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Pharmacognostical Analysis Of Vidarikanda (Pueraria Tuberosa DC) And Its Effect On Mutrakrichra – A Clinical Study - SAVITHA D. BHAT, Department of Dravya Guna, Post Graduate Studies & Research Centre, D.G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE,GADAG

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Mutrakrichra#dg17 gdg

  1. 1. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL ANALYSISOF VIDARIKANDA (PUERARIA TUBEROSA DC) AND ITS EFFECT ON MUTRAKRICHRA, A CLINICAL STUDY By: DR. SAVITHA D. BHAT Dissertation submitted to the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of AYURVEDA VACHASPATI M.D. IN DRAVYAGUNA Under the Guidance of Dr. G. V. MULAGUND M.D. (Ayu) And Co-guidance of Dr. SHASHIKANTH B. NIDAGUNDI M.D. (Ayu) DEPARTMENT OF DRAVYA GUNA POST GRADUATE STUDIES & RESEARCH CENTER SHRI D.G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GADAG - 582103 2006-2009
  2. 2. Declaration by the candidate I here by declare that this dissertation / thesis entitled “PharmacognosticalAnalysis Of Vidarikanda (Pueraria Tuberosa DC) And Its Effect On Mutrakrichra – AClinical Study” is a bonafide and genuine research work carried out by me under theguidance of Dr. G. V. Mulagund M.D. (Ayu), Professor & HOD, Dept of Dravya Guna,DGMAMC, PGS&RC, Gadag.Date: Signature of the candidatePlace: Gadag (Dr. Savitha D. Bhat)
  3. 3. D.G.M.AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE POST GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH CENTER GADAG, 582 103 This is to certify that the dissertation “Pharmacognostical Analysis OfVidarikanda (Pueraria Tuberosa DC) And Its Effect On Mutrakrichra – A ClinicalStudy ” is a bonafide research work done by Dr. Savitha D. Bhat in partial fulfillment of therequirement for the post graduation degree of “Ayurveda Vachaspati M.D. (Dravya Guna)”Under Rajeev Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka. Dr. Shashikanth B. Nidagundi Dr. G. V. Mulagund M.D. (Ayu) M.D. (Ayu) Co-guide Guide Lecturer Professor & HOD Dept of Dravya Guna Dept of Dravya Guna DGMAMC, PGS&RC, Gadag DGMAMC, PGS&RC, Gadag Date: Date: Place: Gadag Place: Gadag
  4. 4. J.S.V.V. SAMSTHE’S D.G.M.AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGEPOST GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH CENTER GADAG, 582 103 Endorsement by the H.O.D, principal/ head of the institution This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “PharmacognosticalAnalysis Of Vidarikanda (Pueraria Tuberosa DC) And Its Effect On Mutrakrichra – AClinical Study” is a bonafide research work done by Dr. Savitha D. Bhat under theguidance of Dr. G. V. Mulagund M.D. (Ayu), Professor & HOD, Dept of Dravya Guna, inpartial fulfillment of the requirement for the post graduation degree of “AyurvedaVachaspati M.D. in Dravya Guna” Under Rajeev Gandhi University of Health Sciences,Bangalore, Karnataka.. (Dr. G. V. Mulagund) (Dr. G. B. Patil) Professor & HOD Principal, Dept. of Dravya Guna DGMAMC, PGS&RC DGMAMC, PGS&RC Gadag Date: Date: Place: Gadag Place: Gadag
  5. 5. © Copy right Declaration by the candidate I here by declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka shall havethe rights to preserve, use and disseminate this dissertation/ thesis in print or electronic format for the academic / research purpose.Date:Place: Gadag (Dr. Savitha D. Bhat) © Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka
  6. 6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I express deep sense of gratitude to my respected guide Dr. G. V. Mulagund,Professor and HOD of PG studies in Dravyaguna, DGMAMC, Gadag for hisguidance, whole hearted encouragement, inspiration and valuable suggestions duringmy dissertation work and throughout the pg studies. I am immensely grateful to my respected Co guide Dr. Shashikant B.Nidagundi, lecturer, dept of PG studies in Dravyaguna for his time to time help andvaluable suggestions throughout the PG studies. I express my thankfulness to our beloved Principal Dr. G.B. Patil for hisencouragement as well as for providing all necessary facilities for this research work. It gives me immense pleasure to thank my teacher Dr Kuber Sankh for hisexperienced and intellectual guidance, which made the completion of my researchwork smooth. Heartiest gratitude extends to my parents Dr. Divakar Bhat and Smt. AnupamaBhat for the support, encouragement and warmth bestowed on me. No words canexpress my deep feelings towards them. I will be ever thankful to my husband Dr.Ashok B.K whose timely help,guidance, support and encouragement made me accomplish this Herculean task andwithout whose help it would be impossible to finish this research work. I also thank my teachers Dr. G. S. Hiremath, Dr K. S. Paraddi, Dr. R. V.Shetter, Dr. Veena Kori for their inspiration and suggestions during the researchwork. I also thank Dr. S.D.Yerageri, RMO, DGMAMC hospital who providednecessary facilities during the health checkup camps.
  7. 7. I owe a deep sense of gratitude to Shri Sunil, SRF, Captain Shrinivasa MurtiDrug Research Institute for Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS, New Delhi), Ministry ofHealth and Family Welfare, Govt. of India, Chennai who helped me in carrying outthe pharmacognostic study with special interest and care. I extend my gratefulness to Dr. Satish, PG scholar, Dept of panchakarma,IPGTRA, Jamnagar for his help during procurement of the Crude drug. I shall forever be obliged to Dr. Girish K. J, SDMAMC, Hassan for his timelyhelp and guidance throughout my PG studies. Hereby I want to convey my thanks to our Librarian Shri V. M. Mundinmaniand staff Shri Kerur for providing essential references for the study. Special thanks to my senior Dr Ashok M G, juniors Dr Asha M,Dr. C. C. Hiremath, Dr. Bhupesh sharma, Dr Sevantika Rotti and friends Dr NatarajC, Dr. Adarsh E. K, and Dr Mukta Arali for their affection and help during PGstudies. I convey my whole hearted thanks to my classmates, seniors and juniors fortheir constant coordination and support.My sincere thanks to the patients who cooperated for my research work. Finally and by no means least, I express my thanks to all those kind peoplewho have helped me directly or indirectly in my dissertation work with apologies formy inability to identify them individually.Date:Place: Dr. Savitha D. Bhat
  8. 8. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USEDAh - Astanga HridayaAK - AmarakoshaAPI - Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of IndiaAR - Abhidana ratnamalaAs - Ashtanga SangrahaBh.Ra - Bhaishajya RatnavaliBp - BhavaprakashaBPN - Bhavaprakash NighantuCD - ChakradattaCs - Charaka samhitaDH - Dravyaguna HastamalakaDN - Dhanvantari NighantuDrS - Dravyaguna sangrahaGn - GadanigrahaKN - Kaiyadeva NighantuKs - Kashyapa samhitaMD - Madhava dravyagunaMN - Madanapala NighantuMn - Madhava NidanaNA - Nighantu AdarshaNR - Nighantu ratnakaraPrN - Priya NighantuRN - Raja NighantuRVN - Rajavallabha nighantuSDN - Shodhala NighantuSGN - Shaligrama - Sharangadhara samhitaSKD - Shabda KalpadrumaSs - Sushruta samhitaYr - YogaratnakaracÉ.ÍcÉ. – Charaka ChikitsaxÉÑ.ÍcÉ. – Sushruta ChikitsaA.WØû.ÍcÉ. – Ashtanga hrudaya ChikitsaA.WØû.Mü. – Ashtanga hrudaya Ka;pasthanapÉÉ.mÉë.qÉ. – Bhavaprakasha MadhyamakhandaMüÉ.xÉ.ÍcÉ. – Kashyapa Samhita Chikitsa sthanapÉå.xÉ.ÍcÉ. – Bhela Samhita Chikitsa sthana
  9. 9. ABSTRACTThe study entitled “Pharmacognostical Analysis of Vidarikanda and Its Effect onMutrakrichra – A Clinical Study” comprises of detail pharmacognostic study ofVidarikanda tuber. Analytical and phyto chemical study revealed that the drug possessmany active principles like flavanoids, triterpinoids, steroids, sugar etc which formeda base to understand the probable mode of action. Based on the theoretical andclinical symptamatology, Mutrakrichra was correlated to UTI. The clinical study wasdone on 30 patients of Mutrakrichra where Vidarikanda (Pueraria tuberosa DC) wastaken as trial drug for 15 patients of group A and was given in the dose of 1 gm thricea day for 14 days. Varuna (Crateva nurvala) was taken as standard drug for 15patients of group B and was given in the dose of 2 gm bd for 14 days. The youngpatients showed good response to the treatment compared to old age patients. Krichramutrata and Dahayukta mutrata were found as most common presenting complaints ofthe patients. The present clinical trial showed pittaja variety of Mutrakrichra as moreprevalent compared to other classification. The trial drug Vidarikanda showedsignificant result in both subjective and objective parameters whereas standard drugVaruna showed highly significant result than Vidarikanda.Key words: Vidarikanda; Varuna; Mutrakrichra; UTI Pueraria tuberosa DC; Crataeva nurvala;
