Padadari dg


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Padadari dg

  1. 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am very much indebted to reverend President His Holiness Shri JagadguruGurusiddeshwara Mahaswamiji, Murusavira Matha, Hubli and Sri B.R.Patil,Chairman, Shri. J.G.C.H.Society’s Ayurvedic Medical College, Ghataprabha, Dr. B.K. H.Patil, CEO, Shri. J. G. Co-op. Hospital Society Ayurvedic Medical CollegeGhataprabha for deputing me for P.G. study in the same institute. I also express my sincere gratitude to and offer my sincere thanks toDr.C.S.Banakar for his kind support and co-operation. I would like to extend mygratitude to Dr. J.K.Sharma, M.D. (Ayu) Principal, Shri. J.G.C.H.Society’s AyurvedicMedical College, Ghataprabha, who has always supported me throughout my study. I thank Dr. Agate, M.D. Professor PG Department of Dravyaguna forproviding an opportunity to carry out this work under his able guidance. I will be evergrateful for his invaluable guidance, constructive suggestions, love and affection andthought provoking ideas in every stage of this work. I wholeheartedly express my deepest Love, Gratitude and greatest respect tomy better half Dr.Subhash Bagade, MD (Ayu) Co-guide, Registrar P.G Faculty, Asst.Prof. PG. Department of Dravyaguna, Shri. J.G.C.H.Society’s Ayurvedic MedicalCollege, Ghataprabha for his encouragement, support, co-operation and guidance aswithout him this would not be so valuable. At the same time I would like to recall mydaughter Brahmee for her love, co-operation. I take this opportunity to recall and express my ever lasting sense ofReverence to my late Parents, who provoked me to study this system and are alwayswith me. At the same time I express my sense of gratitude to my in-laws for theirkind support. I am not finding the words to express my gratitude to my brother, sisterand rest of the other family members. I am very much thanking to Dr. P. V. Raj MD (Ayu) Prof. P.G Department ofDravya Guna, Shri. J.G.C.H.Society’s Ayurvedic Medical College, Ghataprabha. forhis support and guidance during this work. I also offer my special and sincere thanksto Dr. S.L Athani for his timely help, support and co-operation during my study. . i
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I take this opportunity to convey my thanks to my colleagues Dr. ArunNaragund, Dr. K. P Pattnaik, Dr V.R.Mane, Dr.S. S. Mathapati, Dr. S. B.Chougala. Ialso thank Dr. P. V. Pandurangi, Ph.D. Sanskrit scholar, Shri S. B. Patil, Officesuperintendent, Mr. S. B. Chalageri, Librarian, former librarians Mr. K. B.Kulakarni,Mrs. Rajita Sharma who have always opened the door of Library for my study, and allthe other technical and non-technical staff of the college for their co-operation andhelp. I, in this special moment, should be very thankful to Shri Vishnu Kangaralakarfor his guidance in conducting Phytochemical analysis, Dr.Harsha Hegde,Mr.Shripada Bhatta, Mr. Prakash patil from I.C.M.R. Belgaum for their advice inconducting statistical analysis of the study. My special acknowledgements to all P.G. and U.G. students, for theirwonderful co-operation during my entire course. Lastly I acknowledge my thanks to those who have directly or indirectlyextended their support for the completion of my work. ii
  3. 3. ABBREVIATIONS ABBREVIATIONSA.WØû Ashtanga HrudayacÉ.xÉÔ. Charaka SutrasthanacÉ.ÍcÉ. Charaka Chikitsa SthanaÌlÉ.AÉ Nighntu AdarshaÌmÉë.ÌlÉ Priya NighantukÉ.ÌlÉ Dhanwantari NighantuMæü.ÌlÉ Kaiyyadeva NighantupÉÉ.ÌlÉ. Bhavaprakasha NiaghantuUÉ.ÌlÉ Raja NiaghntuqÉ.ÌlÉ Madanapala NiaghantuqÉÉ.Sì Madhava DravyagunaxÉÑ.xÉÔ Sushruta SutraSthanaxÉÑ. ÌlÉ Sushruta NidanasthanavÉÉ .ÌlÉ Shaligrama NiaghantuA.WØû.ÍcÉ Ashnga Hrudaya Chikitsa SthanacÉ.S ChakradattavÉÉ.xÉÇ.qÉ.ZÉÇ Sharangadhar Madhyama KhandaAPI Ayurvedic Pharmacopiea of IndiaA.Hr. Chi: Ashtanga Hrudaya Chikitsa SthanaCha.Su. Charaka SutraSthanaCha. Chi. Charaka Chikitsa SthanaSu. Su. Sushruta SutrasthanaSu. Chi. Sushruta Chikitsa SthanaSu. Ni. Sushruta Nidanasthana iii
  4. 4. LIST OF TABLES, GRAPHS, PHOTOS LIST OF TABLESSI.No. TABLE1 Showing Gana and Varga of Madjucchishtha2 Showing important Paryaya nanma of Madhuchchishtha3 Showing Gunas of Madhuchchishtha4 Showing important Karmas of Madhuchchishtha5 Showing important Prayoga of Madhucchishtha in different Vyadhi6 Showing Vishishta yoga of Madhucchishtha7 Showing Gana -Varga of Shala niryasa8 Showing synonyms of Shalaniryasa.9 Showing Guna of Shalaniryasa10 Showing Karma of Shalaniryasa11 Showing Prayoga of Shala niryasa.12 Showing Vishisgtha yogas of Shala niryasa13 Showing, the name of the disease according to different authors14 Showing the varieties of Kshudraroga15 Showing the Samprapti Ghataka16 Showing Preliminary Phytochemical Screening17 Showing Macroscopic characters of Shorea robusta Gaertn Resin and Madhuchcchishta18 Showing Physical Standards19 Values of water soluble extractives of Shorea robusta and Madhucchishtha20 Values of alcohol soluble extractives of Shala Niryasa and Madhucchishtha:21 Ash Values of Shalaniryasa and Madhucchishtha:22 Results of chemical tests for detection of organic chemical constituents:23 Showing Age wise distributions of Patients i
  5. 5. LIST OF TABLES, GRAPHS, PHOTOS24 Showing Sex wise distribution of patients25 Showing Occupation wise distribution of patients26 Showing Education wise distribution of patients27 Showing distribution as per Social status28 Showing Distribution of Cracks as per causes29 Showing distribution as per area of cracks over the foot30 Showing distribution of cracks based on Swaroopa31 Showing distribution of patients based on Symptoms32 Showing percentage of relief found in daily follow up of clinical observations in Group I (During and After treatment)33 Showing relief found from Vedana34 Showing relief found from Rookshata35 Showing relief found from Shotha36 Showing relief found from Daha37 Showing relief from Raktasrava-38 Relief found from Kandu39 Showing percentage of relief found in daily follow up of clinical observations in Group II (during and after treatment).40 Showing relief found from Vedana41 Showing relief found from Rookshata42 Showing relief found from Shotha43 Showing relief found from Daha44 Showing relief from Raktasrava45 Showing relief found from Kandu46 Showing number of patients Cured in Group I and Group II47 Statistical Analysis: Tests of Significance for Group I48 Statistical Analysis: Tests of Significance for Group II49 Statistical Analysis: Tests of Significance for group I and Group II ii
  6. 6. LIST OF TABLES, GRAPHS, PHOTOS LIST OF GRAPHSSI. No. GRAPHS1 Age wise distributions2 Gender wise distribution3 Occupation wise distribution4 Education wise distribution5 Distribution as per Social status6 Distribution of cracks as per causes7 Distribution as per area of cracks over the foot8 Distribution of cracks based on Svaroopa9 Distribution of patients based on Symptoms10 Percentage of relief found from padadari I11 Showing relief found from Vedana12 Showing relief found from Rookshata13 Showing relief found from Shotha.14 Showing relief found from Daha.15 Showing relief from Raktasrava16 Relief found from Kandu.17 Showing percentage of relief found in Padadari II18 Showing relief found from Vedana19 Showing relief found from Rookshata20 Showing relief found from Shotha21 Showing relief found from Daha22 Showing relief from Raktasrava23 Showing relief found from Kandu24 Showing number of patients Cured in Group I and Group II25 Statistical Analysis: Tests of Significance for group I26 Statistical Analysis: Tests of Significance for group II27 Statistical Analysis: Tests of Significance for group I and Group II iii
  7. 7. LIST OF TABLES, GRAPHS, PHOTOS LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHSPhoto LIST OF PHOTOGRHAPHSNo.1. Madhuchchishta2. Leaves and Flowers of Shala3. Resin of Shala4. Tapping of Resin5. Resins of Shala6. Preparation of Shalaniryasa lepa7. Preparation of Madhuchchishta lepa8. Estimation of water soluble and alcohol soluble extractive9. Estimation of Ash value10. Prepared lepa11. Photos of Padadari before treatment12. Photos during treatment13. Photos of Padadari after treatment iv
