Malla toxicity rs-bel

2,484 views

Published on

PHARMACEUTICO - ANALYTICAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL STUDY OF SHUDDHA MALLA ON WISTAR ALBINO RATS (AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY), BY
DR. K. PALLAVI, DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN RASASHASTRA, TARANATH GOVT. AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, BELLARY – 583 101

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,484
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
55
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Malla toxicity rs-bel

  1. 1. PHARMACEUTICO - ANALYTICAL ANDTOXICOLOGICAL STUDY OF SHUDDHA MALLA ON WISTAR ALBINO RATS (AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY) BY DR. K. PALLAVI Dissertation submitted to the RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKA, BANGALORE. In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of AYURVEDA VACHASPATI (DOCTOR OF MEDICINE) In RASASHASTRA Under The Guidance of Dr.SHANKAR GOWDA M.D.(AYU) Asst.Professor T.G.A.M.C., Bellary . DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN RASASHASTRATARANATH GOVT. AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, BELLARY – 583 101 (KARNATAKA) 2008
  2. 2. RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKA, BANGALORE. DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATEI hereby declare that this dissertation entitled :“Pharmaceutico – Analytical and toxicological Study ofShuddha Malla on Wistar albino rats (An ExperimentalStudy)” is a bonafide and genuine research work carried out by meunder the guidance of Dr.Shankara Gowda, M.D. (Ayu),Asst.Professor, T.G.A.M.C, Bellary. Signature of the CandidateDate : DR. K.PALLAVIPlace : Post Graduate Scholar in Rasashastra T.G.A.M.C, Bellary. 2
  3. 3. RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKA , BANGALORE. CERTIFICATE BY THE GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled:“Pharmaceutico - Analytical and toxicological Study ofShuddha Malla on Wistar albino Rats -An ExperimentalStudy” is a bonafide research work done by DR.K.PALLAVI inpartial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of AyurvedaVachaspati, Doctor of Medicine (Ayurveda). Signature of the GuideDate : Dr.SHANKARA GOWDA, M.D. (Ayu)Place : Asst. Professor T.G.A.M.C., Bellary. 3
  4. 4. RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKA, BANGALORE. ENDORSEMENT BY THE HOD, PRINCIPAL/ HEAD OF THE INSTITUTION This is to certify that the dissertation entitled“Pharmaceutico analytical and toxicological Study of ShuddhaMalla on Wistar Albino Rats-An Experimental Study” is abonafide research work done by DR.K.PALLAVI under theguidance of Dr.Shankara Gowda, M.D. (Ayu) Professor, T.G.A.M.C.Bellary.Seal & Signature of the H.O.D Seal & Signature of the PrincipalDr. M.S.DODDAMANI, M.D. (Ayu) Dr. K.VISHWAMBHARAM.D.(Ayu)Date : Date :Place : Place : 4
  5. 5. RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, BANGALORE. DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE I hereby declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of HealthScience, Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve use anddisseminate this dissertation in print or electronic format foracademic / research purpose. Signature of the candidateDate : DR.K.PALLAVIPlace: 5
  6. 6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I pray and bow before almighty for having given me this unique opportunity. It gives me pleasure to express my gratitude with profound respect to my guideDr.Shankara Gowda, Asst.Professor, Dept of PG Studies in Rasashastra, T.G.A.M.C.,Bellary for his scholarly guidance, constant encouragement throughout my study. I am overwhelmingly grateful to Dr.M.S.Doddamani, Professor& HOD, Dept ofPost Graduate Studies in Rasashastra, T.G.A.M.C., Bellary for his moral encouragement,inspiration and continuous support in completing my work. I am blessed to have precious supervision, pinpoint suggestion and constant helpof Dr.N.B.Shridhar,MVSc,Phd Asst.Professor,Principal Investigator, Department ofPharmacology & toxicology, KVAFSU, who guided me during experimental study. I extend my gratefulness to honourable Principal Prof. K.Viswambhara M.D (Ayu)for providing all facilities to make the study success. I express my profound sense of gratitude to all the PG Scientific committeemembers Dr. Shobha Hiremath,Dr.Surekha Madikeri & Dr.Ravi Chavan for theircontinuous help & suggestions. I am extremely grateful to the respected & esteemed ,Dr.Sathyanarayana Bhat,Dr.G.R.Vastrad, Dr.L.N. Kundargi, Dr. V.L. Yadhalli, Dr. Hugar, Dr. Saraswathi,Dr.Shashikala Biradar, Dr. Rajshekar Ganiger, Dr. Srivatsa,Dr.Madhava Diggavi , fortheir inspiration and encouragement. I am cordially thankful to Prof.Subodh ,Prof.Subramanian ,Prof.Deshpande,Mr.Krishnamurthy, Dept.of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science,Bangaloreand Ganesh Consultancy & Analytical Services for their kind co-operation in performinganalytical study. My Special thanks to Prof.Narayan Swamy, Dept of Pathology, KVAFSU for hiskind co-operation in histopathological study. I am thankful to Mr.Srinivas, Vijay Diagnostics centre for on time reports inhaematology & histopathology. 6
  7. 7. I am thankful to Dr .K.P.Suresh, Scientist (Biostatistics), National Institute ofAnimal Nutrition & Physiology, Bangalore, for his kind co-operation in procuringstatistical reports. Thanks to Mr. D.Vaman Rao, Professor in chemistry & metallurgy for his prudentdiscussions on drug analytical results. My thanks to Central Animal house, Indian Institute Of Science, Bangalore forproviding the experimental animals as needed.I convey my thanks to Dr.Shivanand, Dr.Shreelatha,Dr.MohanKumar,Vanitha,Vinod,KVAFSU for their kind assistance in performing experimental study at the locale. I wish to express my thanks to: Dr.Veerendra Hatti ,Dr.Manjula, Dr.Anuroopa,Dr.Nischitha,Dr.RamacharyaGudi,Dr.AjithNarayan,Dr.Usharani,Dr.Mamatha,Dr.Mallamma,Dr.SriMukunda,Dr.C.M.Joshi,Dr.AbdulKareem,Dr.Lajana,Dr.Sunitha,Dr.Brahmanand,Dr.Rohith,Dr.Srikanth,Dr.ShriRaj,Dr.Manjunath,Dr.PoornimaBhat,Dr.Prajnami,Dr.SunithaG.S,Dr.SunithaM.L,Dr.Shwetha,Dr.AjayKumar,Dr.Kishor,Dr.Shrinidhi & Dr.Manjunath for their co-operation during the study period. My special thanks to my batch mates, friends Dr.Revati.Huddar, Dr.SaritaraniDr.Sanjeeva gowda Patil, Dr.Naveen.K , Dr.Sandeep.S and Dr.ManjulaC.V for theiradorable assistance through out the study period. I wish to convey sincere gratitude to my beloved teachers Dr.Ashalatha,Dr.Ganesh Kumar & Dr.Vijayalakshmi who fed me with blessings. I am endeared to express my special thanks to Dr.K.V.Guruprasad who stood asa constant source of inspiration and assisted me throughout the study. Deep from my heart my gratitude to my lovable parents Smt & Shri G.RajivShetty who made my dream come true. I wish to thank my brothers and all my family members for their support inaccomplishing this work. My sincere thanks to CCRAS for having selected present thesis for grants. I am sincerely thankful to all teaching staffs, physicians, staff nurses and non-teaching staffs of T.G.A.M.C. Hospital, Bellary & all those who have helped me directlyor indirectly in completion of this dissertation & for their generous and kind help formaking this work a success. DR.K.PALLAVI 7