  10. 10. INDEX OF “Pharmacognostical Analysis of Vidarikanda and Its Effect on Mutrakrichra – A Clinical Study”Chapter Content Pages 1 Introduction 1–2 2 Aims and Objectives 3–3 3 Review of literature - Drug review 4 – 49 - Disease review 50 – 90 4 Materials and Methods 91 – 99 5 Observations and Results 100 – 135 6 Discussion 136 – 145 7 Conclusion 146 – 147 8 Summary 148 – 149 9 Bibliographic References 150 – 162 10 Annex – Performa of case sheet 163 – 170
  11. 11. LIST OF TABLESTable 1: Drug reviewTable No Title of Table Page No 1.1 Vargas of Vidarikanda according to different acharyas 6 1.2 Paryayas of Vidarikanda by various acharyas 7 1.3 Rasapanchaka of Vidarikanda by various acharyas 15 1.4 Doshakarma of Vidarikanda according to different authors 16 1.5 Anya karma of Vidarikanda according to different authors 16 1.6 Therapeutic indications of Vidarikanda 17 1.7 Folklore uses of Vidarikanda 19 1.8 Vishishta yogas of Vidarikanda 20 1.9 Vargas of Varuna according to different Acharyas 41 1.10 Synonyms of Varuna according to different acharyas 41 1.11 Different formulations of Varuna 44Table 2: Disease reviewTable No Title of Table Page No 2.1 Classification of mutrakrichra according to different scholars 62 2.2 Nidana of Mutrakrichra according to different scholars 64 2.3 Samprapti ghatakas of Mutrakrichra 74 2.4 Visista lakshana of Vataja Mutrakrichra 75 2.5 Visista lakshana of Pittaja Mutrakrichra 75 2.6 Visista lakshana of Kaphaja Mutrakrichra 75 2.7 Visista lakshana of Sannipataja Mutrakrichra 76 2.8 Visista lakshana of Ashmari and sharkara janya Mutrakrichra 77 2.9 Visista lakshana of Raktaja Mutrakrichra 77 2.10 Visista lakshana of Shalyabhighataja Mutrakrichra 78 2.11 Visista lakshana of Shukraja Mutrakrichra 78 2.12 Visista lakshana of Pureeshaja Mutrakrichra 78 2.13 Treatment modalities of Mutrakrichra 83 2.14 Pathya apathya of Mutrakrichra 89
  12. 12. Table 3: Materials and methodsTable No Title of Table Page No 3.1 Gradation of Subjective parameters 98 3.2 Gradation of Objective parameters 98 3.3 Criteria for assessment of results 99Table 4: Observations and resultsTable No Title of Table Page No 4.1 Age wise distribution of 30 patients of Mutrakrichra 102 4.2 Sex wise distribution of 30 patients of Mutrakrichra 103 4.3 Distribution of patients according to marital status 104 4.4 Religion wise distribution of 30 patients of Mutrakrichra 105 4.5 Education wise distribution of 30 patients of Mutrakrichra 106 4.6 Occupation wise distribution of 30 patients of Mutrakrichra 107 4.7 Distribution of patients according to Economical status 108 4.8 Distribution of patients according to mode of onset 109 4.9 Distribution of patients according to recurrent attacks 110 4.10 Distribution of patients according to colour of urine 111 4.11 Distribution of patients according to type of mutrakrichra 112 4.12 Distribution of patients according to Treatment history 113 4.13 Distribution of patients according to nidana 113 4.14 Distribution of patients according to Symptoms 115 4.15 Distribution of patients according to Prakriti 117 4.16 Distribution of patients according to Agni 117 4.17 Distribution of patients according to Koshta 118 4.18 Distribution of patients according to Abhyavarana shakti 118 4.19 Distribution of patients according to Jarana shakti 119 4.20 Distribution of patients according to Pramana 119 4.21 Distribution of patients according to Sara 120 4.22 Distribution of patients according to Samhanana 120 4.23 Distribution of patients according to Satwa 121 4.24 Distribution of patients according to Satmya 121 4.25 Distribution of patients according to Vyayama shakti 122 4.26 Grades of Krichra mutrapravritti in Group A 122 4.27 Grades of Krichra mutrapravritti in Group B 122
  13. 13. 4.28 Grades of Rujayukta mutrapravritti in Group A 123 4.29 Grades of Rujayukta mutrapravritti in Group B 123 4.30 Grades of Dahayukta mutrapravritti in Group A 123 4.31 Grades of Dahayukta mutrapravritti in Group B 123 4.32 Grades of Sakshobha mutrapravritti in Group A 124 4.33 Grades of Sakshobha mutrapravritti in Group B 124 4.34 Grades of Vega asahatva in Group A 124 4.35 Grades of Vega asahatva in Group B 124 4.36 Grades of Urine microscopy in Group A 125 4.37 Grades of Urine microscopy in Group B 125 4.38 Physical constants of Vidarikanda tuber 130 4.39 Preliminary Phytochemical analysis of Vidarikanda tuber 131 4.40 TLC of Vidarikanda tubers (Puereria tuberosa) 131 4.41 Physical constants of Varuna 132 4.42 Statistical analysis of parameters of group A after the treatment 132 4.43 Statistical analysis of parameters of group B after the treatment 133 4.44 Result of the study in group A 134 4.45 Result of the study in group B 135 4.46 Overall result of the study 135 LIST OF GRAPHSGraph No Title of Graph Page No 1. Distribution of patients according to age 102 2. Distribution of patients according to sex 103 3. Distribution of patients according to marital status 104 4. Distribution of patients according to religion 105 5. Distribution of patients according to educational status 106 6. Distribution of patients according to occupation 107 7. Distribution of patients according to economical status 108 8. Distribution of patients according to mode of onset 109 9. Distribution of patients according to recurrent attacks 110 10. Distribution of patients according to colour of urine 111 11. Distribution of patients according to type of mutrakrichra 112 12. Distribution of patients according to Treatment history 113 13. Distribution of patients according to Nidana 116 14. Distribution of patients according to Symptoms 116
  14. 14. LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHSPlate no 1: Morphological structure of Pueraria tuberosa showing leaves, inflorescence and legume.Plate no 2: Fig 1 – Natural habitat of Vidarikanda. Fig 2 – Trifoliate leaves of Vidarikanda. Fig 3 – Large sized Pueraria tuber being dugged out.Plate no 3: Fig 4 – Medium sized tuber of Vidarikanda. Fig 5 – Dried gratings of tuber. Fig 6 – Fine powder of Vidarikanda tuber.Plate no 4: Fig 1 – Natural habitat of Varuna. Fig 2 – Bark of a young Varuna tree. Fig 3 – Matured bark of Varuna tree. Fig 4 – Trifoliate leaves of Varuna. Fig 5 – Branch of Varuna containing leaves and flowers. Fig 6 – Inflorescence of Varuna. Fig 7 – Market sample of Varuna bark. Fig 8 – Fine powder of Varuna bark.Plate no 5: TLC of Vidarikanda tuber.Plate no 6: TS of Vidarikanda tuber.Plate no 7: Microscopy of tuber and powder of Vidarikanda.Plate no 8: HPTLC graph of Vidarikanda
  15. 15. INTRODUCTIONAyurveda, the Indian system of medicine is defined as science of life and is almost asold as the Indian civilization. The system was developed to reduce the ailments ofmankind. In the course of time several herbs were identified and used for therapeutics.Vidarikanda is one such drug whose existence is seen since purana kala and been usedfor therapeutics. It is botanically identified as Peuraria tuberosa DC and is distributedthroughout India1, 2, 3 . During the procurement of the drug for the study, there arechances of misidentification or adulteration which can alter the quality of the study.Hence pharmacognosy, analytical study and chromatography of Vidarikanda becomean important tool for confirming its genuinity. Classically Vidarikanda has been attributed with different properties likeBalya, Bastishodaka, Veerya vardhaka, Brimhana, Jeevaneeya, Shukrala etc.4Vidarikanda has been extensively used as Vrushya dravya. There are also ample ofreferences for its usage in urinary disorders especially mutrakrichra.5 The disease Mutrakrichra is an age old disease and has been documented inalmost all Ayurvedic texts. It is a condition in which difficulty in micturition is a mainsymptom affecting the daily activities of the person. Based on the theoretical andclinical symptamatology it is been correlated to UTI. UTI’s are a leading cause of morbidity and health care expenditures in thepersons of all ages. Each year urinary tract infections account for 9.6 millions doctorvisits. Women are especially prone to UTI. One in 5 women develops UTI during herlife time. Sexually active young women are disproportionately affected. An estimated40% of women reported having had UTI at some point in their lives.6 UTI in men arenot so common but they can be very serious when they occur.7 Unhygienic lifestyle 1