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION Chapter I INTRODUCTION Ayurveda is the science of life, which always emphasize on maintenance ofhealthy body, in fact its first aim itself isxuÉxjÉxrÉ xuÉÉxjrÉ U¤ÉhÉÇ | To fulfill its aim, the science has explained many protective measures incertain regimens such as Dinacharya and Rutucharya. In Dinacharya care forevery part is explained including eyes, ears, nose, oral cavity, head, skin etc.For skin Abhyanga i.e. oil massage is explained, to follow daily, in whichspecial attention is given for Netra (eyes), Shiras (head), Karna (ear) and Pada(foot). In certain Rutucharya, Abhyanga is specially indicated such as duringShitarutu i.e. Hemanta and Shishira (winter). In these seasons there is increaseddryness due to excess dry air and loss of Snigdhata because of which peoplesuffer from skin crack especially of Pada. . The foot is covered by thick skin, which has dense sensory receptors.The Marmas (vital points) such as Kurchshirsha and Talahrudaya dwell in Padaand it is having lot of cosmetic value. Habitual use of Padabhyanga leads toeven Drushtiprasada (good for eyes) and sustain the health of foot, whichclearly signifies Pada is important. Further all the acharyas in Dinacharyaadvise to wear Padatrana while going out. But in this hurried life people areunable to spare time to the protection, nourishment of even the vital parts suchas head and eyes and thus least to the Pada. This negligence leads to the diseasePadadari. Common causes for crack foot include age, fashionable high healed andimproper fitting shoes, excessive walking, involving in athletics, psoriasis,thyroid disease, diabetes, skin allergies and house hold heat specially inkitchen. Dust also plays a role, which reduces humidity and dries out the skin. Pada is – Foot: Dari is – crack. The disease is characterized by mild tosevere forms of cracks, which are seen in the foot, more common on the heel.Sushruta has explained it under Kshudraroga. In the modern science, it is not 1
  9. 9. INTRODUCTIONconsidered as a disease entity but one of the symptoms. Still we have got thedistinct branch dealing with signs and symptoms along with treatment called asPodiatry. Cracked feet are a sure shot indication of neglect of feet care. For mostpeople this is a nuisance and a cosmetic problem but when the fissures orcracks are deep, they are painful to stand on and the skin can bleed; in severecases this can become infected. If negligence of feet care can conduce to drycracked feet, then giving proper feet care can reverse the situation. Just like theskin on the other parts of our body, our feet also need to be pampered. The disease involves the VruddhaVata dosha leading to dryness, cracks,and fissures. The symptoms may include Vedana, Kandu, Daha, RaktaSrava.So the line of treatment is controlling Vata, overwhelming dryness and healingthe cracks, which is possible by cleaning, drying, and applying Snehadravya(lubricants) to the affected area. Modern science also tells to treat the drycracked feet with proper moisturizers.In Sushruta samhita the line of treatment for Padadari is-mÉÉSSÉrÉÉïÇ ÍxÉUÉÇ ÌuÉ®É xuÉåSÉprÉXaÉÉæ mÉërÉÉåeÉrÉåiÉç |qÉkÉÔÎcNû¸uÉxÉÉqÉeeÉxÉeÉïcÉÔhÉïbÉ×iÉæÈ M×üiÉÈ |rÉuÉÉÀûaÉæËUMüÉåÎlqÉSÉæ mÉÉSsÉåmÉÈ mÉëvÉxrÉiÉå || (xÉÑ.ÍcÉ.20/19-20)i.e. Siravyadha followed by Svedana, Abhyanga and application of Padalepaprepared out of Madhucchishtha, Vasa, Majja, Sarjarasa with Ghrita. In this way the dravyas – Madhucchishtha and Shalaniryasa are selectedfor the study. These are the best bases for many of classical lepas. When thesesubstances are applied to the skin, they spread easily and leave a hydrophobicfilm; they also have emollient properties, that is to say, softening, lubricatingand nourishing properties so as to maintain the suppleness of the skin and toprotect the skin from atmospheric aggressions. Madhuchchishta is Mrudu,Snigdha, Pichchila, Madhura, best Vrana shodhaka – ropaka, Bhutaghna andmentioned to cure Vrana, Kushtha, Visarpa, Kandu, Bhagna, Bhuta badha and 2
  10. 10. INTRODUCTIONSphutita twacha. Its main function is to arrest discharges, promote healing ofwounds and tissue regeneration (Vranaropana), and alleviate pain so is used insimple to fissured bleeding cracks. Shalaniryasa (Oleo gum resin of Shorea robusta Gaertn.f.) is stated tobe Madhura, Tikta, Kashaya, Guru, Shita, Snigdha, Tridoshahara, Bhagnasandhanakara, Vrana shodhana ropaka and mentioned to cure Vrana, Kandu,and heals Vipadika. Thus in the present study the efficacy of healing property ofMadhuchchishtha and Shalaniryasa with respect to the disease Padadari isevaluated and compared clinically. 3
  11. 11. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES CHAPTER - II AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY To review both Ayurveda and modern literature of Madhuchchishta and Shalaniryasa from various references. To review literature of Padadari from all ancient Samhita’s and also from recent journals, magazines relating to studies. Collection and identification of genuine Madhuchchishta and Shalaniryasa. To collect the drugs from its natural habitat, identify and authenticate the drugs, and store it for further study. Preparation of Madhuchchishta and Shalaniryasa lepa separately. Pharmacognostic and Preliminary phytochemical study of selected drugs. To evaluate the safety of both the trial drugs under study. Conduct the single blind clinical study on patients suffering from Padadari and to evaluate the efficacy of healing properties of Madhuchchishta and Shalaniryasa and compare the efficacy. 4
  12. 12. DRUG REVIEW- MADHUCHCHISHTHA CHAPTER III REVIEW OF LITERATURE 3.1 MADHUCHCHISHTASince long the drug Madhucchishtha is often used as ground substance ofointments and is true even today as present available moisturizers docontain the drug. Females used to apply Sindoor with the help ofMadhucchishtha.HISTORY:Vedic period: The drug is failed to be traced in any of the Vedas.Samhita: Charakakara, Sushruta and Vagbhata have explained the drug forexternal application as well as base in many preparations and mentioned it inthe treatment of Vatarakta, Vrana, Kushtha, Vipadika. Charaka used itinternally in Bhasmaka chikitsa. Especially Sushruta mentions it for Padadari.Nighantu period: Most of the nighantus have explained the drug under different Varga.Almost all of the Nighantukaras starting from ancient period to till date havementioned elaborately regarding its Guna-Karma and Prayoga. It is the bestVranashodhaka, Vranaropaka, Bhagnasandhanakara, Tvacha sandhanakara andKushtha hara.GANA – VARGA In Vedas and Ayurvedic treatises, drugs have been grouped into eitherVargas or Ganas. Etymologically the Varga means a group of limited numberof Dravyas having similar pharmacological actions. Gana is a large number ofDravyas having similar pharmacological actions. The other word, which isfrequently used in this connection, is the Skandha, which includes a largernumber of Dravyas. The aim of this type of classification is to identify theKarma or use of dravya or use of dravyas in different disease conditions. 5
  13. 13. DRUG REVIEW- MADHUCHCHISHTHA Table No. 1: Showing Gana-Vargas of Madhucchishtha. aÉhÉ – uÉaÉï kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.S qÉ.ÌlÉ Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ vÉÉ.ÌlÉ cÉÇSlÉÉÌS uÉaÉï + AÉåwÉÍkÉ uÉaÉï + ÌuÉÌuÉkÉÉæwÉÎSuÉaÉï + + + C¤ÉÑMüÉÌS uÉaÉï + PARYAYA NAMA Names and synonyms are the important tools of identification and analysis of Karma. Table No. 2: Showing synonyms of MadhuchchishthamÉrÉÉïrÉ lÉÉqÉ cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì qÉ.ÌlÉ Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ vÉÉ.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ.AÉqÉkÉÑÎcNû¹ + + + + + + + + + + +qÉkÉÔMü + +ÍxÉYjÉ + + + + + + + +qÉkÉÔijÉÏiÉ +qÉkÉÔvÉåwÉ + + + +qÉSlÉMü +qÉkÉlÉeÉ +qÉÉͤÉMüÉvÉrÉ + + 6
