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 141 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Discussiondusthi occurs at any levels of samprapti, kesha utpatti prakriya hinders and KeshaVarna utpatti vikriti occurs. Dehoshma concept can be understood on the base of jwara samprapti. AcharyaCharaka says, related doshas get ashrita in amashaya & expels out the Koshtagni.Chakrapani commenting on this clarifies, koshtagni expels out in the form of Ushma.Also says koshtagni means Dhatwagni. This samprapti can be told for shareerikahetus & not for Agantu hetus. Sushruta explains the samprapti of increase ofDehoshma by Agantu hetus, i.e. through shrama, Kshata, Abhighata, kupita vatawhich directly affect rasavahi srotas. Ashtanga Hridaya says Ushma doesn’t existwithout pitta. And pitta is necessary for the production of Ushma. By Sushruta’s version we get an idea about Prakrita & vaikrita jwara. HerePrakrita jwara occurs due to chayaadi rupa of doshas and vaikrita jwara occurs due toparticular nidanas. (Uttaratantra 39th) Prakrita jwara occurs during Swakalavastha,during Artava kala and during Aho-Raatri kala. Also while telling abhishangaja jwara(Ch.chi. 3/114) it is told that, during Kama, Shoka, Bhaya, & Krodha the increase ofushma is observed. In some conditions like in sharat ritu because of pitta sanchya &in pitta prakriti persons naturally increase in body temperature occurs in visarga kala.This is prakrita & this increase of temperature itself is the Dehoshma. In Akala Palityathe main Nidana contributing Dehoshma are Shoka, Kroda and Shrama. This concept of increase in Dehoshma can be understood by various metabolicactivities of cortisol. Overall system for control of cortisol secretion the key to thiscontrol is the excitation of hypothalamus by different types of stress. Stress stimuliactivate the entire system to cause rapid release of cortisol, & the cortisol in turninitiates a series of metabolic effects directed towards relieving the damaging nature Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 142 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Discussionof stressful state. The same concept was told by our classics that due to Krodha,Shoka or excess of Shrama causes increase in Dehoshma. Acharyas have mentioned mainly five types of Palitya, Tridoshaja, Dhwatajaand Sannipataja. In Vataja hair will be Sphutita, Shyava, Khara, Ruksha, Jala Prabha.In Pittaja, Pita varna of hairs and Daha in the scalp. And in Kaphaja hair will beSnigdha, Sweta, Sthula, Vivriddha. In Dhwantaja there will be mixed features and inSannipataja there will be Sarva lakshanas. According to the contemporary medical science Hair Pigmentation is aprocess, in which there is a precise interaction in the hair follicle unit betweenfollicular melanocytes, keratinocytes, and dermal papilla fibroblasts. The etiology of premature hair graying is unknown. Although some of theetiology can be predicted like; nutritional deficiency, mental worries, Unhygieniccondition of scalp, Heredity factors, any drug induced, due to any diseases etc. The timeframe of normal grying of hairs occurs independently of hair color orgender, but it is, however, different among the various peoples of the world. Canitiesoccurs secondary to a progressive decline in the number and function of hair folliclemelanocytes. For the proper Varna of Kesha, the rasa dhatu and Asthi dhatu poshana shouldbe proper otherwise there will be vivarnata of Kesha as Kesha is the Upadhatu ofAstidhatu. Also Bhrajaka Pitta is necessary for the proper Varna of skin & Kesha.Kesha is a kitta of Asthi Dhatu and Kesha and Kesha Bhavas should be nourished byAsthi Mala. In contemporary science, Melanin is believed to the polymer of tyrosine,formed by the action of copper containing enzyme tyrosinase enzyme. This enzyme inthe presence of dihydroxy phenyl alamine produces a dark cytoplasmic color reaction. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 143 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • DiscussionSo tyrosine compounds which are polymer of Melanin may be Kitta bhaga nourishingKesha Varna. In Ayurveda Acharyas have mentioned many medicinal yogas and differentmodalities of treatment like Nasya, Shirolepa, Shiroabyanga etc. According toAcharya Vagbhata, Vataja, Pittaja and Kaphaja Palitya are Sadya. Sannipataja andKalajanitha Palitya are Asadhya, and Dhwantaja variety can be considered as Kruchrasadya. But in the modern medical science they are not having any specific treatmentfor premature graying of hair or canitis.Discussions on the materials and methods: Drugs used in the trial work were, Nimba beeja taila for Nasya and Bringarajataila for Shiroabyanga.i) Nimba beeja taila: Sharangadara Samhita, Bavaprakasha, Baishajyarathnavali in these SamhitasNimba taila Nasya is mentioned as one of the main treatment procedure for AkalaPalitya. Nimba taila if used without moorchana can cause amatva. To overcome thisadverse effect in this clinical study Nimba taila was used after Moorchana.ii) Bringaraja taila: Bringaraja is one of the best kesharanjaka drug, means that which givesnatural color to the hair. Here coconut oil was used as base for Bringaraja taila for theclinical study. Because the main cause for the Palitya is increased Dehoshma due tovitiated Pitta dosha and Coconut oil is best for subsiding Pitta with its sheeta guna. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 144 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Discussioniii) Posology: Marsha is the Sneha type of Nasya adopted in this study. In classics MarshaNasya Matra is told to be 6 Bindu for Kanishta, 8 Bindu for Madhyama and 10 Bindufor the Uttama. One Bindu is equal to a drop of oil dripping out when two Parvas orthe two digits of the patients fore finger have been told to dip in the oil. For this studythe dose is fixed as 8 drops in each nostril (Madyama matra). Approximately 0.6ml. For shiroabyanga approximately 30ml of Bringaraja taila was used. Thequantity of oil varied (+ or – 10ml) according to the thickness of hair and sex. Infemales comparatively more quantity of oil was needed.iv) Nasya karma: Sharangadhara samhita and Bhaishajyarathnavali it is clearly mentioned that,for Palitya Nimba taila Nasya should be given for a month. So for this study threecourse of Nasya was given, each course of seven days and three day gap in betweeneach course.v) Shiroabyanga: Shiroabyanga along with face and neck was done for every patient for 15minbefore administering Nasya. Shiroabyanga plays both the role as Poorvakarma andPradhanakarma. Because