  16. 16. viz. lack of frequent washing, unhygienic sex, alcohol, certain medications etc willtend person to have UTI which are more frequent events of modern life style.8 The management of UTI in modern contemporary science is mainly antibiotictherapy. Even though they are useful, they involve considerable amount of risk, sideeffects and are expensive. The chances of resistances and recurrences afteradministration of antibiotics are also high as fifty percent.9 In this regard management of UTI by herbal drugs is safe and rational. For thispurpose many acharyas have indicated drug like Vidarikanda in the management ofMutrakrichra. Even though there are a lot of textual references there are no researchwork carried out in this regard. Seeing the cost effectiveness of the drug and theprevalence of the disease in the community an attempt is made to know the effect ofVidarikanda on Mutrakrichra through this study. 2
  17. 17. AIMS & OBJECTIVESa. Pharmacognistical evaluation of Vidarikanda. • Macroscopical evaluation • Microscopical evaluation • Standardization and Validation.b. Preliminary phyto chemical analysis of Vidarikandac. Chromatographic study of Vidarikandad. To evaluate the efficacy of Vidarikanda churna in Mutrakrichra 3
  18. 18. DRUG REVIEWHistoryKnowledge about history of a drug is as much necessary as its therapeutics. Theexistence of a drug since hundreds of years, changes in its nature, identification bydifferent aptas is important for a complete understanding of the herb. It can be studiedunder Veda kala Upanishad and Purana kala Samhita kala Nighantu kala and Adhunika kalaVeda kalaDuring the time of Vedas, references regarding the usage of Vidarikanda have notbeen found.Upanishad and Purana kala In Koushika sutra 35/4 and Shankha likhita dharma sutra 2/20 Vidari has beenmentioned. It was used to clean the teeth during shraaddha and was also useful inpumsavana karma.10Samhita kala In Charaka samhita explanation of the drug by the name Vidari is found in 65different places whereas explanation of Vidarikanda is found only in one place.Similarly in Sushruta samhita description of Vidari is found in 20 different places 4
  19. 19. whereas description of Vidarikanda is found in 4 different places. In Kashyapasamhita it has been mentioned in the context of Visarpa, Charma roga etc. whereas inHarita samhita it is mentioned in the context of Kshaya, Chardi roga, Rakta pitta etc.Nighantu kalaVidari has been mentioned in almost all the nighantus like Dhanvantari nighantu,Shodala nighantu, Kaiyadeva nighantu, Raja nighantu, Bhavaprakasha nighantu etc.Adhunika kaalaDr P V. Sharma has described it as Balya and Vaidya Bapalal has decribed it underPalashadi varga.11 Shaligrama vaidya has included it under Shaka varga.12 Otherauthors like Nadkarni, Kirtikar and Basu have dealt with different aspects of Vidarilike the habitat of the drug, morphology, phyto chemistry, therapeutic utility etc. 5
  20. 20. Ganas and vargas Table 1.1 Showing Vargas according to different AcharyasCharaka samhita Kantya mahakashaya13 Snehopaga mahakashaya14 Madhura skandha15Sushrutasamhita Vidarigandadi gana16 Vallipanchamoola17 Pittasamshana varga18 Madhura varga19 Kanda varga20Ashtanga hridaya Madhura skanda dravya21 Vata nashaka dravya22 Vidaryadi gana23Ashtanga sangraha Shakha varga24Dhanvantari nighantu Guduchyadi varga25Kaideva nighantu Oushadi varga26Raja nighantu Mulakadi varga27Bhavaprakasha nighantu Guduchyadi varga28Shaligrama nighantu Guduchyadi varga29Madhava dravyaguna Shakha varga30Amarakosha Vanoushadhi varga31Nighantu adarsha Palaashadi varga32Dravyaguna sangraha Shakha varga33 6
  21. 21. Synonyms Table 1.2: Showing Paryayas of Vidarikanda by various acharyasNo Paryaya Cs34 Ss35 Ah36 NA37 DN38 MN39 KN40 RN41 BPN42 SGN43 DS44 AK45 AR46 PrN471. pÉÔMÔüwqÉÉÎhQû - - - - - - - + - + - - - -2. pÉÔMÔüwqÉÉhQû - - - - - - - + - + - - - +3. aÉeÉuÉÉeÉϹû - - - - - - - - - - - - + -4. aÉeÉuÉÉeÉÏÌmÉërÉÉ - - - - - - + - - - - - - -5. aÉeÉå¹ - - - - - - - + - + - - - -6. C¤ÉÑaÉlkÉÉ - - - - - - - - + + - - - -8. MülSMüÉrÉ - - - - - - - - - - - - - +9. MülSmÉsÉÉzÉ - - - - - - + - - - - - - - 7
  22. 22. No Paryaya Cs Ss Ah NA DN MN KN RN BPN SGN DS AK AR PrN10. MülSuÉÎssÉ - - - - - + + - - - - - - -11. MüÉæηí - - - - - - - - + + - - - -12. M×üwhÉuÉÎssÉMü - - - - - - + - - - - - - -13. ¤ÉÏUzÉÑYsÉÉ - - - - - - - - + + - - - -14. ¤ÉÏUuÉÎssÉ - - - - - - - - + + - - - -15. MÔüzqÉÉhQûÌMüü - - - - - - + - - - - - - -16. qÉ×aÉÉåÍsÉ - - - - - - + - - - - - - -17. mÉsÉÉzÉMü - - - - - + - - - - - - - -18. mÉrÉÎxuÉÌlÉ - - - - - - - - - + - - - -19. ´Éå¸ MülSMü - - - - - - + - - - - - - - 8
  23. 23. No Paryaya Cs Ss Ah NA DN MN KN RN BPN SGN DS AK AR PrN20. ´É×aÉÉÍsÉMüÉ - - - - + + + + - + - - + -21. zÉÑYsÉÉ - - - - + - - + + + - - - -22. zÉÑYsÉMülS - - - - - - - - - - - - + -23 ÍxÉiÉÉ - - - - - - - + + + - - - -24. xuÉÉSÒ - - - - - - - - - - - - + -25. èxuÉÉSÒ MülS - - - - + + + + + + - - - -26. èxuÉÉSÒ sÉiÉÉ - - - - - - - + - + - - - -27. ̧ÉmÉhÉï - - - - - - - - - + - - - -28. uÉÉeÉÏuÉssÉpÉÉ - - - - - - - + - + - - - -29. uÉÎssÉmÉsÉÉÍzÉMüÉ - - - - - - + - - - - - - - 9
  24. 24. No Paryaya Cs Ss Ah NA DN MN KN RN BPN SGN DS AK AR PrN30. ÌuÉQûÉÍsÉ - - - - - - - + - + - - - -31. ÌuÉQûÉÍsÉMüÉ - - - - - + + - - - - - - -32. ÌuÉSÉËU + + + - + - + + + + - - + +33. ÌuÉSÉËUMü - - - - + + + + - + - - + +34. ÌuÉSÉËUMülS + + + - - - - - - - - - - -35. uÉפÉuÉÎssÉ - - - - - + + - - + - - - -36. uÉ×wrÉ - - - - - - + - - - - - + -37. uÉ×wrÉMülS - - - - + - - + - + - - - -38. uÉ×wrÉmÉÍhÉï - - - - - - + - - - - - - -39. uÉ×wrÉuÉÎssÉMüÉ - - - - - - - + - + - - - - 10
  25. 25. Nirukti of vidari48ÌuÉSÉËU – ÌuÉSÉUrÉiÉÏuÉ pÉÔÍqÉÍqÉÌiÉ, oÉ×WûiuÉÉiÉç MülSMüÉrÉxrÉ pÉÔÍqÉÇ SÉUrÉiÉÏuÉ xÉÉ CÌiÉ | It pierces the soil because of its big sizeMeanings of synonyms48C¤ÉÑaÉlkÉÉ – C¤ÉÉåËUuÉ aÉlkÉÉå AxrÉÉÈ | Has smell like sugarcane¤ÉÏUzÉÑYsÉÉ - ¤ÉÏUÍqÉuÉ zÉÑYsÉuÉhÉïMülSÉ | The tuber has colour like milkaÉeÉuÉÉeÉÏ¹É – aÉeÉÉlÉÉÇ uÉÉeÉÏlÉÉgcÉ ÌmÉërÉÉ | The elephant and the horses are fond of VidarikandamÉsÉÉÍzÉÌMü - mÉsÉÉzÉxrÉåuÉ mÉsÉÉzÉÉÌlÉ mɧÉÉhrÉxrÉÉ: | The leaves are similar to Palasha leavesÌoÉQûÉÍsÉMüÉ - ÌoÉQûÉsÉÉlÉÉÇ ÌmÉërÉÉ | The cats are fond of VidarikandapÉÔÍqÉMÔüwqÉÉhQû - pÉÔqrÉliÉaÉïiÉÈ MÔüwqÉÉhQû xÉSØzÉÈ MülSÉå AxrÉÉÈ | The tubers are like pumpkin growing under the grounduÉssÉÏMülSmÉsÉÉzÉÉÈ – mÉsÉÉzÉ xÉSØzÉÈ ÌMüliÉÑ uÉssÉÏÃmÉÈ xÉ MülS¶É | It is similar to Palasha but the structure of the plant is a climberuÉ×wrÉMülSÉ - uÉ×wrÉÈ MülSÉå AxrÉÉÈ | The tubers are aphrodisiaczÉÑYsÉMülSÉ - zÉÑYsÉ: µÉåiÉuÉhÉï: MülSÉå AxrÉÉÈ | The tuber is white in colour´É×aÉÉÍsÉMü - ´É×aÉÉsÉÌmÉërÉÉ | The fox is fond of VidarikandaxuÉÉSÒMülSÉ - xuÉÉSÒqÉïkÉÑUÈ MülSÉåAxrÉÉÈ | The tuber is sweet in tasteqÉWûɵÉåiÉÉ - qÉWûÌiÉ cÉÉxÉÉÇ µÉåiÉÉ cÉ CÌiÉ | The tuber is big in size and sweet in taste 11
  26. 26. Vernacular names49, 50, 51, 52Hindi – Bilaikand, Bedarikand, badar, Billi, Bodar, DedarikandEnglish - Indian Kudzu rootKannada – Gumadigida, Dari, Nelagumbala gadde, NelagumbalaBengali - Shimibatraji, BhuikumdoGujarati – Karwinai, VidarikandMalayalam – Mutukku, MudakkuMarathi – Badra, Dari DarniOriya – BhuiankakharuPunjabi – Badar, SalohaTamil – NilapusaniTelgu – Darigummadi, GumodiUrdu – HandiphutaRegional names49, 50, 51, 52Almora - BisaluBhil - Bhoikohola, UdhkyaDehra Dun - saral, sarur, SuralGond - PatalHaldwani – BiraluKumaon – Bilaikand, BiliMerwara – GhorabelMundari – BirkakaruNepal – BiralikundNorthwestern province – Badar, Sarar 12
  27. 27. Paharia – DebrelaraPorebunder – FagioRajputana – GorabelRamnagar – SiraluSadani – PatalkoraSaharanpur – SaralSantal – Jangtirra 13
  28. 28. Prabheda (Varieties)Charaka in Madhura skanda has mentioned Vidari and Ksheeravidari as two varietiesof Vidarikanda. Chakrapani commenting on this mentions thatÌuÉSÉUÏ ÌuÉSÉËUMülSÈ xÉ Ì²ÌuÉkÉÈ, LMüÈ SÏbÉïMüÉhQûÉå oÉWÒû¤ÉÏUÈ ¤ÉÏUÌuÉSÉËU urÉuɾûÏrÉiÉå | AlrÉÉåWûÎxiÉmÉÉSMüÉåAsmɤÉÏUÈ ||One of the varieties is elongated and having large amount of milky sap and is calledKsheeravidari. The other variety called Vidari is similar to hasti paada in shape buthaving less milky sap.53Dalhana describes the varieties of Vidarikanda in the context of Vidarigandadi gana.His opinion is similar to Chakrapani’s.54xÉ cÉ Ì²ÌuÉkÉ: SÏbÉïMülSÈ oÉWÒû¤ÉÏUÉå WûÎxiÉmÉÉSMüÉå qÉWûÉsmɤÉÏUÈ CìÌiÉ (Dalhana)Nighantukaras mention two varieties of Vidarikanda. One is Vidari and anothervariety is Ksheeravidari. Vidari is identified as Pueraria tuberosa DC ofPapilionaceae. Ksheeravidari is identified as Ipomea digitata of Convolvulaceae.Kerala physicians also accept Ipomea mauritiana as the plant source ofKsheeravidari.55 14