  14. 14. DRUG REVIEW- MADHUCHCHISHTHAqÉkÉÔeÉ + +ÌuÉvÉeÉ +qÉkÉÔÍvÉiÉ + + +qɲÉkÉÉU + + +qÉÉrÉlÉ + +qÉɤÏMüeÉÇ +qÉrÉlÉ +qÉSlÉMü +qÉkÉÔeÉ +qÉkÉÔÍsÉiÉ + ÌlÉÂÌ£ü- qÉkÉÔMü -– qɽiÉå qÉlrÉiÉå uÉåÌiÉ | It is praised or thought by physicians more frequently. ÍxÉYjÉ- – ÍxÉgcÉÌiÉ ÍxÉcrÉiÉå | AqÉUMüÉåwÉ That which is secreted by honeybees is Siktha. qÉkÉÔijÉÏiÉ -– qÉkÉÑlÉÈ EÎijÉiÉqÉç | This is produced during the formation of Madhu. qÉkÉÑvÉåwÉ – qÉkÉÑlÉÈ zÉåwÉÉå rÉ§É | It is remainder after Madhu is extracted from honey comb. qÉSlÉMü qÉSrÉiÉÏÌiÉ qÉSè + ÍhÉcÉç+ srÉÑÈ xuÉÉjÉåï MüÈ It produces Mada so is called Madanaka. qÉÉͤÉMüÉ´ÉrÉÇ qÉÉͤÉMüÉlÉÉqÉÉ´ÉrÉÈ | AípÉkÉÉlÉÉiÉç YsÉÏuÉiuÉqÉç | 7
  15. 15. DRUG REVIEW- MADHUCHCHISHTHAIt is shelter (Ashraya) for Makshikha (honey bees)qÉkÉÔÎcNû¸- qÉkÉÑlÉÈ EîcNûwOûqÉuÉÍzɹqÉç |This is produced during the formation of Madhu.qÉɤÏMüeÉÇ qÉɤÏMüÉiÉç eÉÉiÉqÉç |This is produced from Makshika (honeybee).GUNA-KARMA (Pharmacological Properties) Usually the Guna-Karmas of Madhuchchishta are mentioned in theNighantus in the same chapter whre in Guna-Karmas of Madhu are mentioned.Table No. 3: Showing Gunas of Madhuchchishtha aÉÑhÉ kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉ.ÌlÉ Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ vÉÉ. ÌlÉ qÉkÉÑU + + UxÉ MüOÒû + ÎxlÉakÉ + + + + aÉçÑhÉ ÌmÉÎcNûsÉ + + qÉç×SÒ + + + + SÉåwÉblÉiÉÉ uÉÉiÉWûU + + +Its use in the treatment of Bhasmaka roga and its references mentioned as itsqualities as similar to Madhu infer its Vipaka as Katu and Virya as Shita. Itsother qualities such as Snigdha, Pichchila, Mrudu are totally opposite to Vatathus making it as Vatahara.MüqÉï (DRUG ACTIONS)rÉiÉç MÑüuÉïÎliÉ iÉiÉç MüqÉï | (cÉ.xÉÔ.26) The effect of Dravya seen on the body is called as Karma. The Karma isindependent of its own to bring out the action of the Dravya. 8
  16. 16. DRUG REVIEW- MADHUCHCHISHTHA Pharmacological action of a drug is defined as the action which is aimedto obtain a specific therapeutic effect.Table No. 4 Showing Karma of Madhuchchishtha MüqÉï kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉ.ÌlÉ Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ vÉÉ. ÌlÉ pÉÔiÉoÉÉkÉÉlÉÉvÉMü + + + + pÉblÉxÉlkÉÉlÉMüU + + + + ÌuÉxÉmÉïWûU + + + + MühQÕû WûU + pÉåSlÉ + MÑü¹WûU + + + + uÉëhÉ vÉÉåkÉlÉ + uÉëhÉUÉåmÉhÉz + + + + U£üÌuÉMüÉU + + uÉÉiÉU£üWûU + + + iuÉcÉÉ xÉÇÍkÉMüUÈ + uÉëhÉ vÉÉåkÉlÉ +qÉɧÉÉ (Posology) As the internal usage of Madhuchchishta is seen only in the treatment ofBhasmaka roga in Charaka Chikitsa sthana 15th Grahanidishachikitsa adhyaya,it is very Guru or heavy for digestion. So its internal dose should be adjustedaccording to Agni. It is used predominantly for external purpose in as requiredquantity. 9
  17. 17. DRUG REVIEW- MADHUCHCHISHTHAmÉërÉÉåaÉ (Therapeutic applications) The various disorders in which Madhuchishtha is used mainly are Vipadika,Kushtha, Padadari, Vrana etc. and also in following mentioned conditions itsPrayoga is seen. Table No. 5: Showing Prayoga of Madhucchishtha. mÉërÉÉåaÉ cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì. qÉ.ÌlÉ Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ vÉÉ.ÌlÉ pÉalÉ + + + + pÉÔiÉ + + + + ÌuÉxÉmÉï + + + + + MühQÒû + MÑü¸ + + + + + + uÉëhÉ + + + + + + + + + uÉÉiÉU£ü + + + + ÌuÉmÉÉÌSMüÉ + + + ÌWûMMüÉ-µÉÉxÉ + + uÉÉiÉurÉÉÍkÉ + + pÉxqÉMü UÉåaÉ + mÉÉSSÉËU + pÉaÉlkÉU + + AÎalÉSakÉ + 10
  18. 18. DRUG REVIEW- MADHUCHCHISHTHAVishishta Yoga: (Formulations)Table No. 6: Showing Vishishtha Yogas of Madhuchchishtha.SI VISHISHTHAYOGA INDICATIONS REFERANCESNo.1. MüÉxÉÏxÉÉkrÉ bÉÚiÉ MÑü¸, SSìÓ, mÉÉqÉÉ, ÌuÉcÉÍcÉïMüÉ, ÌuÉxÉmÉï, vÉÉ.xÉÇ.qÉ.ZÉÇ.9/51- 57 ÌuÉxÄTüÉåOû, lÉÉQûÏuÉÚhÉ, SÒ¹uÉëhÉ2. eÉÉirÉÉÌS bÉ×iÉ xÉÔ¤qÉuÉÚhÉ, lÉÉQûÏuÉÚhÉ, vÉÉ.xÉÇ.qÉ.ZÉÇ..9/48- 493 ÌmÉhQû iÉæsÉ uÉÉiÉU£ü vÉÉ.xÉÇ.qÉ.ZÉÇ.9/146 cÉ. ÍcÉ.29/1234. eÉÉirÉÉÌS iÉæsÉ xÉÔ¤qÉuÉÚhÉ, lÉÉQûÏuÉÚhÉ, vÉÉ.xÉÇ.qÉ.ZÉÇ. 9/1715 ÌuÉmÉÉÌSMüÉWûU iÉæsÉ ÌuÉmÉÉÌSMüÉ cÉ.ÍcÉ.7/111)6 ÌuÉmÉÉÌSMüÉWûU bÉ×iÉ ÌuÉmÉÉÌSMüÉ cÉ.ÍcÉ.7/120-1217 xÉeÉïUxÉÉÌS sÉåmÉÈ mÉÉSxTÑüOûlÉ cÉ¢üS¨ÉAÉqÉÌrÉMü mÉërÉÉåaÉ (Therapeutic Uses)cÉUMü xÉÇÌWûiÉÉ: 1. ÌWûMüMüÉ,µÉÉxÉ :Madhucchishtha , Sarjarasa, Goshrunga are burnt and Dhooma is inhaled. (Cha.Chi.17/79) 2. uÉÉiÉU£ü : Taila prepared out of Madhucchishtha, Manjistha, Sarjarasa, Sariva is used for Abhyanga to reduce the pain (Pinda taila). (Cha.Chi.29/123) 3. ÌuÉmÉÉÌSMüÉ: Ghrita should be prepared out of Kwatha of Jivanti, Manjishtha, Daruharidra, Kampillaka, added with Tuttha kalka lastly 11
  19. 19. DRUG REVIEW- MADHUCHCHISHTHA add Sarjarasa and Madhucchishtha and applied in Vipadika, Charmakushtha, Kushtha etc. (Cha. Chi. 7/120-121) 4. pÉxqÉMü UÉåaÉ: Madhuchchishta and Ghruta should be mixed together and taken along with cold water. (Cha. Chi. 15/228)xÉÑ´ÉÑiÉ xÉÇÌWûiÉÉ 5. AÎalÉSakÉ : Ghrita prepared out of Madhuchishtha, Sarjarasa, Rodhra, Madhuka, Chandana, Manjishtha, Murva is applied in Agnidagdha. (Su.Su.12/27) 6. mÉÉSSÉËU: Ghrita prepared of Madhucchishtha, Vasa, Majja and Sarjarasa is applied.(Su.Chi. 20/19-20) 7. pÉaÉlSU: Taila prepared of pippali, Madhuka, lodhra, Kushtha, ela, Manjishtha, Sariva, Dhataki, Haridra, Daruharidra, Sarjarasa, Vacha, Madhucchishtha, vacha is applied in Gandamaala, Mandala, Prameha and Bhagandara.A¹ÉÇaÉ WØûSrÉ 8. ÌuÉmÉÉÌSMüÉ: Ghrita and taila should be prepared out of Manjishtha, Jeevanti, Darvi, Kampillaka, Dugdha and Tuttha then add the Sarjarasa and Madhucchishtha. and applied to Vipadika, ekanga kushtha.(A.Hr.Chi.19/77-78) 9. µÉÉxÉ LuÉÇ ÌWûMçüMüÉ: Madhucchishtha, Sarjarasa and Ghrita Dhumapana is performed. (A.Hru.Chi.4/12) 10. pÉaÉlSU, AmÉcÉÏ, MÑü¸ : Taila prepared of Madhuka, Lodhra, pippali, Ela, Renuka, Haridra, daruharidra, Priyangu, sarjarasa, Madhucchishtha, Sariva, Padmaka, dhataki, dhava and applied on Apachi, Kushtha, bhagandara, madhumeha and Vrana. (A.Hr.Chi29/33-36) 12
  20. 20. DRUG REVIEW- MADHUCHCHISHTHAIMPORTANT RFERENCES-cÉUMü xÉÇÌWûiÉÉxÉwÉïmÉMüUÇeÉMüÉåwÉiÉMüÐlÉÉÇ iÉæsÉÉlrÉjÉåÇaÉÑSÏlÉÉÇ cÉ |MÑü¸åwÉÑ ÌWûiÉÉlrÉÉWÒûxiÉæsÉÇ rÉŠÉÌmÉ ZÉÌSUxÉÉUxrÉ || 119eÉÏuÉliÉÏ qÉÇÎeÉ¸É SuÉÏï MüÎqmÉssÉMüÈ mÉrÉxiÉÑijÉÉqÉÇ |LwÉ bÉ×iÉiÉæsÉmÉÉMüÈ ÍxÉ®È ÍxÉ®å cÉ xÉeÉïUxÉÈ || 120SårÉÈ qÉkÉÑÎcNû¹Éå ÌuÉmÉÉÌSMüÉ iÉålÉ zÉÉqrÉiÉå AprÉ£üÉ ||cÉqÉïMÑü¸ÌMüÌOûqÉÇ MÑü¸Ç zÉÉqrÉirÉsÉxÉMÇü cÉ || 121 CÌiÉ ÌuÉmÉÉÌSMüWûUbÉ×iÉiÉæsÉå (cÉ. ÍcÉ. 7 MÑü¸ ÍcÉÌMüixÉÉ AkrÉrÉ)xÉqÉkÉÑÎcNû¸ qÉÉÇÎeÉ¸Ç xÉxÉeÉïUxÉxÉÉËUuÉqÉç |ÌmÉhQûiÉæsÉÇ iÉSprÉÇaÉɲÉiÉU£üÂeÉÉmÉWûqÉç || 123 CÌiÉ ÌmÉhQûiÉæsÉÇ (cÉ. ÍcÉ. 29 uÉÉiÉU£ü ÍcÉÌMüixÉÉAkrÉrÉ)qÉkÉÑÎcNû¸Ç xÉeÉïUxÉÇ bÉ×iÉÇ qÉssÉMüxÉÇmÉÑOåû |M×üiuÉÉ kÉÔqÉÇ ÌmÉoÉåiNØÇûaÉÇ oÉÉsÉÇ uÉÉ aÉuÉÉÇ || 79 cÉ.ÍcÉ. 17 (ÌWûMüMüÉ µÉÉxÉ ÍcÉÌMüixÉÉ AkrÉrÉ)xÉÑ´ÉÑiÉ xÉÇÌWûiÉÉqÉkÉÑÎcNû¸Ç xÉqÉkÉÑMÇü UÉåkÉëÇ xÉeÉïUxÉÇ iÉjÉÉ || 27qÉÇÎeÉ¸É cÉlSlÉÇ qÉÔuÉÉïÇ ÌmÉwOèuÉÉ xÉÌmÉïÌuÉmÉÉcÉrÉåiÉç |xÉuÉåïwÉÉqÉÎalÉSakÉlÉÉqÉåiÉSìÉåmÉhÉqÉѨÉqÉÇ || 28 (xÉÑ.xÉÔ. 12 AÎalÉMüqÉï ÌuÉÍkÉ AkrÉrÉ)kÉluÉliÉUÏ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: ÍxÉYjÉMÇü qÉkÉÔMÇü ÍxÉYjÉÇ qÉkÉÔÎcNû¹Ç qÉkÉÔijÉÏiÉqÉç | qÉkÉÔvÉåwÉÇ qÉSlÉMÇü qÉkÉÔeÉÇ qÉÉͤÉMüÉ´ÉrÉqÉç || ÍxÉYjÉMÇü ÎxlÉakÉqÉkÉÑUÇ pÉÔiÉblÉÇ pÉalÉxÉÎlkÉ¢ÑüiÉç | 13
  21. 21. DRUG REVIEW- MADHUCHCHISHTHA WûÎliÉ ÌuÉxÉmÉïMühQèuÉÉSÏlÉç uÉëhÉUÉåmÉhÉqÉѨÉqÉqÉç || pÉåSlÉÇ ÌmÉÎcNûsÉÇ xuÉÉSÒ MÑü êOûuÉÉiÉÉxÉëçÎeÉlqÉëÑSÒ | ( kÉ.ÌlÉ.109,110)qÉSlÉmÉÉsÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: qÉSlÉÇ qÉkÉÔeÉÇ ÍxÉYjÉÇ qÉkÉÔÎcNû¹Ç qÉkÉÔÍsÉiÉqÉç | qÉSlÉÇ qÉ×SÒxÉÑÎxlÉakÉÇ pÉÔiÉblÉÇ uÉëhÉUÉåmÉhÉqÉç || pÉblÉxÉlkÉÉlÉMײÉiÉMÑü¹ÌuÉxÉmÉïU£üÎeÉiÉç | (qÉ.ÌlÉ.34)MæürrÉSuÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: qÉkÉÑeÉÇ ÌuÉwÉeÉÇ ÍxÉYjÉÇ qÉkÉÔÎcNû¹Ç qÉkÉÔÌwÉiÉqÉç | qÉkÉÑvÉåwÉÇ qÉSlÉMÇü qÉkÉÑMÇü qÉͤÉMüÉ´ÉrÉÇ || uÉÉiÉU£üWûUÇ ÍxÉYjÉÇ uÉëhÉzÉÉåkÉlÉUÉåmÉhÉqÉç | ( Mæü. ÌlÉ. 217,218)pÉÉuÉmÉëMüvÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû : qÉSlÉÇqÉëÑSÒxÉÑÎxlÉakÉÇpÉÔiÉblÉÇuÉëhÉUÉåmÉhÉqÉç | pÉalÉxÉlkÉÉlÉM×ü²ÉiÉMÑü¸ÌuÉxÉmÉïU£üÎeÉiÉç || (pÉÉ. ÌlÉ. qÉkÉÑuÉaÉï)vÉ|ÍsÉaÉëÉqÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû : qÉrÉlÉÇiÉÑqÉkÉÔÎcNû¹ÇqÉkÉÔvÉåwÉÇcÉÍxÉYjÉMüqÉç | qÉkuÉÉkÉÉUÉåqÉSlÉMüqÉkÉÔÌwÉiÉqÉÌmÉxqÉ×iÉqÉç || ÍxÉYjÉMüÎqmÉÎcNûsÉÇxuÉÉSÒMüiÉÑÎxlÉakÉÇqÉ×SÒxqÉ×iÉqÉç | AÎxjÉxÉÇÍkÉMüUÇuÉëhrÉÇuÉÉiÉMÑü¸ÌuÉxÉmÉïlÉÑiÉç | U£üSÉåwÉÇuÉÉiÉU£üÇpÉÔiÉSÉåwÉÇcÉ lÉÉzÉrÉåiÉç | xTÑüÌOûiÉxrÉÉXaÉsÉåmÉålÉiuÉcÉÈxÉÇÍkÉMüUÇqÉiÉqÉç|| (zvÉÉÍsÉaÉëÉqÉ ÌlÉbÉÇOÒû – qÉkÉÑuÉaÉï ) 14