Shiroabyanga was taken as a separate treatment procedurefor this study.vi) Assesment results: The efficacy of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila Shiroabyanga in AkalaPalitya was assessed by setting of criteria as discussed in materials and methodssection earlier. Here the base line data was compared with the data taken after 30 daysof therapy, this is because, Palitya is such a disease where one cannot expect an Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 145 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Discussionabrupt result. In this study the course of therapy was 30 days and hence the resultswere assessed again after 30 days of therapy.Discussion on clinical study: 34 patients were registered for the study. All the patients were subjected tothorough clinical examinations. Out of which 4 discontinued during the trial. Thereason for the discontinuity was Nimba taila is very Teekshna in nature and it willcause severe irritation to nasal mucosa. And other 30 patients appeared for theassessment of results. After scrutinizing the whole literature of Ayurveda and ModernMedicine, subjective parameters were fixed as, color of the hair, Dry splited hair,Unctuous thick hair, Burning sensation in the scalp for clinical assessment. Area ofscalp involved in percentage(%) and Random hair count were fixed as the objectiveparameters for clinical assessment. All the patients were asked to be in the hospital with in 9.A.M. They weregiven Abhyanga and Mrudu Swedana prior to the introduction of Nasya karma. Theabhyanga was done with Bringaraja taila to the head, neck and face. Mrudu Swedanawas given only on to the area where the abhyanga was done. Then 8 drops oflukewarm Nimba taila was administered in both the nostrils, alternately and asked thepatient to inhale deeply. Patient was asked to expel out the drug which comes inoropharynx. Medicated Dhumpana and Gandusha were advocated to expel out theresidue mucous lodged in Kanta. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 146 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • DiscussionDiscussions on the patients of Akala Palitya who underwent the trial:Age: All the 30 patients registered in this study were having the age ranging from15 years to 35 years. Showing the involvement of all the age groups in between 15and 35 years. . The occurrence was highest 70% in the age group of 15 to 25 years. The reason may be that during the Balyavastha the predominance of Kaphaprevails all over the body which checks the loss of hair, but along with the progress ofage and onset of Yuvavastha the dominance of Kapha is transferred to that of Pitta.Moreover, this is the age when a person starts bearing and becomes conscious aboutthe encroaching social responsibilities. This triggers off the problems of mentaltension. Again due to the unawareness and lack of proper attention towards thehomologous food intake and a misguided zeal towards the use of chemical cosmeticsto look more beautiful/handsome and a lack of proper hair care, a person knowinglyor unknowingly invites Palitya.Sex: In this clinical study, among 30 patients12 patients were males and 18 patientswere females. The percentage of female (60%) was more then the males (40%).Ayurveda says that the females are in general, dominated by the Agni Tatva, whereas,naturally they are prone to more mental tension and worries owing to their sensitiveand emotional nature. Along with this the disturbance in endocrinal secretions alsoplays a part in the occurrence of Palitya. In addition, the use of chemical cosmetics isfound to be at its peak among the ladies.Religion: The maximum number of the patients reported in this study 90% comprised ofHindus. However, this data is not suggestive of any confirmed finding regarding the Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 147 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • DiscussionPalitya in any aspect but this might have occurred due to the dominance of the Hinducommunity in this region.Occupation: Almost all the types of occupational groups had the patients of Palitya wherethe highest number was recorded in the patients who were yet studying(93.3%). Theever-increasing tension of studies followed by averting sleep till late night for readingand due to constant worries, irregular food habits, over indulgence in sleep etc.aggravating the Vata and Pitta Doshas create Palitya in a long run.Economical status: While searching out the relation between social status and disease, data showsthat social status does not bare any direct relation with the occurrence of Palitya. Inthis study all 30 patients were from middle class (100%). It is evident that thesepersons are more prone to stress and strain in their routine life either socially orfinancially. It is well established fact psychic as well as somatic factors together areresponsible for the initiation of disease.Diet: As the area of the study had a dominance of Hindu religion, most of thepatients (73.3%) were reported to have vegetarian diet. Only 26.6% patients wereused to take mixed type of diet. No significant finding may be related with thesefigures. as the type of diet has no effect on Palitya. The type and the time of Aharawere recorded as Viruddhashan and Vishamashana respectively. Most of the patientshad a tendency to indulge in Viruddhahara and Vishamashana which is said to beaggravating all the three Doshas. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 148 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • DiscussionVyasana: In todays society, it is hard to single out any person having no addiction at all.But in this study most of the patients were students and hardly any habits wereappreciated.Prakruti: All the patients were reported to have Dwandvaja Prakriti. A maximumnumber of patients belongs to Vata Pittaja Prakriti (46.66%) followed by Pitta KaphaPrakriti (40%). Pitta and Vata are the two main doshas, which play an important rolein the occurrence of Palitya. It may be concluded from this finding that when suchindividuals indulge in etiological factors they are more prone to have Palitya. Vagbhata, it has been clearly stated that the person with Vata prakriti is moresusceptible to have Alpakesha, Rukshatve and Chala Manasa (A. S. Sha. 8/9). Suchpersons may be easily disturbed by very trifle psychological disturbances as well asthey always invite psychological problems by their wavering nature. Constitutionally the individuals of Pitta prakriti normally have the prematuregraying of the hair and they are always having hair loss (Ca.V.8/97, Su. Sha. 4/68).Whereas the Kapha prakriti persons are believed to be wealthy and regards to theirtrichological wealth. Thus the persons with Vata and Pitta prakritis are more prone tohave the diseases of hair.Sara: The Saratva is the supreme part of Dhatu, which provides strength to thatDhatu and provides resistance to the disease. In this study there were no Rasa and Astisara purusahas. It may be concluded that the absence of sarata especially of Rasadhatu and Asthi dhatu seems to be risk factors for Palitya. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 149 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • DiscussionSamhanana: In this study all 30 patients were having Madyama samhatha (100%). It maybe derived that the people with moderate or less stoutness of the body is moresusceptible of Palitya.Satmya: In this study all 30 patients were Vyamisra rasa satmya (100%). Most of thetime patients were not aware about their diet. So it is difficult to give any comment onSatmya.Satva: Even though in this study all 30 patients were having Madyama satva (100%),Avar Satva patients are more prone to emotional imbalance and Psychological factorscertainly increase the risk of Palitya. Tension and anxiety was observed as one of thecausative factors. These factors may be responsible for vitiation of Pitta and Vatadosh.Agni: The type of the Agni is very nearly related with the Doshika constitution of aperson and the particular Doshas may be reflected by the condition of the Agni.Visamagni (3.33%) followed maximum numbers of patients with Samagni (86.66%)and remaining (10%) were having Mandagni. Generally Vishmagni is found in personhaving Vata dominated Prakriti, provocation of Vata is causative factor of Palitya.Koshta: In this study all 30 patients were having Madyama koshta (100%). This alsoindicate the causativity of Pitta dominated Prakriti may be responsible for Palitya. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 150 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • DiscussionNidra: Among 30 patients, 19 (63.3%) were having Alpa nidra, 13(33.3%) werehaving Prakruthanidra this shows that ratri jagarna (alpa nidra) is a predisposingfactor Vata vriddhi. That intern leads to Palitya.Mode of onset: In this study all 30 patients were having gradual onset (100%). This gives theconclusion that palitya will not occur suddenly unless there is involvement of externalfactors like chemicals, any drugs etc.Site of onset: Among the30patients, 12 patients had onset on vertex (40%), 11 patients hadonset on frontal (36.66%) 09 patients had onset on temporal (30%) 07 patients hadonset on parietal (36.66%) and 06 patients had onset on occipital (20%). This givesthe conclusion that palitya begins in vertex, frontal or parietal areas of the scalp.Water for head bath: Among the 30 patients 04 patients (13.33%) were using cold water for headbath, 26 patients (86.66%) were using hot water for head bath, all 30 patients (100%)were using hard water for head bath, and none of them were using soft water for headbath. This gives the conclusion that persons using hard water and hot water for headbath are more prone to get Palitya.Materials used for hair wash: Among the 30 Patients, 22 patients (73.33%) were using shampoo for hairwash, 11 patients (36.66%) were using soap for hair wash, and 01patient(03.33%) wasusing herbal material for hair wash. This gives the conclusion that persons usingshampoo and soap for hair wash are more prone to get Palitya. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 151 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • DiscussionOverall response of patients: In the study, no patients had very good as well as good response. Among 30patients 13 Patients (43.33%) had satisfactory response to the treatment (25%-50%improvement in all the parameters), 17 Patients (56.66%) had poor response to thetreatment (<25% improvement in all the parameters). To assess the effect of the procedure Before treatment and After Parihara kala,the Statistical analysis was done by using Paired ‘t’ test by assuming that therapy isnot responsible for the changes before treatment and after parihara kala.Probable mode of Action of Nimba taila Nasya: All ancient Acharyas have considered Nasa as the gate way of Shiras. i.e“lÉÉxÉÉÌWû ÍzÉUxÉÉå ²ÉUqÉç” It does not mean that any channel directly connectsbrain and nose, but it may be suggestive of any connection through blood vessels,lymphatics and nerve. By all above observations one can think rationally about Modeof actions of Nasya Karma. Samprati Vighatana is said to be the treatment. Therefore the action of a drugmeans to dismantle the Samprati Ghataka of the disease. Hence to explain the modeof a drug means to establish a relationship between the Samprati Ghataka of thedisease and penta fold principle of Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka and Prabhava of a drug. The Rasa of the Nimba taila had the dominance of Tikta, which is said to bePitta shamaka. Tikta and Katu Rasa present in this drug possess the antagonisticproperties to that of Kapha and Ama. Ushna Viryatva of drug will helpful forremoving the obstruction of the Srotas. The patho-physiology of Akala Palitya when it is considered according to thecontemporary medical science Krodha, Shoka and excessive Shrama which are stressfactors mainly acting over Hypothalamus, responsible for the secretion of C.R.F Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 152 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Discussion(Cortisone releasing hormone) and ACTH (Adrenocorticotrophic hormone). ThisACTH in turn releases cortisol, a glucocorticosteroid produced by the cortex of theAdrenal gland. This will increase body temperature by increasing body metabolicrate. This can be considered as increased Shariroshma. A reduced secretion of ACTH& CRF in turn causes MSH hormone reduction causing reduced pigmentation. Theperipheral olfactory nerves are chemoreceptor in nature. It is known that these nervesare connected with limbic system of the brain including Hypothalamus. This limbicsystem & hypothalamus are having control over endocrine secretions. Moreover,hypothalamus is considered to be responsible for integrating the functions of theendocrine system & the nervous system. It is known to have direct nervousconnections with the anterior lobe of pituitary. Nimba taila used in Akala-palita maybe acting through this olfacto –hypothalamo- pituitary pathway.Probable mode of action of Bringaraja taila Shiroabyanga: The fundamentals of Ayurvedic pharmacology are capable to give a betterscientific lead in mode of drug action. Pharmacology of Ayurveda is based on thetheory of Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka and Prabhava, which were the simplestparameters in those days to ascertain the action of the drug. Shiroabyanga with Bringaraj taila would carry out the functions as Keshya andKesharanjaka. The taila prepared with Bringaraja has Snigdha, Laghu, Shita andSukshma properties. Snigdha guna is a Parthiva and Apya. Caraka said that Kesha isParthivabhava predominent, so Snigdha guna increase Kesha because ofSamanyavishesha Siddhanta (Ca.Sa. 7/16). Sheeta guna would act on Pitta dosha,which is a main causative factor of Palitya. The obstruction of Srotas will clear by theSukshma guna, which affects the Varnothpathi and growth of new hair. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 153 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • ConclusionConclusion: The following conclusions are drawn after the assessment of responseclinically and statistically. • There is no satisfactory improvement in blackening of the hair. However in other associated parameters like Dry splitted gray hair, Unctous thick hair, Burning sensation in the scalp, Random hair count and Area of scalp involved were satisfactory as shown in the observation and results. • Acceptance of Nimba taila Nasya by the patients is not favorable as it causes lot of irritation and burning sensation during Nasya therapy. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 154 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • SummarySummary: The thesis entitled “Evaluation of the combined effect of Nimba tailaNasya and Bringaraja taila Shiroabyanga in Akala Palitya”. An observationalclinical study, comprises following parts. • Introduction • Objectives of the study • Review of literature • Methodology • Observation and results • Discussion • Conclusion.Introduction: This part includes importance of Nasya in Urdwajartugata vyadies vyadhismainly Nimba taila Nasya in Akala Palitya and about the disease entity Akala Palityaand its prevalance and regarding Premature graying of hair.Objectives of the study: It includes need for the study, objectives of the study, previous research workson Akala Palitya, and reasons behind selection of specific therapy for this disease withNimba taila NasyaReview of literature: This part includes mainly historical review of Akala Palitya, Nasyakarma andShiroabyanga. Description regarding nirukti and paribhasha of Nasyakarma, variousNasya bhedas, yogya-ayogya, procedure to perform Nasya. Review of Palityaincludes disease etymology, nirukti, classifications, nidana, poorvaroopa, roopa, Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 155 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Summarysamprapti, upashaya-anupashaya, pathya-apathya etc. Description regarding thepremature graying of hair and its different types of treatments. In the drug reviewdescription concerning about properties of Nimba, Bringaraja and coconut oil.Methodology: This possesses about the selection criteria, study design, plan of the study,posology, subjective and objective parameters and gradings for assessment criteria.Observation and result: It includes observation on all demographic data with their percentage andgraphical representation about the same, regarding the observation nidanas,poorvaroopas, lakshanas and results of individual symptoms followed overallresponse of the treatment.Discussion: Akala Palitya and premature graying of hair, Discussions on the materials andmethods, Discussion on clinical study, Discussions on the patients of Akala Palityawho underwent the trial, Mode of Action of Nimba taila Nasya, Mode of action ofBringaraja taila Shiroabyanga.Conclusion: This is the last part of the present study. This section comprises of theConclusion on the whole study. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 156 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
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  • Bibliography36. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited, susruta samhita, nibanda sangrahacommentry of dalhana,chikitsa sthana, Chapter 40, Shloka no. 44. reprint 2008. pub:chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane.Varanasi 221001. Page no. 556.37. Pandith Parasurama sastri vidyasagar edited Sharangadhara samhita Uttarakhanda, chapter 8, sloka 16. 3rd edition 1983. pub: chaukhamba orientalia. P.B. No:32.gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:341.38. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, siddi stana, chapter 9,sloka no. 107. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B. No:1129.K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:723.39.Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, sutrastana,chapter5,sloka no 45. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan.P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:80.40. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, sutrastana,chapter5,sloka no 49. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan.P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:81.41. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, sutrastana,chapter5,sloka no 20. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan.P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:39.42. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, sutrastana,chapter5,sloka no 45. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan.P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:80.43. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita,ayurveda deepika bychakrapani datta, siddi stana, chapter 9, sloka 117. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhambasurabarathi prakashan. P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001.page no:723.44. Dr.shivaprasad sharma edited, Astanga samgraha, uttara stana, chapter 29, sloka 19,edition 2006. pub: choukhamba Sanskrit series. K.37/99 gopal mandir lane. P.B.No:1008. Varanasi 221001. page no:226.45. Pt.sadasiva shastri paradakara bishag acharya edited astanga hrudaya, sutrastana,chapter 20, sloka 26-28. Reprint 2007. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:292.46. Dr.shivaprasad sharma edited, Astanga samgraha, uttara stana, chapter 29, sloka 19,edition 2006. pub: choukhamba Sanskrit series. K.37/99 gopal mandir lane. P.B.No:1008. Varanasi 221001. page no:226.47. Pt.sadasiva shastri paradakara bishag acharya edited astanga hrudaya, sutrastana,chapter 20, sloka 24. Reprint 2007. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:292. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 160 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Bibliography48. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, siddistana,chapter9,sloka no 92. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan.P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:722.49. Pt.sadasiva shastri paradakara bishag acharya edited astanga hrudaya, sutrastana,chapter 20, sloka 2. Reprint 2007. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:287.50. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, siddistana,chapter9,sloka no 96-97. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathiprakashan. P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. pageno:723.51. Dr.shivaprasad sharma edited, Astanga samgraha, uttara stana, chapter 29, sloka 5,edition 2006. pub: choukhamba Sanskrit series. K.37/99 gopal mandir lane. P.B.No:1008. Varanasi 221001. page no:223.52. Pt.sadasiva shastri paradakara bishag acharya edited astanga hrudaya, sutrastana,chapter 20, sloka 2-3. Reprint 2007. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:287.53. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited, susruta samhita,chikitsa sthana, Chapter40, Shloka no. 23. reprint 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. Page no. 555.54. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, vimanastana,chapter8,sloka no 139. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan.P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:284.55. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, siddistana,chapter9,sloka no 97. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan.P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:722.56. Dr.shivaprasad sharma edited, Astanga samgraha, uttara stana, chapter 29, sloka 6,edition 2006. pub: choukhamba Sanskrit series. K.37/99 gopal mandir lane. P.B.No:1008. Varanasi 221001. page no:223.57. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, siddistana,chapter9,sloka no 94. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan.P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:722.58. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, siddistana,chapter9,sloka no 95. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan.P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:722.59. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, siddistana,chapter2,sloka no 23. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan.P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:690. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 161 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Bibliography60. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited, susruta samhita,chikitsa sthana, Chapter40, Shloka no. 24. reprint 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. Page no. 555.61. Pandith Parasurama sastri vidyasagar edited Sharangadhara samhita uttara khanda,chapter 8, sloka 3. 3rd edition 1983. pub: chaukhamba orientalia. P.B. No:32. gopalmandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:339.62. Pt.sadasiva shastri paradakara bishag acharya edited astanga hrudaya, sutrastana,chapter 20, sloka 16. Reprint 2007. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:290.63. Dr.shivaprasad sharma edited, Astanga samgraha, uttara stana, chapter 29, sloka 16,edition 2006. pub: choukhamba Sanskrit series. K.37/99 gopal mandir lane. P.B.No:1008. Varanasi 221001. page no:225.64. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited, susruta samhita,chikitsa sthana, Chapter40, Shloka no. 40-43. reprint 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. Page no. 556.65. Pt.sadasiva shastri paradakara bishag acharya edited astanga hrudaya, sutrastana,chapter 20, sloka 9. Reprint 2007. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:289.66. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited, susruta samhita,chikitsa sthana, Chapter40, Shloka no. 46. reprint 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. Page no. 556.67. Pandith Parasurama sastri vidyasagar edited Sharangadhara samhita uttara khanda,chapter 8, sloka 9-10. 3rd edition 1983. pub: chaukhamba orientalia. P.B. No:32. gopalmandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:340.68. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited, susruta samhita,chikitsa sthana, Chapter40, Shloka no. 25. reprint 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. Page no. 555.69. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, siddistana,chapter9,sloka no 104. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan.P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:723.70. Pt.sadasiva shastri paradakara bishag acharya edited astanga hrudaya, sutrastana,chapter 20, sloka 18-20. Reprint 2007. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:290.71. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited, susruta samhita,chikitsa sthana, Chapter40, Shloka no. 26-27. reprint 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. Page no. 555. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 162 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Bibliography72. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, siddistana,chapter9,sloka no 106-108. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathiprakashan. P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. pageno:723.73. Pt.sadasiva shastri paradakara bishag acharya edited astanga hrudaya, sutrastana,chapter 20, sloka 22. Reprint 2007. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:291.74. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited, susruta samhita,chikitsa sthana, Chapter40, Shloka no. 21. reprint 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. Page no. 554.75. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, siddistana,chapter1,sloka no 51. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan.P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:685.76. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited, susruta samhita,chikitsa sthana, Chapter40, Shloka no. 32-33. reprint 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. Page no. 556.77. Pt.sadasiva shastri paradakara bishag acharya edited astanga hrudaya, sutrastana,chapter 20, sloka 24. Reprint 2007. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:292.78. Pandith Parasurama sastri vidyasagar edited Sharangadhara samhita uttara khanda,chapter 8, sloka 58. 3rd edition 1983. pub: chaukhamba orientalia. P.B. No:32. gopalmandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:345.79. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, siddistana,chapter9,sloka no 109-110. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathiprakashan. P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. pageno:723.80. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited, susruta samhita,chikitsa sthana, Chapter40, Shloka no. 49-50. reprint 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. Page no. 557.81. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, siddistana,chapter9,sloka no 113-114. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathiprakashan. P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. pageno:723.82. Dr. G.Shrinivas Acharya edited Panchakarma illustrated, chapter Shirobhyanga,1stedition, Pub: chaukhamba Sanskrit pratishtan, Delhi, 38 UA, bungalow road, Jawaharnagar, PB.no.2113, Delhi 110007, Page no.76-82.83. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, sutrastana,chapter5,sloka no 81. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan.P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:42. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 163 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Bibliography84. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited, susruta samhita,chikitsa sthana, Chapter24, Shloka no. 25. reprint 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. Page no. 488.85. Dr.shivaprasad sharma edited, Astanga samgraha, uttara stana, chapter 3, sloka 29,edition 2006. pub: choukhamba Sanskrit series. K.37/99 gopal mandir lane. P.B.No:1008. Varanasi 221001. page no:21.85(a). Dr.shivaprasad sharma edited, Astanga samgraha, uttara stana, chapter 31, sloka10, edition 2006. pub: choukhamba Sanskrit series. K.37/99 gopal mandir lane. P.B.No:1008. Varanasi 221001. page no:232.86. Pt.sadasiva shastri paradakara bishag acharya edited astanga hrudaya, sutrastana,chapter 22, sloka 24. Reprint 2007. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:301.87. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, sutrastana,chapter5,sloka no 81-83. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathiprakashan. P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:82.88. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, chikitsastana,chapter26,sloka no 132. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan.P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:82.89. Pt.sadasiva shastri paradakara bishag acharya edited astanga hrudaya, sutra stana,chapter 10, sloka 12-13. Reprint 2007. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:176.90. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, sutrastana,chapter5,sloka no 56-70. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathiprakashan. P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. pageno:42,42.91. Dr.shivaprasad sharma edited, Astanga samgraha, sutrastana, chapter 29, sloka 8,edition 2006. pub: choukhamba Sanskrit series. K.37/99 gopal mandir lane. P.B.No:1008. Varanasi 221001. page no:223.92. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, shareera stana,chapter8,sloka no 21. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B. No:1129.K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:344.93. Proff.P.V.sharma editted, Bhela samhita, english tansalation, chapter 16, sloka 10-11, 2005 edition, chaukhamba viswabarati, Varanasi, page no:112,113.94. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited, susruta samhita, nidana sthana, Chapter13, Shloka no. 37. reprint 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. Page no. 322. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 164 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Bibliography95. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited, susruta samhita,chikitsa sthana, Chapter20, Shloka no. 30. reprint 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. Page no. 479.96. Dr.shivaprasad sharma edited, Astanga samgraha, uttara stana, chapter 27, sloka 22,edition 2006. pub: choukhamba Sanskrit series. K.37/99 gopal mandir lane. P.B.No:1008. Varanasi 221001. page no:765.97. Dr.shivaprasad sharma edited, Astanga samgraha, uttara stana, chapter 28, sloka 17-18, edition 2006. pub: choukhamba Sanskrit series. K.37/99 gopal mandir lane. P.B.No:1008. Varanasi 221001. page no:770.98. Pt.sadasiva shastri paradakara bishag acharya edited astanga hrudaya, uttarastana, chapter 23, sloka 29. Reprint 2007. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan.P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:860.99. Proff. Yadunandana upadyaya edited Madava nidana, uttarardha, chapter 55,sloka 32. 30th edition 2001. pub: chaukhamba Sanskrit sanstan. P.B. No:1139.K.37/116 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:205.100. Sri. Brahmasankara misra edited, Bhavaprakasha, uttarardha,chapter 61,sloka 1,7th edition 1990, pub: choukhamba Sanskrit sanstan. K.37/116 gopal mandir lane. P.B.No:1139. Varanasi 221001. page no:584.101. Brahmasankara sastri edited Yogarathnakara, uttarardha, chapter Kshudra roganidana, sloka 32. 4th edition 1988. pub: chaukhamba Sanskrit sanstan. P.B. No:1139.K.37/116 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:272.102. Pandith Parasurama sastri vidyasagar edited Sharangadhara samhita pradamakhanda, chapter 7, sloka 151-152. 3rd edition 1983. pub: chaukhamba orientalia. P.B.No:32. gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:116.103. P.V.sharma edited Chakradatta, chapter 55, sloka 125,126. 2nd edition 1998. pub:chaukhamba publishers. Gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:448.104. Brahmasankara misra edited Bhaishajyarathnavali, chapter 60, sloka 80. 18thedition 2005. pub: chaukhamba Sanskrit sanstan. P.B. No:1139. K.37/116 gopalmandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:953.105. Pt.sadasiva shastri paradakara bishag acharya edited astanga hrudaya, shareerastana, chapter 3, sloka 107. Reprint 2007. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan.P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:406.106. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, shareerastana,chapter8,sloka no 51. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan.P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:350.107. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, sareerastana,chapter7,sloka no 14. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan.P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:338. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 165 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Bibliography108. Dr.gangasahaya pandaya edited Charaka samhita, vidyadini tika, sareerastana,chapter7,sloka no 14. eddition 2000. pub: chaukhamba sanskrit sanstan. P.B.No:1139. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:809.109. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited, susruta samhita, shareera sthana,Chapter 4, Shloka no. 33. reprint 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. Page no. 354.110. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, sareerastana,chapter3,sloka no 7. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan.P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:310.111. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, sareerastana,chapter8,sloka no 55. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan.P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:351.112. Dr.shivaprasad sharma edited, Astanga samgraha, shareera stana, chapter 2, sloka24, edition 2006. pub: choukhamba Sanskrit series. K.37/99 gopal mandir lane. P.B.No:1008. Varanasi 221001. page no:278,279.113. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, sutrastana,chapter28,sloka no 3. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan.P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:174.114. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited, susruta samhita, shareera sthana,Chapter 9, Shloka no. 9. reprint 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. Page no. 385.115. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, sareerastana,chapter8,sloka no 15. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan.P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:342.116. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited, susruta samhita, shareera sthana,Chapter 2, Shloka no. 35-36. reprint 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan.P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. Page no. 348.117. Pandith Parasurama sastri vidyasagar edited Sharangadhara samhita pradamakhanda, chapter 6, sloka 21-23. 3rd edition 1983. pub: chaukhamba orientalia. P.B.No:32. gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:73,74.118. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited, susruta samhita, shareera sthana,Chapter 4, Shloka no.4 reprint 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. Page no. 355.119. Lawrence H Bannister and Martine M Berry edited Grays Anatomy, chapter 5,38th edition, Pub: Harcourt publishers limited, Edinburgh. Page no.400-405120. Zoe diana draelos edited Haircare an illustrated dermatologic hand book. Chapter1, pub: taylor and fransis, london, edition 2005, page no.1-24 Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 166 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Bibliography121. Dr.shivaprasad sharma edited, Astanga samgraha, uttara stana, chapter 27, sloka 22,edition 2006. pub: choukhamba Sanskrit series. K.37/99 gopal mandir lane. P.B.No:1008. Varanasi 221001. page no:765.122. Proff. Yadunandana upadyaya edited Madava nidana, uttarardha, chapter 55,sloka 32. 30th edition 2001. pub: chaukhamba Sanskrit sanstan. P.B. No:1139.K.37/116 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:205.123. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited, susruta samhita, nidana sthana, Chapter13, Shloka no. 37. reprint 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. Page no. 322.124. Sri. Brahmasankara misra edited, Bhavaprakasha, uttarardha,chapter 61,sloka 1,7th edition 1990, pub: choukhamba Sanskrit sanstan. K.37/116 gopal mandir lane. P.B.No:1139. Varanasi 221001. page no:584.125. Dr.shivaprasad sharma edited, Astanga samgraha, uttara stana, chapter 27, sloka 22,edition 2006. pub: choukhamba Sanskrit series. K.37/99 gopal mandir lane. P.B.No:1008. Varanasi 221001. page no:765.126. Sri. Brahmasankara misra edited, Bhavaprakasha, uttarardha,chapter 61,sloka 1,7th edition 1990, pub: choukhamba Sanskrit sanstan. K.37/116 gopal mandir lane. P.B.No:1139. Varanasi 221001. page no:584.127. Dr.shivaprasad sharma edited, Astanga samgraha, uttara stana, chapter 27, sloka 22,edition 2006. pub: choukhamba Sanskrit series. K.37/99 gopal mandir lane. P.B.No:1008. Varanasi 221001. page no:765.128. Proff.P.V.sharma editted, Bhela samhita, english tansalation, chapter 16, sloka10-11, 2005 edition, chaukhamba viswabarati, Varanasi, page no:112,113.129. Dr.shivaprasad sharma edited, Astanga samgraha, uttara stana, chapter 27, sloka23, edition 2006. pub: choukhamba Sanskrit series. K.37/99 gopal mandir lane. P.B.No:1008. Varanasi 221001. page no:765.130. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited, susruta samhita, chikitsa sthana, Chapter24, Shloka no. 57. reprint 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. Page no. 489.131. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited, susruta samhita, chikitsa sthana, Chapter24, Shloka no. 74. reprint 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. Page no. 490132. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita,sutrastana,chapter5,sloka no 30. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathiprakashan. P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:40.133. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited, susruta samhita, chikitsa sthana, Chapter40, Shloka no. 15. reprint 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. Page no. 554. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 167 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Bibliography134. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, sutrastana,chapter20,sloka no 20. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:115.135. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita, sutrastana,chapter26,sloka no 12. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:138.136. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited Charaka samhita,sutrastana,chapter9,sloka no 7. eddition 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathiprakashan. P.B. No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. page no:63.137. Brahma sankara misra and sri roopalalaji vaidya editted, Bavaprakasha includingNigandu portion, poorvardha, guduchi varga, sloka93-99, 11th edition 2004chaukhamba sanskrit santan, varanasi. Page no:328.138. Vaidya yadavji trikamji acharya edited, susruta samhita, sutra sthana, Chapter45, Shloka no. 115. reprint 2008. pub: chaukhamba surabarathi prakashan. P.B.No:1129. K.37/117 gopal mandir lane. Varanasi 221001. Page no. 206.139. Dr. Indradeo tripati edited dravyagunaprakashita hindi commentary ofrajanigandu, shatahwadi varga,sloka 138-141, second edition1998, krishnadasacadamy varanasi. Page no:89.140. Brahma sankara misra and sri roopalalaji vaidya editted, Bavaprakasha includingNigandu portion, poorvardha, guduchi varga, sloka 239-240, 11th edition 2004chaukhamba sanskrit santan, varanasi. Page no:426.141. Proff. P.V.sarma editted Kaiyyadeva nigandu, aoushadi varga, sloka 274, firsteddition 1979, choukhamba orientalia, varanasi. Page no:53142. Sharangadhara, Sharangadhara Samhitha, Madyama Khanda, 9th Chapter,Shloka No.1 & 2, Translated by Prof. K.R. Srikanta Murthy, First Edition1984, Varanasi, Chawkambha Orientalia, Page No.115.143. Dr.shivaprasad sharma edited, Astanga samgraha, sutra stana, chapter 29, sloka12, edition 2006. pub: choukhamba Sanskrit series. K.37/99 gopal mandir lane. P.B.No:1008. Varanasi 221001. page no:224.144. Ulrike blume-peypaba and Antonella tosti edited Hair growth and disorders,edition 2008. page no.127. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 168 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Annexure SPECIAL CASESHEET FOR AKALA PALITYA Post Graduate Studies and Research Centre (Panchakarma) Shri. D.G.M. Ayurvedic Medical College, GadagGuide : Dr. S Suresh Babu. M.D. (Ayu) P.G. Scholar: Sabareesh MCo-Guide: Dr.Yasmeen A. Phaniband. M.D. (Ayu)1. Name of the patient : Sl. No.2. Father’s/ Husband’s Name : OPD. No.3. Age : Years IPD No.4. Sex M F Bed No.5. Religion : Hindu Muslim Christian Others6. Occupation : Student Labor Executive Sedentary7. Economical Status : Poor Middle class Higher class8. Address :………………………………………….Phone No. ………………………………………… ………………………………………… E-mail: Pin:9. Date of commencement of therapy :10. Date of Completion :11. Result: Poor Satisfactory Good Very good CONSENTI hereby agree that, I have been fully educated with the disease and treatment. Herebysatisfied whole heartedly, and accept the medical trial on me. Patient’s Signature. Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 169 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • AnnexureA. PRADHANA VEDANA: (Main symptom) Premature graying of hair sinceB. ANUBANDHI VEDANA: (Associated Symptoms) Lakshna Duration shirashoola Kapala Daha Sparshanasha (In Kapala)C. VYADHI VRUTTANTA: (History of Present Illness) Sudden Mode of onset Gradual Insidious Vertex Frontal Site of onset Temporal Parietal OccipitalD. CHIKITSA VRUTTANTA: (Treatment History)E. KULA VRUTTANTA: (Family History) Maternal Paternal Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 170 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • AnnexureF. VAYUKTIKA VRUTTANTA: (Personal history) : 1. Ahaara: Type of Vegetarian food Mixed Madura Katu Rasa pradanatha Amla Tiktha Lavana Kashaya 2. Vihaara: Hard Nature of occupation Moderate Sedentary 3. Agni: Samagni Mandagni Teekshnagni Vishamagni 4. Kosta: Mrudu Madhyama Krura 5. Nidra: Prakruta Alpa Ati Diwaswapna Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 171 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Annexure 6. Vyasana: Tea Coffee Alcohol Smoking Pan Tobacco Drug addiction Any other 7. Menstrual history: Menstrual Regular cycle Irregular Other complaints 8. Hygiene: Head bath Daily Once in …………. days Electric heater Hot water Geyser FirewoodType of water for Solar head bath Cold water Hard water Soft water Shampoo Item used for hair wash Soap Herbal Rubbing with Towel Hair Drying Electric hair drier Drying in sunlight Application of Daily hair oil Once in …………. days Hair oil used Herbal Hair Dye Chemical Not applies Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 172 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Annexure 9. Emotional Makeup: Anxiety Tension Anger Mental stress DepressionG. SAMAANYA PAREEKSHA: 1. Ashtastana Pareeksha: Nadi /min Mala Mootra Jihwa Shabda Sparsha Druk Akruti 2. Vital examination: Heart rate /min Resp. rate /min Blood pressure mm of Hg Body Temp F Body weight kg 3. Dasha vidha Pareeksha:Prakriti SaraSatwa Pravara Madhyama Avara Ekarasa VyamisraSatmya Snigdha Sarvarasa RukshaSamhanana Susamhata Madhyama Asamhata samhataPramana Sama Heena Adhika AharasakthiAbhyavarana Pravara Madhyama AvaraJarana Shakti Pravara Madhyama AvaraVyayama Shakti Pravara Madhyama AvaraVaya Bala Yuva Vridha Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 173 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Annexure 4. Srotho pareeksha: Srotas Observed Lakshanas Rasavaha Srotas Asthivaha Srotas Manovaha SrotasH. VISHESHA PAREEKSHA: Shyava (Ash) Peetha (Yellowish) Colour of the hair Sukla (Whitish) Tamra varna (Copperish) Mishra varna (Mixed) Sphudita Khara Nature of the hair Rooksha Snigdha Sthoola Daaha Kesha Bhoomi (Scalp) Kandu Darunaka Any otherI. VIKRITITAHA PAREKSHA: 1. Hetu: Aharaja Viharaja Manasika VyasanajaExcessive Amla Exposure to Dhooma Kroda MadyapanaExcessive Lavana Exposure to Athapa Soka DhoomapanaExcessive Katu Excessive Srama Bhaya Tobacco Occupational Jala kreeda Anxiety Tea Excessive Nidra Tension Coffee Ratri jagarana Stress Drug Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 174 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Annexure 2. Samprapti gatakas: Dosha Dushya Srotas Agni Rogamarga AdishtanaJ. TREATMENT PROTOCOL:Ist courseAbhyanga Day Time Avadhi Lakshana observed Any Upadravas 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Nasyam Day Matra Time of Observation Advise Performance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 175 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • AnnexureIInd courseAbhyanga Day Time Avadhi Lakshana observed Any Upadravas 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Nasyam Day Matra Time of Observation Advise Performance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7IIIrd courseAbhyanga Day Time Avadhi Lakshana observed Any Upadravas 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 176 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya
  • Annexure Nasyam Day Matra Time of Observation Advise Performance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7K. TREATMENT ASSESSMENT CHART: 1. Subjective parameters: Assessment B.T A.T A.FColor of the hair (MåüzÉ uÉhÉï)Dry splited hair (Ã¤É xTÑüÌOûiÉ)Unctuous thick hair (ÎxlÉakÉ xjÉÔsÉÇ)Burning sensation in the scalp (SÉW) 2. Objective parameters: Assessment B.T A.T A.FArea of scalp involved (%) % % %Random hair countSignature of the Scholar Signature of the Co-Guide Signature of the Guide Evaluation of combined effect of Nimba taila Nasya and Bringaraja taila 177 Shiroabhyanga in Akala Palitya