  29. 29. Rasa panchaka Table 1.3: Showing Rasapanchaka of VidarikandaAuthor Rasa Guna Veerya VipakaCs56 Madhura - Sheeta -Ss57 Madhura - Sheeta -As58 Madhura - Sheeta -Ah59 Madhura Guru - -DN60 Madhura Guru, Snigdha, Sheeta -MN61 Madhura Guru, Snigdha, - -KN62 Madhura Guru, Snigdha, Sheeta -RN63 Madhura Guru, Snigdha, Sheeta -BPN64 Madhura Guru, Snigdha, Sheeta -PrN65 Madhura Snigdha Sheeta -DS66 Madhura - SheetaNA67 Madhura Guru, Snigdha, Sheeta MadhuraCommonly all the authors have opined the properties of Vidarikanda as follows.Rasa – MadhuraGuna – Guru, SnigdhaVeerya – SheetaVipaka – Madhura 15
  30. 30. Karmaa) Dosha karma Table 1.4 Showing Doshakarma of Vidarikanda according to different authors RVN68 BPN PrN MN MD KN DN RN Ah DS Cs As SsVatahara - + + + + - + - + + + + +Pittahara - + + + + + + + + + + + +Kaphakara - - - - - - - + - - - - -b) Anya Karma Table 1.5 Showing Anya karma of Vidarikanda according to different authorsKarma 68 RVN BPN PrN DrS MN MD KN DN RN Ah Cs As SsBalya + + - - + - + + + + + + +Brimhana + + - + - + + - + + - + -Jeevaniya + - - + - - + - + - - - -Kantya + - - + - - - - - - - - -Mutrala + + + + - - + - + - - + -Pushtikara + - - + - - - - - - - - -Rasayana + - - + - + + - + + + - +Stanya - - - - - + + - + + - - -Swarya - + - - - - + - + - - + -Varnya - - - - - - + - + - - - -Vrishya + + - + + - + - - + + + + 16
  31. 31. Rogagnatha Table 1.6: Showing therapeutic indications of Vidarikanda Roga Ss69 DN70 MN71 KN72 RN73 BPN74 PrN75 CD76 Daha - - + + + + - Jwara - - - - - - + - Kshaya - - - - - - + - Raktaja roga - + + + + + - - Stanya nasha + - - - - - - - Pittaja mutrakrichra - - - - - - - +Upayukta anga77Kanda (Tuber)Matra77, 78Powder 3 – 6 gmTuber juice: 10 – 20 ml 17
  32. 32. Prayoga • Vidari is processed with Shatahva, Madhuka, Yashti, Bala and ghrita is prepared. It is used as pradeha in Vatarakta.79 • Vidari along with Kadamba or Taala is processed with Ksheera and ghrita prepared. This ghrita is administered internally in case of Mutravaivarnya and Mutrakrichra.80 • It is eaten as vegetable in case of stanyanaasha.81 • Vidari churna is given bhavana with Vidari swarasa then licked after mixing it up with ghee and honey. It is said to be a good aphrodisiac.82 • Paste of Vidari root boiled in milk and consumed daily proves to be a better aphrodisiac.83 • Vidari churna along with rasasindura is given for improving the body tissues.84 • Vidari swarasa along with ksheera and mahisha ghrita administered orally in beneficial in Bhasmaka roga.85 • Ghee prepared of Draksha, Vidari, Ikshu given in the form of Seka, Avagaha, Basti etc is useful in Pittaja mutrakrichra.86 • Vidari and Ikshurasa processed with ghrita and is administered orally with madhu in Jwara.87 • Vidari swarasa added with sharkara is administered orally in case of Paitika shula.88 • Vidari churna, Mashachurna, Yashti churna along with madhu and sharkara is administerd in case of Shweta pradara.89 • Vidarikanda, Godhuma and Yava churna is administered orally in case of karshya.90 18
  33. 33. • The root is given as a demulcent and refrigerant in fevers.91 • Peeled and bruised into a cataplasm it is used to reduce swellings of the joints.92 • In Nepal it is employed as an emetic and tonic and is also believed to be lactagogue.93Folklore uses94 Table 1.7: Showing Folklore uses of VidarikandaLocal Area of Mode of administration IndicationName collectionBhoikolhu Vapi (Gujarat) Paste of boiled Adhmana, tuber is applied over abdomen UdarashoolaBhoikolhu Pipladevi Paste of tuber is administered Atisara (Gujarat) orally with waterDaukar Rajendragaon 3 to 4 slices of rhizomes are Balyakand (MP) boiled in 300 – 400 ml milk and this milk is administered orally once daily in the nightGigavah Kalyanpura 20 gms of root powder is given Stanya (MP) orally twice daily for 5 to 7 days vardhaka to women 19
  34. 34. Vishishta yoga Table 1.8: Showing Vishishta yogas of VidarikandaSl Name of the yoga Indication Referenceno1 cÉuÉlÉmÉëÉzÉ UxÉÉrÉlÉ cÉ.ÍcÉ. 1-/692 AÉqÉsÉMü bÉ×iÉ UxÉÉrÉlÉ cÉ.ÍcÉ. 1-2/43 uÉÉeÉÏMüUhÉ bÉ×iÉ uÉÉeÉÏMüUhÉ cÉ.ÍcÉ. 2-1/354. AmÉirÉMüU bÉ×iÉ uÉÉeÉÏMüUhÉ cÉ.ÍcÉ. 2-4/255. uÉ×wrÉ aÉÑÌOûMüÉ uÉÉeÉÏMüUhÉ cÉ.ÍcÉ. 2– 4/306. cÉlSlÉÉÌS iÉæsÉ euÉU cÉ.ÍcÉ. 3/2587. zÉiÉÉuÉrÉÉïÌS bÉ×iÉ U£üÌmɨÉ, euÉU, MüÉxÉ cÉ.ÍcÉ. 4/958. SìɤÉɱ bÉ×iÉ ÌmɨÉeÉaÉÑsqÉ, ÌmɨÉeÉÌuÉMüÉU cÉ.ÍcÉ. 5/1239. AqÉ×iÉmÉëÉzÉ bÉ×iÉ ¤ÉiÉ ¤ÉÏhÉ, lɹzÉÑ¢ü, MüÉxÉ cÉ.ÍcÉ. 11/3610. xÉÌmÉïaÉÑQû ¤ÉiÉ ¤ÉÏhÉ, ´ÉqÉ cÉ.ÍcÉ. 11/5011. §ÉrÉÔwÉhÉɱ bÉ×iÉ euÉU, aÉÑsqÉ, MüÉxÉ cÉ.ÍcÉ. 18/3912. ÌuÉSÉrÉÉïÌS rÉÉåaÉ ÌmɨÉeÉ MüÉxÉ cÉ.ÍcÉ. 18/9513. AqÉ×iÉ bÉ×iÉ ÌuÉwÉ, AmÉxqÉÉU, ¤ÉrÉ cÉ.ÍcÉ. 23/24214. zÉiÉÉuÉrÉÉïÌS YuÉÉjÉ ÌmɨÉeÉ qÉÔ§ÉM×ücNíû cÉ.ÍcÉ. 26/5015. oÉsÉÉSS iÉæsÉ eɧÉÔkuÉï UÉåaÉ cÉ.ÍcÉ. 26/16116. qÉWûÉqÉrÉÔU bÉ×iÉ ÍzÉUÉåUÉåaÉ, MüÉxÉ, µÉÉxÉ cÉ.ÍcÉ. 26/16617. AqÉ×iÉɱ iÉæsÉ uÉÉiÉurÉÉÌS, ElqÉÉS cÉ.ÍcÉ. 28/157 20
  35. 35. 18. mÉÉÃwÉMü bÉ×iÉ uÉÉiÉU£ü, EUÈ ¤ÉiÉ cÉ.ÍcÉ. 29/82919. xÉÑMÑüqÉÉUMü iÉæsÉ qÉlrÉÉxiÉqpÉ, WûlÉÑaÉëWû cÉ.ÍcÉ. 29/9620. pÉÔÌiÉMüÉÌS iÉæsÉ uÉÉiÉurÉÉÍkÉ xÉÑ.ÍcÉ. 36/2221. qÉåSÉÌS bÉ×iÉ ÌmɨÉeÉ MüÉxÉ A.WØû.ÍcÉ. 3/3822. AqÉ×iÉmÉëÉzÉ bÉ×iÉ MüÉxÉ A.WØû.ÍcÉ.3/9423. kÉɧÉÏ bÉ×iÉ UÉeÉrɤqÉÉ, AmÉxqÉÉU A.WØû.ÍcÉ. 3/10824. SìɤÉÉÌS bÉ×iÉ ÌuÉSìÍkÉ A.WØû.ÍcÉ. 13/1625. UÉxlÉÉÌS MüsmÉ SÉWû, AÌiÉxÉÉU, mÉëSU A.WØû.Mü. 4/1226. OÉ×WûiÉç zÉiÉÉuÉUÏ bÉ×iÉ AxÉ×YkÉU cÉ¢üS¨É 9/4627. xÉmiÉmÉëxjÉ bÉ×iÉ U£üÌmÉ¨É cÉ¢üS¨É9/6428. mÉUÉzÉU bÉ×iÉ UÉeÉrɤqÉÉ cÉ¢üS¨É 10/6629. qÉWûÉcÉæiÉxÉ bÉ×iÉ AmÉxqÉÉU cÉ¢üS¨É 21/2330. qÉWûÉqÉÉwÉ iÉæsÉ uÉÉiÉurÉÉÍkÉ cÉ¢üS¨É 22/17431. MÑüzÉɱ bÉ×iÉ ÌmɨÉeÉ AzqÉËU cÉ¢üS¨É 34/1332. ÌuÉSÉrÉÉïÌS iÉæsÉ cÉsÉSliÉ cÉ¢üS¨É 56/4133. OÉ×WûiÉç eÉÏuÉMüɱ iÉæsÉ ÍzÉUÉåUÉåaÉ, oÉÉÍkÉrÉï cÉ¢üS¨É 60/2834. zÉÏiÉMüsrÉÉhÉMü bÉ×iÉ AxÉëÑMçükÉU cÉ¢üS¨É 61/2735. ÍzÉuÉÉaÉÑÌOûMüÉ UxÉÉrÉlÉ cÉ¢üS¨É 66/17536. AqÉ×iÉpÉssÉiÉMü UxÉÉrÉlÉ cÉ¢üS¨É 66/19637. lÉÉUÍxÉqWû cÉÑhÉï oÉsrÉ, uÉ×wrÉ cÉ¢üS¨É 67/18 21
  36. 36. 38. xÉÑMÑqÉÉUMÑüqÉÉUMü UxÉÉrÉlÉ UxÉÉrÉlÉ pÉÉ.mÉë.qÉ.35/4939. pÉSìÉuÉWû bÉ×iÉ EwhÉuÉÉiÉ pÉÉ.mÉë.qÉ. 36/4240. ÌuÉSÉËU bÉ×iÉ ÌmɨÉmÉëpÉuÉ qÉѧÉÉbÉÉiÉ pÉÉ.mÉë.qÉ. 36/4741. oÉsÉÉiÉæsÉ uÉÉiÉurÉÉÍkÉ MüÉ.xÉ.ÍcÉ. 18/2942. ÌiÉsÉxÉÌmÉï qÉÉåSMü AxÉ×YkÉU, SÒoÉïsÉåÎlSìrÉ pÉå.xÉ.ÍcÉ. IV /4543. SzÉqÉÔsÉÌS iÉæsÉ EÂxiÉqpÉ, zsÉÏmÉS pÉå.xÉ.ÍcÉ. IV / 1244. qÉWûÉÌlÉqoÉÉÌS iÉæsÉ AzÉï pÉå.xÉ.ÍcÉ. VI / 70 22
  37. 37. Modern review of VidarikandaPueraria = after Mr M.M.N Puerari – scientistTuberosa = tuberous rooted95, 96Taxonomical classificationKingdom - PlantaeDivision - SpermatophytaSubdivision - angiospermaeClass - DicotyledonaeSubclass - PolypetalaeGroup - CalycifloraeNatural order - RosalesFamily - PapilionaceaeGenus - PuerariaSpecies - tuberosa DCHabitat97, 98, 99Distributed almost throughout India in deciduous forests except in very humid or veryarid regions ascending up to 1200m. Especially seen in Assam, Punjab, Bihar,Karnataka, Bengal, Rajasthan and Gujarat. Outside India it is found in Pakistan, SriLanka, Malacca, Siam and Nepal. 26
  38. 38. Features of Papilionaceae100Diagnostic features:-Herbs shrubs or trees, generally climbers; leaves alternate, stipulate, simple orcompound; flower zygomorphic, hermaphrodite, corolla papilionaceous, stamens 10or 9 diadelphous or monadelphous; carpel one, fruit legume.Distribution:-It is commonly called pea family. It includes 375 genera. The family beingrepresented in India by 70 genera and 754 species.Vegetative characters:-Habit – The plants may be herbs, shrubs, climbers, twinners and trees.Root – A much branched tap root system, bearing bacterial nodules.Stem – Herbaceous or woody, erect or twinner, branched, angular or cylindrical, solidor fistular.Leaves – Cauline or ramal; alternate, stipulate, compound mostly trifoliate sometimessimple; modified wholly or partly into tendril leafbase may be pulvinate.Floral charactersInflorescence – Racemose raceme, rarely solitary axillary.Flowers – Medianly zygomorphic, hermaphrodite, pedicellate, slightly perigynous,complete and pentamerous. The papilionaceous corolla is typical. The floralcharacters are rather uniform.Calyx – Sepals 5, polypetalous, papilionaceous, posterior petal outermost large – thevexillium or standard; next two lateral ones – the wings or alae; and the two anteriorand innermost united to form a boat shaped structure – the keel or carina; descendingimbricate or vexillary aestivation. 27