  22. 22. DRUG REVIEW- MADHUCHCHISHTHA MODERN DRUG REVIEW YELLOW BEES WAX: Cera flavaVERNACULAR NAMES: Bengal-Mom. Hindi- Mom Gujarati- Min. Kannada- Mena. Malayalam- Mezhugu. Tamil- Mezhugu. Marathi- Mema. Telugu- Mynamu.BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: A yellow bee is purified wax and obtained from the honeycomb of thebees Apis mellifera and other species of Apis belonging to family Apidae.HISTORICAL USE: Beeswax was ancient mans first plastic, and for thousands of years hasbeen used as a modeling material, to create sculpture and jewelry molds for usein the lost-wax casting process, or Cire perdue. The use of wax is seen since ancient days for casting of metals, itscoating model with plaster, in preparation of moulds and filling it with moltenmetal that is still used today by jewellers, goldsmiths and sculptors, in dentistryand even in the industrial manufacture of complex components by investmentcasting of metals. In the Roman period, beeswax was used as waterproofingagent for painted walls and as a medium for the Fayum mummy portraits. In the Middle Ages beeswax was considered valuable enough to becomea form of currency. It was also used in bow making. More recently it found useas a component of sealing wax, and in cosmetics. Beeswax has been used forhundreds of years as a sealant or lubricant for bullets in cap and ball andfirearms that use black powder. It is often mixed with other ingredients such as 15
  23. 23. DRUG REVIEW- MADHUCHCHISHTHAolive oil (sweet oil) and sometimes paraffin. It can be used as an ingredient inthe bullet lube used primarily in Black Powder cartridge firing weapons.The wax can be dissolved in turpentine and then used as a furniture finish,sometimes blended with linseed or tung oil.GEOLOGICAL SOURCE: It is processed and commercially prepared in France, Italy, West Africa,Jamaica, and India.PROCESSING AND PREPARATION OF WAX The combs and capping of Honeycomb are broken and boiled in softwater. These are then enclosed in a porous bag weighted to keep under water.The boiling causes oozing of the waste, which gets collected outside the bagand forms a cake after cooling. The debris on outer surface is removed byscraping. Bee’s wax is purified by heating in boiling water, sulphuric acid andsettling. The process is repeated several times and finally wax is skimmed off.Various techniques are adopted to bleach wax, such as treatment with hydrogenperoxide, cromic acid, ozone etc. Sometimes, treatment with charcoal, chlorineor potassium permanganate is also given to bleach the wax. Natural bleachingby exposing the wax to the sunlight in thin layer is also preferred.DESCRIPTION: Colour- Yellow to yellowish brown Odour -Agreeable and honey like. Taste- Faint balsamicPHYSICAL PROPERTIES: Yellow bees wax is noncrystalline solid. It is soft to touch and crumblesunder the pressure of fingers to plastic mass. Under molten condition, it can begiven any desired shape. It breaks with a granular fracture. 16
  24. 24. DRUG REVIEW- MADHUCHCHISHTHASolubility: It is insoluble in water, soluble in hot alcohol, ether, chloroform, carbontetrachloride, fixed and volatile oils.Standards:Melting point 62- 65 degree CelsiusSpecific gravity 0.958 - 0.967Acid value 5-10Sap. Value 90-103Ester value 80-95CHEMICAL COMPOSITION:The principal constituents are - (1) Hydrocarbons (probably C 27H56 and C34H64)about 12 per cent. (2) Cerin or Cerotic Acid, C27H54O2. (3) Myricin or MyricalPalmitate, C30H61,C16H31O2, the principal constituent. (4) An Alcohol, C 26H52O,in small quantities. (5) Cerylic Alcohol, C 27H56O. It consists of esters of straight chain monohydric alcohols with straightchain acids. The chief constituent of the bees wax is myricin i.e. myricilpalmitate (about 80%). Free cerotic acid (about 15%), small quantities ofmelissic acid and aromatic substance cerolein are the other constituents. Indianbees wax is characterized by its low acid value, while European bees wax hasthe acid value of 17 to 22.USES: Bee’s wax is used in preparation of ointments, plasters and polishes. It isused in ointments for hardening purpose and the manufacture of candles,moulds, and in dental and electronic industries. It is also used in cosmetics forpreparation of lipsticks and face creams. Bee’s wax has little effect uponhuman system, but was earlier prescribed in diarrhea and dysentery. Bee’s waxand vegetable oil mixture is used as vehicle for the administration of repositoryforma of certain medicaments such as penicillin and curare, where in it delays 17
  25. 25. DRUG REVIEW- MADHUCHCHISHTHAand there by prolongs the action of the drug. It is used in the formulation ofointments, plasters, suppositories, surgical dressings etc, in which it actsmechanically, either imparting stiffness or giving protection from water.ACTION: To arrest discharges, promote healing of wounds and tissueregeneration, and alleviate pain.INDICATIONS: Ulcer difficulty to heal, wounds, burns and scalds.USAGES: For external use, appropriate quantity to be melted and appliedtopically; often used as excipient and ground substance of ointments.ADULTERANTS: Very frequently bees wax is adulterated with colophony, hard paraffin,stearic acid, japan wax, spermaceti carnauba wax and several other substances.Adulteration can be detected on the basis of solubility and melting point. The genuine wax should not give turbidity when 0.5g of wax is boiledwith 20 ml of aqueous caustic soda for 10 minutes and cooled.WHITE BEES WAX: It is obtained by bleaching yellow bees wax and itshould not be used for ophthalmic purposes. 18
  27. 27. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASA REVIEW OF LITERATURE 3.2 SHALANIRYASAHISTORYReligious significance: In Hindu tradition the Sal tree is said to be favoured by Vishnu. Itsname "Shala", "Shaal" or "Sal", comes from Sanskrit; the Sal tree is oftenconfused with the Ashoka tree (Saraca indica) in the ancient literature ofthe Indian Subcontinent.Queen Māyā giving birth to the Buddha: In Buddhist tradition, it is said that Queen Maya of Sakya gavebirth to Gautama Buddha under a sal tree or an Asoka tree in a garden inLumbini, while grasping its branch. There is a standard decorative element of Hindu Indian sculpture,which originated in a Yakshi grasping the branch of a flowering treewhile setting her foot against its roots. This decorative sculptural elementwas integrated into Indian temple architecture as salabhanjika or "Sal treemaiden", although it is not clear either whether it is a sal tree or an Asokatree.VEDIC PERIOD- The root word and vedaSalagram kosha by SK Ramachandra Rao(typed up by Kirtida Sundari - thanx) Chapter Four Details ofShaalagraama page 107 – 136- The Shalagram-stones that are worshippedare only those, which are picked up from the Himalayan stream Gandaki.The expression Shaalagraama, which is of the Puranic celebrity, refers toa particular site in the course of this stream, where the sacred stones werefound in profusion. The site was once a village, which was distinguishedby the Shaala-trees, or by the one grand specimen of the species (as thestory told hereafter suggests); hence the name Shaala-graama. The name 20
  28. 28. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASAof the village is spelt variously as Shaala-graama (with the initialphoneme being palatal, talavyaadi), Shaali-graama, Saala-graama (withthe initial phenome being dental, dantvyaadi) and Shali-graama. Ofthese forms Saala-graama is the correct one, because Shala is the properSanskrit word for the Himalayan tree now known as Shorea robusta(commonly, however, called, Saala, Saakhu and Sukhuaa). The wordSaala is derived from the root shala gatau (meaning "to move") (anikritishaalas siddhyati), and signifies any tree (which is moved by windshalati vayunaa chalatiiti), but refers principally to the tree mentionedabove (cf. the lexicon Visva, which says shaalo haale nripa matsya-prabhede sarja-paadape). The description of shala is traceable from Koushika Sutra andpatanjala mahabhashya wherein it is quoted that the crystal of its resinshould b worn by the baby during the naming ceremony.SAMHITA PERIOD Charaka samhitakara is the first person to mention the drug and hasexplained Shala under Kashaya skanda, Vedanasthapana,Asavayonivruksha varga. He has mentioned it for many diseases such asKushtha, Vipadika, Visarpa, Hikka, Shvasa roga, Gudadaha, Vatarakta.Sushruta has explained the drug under Salasaradi gana and Rodhradigana. He has referred the drug as Kushthahara, stambhaka, Visarpahara,Vranaropaka, Bhutanashaka, Rakshoghna. Vagbhata mentioned it indravyas for Mrudu Dhuma and in treatment of Hikka and Shwasa in theform of Dhumapana etc. Ashtanga sangrahakara has explained it underAsanadi gana, Rodhradi gana, Vedanasthapana gana.NIGHANTU PERIOD Almost all the authors of Nighantus, from the oldest Dhanvantarinighantu till Nighantu adarsha have explained the drug in detail. All ofthem have explained its Guna, Rasa, Virya, Vipaka, and Karma alongwith Prayoga. Most of them have mentioned that it is having Tikta 21