  8. 8. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONSA.P Ayurveda PrakashaA.N Adarsha NighantuAs ArsenicATO,As2O3 Arsenic tri oxideB.P Bhava PrakashaB.P.N Bhava Prakasha NighantuB.R.R.S Bruhad Rasaraja Sundarad 50 Diffraction 50% for particle Size.JCPDS Joint Committee For Powder Diffraction Standards.K.N Kaiyadeva NighantuLD 50 Lethal Dose 50/median lethal dose.M.N Madanapala NighantuMTD Maximum tolerated dose.NOAEL No observed adverse effect level.P PhosphorousR RasamritamR.C Rasendra ChudamaniR.N Raja NighantuR.T Rasa TaranginiR.R.S Rasa Ratna SamucchayaR.J.N Rasa Jala NidhiSPF Specific pathogen FreeY.R Yoga RatnakaraX-RD X- Ray Diffraction.XPDF X-ray powder diffraction files 8
  9. 9. TABLE OF CONTENTSSl No. CONTENTS PAGE No.I INTRODUCTION.II Aims & Objectives.III Review of Literature. • Malla-A classical Review. • Arsenic & Arsenic trioxide • Karavellaka & its Modern Review • Pharmaceutical Review. • Analytical Review. • Toxicology Review. • Experimental Review.IV Methodology. Pharmaceutical study. • Malla Shodhana In Dola Yantra Swedana. Analytical study. • Physico-chemical, AAS, XRD, Particle Size Experimental study. • Acute Study • Sub-Acute StudyV Results. • Acute Study • Sub-acute StudyVI Discussions. • Acute Study • Sub-acute StudyVII Conclusion.VIII Summary.IX Limitations & Scope for the study.X Bibliographic References.XI Annexure. 9
  10. 10. LIST OF TABLESSL. PAGE TABLESNO. NO.1. Synonyms of Malla according to various authors.2. Varieties of Malla based on colour.3. Varieties of Malla based on Appearance.4. Malla shodhana according to various authors.5. Gunas of Malla according to various authors.6. Synonyms of Karavellaka according to various authors.7. Pharmacological Properties of Karavellaka.8. Observations during Malla shodhana in Karavellaka Swarasa.9. Organoleptic Characters of two samples of Malla10. Summary of Particle Size analysis.11. Shows Results of X-RD studies.12. Shows Drugs according to groups in acute study.13. Shows Calculation of administered dose of each group.14. Shows Calculation of escalated doses for two groups.15. Shows the day and number of rats dead in group IV.16. Shows the day and number of rats dead in group VII.17. Shows drugs according to groups in Sub-acute study.18. Shows weight and calculation of doses.19. Shows the physico-chemical results of Samples20. Shows Arsenic estimation in the given samples.21. Shows comparison of body weight between groups.22. Shows the inter group differences and its significance.23. Shows the percentage of rats dead in group IV.24. Shows the percentage of rats dead in group VII.25. Shows the comparison of Hb between groups.26. Shows the comparison of TLC between groups.27. Shows the comparison of DC-P between groups.28. Shows the comparison of lymphocytes between groups.29. Shows the comparison of eosinophils between groups.30. Shows the comparison of monocytes between groups.31. Shows the comparison of PCV between the groups. 10
  11. 11. 32. Shows the comparison of RBC between groups.33. Shows the comparison of Urea between groups.34. Shows the comparison of Creatinine between groups.35. Shows the comparison of SGOT between the groups.36. Shows the comparison SGPT between the groups.37. Shows the histopathology results.38. Shows the body weight between groups.39. Shows the comparison of Hb between groups.40. Shows the comparison of total Count between groups.41. Shows the comparison of DC-P between groups.42. Shows the comparison of DC-L between groups.43. Shows the comparison of DC-E between groups.44. Shows the comparison of DC-M between the groups.45. Shows the comparison of RBC between the groups.46. Shows the comparison of PCV between the groups.47. Shows the comparison of SGOT between the groups.48. Shows the comparison of SGPT between the groups.49. Shows the comparison of albumin between the groups.50. Shows the comparison of TPR between the groups.51. Shows the comparison of creatinine between the groups.52. Shows the comparison of BUN between the groups.53. Shows the histopathological results of different groups. 11
  12. 12. LIST OF GRAPHSSL. GRAPHS PAGE NONO.1. XRD of Raw /Ashuddha Malla2. XRD of Shuddha Malla.3. Comparitive XRD peaks between Shuddha and Ashuddha Malla.4. Diffraction pattern of Particle Size of Shuddha Malla.5. Diffraction pattern of Particle Size of Ashuddha Malla.6. Shows the body weight difference in between the groups in acute.7. Representation of Quantal dose response in group IV.8. Representation of Quantal dose response in group VII9. Representation of body weight in between groups Subacute. 12
  13. 13. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, FIGURES AND PHOTOGRAPHSSL.NO FIGURES OR PHOTOGRAPHS PAGE NO1. Arsenic inhibiting enzymes.2. Chemical Structure of ATO.3. Raw Malla.4. Karavellaka.5. Ground Karavellaka kalka.6. Extraction of Karavellaka swarasa.7. Measured karavellaka swarasa.8. Malla in pottali.9. Dola Yantra Swedana.10. Boiling swarasa after 2 hours.11. Boiling swarasa after 5 hours.12. Pottali opened after cooling.13. Washing Malla pieces in hot water.14. Powdering Malla.15. Rats in cage.16. Cages arranged.17. Feeding and water for rats.18. Dosage prepared.19. Weighing the animals.20. Analytical balance.21. Numbering of rats.22. Tuberculin syringe.23. Gavaging the dose.24. Ether chamber.25. Storage Vials.26. Preparation of ether chamber.27. Blood drawing.28. Capillary tube and blood stored.29. Centrifuging blood.30. Semi-auto analyzer.31. Dissection set.32. Diethyl ether used for anaesthesia.33. Micropipettes with serum.34. Clear Serum in a pipette.35. Reagent mixing.36. Rehabilitating rat after anaesthesia.37. Blood clot after centrifuge38. Separating Serum39. Rat in ether chamber.40. Anaesthetized Rat.41. Decapitation of rat.42. Dead rat .43. Exposing Fascia 13