  39. 39. Androecium – Stamens 10 or rarely nine, diadelphous or monadelphous,posteriorstamen is free and filaments of nine are fused to form a sheath around the ovary;Gynoecium – monocarpellary; ovary superior, unilocular, marginal placentation,numerous ovules on the ventral suture; style long slightly bent at the apex, flattened,hairy or without hair; stigma simple or capitate.Fruit – Legume or pod, indehiscent, LomentumSeed – Non endospermicPollination – EntomophilousFeatures of genus Peuraria DC101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106Habit:- Twinning herbs or shrubs.Leaves:- Pinnately 3 foliate; stipules herbaceous, produced below their insertion insome species.Leaflets:- Entire or sinuately 3 lobed, stipellate.Flowers:- In long often compound racemes; pedicels densely fascicled along anodiform rachis; bracts and bracteoles small.Calyx:- Teeth long or short, the 2 upper connate into one, which is entire or 2 –dentate.Corolla:- Exerted; standard obovate or suborbicular with inflexed auricles at the base,equaling in length the obtuse wings and keel.Stamens:- Monadelphous; anthers uniform.Ovary:- Subsessile; ovules many; style filiform, inflexed above, beardless; stigmasmall capitate.Pod:- linear, more or less flattened. 28
  40. 40. Morphology of Pueraria tuberosa DC107, 108, 109Habit:- A large perennial twinning shrub;Stem:- Woody, upto 12 cm in diameter.Leaves:- 3 foliate; petioles 10 – 15cm. long, more or less pubescent; stipules 4mm.long ovate – oblong, cordate.Leaflets: - subcoriaceous, 12.5 – 20 by 11.5 – 18cm. The terminal broadly ovate,acuminate, equal – sided, cuneate at the base, the lateral ovate oblong, inequilateral,truncate at the base, glabrous above, silky beneath; petiolules 4.5 – 6mm. long; stipelssmall, subulate.Flowers:- In lax, sometimes panicled leafless racemes, 15 – 30 cm. long; pedicels2 -3mm. long, silky pubescent, fascicled along a more or less pubescent rachis;bracteoles 1.5mm.long, oblong, silky.Calyx:- 6 – 8mm. long, densely silky; teeth shorter than the tube, oblong, obtuse,ciliate.Corolla:- Bluish; standard 1.3 cm long and as broad as long, spurred.Fruit:- Pods 5 – 7.5 cm. long, membranous, flat, constricted between the seeds,clothed with long silky bristly brown hairs.Seeds:- 3 – 6, reddish brown, ellipsoid – oblong.Root & Tuber:-110, 111, 112, 113 Macroscopy:- Pueraria tuberosa bears thick fleshy long roots which become swollen atintervals. The tubers thus formed are sub spherical or irregular and pear shaped,varying in diameter from 30 to 60 cm and in weight from 2.5 to 30 kg. The marketdrug consists of dried longitudinally cut decorticated flat thin slices or longitudinalcomparatively thick sectors, the former being of superior quality. The lateral surfaces 29
  41. 41. are white to dirty white and uneven due to longitudinal furrows. External surface inthe case of un decorticated drug is yellowish brown wrinkled and furrowed with a fewlenticels. The internal part of the drug loses more water as compared to the peripheralcortical layer with the result that cortical part of the drug pieces converge inwards andpartly envelope the internal portion of the drug. The external surface of superiordecorticated samples is dirty white and longitudinally striated. Fracture brittle andstarchy, and the fractured surface is lamellate. It has a slight characteristic odour and apeculiar sweet tasteMicroscopy:-Mature tuber shows 20 – 30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular, thin walled,tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish browncontent except in a few inner layers; secondary cortex consists of 6 – 15 layers ofcircular, oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated, thin walled cells, yellow bandof 2 – 6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards innerside of cortex;stone cells moderately thick walled, varying in shape and size and having well markedstriations and pits; a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found inparenchymatous cells and also rarely in stone cells. Secondary phloem consists ofsieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibersand a few stone cells, sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region formingtangential bands, phloem fibres much elongated, highly thickened, lignified withnarrow lumen, a no of tanniferous ducts filled with brown content distributedthroughout this region. Xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone, consisting ofseveral concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylemelements; vessels mostly drum shaped having reticulate thickening; xylem raysmultiseriate and well marked consisting of thin walled, radially elongated cells and a 30
  42. 42. few latex ducts are also present. Plenty of starch grains mostly simple, somewhatround, angular to oval, having central hilum and striations, measuring 5.5 – 13.75 u indiameter are present in all parenchymatous cellsPowder:-Buff colored; shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striationsmeasuring 5.5 – 13.75 u in diameter, fragments of cork, prismatic crystals of calciumoxalate, a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibers. 31
  43. 43. Phyto chemistry114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119a) Contents of tubersDry matter – 85.1%Total carbohydrates – 64.6%Crude fibre – 28.4%Crude protein – 10.9%Ether extract – 0.5%Sucrose, Glucose and Fructoseβ – SitasterolStigmastirolDaidzein (Ramakrishna K. V 1988, Ind. J. Chem 27 (B), 285)Isoflavonoid – Puerarin (Ramakrishna K. V 1988, Ind. J. Chem 27 (B), 285) 32
  44. 44. Principle allied to insulinSaccharine matterResinResin acidPterocarpan – Tuberosin (Krishnaprasad A V 1984, Ind .J. Chem 23(B)1165)Anhydroxy tuberosin3 – O – methyl anhydrotuberosinpuetuberosanolGluconic acidMalic acidFree amino acids (Mohd. A & quadry J. S 1986; Ind .J. Chem.Soc 63(10)918)Proteins (Ramakrishna K. V 1988, Ind. J. Chem 27 (B), 285)Vitamin B1 (Ramakrishna K. V 1988, Ind. J. Chem 27 (B), 285)Isoflavonoid – 4 – Methoxy purerin (Ramakrishna K. V 1988, Ind. J. Chem 27 (B),285)4 – 6 – di – O – purerin (Ramakrishna K. V 1988, Ind. J. Chem 27 (B), 285)Pueraone (Ramakrishna K. V 1988, Ind. J. Chem 27 (B), 285)Neobhava (Krishnaprasad A V 1984, Ind .J. Chem 23(B)1165)Deoxytuberosin (Krishnaprasad A V 1984, Ind .J. Chem 23(B)1165)Hydroxytuberosin (Krishnaprasad A V 1984, Ind .J. Chem 23(B)1165)Coumestan puerarostan (Krishnaprasad A V 1984, Ind .J. Chem 23(B)1165) 33
  45. 45. Contents of rootsIsoflavonoid - 4′,6″ - DiacetylpuerarinContents of LeavesCrude protein - 23.8%Fat – 0.7%Crude fibre – 30.7%Other carbohydrates – 31.6%Ash – 12.0%Calcium – 1.6%Phosphorus 0.2% 34
  46. 46. Pharmacological actions120,121 • Tuberosin showed protective effect on the ischaemic myocardium (Fan et al 1992) • Butanol extract of the root exhibited significant anti hepatotoxic activity against CCL4 induced liver damage (Shukla S. et al 1993) • Pharmacological studies with butanol, chloropharm and ethanol extracts of roots indicate very good oestrogenic activity (Shukla S. et al 1987), anti implantation activity (Gupta D N 1990) and anti fertility activity in rats (Mathur R 1983). The butanol extract being the most potent and without side effects • The extract of tuber was found to be active against Helminthosporium Sativum Pamm., (King & Bakke Fl. Assam, II, 80)Toxicity study122Toxicity studies with the butanol extract of Pueraria tuberosa, a prospective postcoitalcontraceptive agent, were carried out in rats. A dose of 150 mg/kg was administeredto rats for 6, 12, 18 and 24 days. The level of blood sugar, serum proteins, serum GPTand GOT showed variations with the normal range except at the highest dose regimen.Leucocyte counts and haemoglobin values were within normal limits. Protein content,glycogen content, activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase, level of total andesterified cholesterol, adenosine triphosphatase, and glucose – 6 phosphatase activityshowed no significant change at initial durations except with the 24 day regimen.However the adrenal glands showed significant change. No significant histopathological lesions were observed. The butanol extract appears to be generally safein rats at these acute and sub acute dosage regimens 35