  29. 29. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASA Madhura rasa, Snigdha, Grahi, Shita Guna and is Tridoshahara, best Vranaropaka, Vipadikahara, Kushthahara. UNANI CHIKITSA The use of Shala Niryasa in Unani system of Medicine is mentioned by Vanoushadi Chandrodaya, its indications there being in Vrana, Jalodara, Charmaroga, prurities etc. GANA – VARGA Table No. 7: Showing Gana-Varga of Shala niryasaaÉhÉ – uÉaÉï cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì. qÉ.ÌlÉ Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ vÉÉ.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ.AÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlÉAÉåwÉÍkÉ uÉaÉï +AÉxÉuÉrÉÉåÌlÉuÉ×¤É +ÄvÉÉsÉÉÌSuÉaÉï +AxÉlÉÉÌS aÉhÉ +cÉÇSlÉÉÌS uÉaÉï + +ÌuÉÌuÉSÉæzÉçÍkÉ uÉaÉï +LsÉÉÌS +MüwÉÉrÉxMülkÉ +UÉåkÉëÉÌS +uÉåSlÉÉxjÉmÉlÉ +WûËUiÉYrÉÌS uÉaÉï +zMümÉÔïUÉÌSuÉaÉï + + +zxÉÉsÉxÉ|UÉÌS + 22
  30. 30. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASA PARYAYA NAMA: The usable part Shala Niryasa or Rala is also known by many other names in Samhitas as well as Nighantus. They are mentioned in following table. Table No.8: Showing synonyms of Shalaniryasa.mÉrÉÉïrÉ lÉÉqÉ cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉÌlÉ qÉ.ÌlÉ Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ vÉ|.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ.AÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlÉUÉsÉ + + + + + + +xÉeÉïUxÉ + + + + + + + + +SåuÉkÉÔmÉ + + + +rɤÉkÉÔmÉ + + + + + + +xÉuÉïïUxÉ +UÉsÉ +xÉeÉï + +ÌuÉÃmÉ +uÉÌ»ûuÉssÉpÉ +AaÉçÌlÉuÉssÉpÉ + + +MülÉMüsÉÉåokÉuÉ + + sÉsÉlÉ + + ¤ÉhÉ + +oÉWÒûÃmÉ + +kÉÔmÉlÉ + sÉÍsÉiÉ + UuÉ +xÉMüsÉsɤÉhÉ +SåuÉå¸É + 23
  31. 31. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASAvÉÏiÉsÉÉ +vÉÉsÉUxÉ +xÉeÉïÌlÉrÉÉïxÉMü +xÉÑUÍpÉ +xÉÑUkÉÔmÉ +MüÉsÉ +xÉxrÉxÉÇuÉU +sÉɤÉÉ + ÌlÉÂÌ£ü xÉÉsÉÈ- xÉÉUÉå SÉQèrÉïqÉç AìiÉvÉÌrÉiÉqÉxrÉ | The heart wood of the tree is strong so is called as Sala. xÉeÉïUxÉ – xÉÚeÉÌiÉ ÌlÉrÉÉïxÉÉSÏÌlÉÌiÉ | The one, which exudates Niryasa (oleo gum resin) is called as Sarjarasa. SåuÉkÉÔmÉ _ SåuÉmÉëÏrÉÉå kÉÔmÉ CìiÉ | This is used as incense in god’s worship thus called as Devadhupa. rɤ|kÉÔmÉ - rɤ|mÉëÏrÉÉå kÉÔmÉÈ | This is used as incense in Yaksha worship also thus called as Yakshadhupa. vÉÉsÉ –- xÉsrÉiÉå| mÉsÉ aÉiÉÉæ| It spreads robustly over a large area. UÉsÉ- zvÉ|sÉuÉÚ¤| ÌlÉrÉÉïxÉÈèû | The exudate of Shala is called as Rala. xÉeÉï- xÉÚeÉÌiÉ ÌlÉrÉÉïxÉÉSÏÌlÉÌiÉ | The one, which exudates Niryasa (oleo gum resin) is called as Sarja. MüÉwrÉïÈ – M×üwÉ ÌuÉsÉåZÉlÉå | 24
  32. 32. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASAIt depletes the Dhatus so called as Karshya.AµÉMühÉïMüÈ- AµÉxrÉ MühÉïÍqÉuÉmɧÉxrÉ |Leaves resemble shape of Ashva (horse) ears.xÉxrÉxÉçÇuÉUÈ- xÉxrÉæÈ xÉÇuÉÚÌrÉiÉå, xÉxrÉÇ TüsÉ xÉÇuÉÚhÉÉåÌiÉ CìÌiÉ |It is always seen in fruiting so called Sasysasamvara.uÉÌ»uÉssÉpÉ -– uÉ»åûuÉïssÉpÉÈ ÌmÉërÉÈ E®ÏmÉMüiuÉÉiÉç |AÎalÉuÉssÉpÉ -– AalÉåÈ uÉssÉpÉÈ E®ÏmÉMüiuÉÉiÉç ÌmÉërÉÈ |It increases the intensity of Agni (fire).kÉÔmÉlÉ – kÉÔmÉrÉÌiÉ xÉÇkÉÔ¤|rÉÌiÉ uÉÌ»ûÍqÉÌiÉ kÉÔmÉ + srÉÑÈ|It is used as incense and also increases the intensity of fire.sÉÍsÉiÉÉ- sÉsrÉiÉå DmxrÉiÉå CÌiÉ |People are inclined towards it (to use it as incense).SåuÉå¸É- SåuÉÉlÉÉÍqÉ¸É |It is used as incense while worshipping god.vÉÏiÉsÉÉ- vÉÏiÉÇ sÉÉiÉÏÌiÉ |This brings Shitata (coldness) to the body hence cures daha.xÉeÉïÌlÉrÉÉïxÉMüÈ- xÉeÉïïxrÉ ÌlÉrÉÉïxÉÈ |It is exudate of plant Sarja.xÉÑUÍpÉ- xÉÚ¸ UpÉiÉååÅlÉålÉåÌiÉ |It is very fragrant.xÉÑUkÉÔmÉ- xÉÑUÌmÉërÉÉå kÉÔmÉÈ|It is used as incense while worshipping Sura (god).AeÉMühÉï- AeÉxrÉ NûÉaÉxrÉ MühÉïuÉiÉç mɧÉÇ rÉxrÉ xÉÈ|Leaves resemble shape of Aja (Goat) ears. 25
  33. 33. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASA GUNA-KARMA (Pharmacological Properties) Guna-Karma of Shalaniryasa are exclusively mentioned in Nighantus that are tabulated as follows. Table No. 9: Showing Guna of ShalaniryasaaÉÑhÉ kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉ.ÌlÉ Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ vÉÉ.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ.AÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlÉ ÌiÉ£ü + + + +UxÉ MüwÉÉrÉ + + + + + + + qÉkÉÑU + + + + + aÉÑ + + + +aÉÑhÉ ÎxlÉakÉ + + EwhÉ + AlÉÑwhÉuÉÏrÉï vÉÉÏiÉ + + + + uÉÉiÉWûU + + + +SÉåwÉblÉiÉÉ ÌmɨÉWûU + + + + MüTüWûU + + + Authors of different Nighantu and Samhita have not mentioned Vipaka but based on Rasa and Karma we can infer its Vipaka as Katu. MüqÉï (DRUG ACTIONS) Pharmacological properties of Shala Niryasa as mentioned by different authors are mentioned in the following table. 26
  34. 34. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASA Table No. 10: Showing Karma of Shala Niryasa MüqÉï kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì. qÉ.ÌlÉ Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ vÉÉ.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ.AÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlÉ.uÉëhÉWûU + + + + + +xiÉÇqpÉlÉ + + + + +uÉëhÉUÉåmÉhÉ + + + +pÉalÉxÉlkÉÉlÉMüU + + + + +ÌuÉmÉÌSMüÉWûU + + + + + +pÉÔiÉlÉÉvÉMü + +aÉëÉWûÏû + + + +U¤ÉÉMüqÉï +U£üxiÉqpÉMü +ÌMüÍqÉblÉ +xuÉåSWûU + + + + +uÉhrÉï ÌuÉvÉblÉ + +U¤ÉÉåblÉ + + qÉɧÉÉ (Posology) Usually the Shala Niryasa is used externally as direct application with oil or it is used in the form of Dhuma etc. in different diseases. Hence its Matra (dosage) will be as required and P.V. Sharmaji has mentioned its dose as- 1. UÉsÉcÉÔhÉï – 1- 3 gms 2. iuÉMçü YuÉÉjÉ- 50-100 ml 27
  35. 35. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASA mÉërÉÉåaÉ (Therapeutic applications) The various disorders in which the Shala niryasa is used mainly are Kushtha, Vrana, Vipadika etc. and also in following conditions its Prayoga is seen. Table No.11: Showing Prayoga of Shala niryasa.mÉërÉÉåaÉ cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉ.ÌlÉ Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ. UÉ.ÌlÉ. vÉÉ.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ.AÉÌuÉmÉÉÌSMüÉ + + + + + + + +MÑü¹ + + +pÉÔiÉ + + + +uÉëhÉ + + + + + + + +pÉalÉ + + + + + + +ÌuÉxÉmÉï + + + + + +aÉëWûoÉÉkÉÉ + + + +AÎalÉSakÉ + + + + + + +vÉÔsÉEuÉU + + + +xuÉåSWûU + + + + +AsÉΤqÉ +U£üÌuÉMüÉU + + + + +U£üxÉëÉuÉ +EimÉÉOûMü +uÉÉiÉU£ü + +ÌmɨÉeÉ AoÉÑïS +uÉÉiÉeÉ AÉå¹eÉ UéåaÉ + uÉÉiÉUÉåaÉ + 28
  36. 36. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASAMühÉïxÉëÉuÉ +mÉÔiÉlÉÉ +qÉÑZÉqÉÍhÉMüÉ +AvÉï +ÌWûYMüÉ µÉÉxÉ + +xÉmÉï,MüÐOû, sÉÔiÉÉ +mÉËUMüÌiÉïMüÉ +AiÉÏxÉÉU + + +xTüÉåOû + +MühQÕû + + +aÉëWûhÉÏMÚüÍqÉ UÉåaÉ +uÉÉiÉU£ü +mÉëqÉåWû +µÉåiÉ mÉëSUÌuÉwÉ +SSìÓ +mÉÉqÉÉ +ÌuÉcÉÍcÉïMüÉ +pÉaÉlSU + +mÉÉSSÉUÏ + 29
  37. 37. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASAAÉqÉÌrÉMü mÉërÉÉåaÉ (Therapeutic Uses)cÉUMü xÉÇÌWûiÉÉ: 1. ÍxÉkqÉMÑü¸: Edagaja or Sarjarasa or Mulaka beeja are tritured in Kanji is used for Udvartana.(Cha. Ci 7/126). 2. ÌWûMçüMüÉ LuÉÇ µÉÉxÉ: Madhucchishtha , Sarjarasa, Goshrunga are burnt and Dhooma is inhaled. (Ch.Chi.17/79)xÉÑ´ÉÑiÉ xÉÇÌWûiÉÉ 3. mÉëcNûÉ³É MüqÉï mɶÉéiÉç : After Pracchaanna karma to stop the bleeding Sarjarasa, Shala, Arjuna, Irimeda, Dhava are rubbed in water and applied to the Vrana. (Su.Su.14/36) 4. AÎalÉSakÉ: Ghrita prepared out of Madhuchishtha,Sarjarasa, Rodhra, Madhuka, Chandana, Manjishtha, Murva is applied in Agnidagdha. (Su.Su.12/27) 5. EimÉÉOûMü: Apamarga, Sarjarasa, Lakucha, Patalaa Tvaka are rubbed in water and applied. (Su.Su.13/36) 6. mÉÉSSÉËU: Ghrita prepared of Madhucchishtha, Vasa, Majja and Sarjarasa is applied.(Su.Chi. 20/19-20) 7. pÉaÉlSU- taila prepared of pippali, Madhuka, lodhra, Kushtha, ela, Manjishtha, Sariva, Dhataki, Haridra, Daruharidra, Sarjarasa, Vacha, Madhucchishtha, vacha is applied in Gandamaala, Mandala, Prameha and Bhagandara. (Su.Chi.8/43-46)A¹ÉçaÉ WØûSrÉû 8. ÌuÉmÉÉÌSMüÉ: Ghrita and taila should be prepared out of Manjishtha, Jevanti, Darvi, Kampillaka, Dugdha and Tuttha then add the Sarjarasa and Madhucchishtha. and applied to Vipadika and Ekanga kushtha.(A.Hr.Chi.19/77-78) 30