  14. 14. 44. Excising the organs45. Dissection of Brain.46. Fixing organs in NBF47. Ready for Histopathology ACUTE STUDY-histopathology.48. Photo micrographs of Heart tissues.49. Photomicrographs of Brain.50. Photomicrographs of Liver.51. Photomicrographs of Kidney.52. Photomicrographs of Lungs.53. Photomicrographs of Spleen.54. Photomicrographs of Gastric mucosa. SUB-ACUTE STUDY-histopathology.55. Photo micrographs of Heart tissues.56. Photomicrographs of Brain.57. Photomicrographs of Liver.58. Photomicrographs of Kidney.59. Photomicrographs of Lungs.60. Photomicrographs of Spleen.61. Photomicrographs of Gastric mucosa.62. Collision in fragmented Particles.63. Effect of temperature & reaction.64. Effect of Concentration on collision. 14
  15. 15. ABSTRACTTitle: “Pharmaceutico - Analytical and toxicological study of Shuddha Malla On Wistar Albino Rats (An experimental Study).”Background: Malla is one of the Sadharana Rasa. Shodhana is not only purification but alsopharmaceutical, pharmacological enhancement and detoxification therapy..The drug wasthen used to screen the toxicity on Wistar albino rats through Acute and Sub-acute Study.Objectives: 1) Shodhana of Malla by swedana method. 2) Physico – chemical Analysis of Shuddha Malla. 3) To screen the probable toxicity of Shuddha Malla in repeated doses. 4) To screen the probable toxicity Shuddha Malla in a single dose. 5) To find the median lethal dose of Shuddha Malla & Ashuddha Malla.Methods:Pharmaceutical Study: Swedana method for 6 hrs in Karavellaka Swarasa.From this study 47 gm (94%) ofShuddha Malla was obtained from 50 gm of Raw Malla.Analytical study: Physical tests like Ash value etc., Loss on drying, pH, estimation of arsenic,Particle Size, X-RD studies were conducted on Ashuddha and Shuddha Malla. Estimation of As% was in significant Purity levels proving to be genuine. An X-RD study has shown composition of Malla as As2O3 in both the samples with differentstandards. Particle size varies which shows an increased size after shodhanaExperimental study: Toxicity studies both acute and Sub acute was carried out for 14 and 28days respectively. The Control with the placebo gum acacia was common in both thestudy.. The repeated doses of Shuddha and Ashuddha Malla also were administered toknow the significant changes in 2 different respective groups. The escalated doses of boththe drugs were carried out in order to find the LD50 during the acute study. Collection ofblood and necropsy of rats was carried out to extract the data analysis.Results: The 10 and 20 times the dose of therapeutic dose of Shuddha Malla proved to benon-toxic. The repeated daily therapeutic dose of Shuddha Malla also proved to be non-toxic. 15
  16. 16. Conclusion: ◊ Shuddha Malla reveals more of Arsenic %. ◊ The median lethal dose of Shuddha Malla is 16.65mg. ◊ The single dose, repeated therapeutic dose for 14 days and 28 days of Shuddha Malla is non-toxic.Key words: Shodhana, Chemical Analysis, X-RD, Toxicity, escalated dose, median lethal dose. 16
  17. 17. INTRODUCTION Rasashastra dealing with drug pharmacology holds a valid response of drugdesigning, formulating, analyzing with a vision to cure diseases. Never medicines have tobe invented, evolved. Probably the result was evolution of mineral medicines after 100sof years of hard work, observations, experiments and research. An article JAMA on 15th December 2004, made feel the necessity of safety dataon metallomineral and herbo-mineral formulations used in Ayurveda. Conventionally,modern toxicology and pharmacology consider all the heavy metals as highly toxic. Butthis toxicity the vishathva was tamed by our seers by means of Shodhana. On the contrarythey become potent therapeutically. Malla is one such wonder Rasadravya used in day to day practice included underSadharana Rasa contains Arsenic. On review it was found that pharmaceutical andanalytical studies are carried but not toxicological studies. Hence a positive hypothesis(H1) is made that, with classical therapeutic dosage the safety of Malla is to be knownand the need of the hour is to prove its safety use through toxicological studies. So the present work entitled “PHARMACEUTICO – ANALYTICAL ANDTOXICOLOGICAL STUDY OF SHUDDHA MALLA ON WISTAR ALBINORATS(AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY)’’is taken up in the interest of producingexperimental base for safety clinical use of Shuddha Malla .The present study has been categorized into 1. Introduction: Explains need of the study and hypothesis behind the study. 2. Objectives: Substantiating the mode of study 3. Review of literature: Reveals the drug review, pharmaceutical review, analytical review Experimental review and toxicological review. 4. Methodology: Is divided into three parts Pharmaceutical study: 17
  18. 18. Includes detailed documentation of Shodhana of Malla by Karavellaka swarasa carried out. Analytical study: Includes physico – chemical Analysis, estimation of Arsenic in the Sample along with particle Size and X-Ray Diffraction Study. Conducted on Ashodhita Malla and Karavellaka Shodhita Malla. Experimental study: Includes screening of probable toxicity of Shuddha Malla and Ashuddha Malla on Wistar albino Rats. It is in two sections as Acute and Sub-acute Study.5. Results: Includes results of Pharmaceutical, Analytical study and Statistical reports of Experimental Toxicological Studies both acute and Sub-acute.6. Discussion: Includes observations, findings & results of study along with probable Explanations and theories.7. Conclusion: A view of concluding points.8. Summary: The whole study is summarized.9. Bibliographical references: List of references from classical, modern texts and websites. 18
  19. 19. OBJECTIVES1) To carry out Shodhana of Malla in Karavellaka Swarasa.2) To carry out Physico-chemical analysis of Shuddha Malla.3) To carry out Acute toxicity Study of Shuddha Malla and Ashuddha Malla on Wistar albino rats.4) To carry out Sub-acute toxicity Study of Shuddha Malla and Ashuddha Malla Wistar albino rats.5) To carry out dose-dependent study and evaluate LD 50 of both Shuddha Malla and Ashuddha Malla.6) To carry out the relevant Serum and haematological laboratory investigations.7) To carry out histopathological analysis to understand organ toxicity.8) To prove the Safety dose of the drug. 19