  47. 47. Therapeutic evaluation123In a clinical study ethanolic extract of the plant in the form of capsule wasadministered to 250 female patients. The drug proved highly effective forDysmenorrhoea, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and menopausal syndrome. Acomposite herbal preparation CIHP – 1 containing Pueraria tuberosa as one of theingredients. It was clinically tried on 38 male subjects of age group of 23 – 40 yearswho were actively involved in anti insurgency activity of high anxiety and physicalendurance in northern Himalayan region. The results suggested that CIHP – 1supplementation to the subjects helped in faster recovery of antioxidants depressedduring combat stressSubstitute 124, 125, 126Vidari is a substitute (pratinidhi dravya) for Jeevaka and Rishabhaka. whereassubstitute for Vidari has not been mentioned in any of the classics. However inpractice Vidari and Ksheeravidari (Ipomea digitata) are being considered as substituteto each other. Ipomea mauritiana (Convolvulaceae) is also widely used as a source ofVidari. Adenia palmata Engl., Trichosanthes cordata Roxb., Lettsomia setosa Roxb.,Solanum verbascifolium Linn., Cycas rumphii Miq., Cycas pectinata Griff and Cycasbeddomei Dyers are reported to be the source of Vidari in Various Parts of India.Adulterants 127, 128, 129Stem tubers of Ipomea paniculata linn. locally known as Bhumi kumhra is sold in thename of Vidari in North India especially in Bihar, Bengal and Orissa. The freshly cuttuber of this plant exudes milky white sap. Stem tubers of Trichosanthes cordata isalso sometimes sold as Vidarikanda. The tubers in this case are smaller and lobed. In 36
  48. 48. Kerala large spherical tubers of Adenia hondala (Passifloraceae) are sold in themarket. A market survey made by Chaudhuri et al. (1981) and nair et al.(1983) inGujarat, Karnataka, Tamilnadu revealed that the decorticated stem of Cycascircinalis, a gymnosperm, is being marketed there as Vidari.Propagation and Cultivation130 131It can be easily propagated from seeds and through root stalks (crowns).Flowering time – February to AprilFruiting time – May to JuneCollection and storage132Usually collected near the banks of rivers, seen in depth.Mature tuber is taken, cut into slices, dried well under direct sunlight and thenpreserved in air tight conditions.Non therapeutic uses133They taste like liquorice and are said to be eaten raw or boiled as a vegetable.They are often fed to horses and ponnies.The tubers can be used for the extraction of starch.Trade and commerceRetail market price of tuber – Rs.55/ kg (2007).The yield of tubers is reported to be about 5.0 to 7.5 tonnes per hectare.134 37
  49. 49. Previous research works on VidarikandaIn Ayurvedic institutions • A clinical trial on the role of Vidarikanda as shukrala [Venkateshwarulu, 1998, Dr. BKRR Govt Ayurvedic College, Vijaywada.] • Shatavari evam Vidari ka guna karmatmaka adhyayana evam stanya janana prabhava ka tulanatmak adhyayana [Tyagi Savita, 1995,MMM Govt Ayurvedic College, Udaipur ] • A study on Vidarikanda w.s.r.t its vrishya karma [Acharya. R. N, 1996, Institute for post graduate teaching and research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar] • A clinical study on oligospermia with its management by Vidarikanda [Behra B S, 1996, Gopabandhu Ayurved mahavidyalaya, Puri]In other institutions • A pharmacognostic study of Vidarikanda [Atal, C.K. & Qadry, S.M.JS, 1962] • Components of the roots of Pueraria tuberosa: Isolation of of a new isoflavone – C – glycoside (Di-O-acetylpuerarin) [Bhutani, S.P.; Chibber, S.S & Seshadri, T.R.,1969] • Effect of Pueraria tuberosa on male reproductive system of rats [Daftari, P ; Chandhoke, N.; gupta, s. & Atal, C. K, 1981] • Oestrogenic activity of Pueraria tuberosa [Gaitonde, B B. et al 1975] • Post coital contraceptive efficacy and hormonal profile in Pueraria tuberosa [Gupta, d. N.; lakshmi, V.; Keshri, G.; 1990] 38
  50. 50. • Antifertility efficacy of the butanolic extract of Pueraria tuberosa [Mathur, A. & Shukla, S,1986]• Effect of Pueraria tuberosa on the oestrous cycle of adult rats, [Mathur , R,; Vinitha, S. 1984]• Studies on the peptide and amino acids of Pueraria tuberosa [Mohd. Ali & Qadry, J.S.1986]• Hypoglycaemic studies of Indian Medicinal plant Pueraria tuberosa [Nigam, S. T. & Baxi, A.J.1981]• Toxicological studies Pueraria tuberosa, a potent antifertility plant, [Shukla, S.1995]• Protective action of butanolic extract of Pueraria tuberosa against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in adult rats, [Shukla, S.; Jonathan, S.1996] 39
  51. 51. ShlokasmÉrÉÉïrÉ • ÌuÉSÉËU xuÉÉSÒMülSÉ cÉ xÉÉ iÉÑ ¢üÉå·íÏ ÍxÉiÉ xqÉ×iÉÉ | C¤ÉÑaÉlkÉÉ ¤ÉÏUuÉssÉÏ ¤ÉÏUzÉÑYsÉÉ mÉrÉÎxuÉÌlÉ || (pÉÉuÉmÉëMüÉzÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû) • ÌuÉSÉËU aÉeÉuÉÉeÉÏ¹É xuÉÉSÒ uÉ×wrÉ C¤ÉÑaÉÎlkÉMüÉ | ´ÉÑaÉÉÍsÉMüÉ uÉ×wrÉuÉssÉÏ zÉÑYsÉMülSÉ ÌuÉSÉËUMüÉ || (AÍpÉkÉÉlÉU¦ÉqÉÉsÉ) • ÌuÉSÉËU pÉÔÍqÉMÔüwqÉÉhQûÉ MüÍjÉiÉÉ cÉ ÌuÉSÉËUMüÉ | oÉ×WûiuÉÉiÉç MülS MüÉrÉxrÉ pÉÔÍqÉÇ SÉUrÉiÉÏuÉ xÉÉ || (ÌmÉërÉÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû) • ÌuÉSÉËU uÉ×wrÉMülSÉ ¤ÉÏUzÉÑYsÉÉ ÍxÉiÉÉ xqÉ×iÉÉ | C¤ÉÑaÉlkÉÉ Ì§ÉmÉhÉÉï cÉ zÉÑYsÉÉ aÉeÉuÉÉÎeÉÌmÉërÉÉ || (zÉÉÍsÉaÉëÉqÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû) (¢üÉå·íÏ, ÌuÉSÉËUMü, xuÉÉSÒMülSÉ, ´ÉÑaÉÉÍsÉMüÉ, uÉ×wrÉuÉÍkÉïÌlÉ, ÌoÉQûÉÍsÉ, uÉ×wrÉuÉÎssÉMüÉ, pÉÔMÔüwqÉÉÎhQû, xuÉÉSÒsÉiÉÉ, aÉeÉå¹É, uÉÉeÉÏuÉssÉpÉÉ, aÉlkÉTüsÉÉ, ¤ÉÏUuÉssÉÏ, mÉrÉÎxuÉÌlÉ, uÉפÉuÉssÉÏ, pÉÔÍqÉMÔüwqÉÉhQû) • ÌuÉSÉËUMüÉ qÉiÉÉ zÉÑYsÉÉ xuÉÉSÒMülSÉ ´ÉÑaÉÉÍsÉMüÉ | uÉ×wrÉMülSÉ ÌuÉSÉËU cÉ uÉ×wrÉuÉssÉÏ ÌuÉQûÉÍsÉMüÉ || (kÉluÉliÉËU ÌlÉbÉhOÒû) • ÌuÉSÉËU C¤ÉÑÌuÉSÉËU xrÉÉiÉç xuÉÉSÒMülSÉ ÌuÉSÉËUMüÉ | MÔüwqÉÉhQûÌMü MülSuÉssÉÏ uÉ×YzÉMülSÉ mÉsÉÉÌwÉMüÉ || aÉeÉuÉeÉÏÌmÉërÉÉ uÉ×wrÉÉ uÉפÉuÉssÉÏ ÌuÉQûÉÍsÉMüÉ | 40
  52. 52. uÉssÉÏmÉsÉÉÌwÉMüÉ MülSmÉsÉÉzÉWèû ´ÉåwPûMülSMüÈ || ´ÉÑaÉÉÍsÉMüÉ uÉ×wrÉmÉÍhÉï qÉëÑaÉÉåÍsÉ M×üwhÉuÉÎssÉMüÉ | (MæürÉSåuÉÌlÉbÉhOÒû) • ÌuÉSÉËUMüÉ uÉפÉuÉssÉÏ uÉפÉMülSÉ ÌuÉQûÉÍsÉMüÉ | ´ÉÑaÉÉÍsÉMüÉ MülSuÉssÉÏ xuÉÉSÒMülSÉ mÉsÉÉÍzÉMüÉ || (qÉSlÉmÉÉsÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû)aÉÑhÉ MüqÉï • ÌuÉSÉËU qÉkÉÑUÉ ÎxlÉakÉÉ oÉ×ÇWûhÉÏ xiÉlrÉzÉÑ¢üSÉ | zÉÏiÉÉ xuÉrÉÉï qÉÔ§ÉsÉÉ cÉ eÉÏuÉÌlÉ oÉsÉuÉhÉïSÉ || aÉÑÂÈ ÌmɨÉÉxÉë mÉuÉlÉ SÉWûÉlÉç WûÎliÉ UxÉÉrÉÌlÉ | (pÉÉuÉmÉëMüÉzÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû) • ÌuÉSÉUÏ qÉkÉÑUÉ ÎxlÉakÉÉ zÉÏiÉÉ uÉ×wrÉÉ UxÉÉrÉÌlÉ | oÉ×ÇWûhÉÏ oÉsÉSÉ xiÉlrÉuÉÍkÉïÌlÉ oÉÎxiÉzÉÉåÍkÉÌlÉ || uÉÉiÉÌmɨÉÉmÉWûÉ SÉWûeuÉU ¤ÉrÉ ÌuÉlÉÉÍzÉÌlÉ | (ÌmÉërÉÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû) • ÌuÉSÉËU MülS zÉÉMü eÉÏuÉlÉÉå oÉ×ÇWûhÉÉå uÉ×wrÉÈ MühœÈ zÉxiÉÉå UxÉÉrÉlÉå | ÌuÉSÉËUMülSÉå oÉsrÉ¶É qÉÔ§ÉsÉÈ xuÉÉSÒzÉÏiÉsÉÈ || (cÉUMü) • ÌuÉSÉËU uÉÉiÉÌmɨÉblÉÏ qÉÔ§ÉsÉÉ xuÉÉSÒzÉÏiÉsÉ | eÉÏuÉlÉÏ oÉ×ÇWûhÉÏ MühœÉ aÉÑuÉÏï uÉ×wrÉÉ UxÉÉrÉlÉqÉç || (A¹É…¡ûWØûSrÉ) • ÌuÉSÉËU uÉÉiÉÌmɨÉblÉÏ uÉ×wrÉÉ oÉsrÉÉ UxÉÉrÉlÉÏ | (qÉÉkÉuÉ SìurÉaÉÑhÉ) 41
  53. 53. • ÌuÉSÉËUMülSÉå oÉsrÉ¶É uÉÉiÉÌmɨÉWûU¶É xÉÈ | qÉkÉÑUÉå oÉ×ÇWûhÉÉå uÉ×wrÉ: zÉÏiÉ: xuÉUçÉåï AÌiÉqÉÔ§ÉsÉ: || (SìurÉaÉÑhÉ xÉÇaÉëWû)• qÉkÉÑUÉå oÉ×ÇWûhÉÉå uÉ×wrÉÈ zÉÏiÉÈ xuÉrÉÉåï AÌiÉqÉÔ§ÉsÉÈ | ÌuÉSÉËUMülSÉå oÉsrÉxiÉÑ ÌmɨÉuÉÉiÉ WûU¶É xÉÈ || (xÉÑ´ÉÑiÉ)• ÌuÉSÉËU uÉÉiÉÌmɨÉblÉÏ qÉÔ§ÉsÉÉ xuÉÉSÒ zÉÏiÉsÉÉ | ÌuÉSÉËU ÍzÉÍzÉUÉ xuÉÉSÒaÉÑÂÈ ÎxlÉakÉÉ xÉqÉÏUÎeÉiÉç | ÌmɨÉxÉëÎeÉiÉç iÉjÉÉ oÉsrÉÉ uÉ×wrÉÉ cÉæuÉ mÉëMüÐÌiÉïiÉÉ || (kÉluÉliÉËU ÌlÉbÉhOÒû) 42
  54. 54. DRUG REVIEW OF VARUNAHistory Charaka has explained Varuna in four contexts but has not mentioned indashemani and under ashmari mutrakrichra. Sushruta has included it under tiktavarga,vatasamshamana varga and varunadi varga. For the first time vrinda was the one whoexplained single use of varuna in ashmari. Neither Dhanvantari Nighantu nor Raja Nighantu quote about the lithotripticproperty of varuna. Vaidya Bapalal describe it as an important drug for hepatomegalyand spleenomegalyNirukti of Varuna135uÉUåÌiÉ | uÉ×hÉÉåÌiÉ | uÉ×gÉç uÉUhÉå |uÉ×hÉÉåÌiÉ mÉÍhÉïMüÉ uÉפÉiuÉÉiÉçIts leaf resembles those of Bilva.Ganas and VargasTable 1.9: Showing Vargas of Varuna according to different acharyas.Sl Book Vargano1. Sushruta Samhita Varunadi136 Vatasamshamana1372. Ashtanga hridaya Varunadi1383. Raja Nighantu Prabadradi gana1394. Bhavaprakasha Nighantu Vatadi varga1405. Dhanvantari Nighantu Amradi varga1416. Kaiyadeva Nighantu Aushadhi varga 142 43
  55. 55. ParyayaTable 1.10 Showing Synonyms of Varuna according to different acharyasMÉrÉÉïrÉ kÉ.ÌlÉ 143 UÉ.ÌlÉ144 Mæü.ÌlÉ145 pÉÉ.mÉë146 ÌlÉ.AÉ147ÌiÉ£üzÉÉMü + + + + +aÉlkÉuÉ×¤É + + - + +MÑüqÉÉUMü + + - + +UÉUhÉ - - + + -xÉåiÉÑuÉ×¤É - - - + -xÉÉkÉÑuÉ×¤É + - - - -IÉqÉÉsÉMü + - - + +µÉåiÉmÉÑwmÉ + + - - -µÉåiÉSìÓqÉ + + - - -ZÉÉMüSìÓqÉ - - - + +Vernacular names148English - Three leaved caperHindi - Barun, Barna, BilasiKannada - Nirvala, NarumbeleBengali - Barun, Tikto shakGujarati - Vayavarna, VaranaeMalayalam - Nirmatalam, NirvalMarathi - Vayavarna, HaravarnaPunjabi - Barna, BarnahiTamil - Varanam, NarvalaTelgu - Vivapatri, Usikmanu 44