  38. 38. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASA 9. µÉÉxÉ LuÉÇ ÌWûMçüMüÉ: Madhucchishtha, Sarjarasa and Ghrita Dhumapana is performed. (A.Hr.Chi.4/12) 10. pÉaÉlSU, AmÉcÉÏ, MÑü¸: Taila prepared of Madhuka, Lodhra, pippali, Ela, renuka, Haridra, daruharidra, Priyangu, sarjarasa, adhucchishtha, Sariva, Padmaka, dhataki, dhava and applied on Apachi, Kushtha, bhagandara, madhumeha and Vrana. (A.Hr.Chi29/33-36)ÌlÉbÉhOÒû AÉSvÉï: Tila taila, Raala, Madhucchishtha are taken equally and prepare ointment and applied as Upanaha for the disease in external Vidradhi.ÍxÉ®pÉåwÉeÉqÉÍhÉqÉÉsÉÉ: Sarjaparpata is prepared out of Rala churna, Somala churna and used in KaphaVatajvara, Atisara, Bhrama, Chardi.VISHISHTA YOGA (FORMULATIONS)Table No. 12: Showing Vishisgtha yogas of Shala niryasa. SI VISHISHTA INDICATIONS REFERANCES NO. YOGA 1. ÌuÉmÉÉÌSMüÉWûU iÉæsÉ ÌuÉmÉÉÌSMüÉ, AsÉxÉMü,MÑü¹, cÉ.ÍcÉ.7/111 cÉqÉïMÑü¹, LMüMÑü¹, ÌMüÌiÉpÉMÑü¹ 2. MüÉxÉÏxÉÉkrÉ bÉ×iÉ MÑü¸, SSìÓ, mÉÉqÉÉ, ÌuÉcÉÍcÉïMüÉ, vÉÉ.xÉÇ.qÉ.ZÉÇ. 9/51-57 ÌuÉxmÉï, ÌuÉxÄTüÉåOû, lÉÉSÏuÉÚhÉ, SÒ¹uÉëhÉ 3. ÍxÉkqÉWûU sÉåmÉ ÍxÉkqÉ vÉÉ.xÉÇ.E.ZÉÇ.11/45 4. ÌmÉhQû iÉæsÉqÉç uÉÉiÉU£ü cÉ.ÍcÉ.29/123 31
  39. 39. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASA vÉÉ.xÉÇ.qÉ.ZÉÇ.9/146 5. qÉWûÉuÉeÉëMü iÉæsÉ MÑü¹, lÉÉQûÏuÉÚhÉ, pÉaÉlkÉU, xÉÑ.xÉÔ.9/57-63 aÉhQûqÉÉsÉÉ 6. ÌuÉmÉÉÌSMüÉWûU bÉÚiÉ ÌuÉmÉÉÌSMüÉ, AsÉxÉMü, MÑü¹, cÉ.ÍcÉ.7/120-121 cÉqÉïMÑü¹, LçMüMÑü¹, ÌMüÌOûpÉ 7. qÉlÉÈvÉÏsÉÉÌS bÉÚiÉ ÌWûYMüÉ, µÉÉxÉ cÉ.ÍcÉ.17/144-146 8. lÉsÉSÉÌS mÉësÉåmÉ ÌuÉxÉmÉï cÉ.ÍcÉ.21/77 9. qÉkÉÑÎcNûwšÉÌS rÉÉåaÉ pÉaÉlSU,uÉëhÉ, MÑü¸, A.WØû.ÍcÉ.29/33-36 qÉkÉÑqÉåWû,AmÉÍcÉ 10. ÌuÉmÉÉÌSMüÉWûU iÉæsÉ ÌuÉmÉÉÌSMüÉ cÉ.ÍcÉ.7/111 11. xÉælkÉuÉÉÌS sÉåmÉ ¤ÉÑSìUÉåaÉ ÍcÉÌMüixÉÉ rÉÉåaÉU¦ÉÉMüUCONTROVERSY: Bhavamishra has considered Shala and Sarjaka as two differenttrees and given synonym as Ashwakarna to Shala and Ajakarna toSarjaka. Where as Sushrutha in his Salasaradi Gana has included Shala,Ashwakarna and Ajakarna as three different trees. But Charaka has considered that these as four different trees. Sothe Botanical identification is as follows: Shala – Shorea robusta Gaertn. Sarja - Vateria indica Linn. Ashwakarna – Terminalia tomentosa W &A (Sharma P.V,Dravyaguna Vignana,Vol-I, Page 389), Dipterocarpus turbinatus Gaertn(Sharma P.V, Dravyaguna Vignana Vol-II, Page 632), Dipterocarpusalatus (Sharma P.V, Dravyaguna Vignana Vol-II,Page 632) 32
  40. 40. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASAAs per Dr.Mayaram Uniyal in his book “Prayogatmaka AbhinavaDravyaguna”. Ashwakarna – Dipterocarpus alatus Ajakarna – Dipterocarpus turbinatus Gaertn Both Bapalal Vaidya (Nighnatu Adarsha I page 137) and YadavajiTrikamji Acharya (Dravyaguna II page 104) have mentioned that theword Shala niryasa is not found in Samhitas and wherever it is mentionedas Sarjarasa in those texts the Shalaniryasa only should be considered. Insupport of this the commentators like Chakrapani and Dalhana have alsoused the words like Shala or Rala in those instances. 33
  41. 41. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASAIMPORTANT REFERENCEScÉUMü xÉÇÌWûiÉÉvÉÉsÉMüOèTüsÉ MüSqoÉ mÉ©Mü iÉÑqoÉqÉÉåcÉUxÉÍzÉUÏwÉuÉÇeÉÑsÉ LsÉuÉÉsÉÑMüÉzÉÉåMüÉ CÌiÉ SzÉåqÉÉÌlÉuÉåSlÉÉxjÉÉmÉlÉÉÌlÉ pÉuÉÎliÉ | (cÉ.xÉÑ. 4/49)vÉÉsÉÌmÉërÉMüAµÉMühÉïcÉlSlÉxrÉlSlÉZÉÌSUxÉmiÉmÉhÉÉïAeÉÑïlÉÉxÉlÉæËUqÉåSÌiÉlSÒMüÌMühÉÌWûvÉÉÍqÉvÉÑÌ£üÍvÉvÉÉmÉvÉÏUÏwÉuÉÇeÉsÉkÉluÉlÉqÉkÉÔMæü È xÉÉUxÉuÉÉ ÌuÉÇvÉÌiÉpÉïuÉÎliÉ |cÉ.xÉÔ. 25/49qÉkÉÑÎcNû¸Ç xÉeÉïUxÉÇ bÉ×iÉÇ qÉssÉMüxÉÇmÉÑOåû |M×üiuÉÉ kÉÔqÉÇ ÌmÉoÉåiNØÇûaÉÇ oÉÉsÉÇ uÉÉ aÉuÉÉÇ || 79 cÉ.ÍcÉ. 17 (ÌWûMüMüÉ µÉÉxÉ ÍcÉÌMüixÉÉAkrÉrÉ)xÉqÉkÉÑÎcNû¸qÉÉÇÎeÉ¸Ç xÉxÉeÉïUxÉxÉÉËUuÉqÉç |ÌmÉhQûiÉæsÉÇ iÉSprÉÇaÉɲÉiÉU£üÂeÉÉmÉWûqÉç || 123 CÌiÉ ÌmÉhQûiÉæsÉÇ (cÉ. ÍcÉ. 29 uÉÉiÉU£üÍcÉÌMüixÉÉ AkrÉrÉ)xÉÑ´ÉÑiÉ xÉÇÌWûiÉÉiÉiÉÉå aÉÑaaÉÑsuÉaÉ xÉeÉïuÉcÉÉaÉÉæUxÉwÉïmÉcÉÔhÉæïsÉïuÉhÉÌlÉqoÉÍqÉ´ÉårÉÈ AerÉrÉÑ£æükÉÑïmÉrÉåiÉç, AerÉvÉåwÉåhÉcÉÉxrÉmÉëÉhÉÉlÉç xÉqÉsÉpÉåiÉç | (xÉÑ. xÉÔ. 5/18 AaÉëÉåmÉxÉÇaÉëWûlÉÏrÉ AÉkrÉrÉ)qÉkÉÑÎcNû¸Ç xÉqÉkÉÑMÇü UÉåkÉëÇ xÉeÉïUxÉÇ iÉjÉÉ || 27qÉÇÎeÉ¸É cÉlSlÉÇ qÉÔuÉÉïÇ ÌmÉwOèuÉÉ xÉÌmÉïÌuÉmÉÉcÉrÉåiÉç |xÉuÉåïwÉÉqÉÎalÉSakÉlÉÉqÉåiÉSìÉåmÉhÉqÉѨÉqÉÇ || 28 (xÉÑ.xÉÔ. 12 AÎalÉMüqÉï ÌuÉÍkÉ AkrÉrÉ) 34
  42. 42. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASAkÉluÉliÉUÏ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: UÉsÉÈ xÉeÉïUxÉÈzvÉÉsÉÈ ¤ÉhÉÈ MüsÉMüsÉÉå°uÉÈ | sÉsÉlÉÈ zvÉÉsÉÌlÉrÉÉïxÉÉå rɤÉkÉÔmÉÉåÅÎalÉuÉssÉpÉÈ || UÉsÉÈ xuÉÉSÒÈ MüwÉÉrÉÉåwhÉÈ xiÉqpÉlÉÉå uÉëhÉUÉåmÉhÉÈ | ÌuÉmÉÉÌSpÉÔiÉWûliÉÉ cÉ pÉalÉxÉlkÉÉlÉM×üiÉç rÉiÉÈ || (kÉ.ÌlÉ.11,12)qÉSlÉmÉÉsÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒ È UÉsÉÉ xÉeÉïUxÉÉå rɤÉkÉÔmÉÈ xÉeÉÉåÅÎalÉuÉssÉpÉÈ | ¤ÉhÉMüÈ xÉÉsÉÌlÉrÉÉïxÉÉå sÉɤÉÉxrÉÉssÉsÉlÉÉå uÉUÈ || UÉsÉÉ ÌWûqÉÉ aÉÑÃÎxiÉ£üÉ MüwÉÉrÉÉ aÉëÉÌWûÍhÉ eÉrÉåiÉç | aÉëWûÉxÉëxuÉåSÌuÉxÉmÉïÌuÉwÉuÉëlÉÌuÉmÉÉÌSMüÉÈ ||(50,51)MæüSåuÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒûÈ UÉsÉÈ xÉeÉïUxÉÈ xÉeÉÉåï oÉWÒûÃmÉÉååÅÎalÉuÉssÉpÉÈ | SåuÉkÉÔmÉÉå rɤÉkÉÔmÉÉå kÉÔmÉlÉÉå sÉÍsÉiÉÉå UuÉÈ || xÉÑUÉsÉÉ zvÉÉsÉÌlÉrÉÉïxÉÈ zvÉÉsÉÈ xÉMüsÉsɤÉhÉÈ | xÉÑUÉsÉÉ qÉkÉÑUÉ ÌiÉ£üÉ MüwÉÉrÉÉ aÉëÉÌWûhÉÏ aÉÑÃÈ || AlÉÑwhÉÉ WûÎliÉ SÉåwÉÉxÉëzvÉÔsÉxuÉåSeuÉUuÉëhÉÉlÉç | ÌuÉxÉmÉïaÉëWûpÉÔiÉÉÎalÉSakÉÉsÉΤqÉÌuÉmÉÉÌSMüÉÈ | (422,423)pÉÉuÉmÉëMüÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû- UÉsÉaÉÑhÉÉÈ UÉsÉxiÉÑxÉÉsÉÌlÉrÉÉïxÉxiÉjÉÉxÉeÉïUxÉÈxqÉ×iÉÈ | SåuÉkÉÔmÉÉårɤÉkÉÔmÉxiÉjÉÉ xÉuÉïUxÉ¶É xÉÈ || UÉsÉÉåÌWûqÉÉåaÉÑÃÎxiÉ£üÈMüwÉÉrÉÉåaÉëÉWûMüÉåWûUåiÉç | 35
  44. 44. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASA MODERN REVIEW OF THE DRUG RESIN SHOREA ROBUSTA Gaertn. f. FRUCT.NOMENCLATURE:Scientific Name- Shorea robusta Gaertn. f. Fruct.VERNACULAR NAMES The drug is universally known and accepted by its scientific name.But still the knowledge of the names in both local and the regionallanguages is very important to get the drug from the regions of itsavailability.Hindi - Sakher, Sakhu, Sakhua, Sakoh, Sal, Sala, Salwa,Kannada - Sarjarasa, Kabbu, Bile bovu, Bile bogumara, RalEnglish - SalMarathi - Raala, PinvaliGujarati - Raala.Punjabi - RaalaarluBengali - Sakher, Sakhu, Sakhua, Sakoh, Sal, Sala, Salwa.Malayalam - Shalavriksham, Mulappumarutu, Maramaram.Tamil - Salliyam sandanam, SanchandanamTelugu - Gugal, Guggilamu, Saluva, Sarjakamu, Sarjamu..Urdu - RalAssam -Sal, Dieng-blei, Guggal, Jalri-chettu, Salua,Oria - Sal,Sagua,Salva, SodingiNepali - Agrakh, Sakhua, Sal, Sakwa.Simhalese - Dammala 37
  45. 45. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASACLASSIFICATIONAccording to Benthem and Hooker’s system of classification-Division: SpermatophytaSubdivision: AngiospermaeClass: DicotyledonaeSubclass: PolypetalaeSeries: ThalamifloraeOrder: GuttiferalesFamily: DipterocarpaceaeGenus: Shorea RoxbSpecies: Shorea robusta Gaertn. FAMILY CHARECTERS – DIPTEROCARPACEAEThere are around 25 Genera and 350 species.Habit: Trees with resinous wood. a deciduous tree; seldom leafless, bark dark brown, smooth or with a few longitudinal cracks.Root: Tap rootLeaves: Alternate, simple, scales- indumentum of stellate hairs, or of peltate scales. Stipules- small or large, deciduous;Inflorescence: Axillary panicleFlowers: Hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, fragrant, in axillary Panicles. Bracts – usually absentCalyx: Tube short or long, free or adnate to the overy, lobes-5, imbricate or velvate, usually enlarged and wing like in fruit.Corolla: Petals-5, much twisted, free or slightly connate, often hairy.Androecium: Stamens usually numerous, hypogynous, or subperigynous, anthers- 2 celled, opening lengthwise, with produced connective.Gynoecium: Ovary- 3 celled; style- entire or 3 lobed, ovules- 2 in each cell, pendulous or lateral, anatropous.Fruits: Indehiscent, mostly 1 seeded. 38