  20. 20. MALLA Malla is one of essential Sadharana Rasas1. Most of Rasagranthas considered itunder Sadharana Rasa. Malla as a drug molecule was found in Samhitha kala itself. Itwas named as Phenashma and explained along with Haratala and both of them areconsidered as Dhatuvisha2.Nirukti: 3, 4 “Mallati dharati balamiti” The one which does baladharana, Is strong, robust, to hold, Possess, Excellent.Nishpatti: 5 The word Malla is derived from ‘Mall’ Dhatu and ‘Ach’ Pratyaya.Varga6: It is placed under Sadharana Rasa Varga.Historical Review: • Mentioned first as Phenashma along with Haratala as Dhatuvisha2. • Most of Rasacharyas explained it under Sadharana Rasavarga.Occurrence7: It is scarcely available along with the ores of Iron, Copper, and Sulphuretc. It is also available as a component in Haratala and Manahshila.If occurs in mineralform it has traces of antimony, nickel, silver, iron, bismuth and gold.Availability8: In the mineral form in China, Europe etc.In India Hazaaribagh (Bihar),Chitral (Kashmir) and nearby areas obtained with ores of Makshika etc.The artificialforms are from chimneys of industries and the places where Arsenopyrites are burnt.Characteristics9: Malla is crystalline or amorphous substance, white in colour. Itspowder resembles the flour of wheat but is much heavier. The surface of Malla has apeculiar shine and sometimes there occurs a yellowish tinge.Physical Properties9: When heated, Malla becomes soft and emits the odour like garlic.One crystalline variety of Malla is soluble in water, in very small quantity. The crystalsof Arsenic oxide are Octahedral or Monoclinic, of which the latter is unstable. Whenheated with intense heat, it evaporates in the atmosphere, directly (sublimation) givingout garlic odour.Grahya Malla10: Sphatikabha Malla is of best quality. Shankhabha or Shwethabha Malla is of better quality. Haridrabha Malla is of Good quality. 20
  21. 21. Vernacular names11:Kannada : Shankha pashana. Hindi : Shankhia.English : White Arsenic. Latin : Arsenicum Album.Gujarati : Somala, Sankhiyo. Marathi : Somalakhara.Bengali : Sankhavisa. Arabian : Sanmuluphar.Synonyms: Various synonyms have been given for Malla in Rasashastra classics basedon its colour, appearance, occurrence and action. Ex: Phenashma means white stone2.Sphatikabha, it looks like Sphatika mani12.Table No. 1: Shows the Synonyms of Malla.SYNONYMS R.J.N13 B.R.R.S14 R.R.S15 R.T16 Y.R17Aakhupashana - - - + -Darumocha - - - + -Darumoosha + - - - -Darumooshaa - - - + -Gauripashana + - - + -Hatachoornaka + + + - -Malla + - + - +Mallaka - - - + -Mushaka + - - - -Peeta - - - + -Phenashma - - - + -Phenashmabhasma - - - + -Sambala + - - + -Sankhiya - - + - -Shankhamusha - - - + -Shankhavisha + - + + -Somala + - + + -Sumbalakhara - - + - -Talasatwa + - - - -Ullipashana - - - - +Vikata + + + - - 21
  22. 22. Table No. 2: Shows the types of Malla based on colour. Reference Shweta Rakta Peeta Krishna 18 A.P + - + - R.T19 + + - - Y.R20 + + - - B.R.R.S21 + - + +Table No. 3: Shows the types of Malla based on appearance.Reference. Sphatik- Shankh- Haridr- Dadim- Shwet- Vikata. Hata- -abha. -abha. -abha. -abha. -abha. -Choor- -naka.R.R.S22 + + + - - - -A.P 23 - + - + - - -Y.R 24 - + - + - - -R.C 25 - - - - - + +R.J.N26 - + + - - + +Based on occurrence8:Natural/ Khanija/ Parvata sambhava and Artificial/ Krutrima.All the shwetha varieties are krutrima. Rakta, peeta are parvata sambhava.Need for Malla Shodhana: As Malla is considered as visha27,Aakhupashana,Shankhavisha, Dhatuvisha28, and now a days it is prepared and availablein artificial form it should be subjected for Shodhana prior to its internal use as medicine.Malla shodhana: As per different texts there are different Medias indicated.Table No. 4: Shows the shodhana of Malla according to various authors.S.N. REF PROCEDURE DRUGS USED METHOD DURATION 1. R.T 29 Pachana Karavellaka swarasa Dola yantra 6hrs 2. R.T 30 Pachana Meghanada swarasa Dola yantra 1 day 3. R.T 31 Pachana Aja dugdha/Ajarasa Dola yantra 1 day 4. R.T 32 Pachana Tankanajala Dola yantra 3hrs 5. R.T 33 Pachana Godugdha Dola yantra 3hrs 6. Y.R34 Pachana Meghanada swarasa Dola yantra 1 day 7. Y.R35 Pachana Kanji/Tankanajala/ Dola yantra 6hrs 22
  23. 23. Ajamamsarasa/ Godugdha. 36 8. Y.R Putapaka Kadalikanda Puta paka 6hrs 9. R37 Pachana Godugdha/ Dola yantra 6hrs Ajadugdha/ Karavellaka swarasa.10. R.R.S38 Swedana Karavellaka swarasa Dola yantra --11. R.C39 Swedana Karavellaka swarasa Dola yantra 4hrs12. R.C40 Swedana Ghananada Swarasa Dola yantra 4hrs13. R.C41 Swedana Kanji/Tankanajala/ Dola yantra 2 Ghatika Ajamamsarasa/ Godugdha.14. R.C42 Putapaka Kadalikanda Putapaka 2 Ghatika15. R.C43 Pachana Mahishajala/ Dola yantra 1Yama/ Mahisha dugdha 1Yama16. R.J.N44 Swedana Karavellaka swarasa Dola yantra 1YamaMalla Marana: 45,46,47,48 1) Take a wide mouthed vessel and keep 2 Palas Suryakshara in it. Above that,place 2 Palas of Hastidanta churna in such a way that it should look like a heap (i.e. wideat base and sharp at the tip). Keep this vessel on oven and heat it. When both the drugsget mixed up and there is no smoke, fire is extinguished. Take out the mixture, mix itwell and preserve it. Take 2 Tolas of this in a Moosha and place 1 Tola Shuddha MallaKhanda over it. Again it is covered by 2 Tolas of above mixture. Mukhabandhana is doneby using a Sharava and heat is given in a Lavaka Puta. By this white Malla Bhasma isprocured. 2) Take 3 Tolas Rumimastagi Churna. Take one mud pot and keep half (11/2Tola)of Rumimastagi Churna in that. Above that keep 1Karsha Shuddha Malla and above thatfill the remaining Rumimastagi Churna. Cover that mud pot by using an iron vessel anddo Sandhibandhana.. Immerse the mud pot in Arka dugdha and heat it for 1Prahara. Bythis we will get Malla Bhasma. 23
  24. 24. 3) Take white ash of Kantharikashta. Take one mud pot. Fill half of it with ashesof Kantharikashta. Keep 1Karsha Shuddha Malla above that. Remaining Kantharikashtaashes are then put over it. Keep that pot on oven and Badarakashtagni is given for 2Yamas. After self-cooling collect the Malla Bhasma. 4) Take Shuddha Malla in a mud pot. Put 5 Karshas of Ajadugdha above that. Itis covered by a cloth. Place this in a pit and cover it by 1Angula mud. Ignite 10Vanopalas of agni. Like this the procedure is repeated for 21 times. For each Puta, add 5Tola Ajadugdha. By this we will get Peeta-Aruna coloured Malla Bhasma.Satwapatana: 49, 50, 51 Take equal parts of Shuddha Malla and Saurashtri churna. Both are keptin a mud pot. Add 20 Tolas Rambhatoya to it. Place one more mud pot on it and dosandhibandhana. Keep it on oven and heat it for one Prahara. After self-cooling collectthe material deposited on the upper pot. It is indicated in Shwasa, Kasa, and Jwara. It canbe given along with Ghrita and Sita, Sheeta jala, Dadhi, Dadhyanna. Malla satwa is prepared as that of Haratala satwa. Malla satwa is Shubhravarnatmaka. Essence of Malla is similar to that of Haratala. The essence is pure White,soothing and destroyer of the three doshas. It is used in the solidification of Mercury andincreases the potency of the same.Pharmaco-therapeutic properties:Table No. 5: Shows Gunas of Malla according to various Rasa classics. SL.NO GUNA R.R.S 52 R.T 53 D.G.V 54 1 Snigdha + + - 2 Laghu - - + 3 Rooksha - - + 4 Teekshna - - +Rogaghnatha: 55 Destroys kapha vata predominant diseases, and also useful in scorpion bite,Shwasa, Kasa, Kushta, Shleepadottha Jwara, Yakshma, Sandhivata, Phiranga,Agnimandya, Vishamajwara, Jeerna Pandu, Pratamaka Shwasa, Hrudshoola,Hruddaurbalya, Atisara etc. Externally it acts as Kshara. It is Shotha-Santapa-Shaithilya 24