  56. 56. Properties149Rasa – Kashaya, TiktaGuna – Laghu, RukshaVeerya – UshnaVipaka – KatuPrabhava – AshmaribhedanaDoshaghnata – Kaphavatashamaka, PittavardhakaKarma – Raktotkleshaka, Deepana, Anulomana, Pittasaraka, Bhedana, Krimighna,Raktashodhaka, Mootrala, Ashmari bhedana, JwaraghnaRogagnata – Vrana shotha, Vidradhi, gandamala, Agnimandya, Shoola, Gulma,yakridvikara, Krimi, Vatarakta, Ashmari, Mutrakrichra, Bastishoola, Jwara,DaurbalyaUpayukta anga150Stem bark, leafMatra151Decoction - 50 to 100 mlPowder 3 – 5 gmsPrayoga 1. Varuna patra kwatha is prepared and used as avagaha in arsha.152 2. Varuna niryasa is dissolved in water and then applied as anjana in vishasamsrsta anjana.153 3. Varuna twak churna is added to Varuna mula twak kwatha and administered in case of ashmari.154 45
  57. 57. 4. Varuna mula kwatha administered orally is beneficial in vidradhi. 155 5. Varuna twak is rubbed on a stone using ajadugda and applied over skin in case of vyanga.156Vishishta yogaTable 1.11 Showing different Formulations of Varuna1 uÉÂhÉÉÌS YuÉÉjÉ AzqÉËU cÉ¢üS¨É34/1, uÉ×lSqÉÉkÉuÉ 34/12 uÉÂhÉɱ iÉæsÉ AzqÉËU, zÉMïüUÉ qÉÔ§ÉM×ücNíû pÉÉ.mÉë.ÍcÉ.37/583 uÉÂhÉɱ bÉ×iÉ AzqÉËU, qÉÔ§ÉM×ücNíû pÉÉ.mÉë.ÍcÉ.37/834 uÉÂhÉɱ cÉÔhÉï AzqÉËU, qÉÔ§ÉM×ücNíû pÉÉ.mÉë.ÍcÉ.37/725 uÉÂhÉ ¤ÉÉUrÉÉåaÉ uÉÉiÉÉeÉlrÉ qÉÔ§ÉM×ücNíû pÉÉ.mÉë.ÍcÉ.37/746 uÉÂhÉMü aÉÑQû AzqÉËU pÉÉ.mÉë.ÍcÉ.37/76Modern review of Varuna 158Crateava nurvala Buch.- Ham.Crateava = Crativas – Greek botanist who lived in the time of cratesnurvala = (Nir - Malayalam) = WaterCrataeva religiosa Hook.f. & ThomsCapparidaceaeHabitat 159It is a deciduous tree, found almost all over India in Upper ganjetic plains, Bengal,Bihar and Orissa, Gujarat, Konkan and Tamil nadu, wild or cultivated. Often foundalong streams, but also in dry deep boulder formations in the sub Himalayan tract 46
  58. 58. Propagation and Cultivation160It can be propagated through axillary bud and leaf culture.Trade and commerceRetail market price – Bark Rs. 80 per kg (Bangalore, Karnataka)Morphology of Varuna161MacroscopyHabit - A small tree with a much branched head.Leaves – Deciduous, 3 foliate; petioles 3.8 – 7.6 cm long; leaflets 5-15 by 3.8-6.3 cm.ovate, lanceolate or obovate, acute or acuminate, attenuateat the base, entire, glabrouson both surfaces, pale beneath and reticulately veined, the lateral leaflets oblique atthe base; petiolules 6-9mm long.Flowers – manyin dense terminal corymbs, greenish white; pedicels 2.5 – 4.4 cm longstout, glabrous. Sepals petaloid, small, distant, ovate, acute. Petals nearly 2.5 by 0.9cm; claw upto 6 mm long, very narrow. Stamens longer than the petals, spreading.Gynophore nearly 5 cm long, terete, smooth. Ovary ellipsoid; stigma flat.Fruit – Globose or ovoid, woody or smooth. Berry on the thickened gynophore.Seeds embedded in pulp, nearly smooth, brown.Microscopy 162Stem bark – The bark occurs in pieces, 6 – 15 cm long, 3-10 cm wide and 5 – 12mthick. Outer surface is ash coloured and rough due to the prescence of lenticels, innersurface is smooth, whitish brown or buff coloured. In transverse section, theepidermis consists of single layer of cubical cells followed by a cortex consisting of 6 47
  59. 59. – 10 layers of collenchyma and 5 -10 layers of parenchyma containing chlorop[lastsand starch grains. The stele is represented by a large no of vascular bundles separatedby 1-3 cells wide medullary rays. Each vascular bundle is capped by strands oflignified pericyclic fibres. The mature bark is characterized by the presence ofsclerosed corky rhytidoma in the phelloderm and by a very wide zone of secondaryphloem possessing concentric strand of ceratenchyma alternating with strands of stonecells. Simple and compound starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalateare found in most of the parenchymaPhysical constants163 Bark – Total ash: 10.36 % Acid insoluble ash: 0.254 % Alcohol soluble extractive: 6.08 % Water soluble extractive: 50.47 %Phyto chemistry 164Root bark: Lauric, stearic, undecyclic, oleic and linolenic acids, triterpine alcohol –lupa – 21, 20, rutin, quercetin, lupen – 3 – epilupeol,pentacyclic triterpine alcohol.(API. P 540)Bark: Ceryl alcohol, friedelin, betulinic acid, diosgenin, lupeol, epiafzelechin – 5 – 0– β – D – glucoside, volatile components, pcymene, limonene, linalool and α & βionones. (API. P 540) 48
  60. 60. Pharmacological actions165Oxitocic, antibacterial, spasmolytic, cholinergic, diuretic, anti arthritic, corticosteroidlike activity, lithotryptic, spasmodic, anti inflammatory antipyretic, antifertility. Plantinhibited phosphatic stone formation in rats.Therapeutic evaluation 166 Clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy of Varuna in urinary disorders wereconducted on patients of enlarged prostate and vesical calculi. The patients showedfairly good response to the treatment. The reduced tone of the urinary bladderimproved to normal. The overall effect of the drug was highly encouraging, since itprovided relief to about 80 % of the patients. It was also found helpful in preventingthe stone formation on one hand and in expelling out the formed stone on the otherhand. Clinical trial on 84 cases on urinary tract infections accompanied with painand burning micturition was conducted with varuna, it cured 55 % cases, showedimprovement in 40 % cases and 5 % cases did not show any relief.Substitutes and Adulterants 167It is reported that the samples of stem bark collected from markets of northern Indiatallied with genuine bark but the sample collected from madras was found to be littledifferent microscopically. All the bark powders except the madras sample whenmounted in nitrocellulose exhibited yellow fluorescence under U V light, while themadras sample showed brown fluorescence. 49
  61. 61. Previous research worksEffect of crataeva nurvala in experimental urolithiasis, J. Ethnopharmacol.,Varalakshmi.P, Shamila.Y. (1990)Effect of crataeva nurvala on the biochemistry of the small intestinal tract of normaland stone - forming rats, J. Ethnopharmacol.,Study of use of Varunadi kwatha in Mutrakrichra, Suru, P.P & Kulkarni, P.H,Deerghayu International (1991)Evaluation of antilithic properties of Varuna (Crataeva nurvala) Singh, R.G &Kapoor, U.S (1991) 50
  62. 62. Shlokas1. uÉÂhÉÈ µÉåiÉmÉÑwmÉ¶É ÌiÉ£üzÉÉMüÈ MÑüqÉÉUMüÈ | µÉåiÉSìÓqÉÉå aÉlkÉuÉפÉxiÉqÉÉsÉÉå qÉÉÂiÉÉmÉWûÈ || uÉÂhÉÈ zÉÏiÉuÉÉiÉblÉÎxiÉ£üÉå ÌuÉSìÍkÉ eÉliÉÑÎeÉiÉç | iÉjÉÉ cÉ MüOÒû EwhÉ¶É U£üSÉåwÉWûUÈ mÉUÈ || (kÉluÉliÉËU ÍhÉbÉhOÒû)2. uÉÂhÉÉå uÉUhÉÈ xÉåiÉÑ ÌiÉ£üzÉÉMüÈ MÑüqÉÉUMüÈ | uÉÂhÉÈ ÌmɨÉsÉÉå pÉåSÏ zsÉåwqÉ M×ücNíûÉzqÉ qÉÉÂiÉÉlÉç || ÌlÉWûÎliÉ aÉÑsqÉuÉÉiÉÉxÉë M×üÍqÉ cÉ EwhÉ AÎalÉ SÏmÉlÉÈ | MüwÉÉrÉÉå qÉkÉÑUÌiÉ£üÈ MüOÒûMüÉåäÉMüÉå sÉbÉÑÈ || (pÉÉuÉmÉëMüÉzÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû)3. uÉÂhÉÉå uÉUhÉÈ xÉåiÉÑÂÂqÉÉhÉÈ MÑüqÉÉUMüÈ | zÉÉMüSìÓqÉÈ xÉåiÉÑuÉפÉÉå UÉåkÉuÉפÉxiÉÉqÉsÉMüÈ || xÉkÉÑuÉפÉÈ µÉåiÉmÉÑwmÉÎxiÉ£üzÉÉMü¶ÉÉqÉsÉMüÈ | uÉÂhÉÉå qÉkÉÑUÎxiÉ£üÈ MüwÉÉrÉÉå MüOÒûMüÉå sÉbÉÑÈ || äÉÉåwhÉÈ ÌmɨÉsÉÉå pÉåSÏ SÏmÉlÉÈ MüTüuÉÉiÉÎeÉiÉç | ÌlÉWûÎliÉ M×üÍqÉ uÉÉiÉÉxÉë qÉÔ§ÉÉbÉÉiÉÉxÉë WØûªSÉlÉç || (MæüSåuÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû) 51
  63. 63. DISEASE REVIEWHistorical review History is a part of description of any subject. From vedic period much hasbeen documented in Sutras, Shlokas regarding Mutrakrichra in particular andaffliction of urogenital tract in general. The historical aspect can be divided into 4parts as below.(1) Vedic Kala(2) Samhita Kala(3) Samgraha KalaVedakala168 Among the four Vedas, references regarding urogenital system have beenfound in Atharvaveda. In the first chapter of Atharvaveda, organs like Gavini andBasti are described. Urethral catheterization with Lohshalaka to drain the distendedbladder has been mentioned. But the disease by the name Mutrakrichra has not beenmentioned.Samhita kala Acharya Charaka has mentioned ganas pertaining to mutra likeMutrasangrahaneeya, Mutravirajaneeya and Mutravirechaneeya and enumerated 8types of Mutraghata in Sutrasthana and explained 8 types of Mutrakrichra in Chikitsasthana.He has mentioned Basti and Vankshana as srotomula of mutravaha srotas. 52
  64. 64. Sushruta has dealt with Mutrakrichra in a separate chapter of Uttaratantracalled Mutrakrichrapratishedha adhyaya where he mentions 8 types of Mutrakrichraand their lakshanas separately. Both Ashtanga sangrahakara and Ashtanga hridayakara have explainedimportance of Basti and mutrakrichra under Mutraghata nidana adhyaya where thefour types of mutrakrichra have been explained followed by explanation of twentytypes of Mutraghata. Kashyapa has dedicated a separate chapter in Chikitsa sthana calledMutrakrichra chikitsa adhyaya. In Sutrasthana of Bhela samhita one chapter is devoted to MutrakrcchraChikitsa but is incomplete.Sangraha kala A separate chapter for mutrakrichra has been dedicated in Madhava nidanawhere the roga nidana, samprapti have been detailly explained. Similar explanationsalong with treatment have been found in Chakradatta, Yogaratnakara, SharangdharaSamhita and Bhavaprakasha Nighantu. Most of these texts follow the descriptionsgiven in Charaka and Sushruta.Vyutpatti of MutraThe word mutra is derived from qÉ賈 + bÉgÉç | qÉÔ§ÉÌiÉ CÌiÉ meaning to ooze or exudeprofusely.169 Hence mutra is the liquid which is secreted or which oozes fromkidneys.170 Other terms related to mutra are Prasavaha (meaning to flow or to ooze), 53