  46. 46. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASASeeds: without endosperm. Cotyledons often twisted, enclosing the radicle.CHARECTERS OF GENUS Shorea Roxb.Habit: Resiniferous trees.Root: Tap root.Leaves: Entire or repand, with parallel nerves;Stipules: large, coriaceous and persistent, or small and deciduous or incospicuous.Inflorescence: large terminal or axillary recemose panicles.Flowers: 1.2cm long, yellowish in terminal and axillary racemose panicles 7.5-23cm long, branches Grey-tomentoseCalyx: Tube very short, not enlarged in fruit, adnate to the torous, lobes ovate - lanceolate, imbricate, unequally enlarged in fruit, wing like, closely embracing the fruit;Corolla: Petals narrow-oblong or lanceolate, silky tomentose outside;Androecium: Stamens 15-many; anthers ovate or oblong, rarely linear; connective subulate or cuspidate; valves obtuse, rarely cuspidate, equal, or with the exterior valve larger;Gynoecium: Ovary 3-celled; ovules 2 in each cell; style usually subulate; stigma entire or 3-toothed;Fruit: 1.2 cm long, ovoid, acute, indehiscent pubescent, wings of the fruiting calyx somewhat unequal oblong or Spathulate 5-7.5 long,obtuse with 10-15longitudinal nerves joined by numerous straight or oblique transverse veins.Seed: Ovoid; cotyledons fleshy, unequal, usually enclosing the superior radical. 39
  47. 47. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASA CHARECTERS OF SHOREA ROBUSTA GARTN. f. FRUCT.Habit: A deciduous tree seldom quite leafless, black dark brown, smooth or with a few longitudinal cracks.Leaves: 10-30 by 15-18 cm, ovate-oblong acuminate, tough, thinly coriacious, glabrous and shinning when mature, base-cordate or rounded. Stipules 7.5 mm long, pubescent, deciduous; Petiole 1.2 to 2cm long; Stipules 7.5mm long pubescent, deciduous.Inflorescence and flowers: 1.2cm long, yellowish in terminal and axillary racemose panicles 7.5-23cm long, branches Grey- tomentose.Calyx: tube short, not enlarged in fruit, adnate to the torus, lobes 2.5mm long, grey-tomentose outside, ovate, accresent in fruit.Petals: Narrow-oblong or lanceolate, Silky tomentose outside.Androecium: Stamens up to 50, shorter than the petals; connectives with subulate bearded appendages minutely 3-fid at the apex.Gynoecium: Ovary 3celled, style subulate.Fruit: 1.2 cm long, ovoid, acute, indehiscent pubescent, wings of the fruiting calyx somewhat unequal oblong or spathulate 5-7.5 long, obtuse with 10-15longitudinal nerves joined by numerous straight or oblique transverse veins.RESIN of Shorea robusta Gaertn: Stalactitic pieces of dried Resin of varying sizes, resembling crudesulphur, outer surface rough, longitudinally shriveled, more often coveredwith glossy shining resinous coating, pale creamish yellow in colour.Fracture – Brittle and splintery exposes an uneven resinous surface.Specific gravity: 0.94-0.96.Saponification value: 35-37Acid value: 22-24Odour – Faint, balsamicTaste –Astringent. 40
  48. 48. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASADISTRIBUTION: The Sal tree is widely distributed in India, covering approx. 13.3%of the total forst area in the country from the plains upto 900-1700 maltitude covering part of North, East and central India. In the Northextends from Punjab, Himachal Pradesh to Haryana states through the subHimalayan tracts, outer Himalayas to Assam and Tripura states covringGaro, Khasi and Jaintia hills. In the East it is distributed from WesternBengal, Orissa upto Vishakhapattanam in South and through greater partof South astern Madhya Pradesh upto Chindawara and Hoshangabaddistricts in the west. Also distributed in Nepal and Bhutan.ECOLOGY: Shorea robusta occurs in both deciduous dry and moist forests andin evergreen moist forests. It accounts for about 14% of the total forestarea in India. Native: India, Myanmar, Nepal.PROPAGATION AND CULTIVATION: The most favorable is the moist sandy loam with good subsoildrainage. It thrives well on deep boulder deposits overlain by a sufficientdepth of fertile porous loam. An excess of clay in the subsoil producesstunted growth. It coppices well up to a moderate size; The fruits of Sal ripen in June, immediately before the normalonset of monsoon and under favorable conditions the seed germinatessoon after falling; sometimes germination may begin even in tree. Themost important single factor affecting natural regeneration is the time-lagbetween the falling of seed and the commencement of monsoon and alsothe draught. A spacing of 27-36m between the mother trees and frequentweeding during rains help the growth of the seedlings. For artificialreproduction, fresh seeds collected as soon as they fall on the ground andsown immediately. The annual yield of 4-5 Kg of resin per tree isobtained by tapping. 41
  49. 49. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASASUBSTITUTION AND ADULTERATION Resinous exudates from the stem bark of Vateria indica Linn.,from Dipterocarpaceae family is known as Chandrasa and Vellakuninkamin North and South India respectively is often used as substitute. Thismaterial occurs as small round tears and flakes of deep orange or bloodred colour. REVIEW OF RESINDEFINITION AND GENERAL CHRACTERS OF RESIN: Resins are amorphous products of complex nature. These areamorphous mixtures of essential oils, terpens and carboxylic acids foundas exudations from the trunk of various trees. They are transparent ortranslucent solids, semisolids or liquid substances containing largenumber of carbon atoms. They are insoluble in water, but soluble inalcohol, volatile oils, fixed oils, chloral hydrate and non polar organicsolvents like benzene or ether. They are hard electrically non conductiveand combustible masses. When heated, they soften and ultimately melt.They are usually formed in schizogenous or schizolysigenous cavities orducts as end products of metabolism.CLASSIFICATION OF RESINS: Resins are classified as per occurrence in combination with othercomponents- 1. Oleo-resins: when resin is associated with volatile oil; mixture is called as oleoresins. Ex turpentine, copaiba, ginger and capsicum. 2. Oleo-gum resin: when oleoresin is associated with gum the mixture is called oleo-gum. Ex: myrrh, asafetida etc., 3. Balsams: Balsams are resinous mixtures containing large proportion of free or combined benzoic or cinnamic acid Ex: jolu balsam, benzoin, peru balsam. 42
  50. 50. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASA 4. Glycoresin: Glycoresins are mixtures of resin with glycosides. These on hydrolysis give an aglycome (complex resin) and sugar. Glycoresins are present in Podophyllum and Jalap.METHODS OF COLLECTION OF RESINS:Resins are obtained from plants by various methods. 1. The incision is made over plant and pathological exudate is collected e.g : Asafoetida, Myrrh, etc 2. Fossil resins are collected e.g.: Copal, Kauri 3. Heating plant material collects resins e.g.: Guaiacum 4. Material is distilled for separation of volatile oil e.g.: Colophony. 5. Material is extracted with alcohol and is precipitated with water e.g.: Podophyllum, Capsicum. 6. Tapping method METHOD OF COLLECTION OF SHOREA ROBUSTA Gaertn. f. FRUCT. RESIN FROM THE TREE Resin of Shorea robusta Gaertn.f. Fruct. is called as SALDAMMAR OR BENGAL DAMMAR. The resin is collected by tappingmethod. It is collected by cutting of the 3-5 narrow strips of bark, 90-120cm above the ground. In about 12 days the grooves become filled withthe resin, which oozes as a whitish liquid, but soon becomes brown ondrying. This is collected and the cavities of the grooves freshened, afterwhich the exudation continues and resin is removed as before. Thisprocedure is repeated several times in the year. Altogether 3 crops areobtained, 1 in July, 2nd in October, 3rd in January; the 1st is the best inquality and quantity. 43