  25. 25. nashaka.When Malla applied to the region of scorpian bite along with water; it kills thepain in ½ Ghati 56. Shuddha Malla is Balya, Vrushya, Rasayana, Shwasa, Sheeta Jwara, andPandunashaka. It is also useful in Pleehavruddhi, Phiranga, Shleepada, Kushta andSandhivata57.It is useful in Vata-Kapha-Sheeta Vyadhis58.Preparation of Gauripashana (Malla): 59 Haratala rubbed with Castor oil (Eranda Taila) and Lime juice (Nimbu rasa)and heated by means of a Valuka Yantra, exhibits Red Gauripashana as itsessence.Matra: 1/120th –1/30th of Ratti.60 1/10th – 1/3rdSarshapa.61Matra Nirmana Vidhi: 62 Take 1 Gunja – Shuddha Malla. 15 Masha – Maricha Churna. Q.S. – Shrungavera Swarasa. Take Shuddha Malla and Maricha Churna in a Khalwa and triturate withAardraka Swarasa for 3 days. Prepare 1 Ratti pramana Vatis. 1 vati in the morning andone in night is given for dosha shamana. In this quantity itself it is added to otherformulations and is used.Care during Matra Nirmana63: 1 Ratti Malla causes death. So according to Desha, kala, rogi bala, doshaetc matra is decided and given. Fatal Dose: 1 Ratti (125mg).Aamayika Prayoga: 64 Along with various Anupana’s Malla is indicated in various diseases. Vasa Satwa/ Vyaghri churna Purana Shwasa. Panchatikta Satwa/churna Kushta. Guduchi churna/Arka churna Shleepada Jwara. Karanjabeeja churna Cures Vishama Jwara in one day. 25
  26. 26. Shunthi and Punarnava churna Amavata and Amavataja Jwara. Loha Bhasma with Triphala Kashaya Purana Pandu. Jatipatra and Lavanga churna Purana and Daruna Phiranga. Rasasindhura and Loha Bhasma Rajayakshma. Shankhapushpi churna Hruddaurbalya. Shunthi and Maricha churna Bhuktamatra samudbhava Atisara. Malla triturated with Jala- Lepa Vruschikadamsha Vishanasha.Pathya: 65 Milk, Sugar, Butter, grams and other nutritious substances should be taken in large quantities. 66Apathya: Salt, chillies, oil, asofoetida and other hot and spicy things should beavoided. Vishishta yogas: ♦ Malla Sindhura. ♦Sameerapannaga Rasa. ♦ Suchikabharana Rasa. ♦Malla Vati ♦ Shankhavishodaya Rasa. ♦ Malla Chandrodaya rasa ♦ Kalanala Rasa. ♦ Malla Garbha Pottali. ♦ Chandeshwara Rasa. ♦ Panchasuta ARSENICArsenic is ordinarily presumed to be a metal, is in fact a metalloid.67Arsenic68 is found in the free state but it occurs more commonly in combination withiron as arsenical iron pyrites or mispickel, FeS2, FeAs2 and as arsenical iron orleucopyrite, FeAs2.Arsenic forms two oxides-arsenic trioxide,As2O3(the anhydride ofarsenious acid,H3AsO4) and arsenic pentoxide,As2O5(the anhydride of arsenic acid,H3AsO4).The trioxide is the most important compound of arsenic.Arsenic69 is found in nature at low levels. It’s mostly in compounds with oxygen,chlorine, and sulfur (inorganic arsenic compounds). Arsenic in plants and animalscombines with carbon and hydrogen (organic arsenic). Organic arsenic is usually lessharmful than inorganic arsenic. Most arsenic compounds have no smell or special taste.When arsenic enters the environment: It doesn’t evaporate. Most arsenic compounds can 26
  27. 27. dissolve in water. It gets into air when contaminated materials are burned. It settles fromthe air to the ground. It doesn’t break down, but can change form. Inorganic arsenic is ahuman poison. Organic arsenic is less harmful. Arsenic damages many tissues includingnerves (peripheral polyneuropathy, axonal degeneration), stomach and intestines, andskin. All arsenicals except arsine act by inhibiting sulfhydryl enzyme systems requiredfor cell metabolism and the potency of action depends on the valence of the arsenic atom.Arsine reacts with hemoglobin to form a very strong hemolytic poison.Lower levels of exposure to inorganic arsenic may cause nausea, vomiting, anddiarrhoea, decreased production of red and white blood cells, abnormal heart rhythm,blood vessel damage, a “pins and needles” sensation in hands and feet, painful andprofuse diarrhoea, shock, coma, convulsions and death, irritation, inflammation,ulceration of mucous membranes and skin, kidney damage. Direct skin contact may causeredness and swelling.Chronic toxic effects69: Fatigue, loss of energy, G.I. disturbance, nasal septumperforation, ulceration in folds of skin, increased pigmentation of skin, appearance ofsmall “corns” or “warts” on the palms, soles, and torso, exfoliative dermatitis, rashes,muscular paralyses and atrophy, sensory disturbances, visual disturbances and blindness,degeneration of liver (cirrhosis) and kidneys, garlic odour to breath, non cirrhotic portalhypertension. Arsenicosis is a chronic disease due to drinking water containing arsenic.Arsenic is an ultra-trace essential element (nonmetal) 70: The deficiency signs are impairment of growth, reproduction, heart function.The specific function is increased arginine leads to urea and ornithine which helps inmetabolism of methyl compounds71. Arsenic affects arginine, membrane phospholipidsand zinc metabolism. It is less toxic than Selenium, an ultra trace element with anestablished role72. Selenium in toxic amounts is corrected by Arsenic which has a positiveeffect. 73The order of toxicity of arsenic compounds is74 :Arsines (As (III))>arsenite (As(III))>arsenate (As (V)) and arsenic-organic acids (As (V)).Arsenic which is foundmainly in liver,lungs,kidneys and intestinal walls, is readily absorbed if watersoluble.Arsenic is also toxic by replacement of Phosphorous in ATP readily absorbed ifwater soluble.Lethal dose of more toxic forms of arsenic is 125 mg per kg body weight. 27
  28. 28. But for less toxic forms, say arsenic in drinking water, larger quantities arenecessary, i.e, 100-200 mg per kg body weight. An antidote for arsenic is BAL, BritishAnti Lewisite.74The toxic effect of arsenic trioxide is by attacking –SH groups of an enzyme, therebyinhibiting enzyme action75.SHEnzyme + As-O Enzyme As-O+2OHSHFig 1: Showing the As and enzymatic action.Compounds of Arsenic76: In the early part of the present century Ehlrich began theinvestigation of organic arsenic compounds, with the object of preparing substanceswhich might be of the value in the treatment of spirochetes or protozoan diseases such assyphilis ,yaws, relapsing fever ,sleeping sickness, and amoebic dysentery. The realproblem was to obtain a substance which would be highly active in exterminating theparasites, and yet would have as low toxicity as possible to the host. As a result of a greatdeal of research, a number of arsenical compounds were selected that had these propertiesto a high degree. They proved of great medicinal value, especially in the period beforethe introduction of antibiotics.Haematology: 77 Serum Arsenic level is 7 mg/ dl. Urinary excretion of Arsenic 100mg/day or more indicates arsenic poisoning. 78PotencyThe LD50 for pure arsenic is 763 mg/kg (by ingestion) and 13 mg/kg (by intraperitonealinjection). For a 70 kg (~155 lb) human, this works out to about 53 grams (less than 2ounces). However, compounds containing arsenic can be significantly more toxic. 28