  65. 65. mehanam (meaning to pass urine), guhyanisyanda (meaning to ooze), sravana,srava.171Swaroopa of mutrvaha srotas For understanding samprapti of any disease it is necessary to study the srotoshareera of the involved srotas. Acharya Charaka opines the mula of mutravaha srotasto be Basti and Vrishana.172 Sushruta opines that there are two mutravaha srotas andtheir mula is Basti and Medra.173 Only Mutrashaya, Vrishana and Medra have beenexplained in this context whereas Vrikka has been explained in the context ofmedovaha srotas.174 Hence Mutravaha srotas means the system, which is responsible for utpatti andvisarjana of mutra. In Ayurvedic classics, one may not get exact reference regardingthe detail description of the urinary system. Hence by taking the help of contemporaryscience and opinion of 20th century scholars, the word mutravaha srotas is co-relatedwith urinary system.Concept of Urine formation in Ayurveda It is the matter of concern that during the formation of urine the related organshave not being dealt in connection. In this regard Basti has been given importance andthe anatomical structure is elaborately explained in our science. But the upper urinarytrack i.e., Gavinis and Vrakkau have not been brought into picture, which makes usdifficult to draw a clear picture. All the Acharyas are of the same opinion that theingested food is digested by the action of Kledaka Kapha, Pachaka Pitta andSamanvayu and divides it into rasa, moothra, purisha and dosha. 54
  66. 66. The ahara rasa after undergoing digestion by the help of pachaka pitta getsdivided into saara bhaga and saaraheena bhaga. The saara heena bhaga becomes mala.The dravaroopa mala through different channels comes to Mutrashaya or Basti. Thismala is known as mutra.175 Sushruta further explains the transport of mutra from Pakwashaya to Bastigiving a similie that the mutravaha nadi originating from Pakwashaya bring mutra toBasti just like the rivers flowing towards the ocean. Mutra comes to Basti by theprocess of upasneha vidhi from the numerous minute channels from Pakvashayawhich are invisible to naked eyes. Hence it is to be understood that the mutra which isformed in the Pakvashaya fills in the Basti just like a new earthen pot kept in waterimmersed up to the neck gets filled.176Formation of urine according to modern science Formation of urine starts from a Nephron. A Nephron consists of two portions:a renal corpuscle where plasma is filtered and a renal tubule into which the filteredfluid passes. Nephrons perform three basic functions – glomerular filtration, tubularsecretion and tubular reabsorption. In glomerular filtration substances in the bloodthat are small enough pass across the wall of the glomerular capillaries into the renaltubule. Then as the fluid moves along the renal tubule, many useful materials arereturned to the blood in peritubular capillaries and vasa recta; this is tubularreabsorption. As the fluid passes along the tubule, it also gains some additionalmaterials (wastes and excess substances) from tubule cells and blood capillaries; thisis tubular reabsorption Urine thus formed by the nephrons ultimately drains into large ducts calledpapillary ducts. They lead to cup like structures like minor and major calyces. From 55
  67. 67. the major calyces, the urine drains into a large cavity called the renal pelvis and thenout through the ureter to the urinary bladder.177Mutravaha srotoavayavaThe main avayavas which are explained with regards to mutravaha srotas areMutravaha naadi, Mutravaha dhamani, Mutravaha sira, Mutra praseka, Basti, Gavini,Vrikka, Medra etc.Mutravaha nadi Acharya Sushrutha states that Basti is filled with mutra through many nadis,which are present in Pakvashaya.178 Astanga sangrahakara also has the same opinionand states that the Basti is continuously filled up by exudation of the mutra throughthousands of openings in the mutravaha nadis.179Mutravaha dhamani Mutravaha dhamani have been explained by sushruta under adhogamidhamanis which carry vata, mutra, pureesha, shukra, arthava etc and does thefunctions like dhmapana and yapana.180 Vagbhata adds that (All the ten) adhogamidhamanis divide in the pakvashaya into three branches, out of these two are concernedwith transportation of mutra.181 Bhavamishra has a difference of opinion regarding the functions of thesedhamanis. According to him, they are responsible for the dharan, chalana of mutraetc.182Mutravaha siras These terminologies have been used by Acharyas like Bhavamishra andSharangadhara. Bhavamishra states that the ‘jala bhaga” of the dravamala istransported by siras from the Grahani to the basti. Here it is converted in to mutra.183 56
  68. 68. Sharangadhara in his description says that the watery portion of the mala ofthe digested food is carried to the basti by the siras and then it is called as themutra.184Moothrapraseka Sushruta has mentioned that it is present in the basti mukha.185 Thus it can becompared with the proximal part of the urethra linked with the urinary bladder. This isalso included as one among the ashta marmas and cautions the surgeon not to injureit.186 Mutrapraseka can be grossly compared to the urethra. The urethra is a smalltube leading from the internal urethral orifice in the floor of the urinary bladder to theexterior of the body. In females the urethra lies directly posterior to the pubicsymphysis the opening of the urethra to the exterior , the external urethral orifice islocated between the clitoris and the vaginal opening. In males the urethra extends from the internal urethral orifice and passesthrough the prostate gland, then through the urogenital diaphragm and finally throughthe penis. In both males and females the urethra is the terminal portion of the urinarysystem. It serves as the passage way for discharging urine from the body. The maleurethra also serves as the duct through which various reproductive secretions aredischarged from the body.187VrikkaVrikka is stated as being medovaha srotomula in Charaka vimanasthana and Susruthashareera sthana. Though the organ known as Vrikka is mentioned in Ayurveda itsrelation with the formation of mutra has not been clearly explained. They areclassified under the koshtanga and pratyangas, almost all the Acharyas have stated 57
  69. 69. their position in the koshta. Vrikkas are two in number, round in shape and arecomposed of mamsa. They are situated on either side of the koshta. In embryologicalview Vrikka are classified under maternal (matruja avayava) part.188 Vrikka arederived from the prasadabhaga of raktha and meda.189 The Astangakara also hassimilar views. The writers of twentieth century have come out with different conclusions.Dr. Ghanekar and Acharya Gananath sen have identified Vrikka as the kidneys. Onthe ground of statement above stated, it can be concluded that Vrikka are two roundshaped bodies, composed of rakta, mamsa and meda. They are situated in theabdominal cavity in the lumbar region on either side. This conclusion specificallypoints towards the kidneys only.The kidneys are a pair of excretory organs, bean shaped, situated on the posteriorabdominal wall, one on each side of the vertebral column, behind the peritoneum. Thelateral border is convex and the medial border is concave. Its middle part shows adepression, the hilum. Naked eye examination of a coronal section of the kidneyshows: (a) an outer, reddish brown cortex; (b) an inner, pale medulla and (c) a space,the renal sinus.The renal medulla is made up of about 10 conical masses, called the renal pyramids.The renal cortex is divisible into two parts; (i) cortical lobules which forms caps overthe bases of the pyramids; and (ii) renal columns, which dip in between the pyramids.The renal sinus is a space that extends into the kidney from the hilus. It contains: (a)branches of the renal artery; (b) tributaries of renal vein; and (c) renal pelvis. Togetherrenal cortex and renal pyramids constitute the functional portion or parenchyma of thekidney. Within the parenchyma are about 1 million microscopic structures called 58