  51. 51. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASAGENERAL COMPOSITION OF RESINS:Resins are chemically complex mixtures of: 1) Resin alcohol [Resinols] 2) Resin phenols [Resin Tannols] 3) Resin acids 4) ResenesRESINOLS: They give negative test with Ferric chloride. They may bepresent in free or in combination with resin acids to form esters. Theseacids may be Benzoic acids, Salicylic acids etc. The example of resinolsis benzoresinol (in Benzoin), Storeresinol (in storax).RESINO-TANNOLS: They contain Tannins and give positive test for Phenolswith ferric chloride. They have high molecular weight and occur as estersor free Toluresinotannol (in Tolu balsam), Aloresinotannol (in Aloes).RESIN ACIDS: Resin acids contain a large proportion of oxy-acids. They arefound in free and esterified form. They are soluble in aqueous alkalisolutions and form soap like froth on shaking or colloidal suspension.Their metallic salts are called resinates. The examples are acetic acid (incolophony), copaivic and oxy copaivic acid (in copaiba) and commiphoricacid (in myrrh).RESENES: They are inert neutral complex and high molecular weightsubstance. They are very stable and not affected by any chemicalreactions. They are insoluble in acid and alkali e.g.: asaresenes (inAsafoetida), dracoresene (in dragons blood) etc. 44
  52. 52. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASACHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SHOREA ROBUSTA Gaertn. f.FRUCT. RESINSal resin on dry distillation yields an essential oil known as chua oil. Analysis of oil – Homocatecol monomethyl ether-0.46. 4-oxy-3-methoxy-ethylbengene-0.39. 4-oxy3-methoxyl-1-propylbengene- 0.53. Homocatecol dimethyl ether- 4.78 3-methoxy-4-ethoxy-1-methylbengene-9.38 3,4-dimethoxyl-1-propyl bengene-15.88 Oxygenated aromatic compounds -40.25. Hydrocarbons-25.91%.NON–PHARMACOLOGICAL USES OF SHOREA ROBUSTA Gaertn.f. FRUCT. RESIN: It is widely used as incense, especially as an ingredient, which isburnt in religious ceremonies. It is also used in inferior paints andvarnishes and for caulking boats. Even used for hardening waxes for usedin the manufactures of shoe polish, carbon papers, typewriter ribbons. Saldammar has been used as a plastering medium for walls and roofs and ascementing medium for plywood, asbestos sheaths. 45
  53. 53. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASAPhoto No.2: Leaves and Flowers of Shala. Photo No. 3 Resin of Shala. 46
  54. 54. DRUG REVIEW- SHALANIRYASAPhoto No. 4: Tapping of resin.Photo No. 5: Resins of Shala. 47
  55. 55. DISEASE REVIEW-PADADARI 3.3 DISEASE REVIEW PADADARIHISTORYVedic period: Even though the disease Padadari is very common its mention isnot found in any of the Veda.Samhita period:Charaka Samhita: Charakacharya has not explained the disease entityPadadari but he has elucidated Vipadika in Kshudra Kushtha. As commentatorsclarified Vipadika is different from Padadari, as it involves saptadushyas ofKushtha and manifests on Hasta and Pada both.Susruta Samhita: Sushruta first explains the disease Padadari in Kshudra roganidana adhyaya of nidanasthana (13th ) and Kshudara chikitsa adhyaya (20th)ofchikitsa sthana. Dalhana’s commentary on it says that some of the authors referVicharchika as padadari but it is not so because the later involves vitiation ofTridosha and Krimi.AlrÉå iÉÑ ÌuÉcÉÍcÉïMæüuÉ xjÉÉlÉpÉåSålÉ mÉÉSSÉUÏirÉÑcrÉiÉå ÌuÉmÉÉÌSMåüÌiÉ cÉ |IÉxrÉÉÈ MÑü¹iuÉålÉ xÉuÉïSÉåwÉeÉiuÉÇ xÉÌMüÍqÉiuÉÇ cÉåÌiÉ | (QûsWûhÉ)Ashtanga Hrudaya: Vagbhata has not explained Padadari but similar toCharaka he has elucidated the disease Vipadika in Kshudra kushtha in Kushthanidana as well as Kushtha chikitsa Adhyaya in Nidana sthana and Chikitsasthana respectively.Madhava nidana: Madhava has explained the disease Padadari in Kshudraroga nidana-- adhyaya.DEFINITION KSHUDRA ROGA:According to different authors there are different meanings for Kshudra rogathat are given below.1. Kshudra means Alpa or Laghu. These disease explanations are briefly explained by the acharyas. 48
  56. 56. DISEASE REVIEW-PADADARI2. The diseases which are not suitable for any other classification or category are grouped under this heading and named as Kshudra roga.3. The Nidana, Lakshana are said to be Kshudra (less).4. Few diseases are not actualy Kshudraroga but they are included in Kshudraroga and explained elaborately. Based on “Chatrino gachayantiti nyaya” means in chatri sammuha if few may not hold Chatri (Umbrella) even then this sammuha is also called as Chatrino gachyantiti nyaya. Example for this is Agnirohini, which is big disease.5. Few diseases are manifest mainly in children thats why named as Kshudra like Ajagallika, Ahiputana etc 6. Kshudrarogas are explained in brief, not explained based on Dosha and Dushya sambandha.Table No.13: Showing the varieties of Kshudraroga ¤ÉÑSìUÉåaÉ lÉÉqÉ xÉÑ´ÉÑiÉ qÉÉkÉuÉ uÉÉapÉOûAeÉaÉÎssÉMüÉ + +rÉuÉmÉëÉZrÉ + + +Al§ÉÉsÉeÉÏ + + AsÉeÉÏÌuÉuÉ×iÉÉ + + +MücÉNûÌmÉMüÉ + + -uÉsqÉÏMü + + +ClSìÌuÉ® + + ÌuÉ®ÉaÉSïpÉ + + +mÉÉwÉÉhÉaÉSïpÉ - + +mÉlÉÍxÉMüÉ - + + 49
  57. 57. DISEASE REVIEW-PADADARIeÉÉsÉaÉSïpÉ - + +CËUuÉåssÉMü + + +aÉlkÉlÉÉqÉÉ - + +AÎalÉUÉåWûÉåÍhÉ _ + +ÍcÉmmÉ + + +MÑülÉZÉ + + +AlÉÑÎvÉrÉ + + -ÌuÉSÉËUMüÉ _ _ ÌuÉSÉrÉïzvÉMïüUÉoÉÑïS + + +mÉÉSSÉËU + + -MüSU + + +AsÉqÉMü + + +ClSìsÉÑmiÉ + + _SÉÃhÉ + + -AÃÇÌwÉMüÉ + + _mÉÍsÉiÉ + + _rÉÑuÉÉlÉÌmÉÌSMüÉ + + _mÉÍ©ÌlÉMühPûMü + + +eÉiÉÑqÉÍhÉ + + _qÉwÉMü + + qÉÉwÉÌiÉsÉMüÉsÉMü + + +lrÉcÉNû + + sÉÉgNûlÉurÉlaÉ + + +lÉÏÍsÉMüÉ - + - 50
  58. 58. DISEASE REVIEW-PADADARImÉËUuÉÌiÉïMüÉ - + -AuÉmÉÉÌOûMüÉ + + -ÌlÉîmÉëMüÉzÉ + + -xÉͳÉ®aÉÑS + + -AÌWûmÉÔiÉlÉ + + -uÉëÑwÉhÉMücÉNÕû + + -aÉÑSpÉëÇwÉ + + -uÉUÉWûSÇwOíû - + -aÉSïpÉÏ - + +aÉlkÉqÉÉsÉÉ - + +UÉÎeÉMüÉ - - +mÉëxÉÑÎmiÉ - + +EiMüÉåOû - - +MüÉåPû - - +mÉÉqÉÉ + - -ÌuÉcÉÍcÉïMüÉ + - -qÉxÉÔËUMüÉ + - +ÌuÉxTüÉåOû + - +Mü¤ÉÉrÉÉÈ - - +qÉÑZÉSÕÌwÉMüÉ - - +ÌlÉSÉlÉ : mÉËU¢üqÉhÉvÉÏsÉxrÉ uÉÉrÉÑUirÉjÉïäÉrÉÉåÈ | (xÉÑ.ÌlÉ.13/28)Habit of excess walking is the foremost causative factor for the disease. 51
  59. 59. DISEASE REVIEW-PADADARImÉçÔuÉïÃmÉ: No pre monitory symptoms have been explained for Kshudrarogahence not even to Padadari.ÃmÉ: mÉÉSrÉÉåÈ MñüÂiÉå SÉUÏÇ xÉÂeÉÉÇ iÉsÉxÉÇ´ÏiÉÉqÉç || (xÉÑ.ÌlÉ.13/28)Cracks on dorsum of foot, which will be painful.xÉÇmÉëÉÎmiÉ: Due to continuous indulgence into Vatakara Vihara such as excessivewalking Vata gets vitiated leading to Twak and Mamsa darana and Rasakshayamanifesting the Vyadhi- Padadari.uÉÉiÉMüU ÌuÉWûÉUuÉÉiÉuÉ×Ì® iuÉMçü, qÉÉÇxÉ SUhÉ mÉÉSSÉËU urÉÉÍkÉxÉÇmÉëÉÎmiÉbÉOûMü:Table. 14 Showing the Samprapti Ghataka 1 SÉåwÉ uÉÉiÉ 2 SÕwrÉ UxÉ,qÉÉÇxÉ 5 xÉëÉåiÉxÉç UxÉuÉWû xÉëÉåiÉxÉç, qÉÉÇxÉuÉWû xÉëÉåiÉxÉç 7 E°uÉxjÉÉlÉ mÉÉS 9 urÉ£üxjÉÉlÉ mÉÉS 10 UÉåaÉqÉÉaÉï oÉɽ 11 UÉåaÉxuÉpÉÉuÉ ÍcÉU 52
  60. 60. DISEASE REVIEW-PADADARI According to modern science the crack foot is the symptom not themajor disease.CAUSES OF CRACK HEEL 1. Negligence of foot care. 2. If you are predisposed to dry skin, you are likely to develop cracks on your feet. The way you walk and put your weight down on your feet can also contribute to this problem. 3. Some people tend to have a naturally dry skin that predisposes them to the cracks. The thickened dry skin (callus) around the heel that is more likely to crack is often due to mechanical factors that increase pressures in that area (e.g. the way you walk). 4. Low humidity is a prime dryer. Dry air sucks moisture out of skin, that’s why cracked skin is a particular problem in winter. 5. Usage of irritants like detergents, perfumes, lotions, rubbing alcohol and nail polish remover etc. It makes sense to avoid household substances that cause dry, cracked skin, but many people work with moisture thieves like paints, solvents and other chemicals everyday. 6. Prolonged standing (at work or home, especially on hard floors) Walking heavily on one foot also causes dry cracked feet. Standing for several hours or having jobs that involves standing for extended periods of time like teaching, working as a traffic policeman, working in a laboratory, a factory, etc. results in exertion of a lot of pressure of the feet causing the skin to crack. 7. Being overweight (this increases the pressure on the normal fat pad under the heel, causing it to expand sideways - if the skin is not supple and flexible, the pressures to crack are high) 8. Open back on the shoes (this allows the fat under the heel to expand sideways and increases the pressure to crack) 53