  29. 29. ARSENIC TRIOXIDE Arsenic trioxide which was official in all earlier pharmacopoeias, is thecommonest compound of arsenic, and is obtained as a byproduct in many metallurgicaloperations, particularly in the extraction of tin, nickel,and cobalt. At least three forms ofarsenic trioxide are known, and the ordinary substance is a mixture of an amorphousvitreous form and an octahedral form.79 HISTORY OF ARSENIC TRIOXIDE (AS2O3)80 Because Of its significant medicinal properties, arsenic has been used astherapeutic agent since 2,400 years .In the 15th century William Withering whodiscovered digitalis was a strong proponent of arsenic-based therapies. He argued“Poisons in small doses are best medicines; and the best medicines in too large doses arepoisonous. Pharmacology texts of 1880’s describe the use of arsenical pastes for cancersof skin and breast and arsenous acid was used to treat hypertension, bleeding gastriculcers, heart burn , chronic rheumatism.Arsenics reputation as a therapeutic agent wasenhanced when Noble laureate Paul Ehlrich developed ‘Salvarsan’ an organic arsenical,for treating Syphilis and Trypanosomiasis.Arsenics antileukemic activity was reported inlate 1800,s.In 1878 a report from Boston City Hospital described the effect of Fowlerssolution on reduction of white blood cell counts in two normal people and one patientwith leucocythemia.Subsequently Arsenic trioxide was administered as a primaryantileukemic agent until it was replaced by radiation therapy. In one report from Chinathe monotherapy of Arsenic trioxide produced a complete clinical response in 9 of 10with relapsed APL.Consequently, TRISENOX (As2 O3) was approved for the relapsed orrefractory APL by US FDA in September 2000.Arsenic trioxide81 was the active ingredient of the liquor arsenicals or arsenical solutionof 1932, 1948 and 1953 pharmacopoeias. The preparations were widely prescribed intonics.Other names :- Arsenic(III) oxide Arsenolite Arsenic sesquioxide Arsenicum album Arseneous oxide Arseneous anhydride 29
  30. 30. Properties: Arsenic trioxide is a white or transparent solid in the form of glassy,shapeless lumps or a crystalline powder that resembles sugar. It has no odor or taste. Itforms readily when elemental metallic arsenic is heated to high temperatures or burned. Physical and Chemical properties82 Molecular formula As4O6,As2O3 Molar mass 197.841 g/mol Fig 2: Arsenic trioxide Appearance : White solid Opaque mass. Odor : No Odor. Taste : No taste/ slightly metallic taste. Hardness : 3–4 Specific gravity : 5.6 – 5.8 Molecular weight : 197.84 Daltons Boiling point (760 mm Hg) : 869ºF (465ºC) Sublimes at : 379ºF (193ºC) Melting point : 594ºF (312ºC) Vapor pressure : 66.1 mm Hg at 594ºF (312ºC) Density and phase : 3.86 g/cm³, solid. Solubility in water : 2 g/100 ml (25°C) Acidity (pKa) : 9.2 Mohs hardness : 1.5 Refractive Index : 1.755 Lattice constant : 11.074 Å Crystal structure : Cubic (α) <180°C Monoclinic (β) >180°C Dipole moment : Zero Specification : As2O3-99.5%,Fe-0.05%,moisture-0.5% Standard enthalpy 30
  31. 31. of formation ∆fHosolid : −657.4 kJ/mol Water solubility: Low solubility in water (37 g/L at 20ºC, 115 g/L at 100ºC); slightly soluble in alcohol; soluble in dilute HCl solutions. Flammability: not flammable, but emits highly toxic arsine gas and oxides of arsenic fumes when burned.Arsenious oxide on sublimation forms a transparent glassy mass which graduallybecomes opaque in presence of moisture. It is a colorless, odorless, taste less substance83. Arsenic trioxide is an amphoteric oxide which shows a marked preponderance forits acidic properties. It dissolves readily in alkaline solutions to give arsenites. It is muchless soluble in acids, but will dissolve in hydrochloric acid to give arsenic trichloride orrelated species. It reacts with oxidizing agents such as ozone, hydrogen peroxide andnitric acid to give arsenic pentoxide, As2O5: the reaction with hydrogen peroxide can beexplosive. It is also readily reduced to arsenic, and arsine (AsH3) may also be formed. Related Compounds: Other anions: Arsenic Trisulfide Other Cations: Phosphorous trioxide, Antimony trioxide.Varieties84: Vitreous amorphous form: Specific gravity 3.74 which is more or less transparent and melts without volatization at approximately 2000C. Crystalline octahedral state: Melting point 2750C and specific gravity 3.69. It sublimates without fusion. Monoclinic variety : Melting point 3150C and specific gravity 3.85. In industries AS2O3 is purified by repeated sublimations in iron pots. Aprecaution is taken that the AS2O3 is not reduced to As, which would then eat up the ironpots and more over it would fall into furnace with giving poisonous gases85.Tests86 The following are the main tests of arsenic. Arsenic compounds when heated on charcoal give a white encrustation far from the assay and at the same time fumes having a garlic odor are emitted. 31
  32. 32. Heating in the open tube arsenic compounds gives a white sublimate which is volatile on heating Heated in the closed tube some arsenic compounds give shiny black sublimate the arsenic mirror; most arsenates give a similar mirror when heated with charcoal or sodium carbonate in the closed tube.Pharmacological actions87: Organic arsenicals used in chemotherapy of trypanosomiasis, amoebiasis andtrichomoniasis in the form of carbarsone, tryparsomide, cycobiarsol, melarsoprol. Theyare no longer in the treatment of syphilis.Pharmacology: 88 1. Inorganic arsenicals used mainly as rodenticides, herbicides and insecticides. 2. Organic arsenicals in the chemotherapy of Trypanosomiasis. They were in the mainstay of treatment of syphilis.Absorption, fate and excretion: 89 The inorganic forms of arsenic are more toxic than the organic forms and thetrivalent forms are more toxic then the pentavalent forms. Arsenic can be inhaled,absorbed through the skin, or absorbed in the GI tract after ingestion. After a very smalldose of arsenic (like those experienced daily by most people) most of the absorbedinorganic arsenic undergoes methylation, mainly in the liver, to monomethylarsonic acidand dimethylarsinic acid which are excreted, along with residual inorganic arsenic in theurine. However, if the dose of arsenic is very large, the elimination half-life isprolonged.Once absorbed, arsenic rapidly combines with the globin portion ofhaemoglobin and therefore localises in the blood. There is minimal penetration of theblood-brain barrier, and within 24 hours arsenic redistributes itself to the liver, kidney,spleen, lung and GI tract, with lesser accumulation in muscle and nervous tissueToxbase summary 90Toxicity: Generally less acutely toxic than soluble arsenic salts. A patient has died after ingesting 2 g. Death from acute arsenic poisoning is usually caused by irreversiblecirculatory insufficiency, but if the dose is not large enough to kill the patient a number 32
  33. 33. of secondary effects can be seen 2-4 weeks after ingestion of the poison. These includehair loss, Mee’s lines (white transverse lines seen on the nail plate up to a year afterarsenic intoxication), sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy (may develop within a fewhours of ingestion but usually seen 2-8 weeks after exposure), skin changes (as in chronicpoisoning) and possible chronic renal failure.Fatal dose91: 200 – 300 mg.Fatal period91: 12-48 hrs. The shortest period is 45mins.Prehospital Management92 Quickly assess for a patent airway, and ensure adequate respiration and pulse. Maintain adequate circulation.Skin Exposure: Wash exposed skin and hair with mild soap and water, and rinsethoroughly with water. Use caution to avoid hypothermia, particularly with children andthe elderly.Eye Exposure: Flush exposed or irritated eyes with plain water or saline for at least 15minutes. Remove contact lenses if easily removable without additional trauma to the eyeIngestion: Do not induce emesis. The effectiveness of activated charcoal is questionable,but administration of activated charcoal as an aqueous slurry in persons who are awakeand able to protect their airway is recommended pending further evaluation in cases ofingestion of unknown quantities. Activated charcoal is most effective when administeredwithin 1 hour of ingestion. At 1 gram per kilogram (gm/kg), the usual adult dose is 60-90grams (g), and the child dose is 25-50 g. A soda can and straw may be of assistance whenoffering charcoal to a child. Complications include emesis and aspiration. Persons with evidence of significant exposure and all persons who have ingestedarsenic trioxide should be transported to a medical facility for evaluation.Hospital/Emergency Room Management 33
  34. 34. Evaluate and support the airway, breathing, and circulation as appropriate. Establish intravenous access in symptomatic patients and monitor cardiac rhythm.Antidote93: Hemodynamic stabilization and gut decontamination are key factors in theinitial management of acute arsenic intoxication. Chelating agents administered withinhours of arsenic absorption may successfully prevent the full effects of arsenic toxicity. 1. Dimercapol /BAL 2. Freshly prepared gelatinous hydrated ferric oxide is given which acts with arsenious trioxide to form ferric arsenite and it is a harmless salt. 3. DMSA (succiner) – Meso 2,3 Dimercapto succinic acid 4. DMPS (Unithiol) – 2, 3 Dimercapto propane – 1 Sulfonate. Both 3 & 4 decreases the arsenic content in the tissue.Arsenic trioxide uses94: • Starting point for the manufacture of arsenic-based pesticides. (Sodium arsenite, sodium arsenate, sodium cacodylate). • Starting point for the manufacture of certain arsenic-based pharmaceuticals (Neosalvarsan) and veterinary products. • Decolorizing agent for glasses and enamels and Preservative for wood. • Hydrogen recombination poison for metallurgical studies. • Starting point for the preparation of elemental arsenic, arsenic alloys and arsenide semiconductors. • Use as a cytostatic in the treatment of refractory promyelocytic (M3) subtype of acute myeloid leukemia. The drug is available as Trisenox® ampules; each containing 10mg to be diluted for i.v. infusion. • Medical applications: Arsenic trioxide under the trade name Trisenox (manufacturer: Cephalon) is a chemotherapeutic agent of idiopathic function used to treat leukemia that is unresponsive to first line agents. It is suspected that arsenic trisulfide induces cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. Due to the toxic nature of arsenic, this drug carries significant risks. • The enzyme thioredoxin reductase has recently been identified as a target for arsenic trioxide. 34
  35. 35. KARAVELLAKAINTRODUCTION The drug Karavellaka (Momordica Charantia) belongs to Shaaka Varga,Cucurbitaceae family is seen throughout in India and also in Malaya, China, tropicalAfrica and America, up to an altitude of 1500m. . It is a Climber bearing yellow coloured flowers. It is cultivated in gardenseverywhere in India for its fruits. It is used as vegetable. Fruit is bitter in taste. Fruitsbear numerous triangular tubercles like Crocodile’s back. All parts of this plant can beused.HISTORY: Karavellaka is mentioned in all Brahattrayis and almost all Nighantus. It is usedby Unani Hakim’s also.SAMHITA PERIOD: Karavellaka is mentioned under Tikta Skandha95. Karavellaka is indicated for Vrana.96 and can be used to improve vision.96 . Inclusion of Karavellaka in Aragvadhadi Gana97 . Karavellaka is also included in Tikta Varga97. Karavellaka is one of shaakhas which is having bitter taste and mitigates Kapha and pitta98NIGHANTU PERIOD 99,100,101,102,103 We find the reference of Karavellaka and its qualities in : 1) Adarsha Nighantu 4) Kaiyadeva Nighantu 2) Bhavaprakasha Nighantu 5) Raja Nighantu 3) Madanapala NighantuNIRUKTI104 “Kaarena prayatnena yashtyadikamavalambya vellati chalati iti Karavellaha Vellam chalane│ Karam jwaradinadyam Prativellati iti” It motivates all its sources/destroys diseases like Jwara. NOMENCLATURE: Sanskrit name Karavellaka Latin name Momordica Charantia 35
  36. 36. Kingdom Plant Kingdom Class Dicotyledons Sub-Class Polypetalae Series Calyciflorae Order Passiflorales Family Cucurbitaceae Genus Momordica Species Charantia Kula Koshataki KulaGana: Sushrutokta Gana Aragvadhadi GanaVarga: Sushrutha Samhitha Tikta Varga Charaka Samhitha Shakha Varga Astanga Hridaya Shakha VargaSYNONYMSTable No: 6 Shows Synonyms of Karavellaka.SYNONYMS A.N105 M.N106 B.N107 R.N108 K.N109Brihatvalli - + - - -Kandakatuka - - - + +Kandeera - - - + +Karavella - + + - -Karavellaka + - - - -Karavelli - + + + -Kathila - - + - +Katila + + - - -Noyavalli - - - + -Patu - - - + - 36
  37. 37. Sukanda - - - + +Sushavee + - - - -Ugrakanda - + - + +Varivalli - + - - -VERNACULAR NAMESSanskrit Karavellaka, Pitapushpa, Sushavi, Toyavalli, Ambuvallika, Chiripatra, Brihadvalli, Padu, Karavalli, Sukandaka, Katilla.Arabic QisaulbarriAssam Kakiral,KakralBengali Barmasiya, Jethuya, Karala, ucheteEnglish Carrilla fruit, bitter gourdGujarati Karela, Karelo, KareluHindi Karela, kareli, KarolKannada HagalakayiKonkani KaratimMalayalam Kaippa, Kaipavalli, Pavakka ChetiMarathi Karalu,KarliOrissa Kalara,SalaraPunjabi Karela, KarilaSimhalese Karawila, BattukarawillaTamil Pavakkay, Paval, pakarTelugu KakaraTulu KanchalaUrdu KarellaSCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION 110: Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida Order: Cucurbitales Family: Cucurbitaceae 37
  38. 38. Genus: Momordica Species: M. charantiaSynonyms110: Momordica chinensis, M. elegans, M. indica, M. operculata, M. sinensis,Sicyos fauriei.Description:- 111 Momordica charantia is a tropical and subtropical vine of the familyCucurbitaceae, widely grown for edible fruit, which is among the most bitter of allvegetables. English names for the plant and its fruit include bitter melon or bitter gourd. The herbaceous, tendril-bearing vine grows to 5 m. It bears simple, alternateleaves 4-12 cm across, with 3-7 deeply separated lobes. Each plant bears separate yellowmale and female flowers.The fruit has a distinct warty looking exterior and an oblongshape. It is hollow in cross-section, with a relatively thin layer of flesh surrounding acentral seed cavity filled with large flat seeds and pith. Seeds and pith appear white inunripe fruits, ripening to red; they are not intensely bitter and can be removed beforecooking. However, the pith will become sweet when the fruit is fully ripe, and the pithscolor will turn red. The pith can be eaten uncooked in this state, but the flesh of the melonwill be far too tough to be eaten anymore. The flesh is crunchy and watery in texture,similar to cucumber, chayote or green bell pepper. The skin is tender and edible. The fruitis most often eaten green. Although it can also be eaten when it has started to ripen andturn yellowish, it becomes more bitter as it ripens..Bitter melon comes in a variety ofshapes and sizes.Main Actions 111 Other Actions111 Standard Dosage111 Kills bacteria reduces inflammation Kills viruses’ fights free radicals Decoction: 1 cup 1-2 times daily Kills cancer cells enhances libido Tincture: 1-3 ml twice daily Kills leukemia cells cleanses blood Capsules: 1 g twice daily prevents tumors detoxifies Treats diabetes expels worms reduces blood sugar balances hormones reduces blood pressure enhances immunity lowers body temperature mildly laxative Lowers cholesterol promotes milk flow 38
  39. 39. Pharmacological activities 112:Antispasmodic, antioxytocic ,hypoglycemic ,mild cholinergic blockingactivity,abortificent,antipyretic,mild-hypotensive,anti-bacterial,uterinestimulator,anthelminthic,insecticidal,anti-viral,anti- lipolyticantidiabetic,antimalarial,antispermatogenic,antisteroidogenic,androgenic,anti-ulcerogenic,antifungal,juvenomimetic.PROPERTIES :Table no 7: shows the Pharmacological Properties of Karavellaka. RASA GUNA VEERYA VIPAKAKaiyadeva Nighantu113 Tikta, Katu - - KatuDravyaGuna114 Tikta, Katu Laghu, Rooksha Ushna Katu 115Raja Nighantu Katu, Tikta - Ushna -Astanga Hridaya116 Katu,Tikta - Ushna KatuAdarsha Nighantu117 Tikta - Sheeta KatuDOSHAGHNA KARMAThe drug is said to be, Pittashamaka, Kapha Pittashamaka, TridoshashamakaROGAGHNA KARMA♦ Madhumeha nashaka ♦ Shothahara♦ Jwaraghna ♦ Vishaghna♦ Kushtahara ♦ Vranaghna♦ Krimighna ♦ Netra roga♦ Arsha ♦ Karna shoola♦ Pittaja mastishka shoola ♦ Visuchika♦ Nadivrana ♦ Visarpa♦ Pandu ♦ Vatarakta♦ Kamala ♦ Shwasa♦ Kasa ♦ Shleepada♦ Galaganda ♦ AmlaPitta 39
  40. 40. AUSHADHA MATHRA The dose of the Karavellaka according to its different forms is as follows :- Swarasa - 10-30 ml Choorna - 3-6 masha Including emesis- 100mlFor Madhumeha - 3-6gms of Choorna of fruit with waterFor Ashmari - 3 tola of leaf Juice.AMAYIKA PRAYOGAEXTERNALLY • The whole plant is applied in scabies and other cutaneous diseases, in combination with the oil of Cinnamon etc. • In Leprosy, fruit is used. • In Night blindness - juice of leaves applied around the orbit with black pepper. • In burning of soles - juice of leaves is rubbed to soles 2 or 3 times a day.INTERNALLY • It acts as stomachic tonic, anthelmintic, Rheumatism, gout, fruit is used. • Anthelmintic - fruits and leaves are used. • Emetic, purgative - juice of leaves with purgatives. • It is also used in Jaundice, as an appetizer, blood purifier, dysmenorrhea, urinary disorder, asthma, cough, obesity etc. • In diabetes-juice of raw fruit, ½ ounces at a time, once daily in empty stomach early in morning. PHYTO CHEMISTRY118: Bitter melon contains an array of biologically activeplant chemicals including triterpenes, proteins, and steroids. One chemical has clinicallydemonstrated the ability to inhibit the enzyme guanylate cyclase that is thought to belinked to the cause of psoriasis and also necessary for the growth of leukemia and cancercells. In addition, a protein found in bitter melon, momordin, has clinically demonstratedanticancerous activity against Hodgkins lymphoma in animals. Other proteins in theplant, alpha- and beta-momorcharin and cucurbitacin B have been tested for possibleanticancerous effects. Two of these proteins-alpha- and beta-momorcharin-have also beenreported to inhibit HIV virus in test tube studies. In one study, HIV-infected cells treated 40
  41. 41. with alpha- and beta-momorcharin showed a nearly complete loss of viral antigen whilehealthy cells were largely unaffected. The chemicals that lower blood sugar include amixture of steroidal saponins known as charantins, insulin-like peptides, and alkaloids. 118Its Constituents : Alkaloids, charantin, charine, cryptoxanthin, cucurbitins,cucurbitacins, cucurbitanes, cycloartenols, diosgenin, elaeostearic acids, erythrodiol,galacturonic acids, gentisic acid, goyaglycosides, goyasaponins, guanylate cyclaseinhibitors, gypsogenin, hydroxytryptamines, karounidiols, lanosterol, lauric acid, linoleicacid, linolenic acid, momorcharasides, momorcharins, momordenol, momordicilin,momordicins, momordicinin, momordicosides, momordin, multiflorenol, myristic acid,nerolidol, oleanolic acid, oleic acid, oxalic acid, pentadecans, peptides, petroselinic acid,polypeptides, proteins, ribosome-inactivating proteins, rosmarinic acid, rubixanthin,spinasterol, steroidal glycosides, stigmasta-diols, stigmasterol, taraxerol, trehalose,trypsin inhibitors, uracil, vacine, v-insulin, verbascoside, vicine, zeatin, zeatin riboside,zeaxanthin, and zeinoxanthin are all found in bitter melon.Physical Constituents in the Fruit: 119Foreign matter-NilTotal Ash-Not more than 8.5%Acid-insoluble Ash-Not more than 0.6%Alcohol soluble extractive- Not less than 6%Water –soluble extractive-Not les than 28%Dosage and administration 118 : Bitter melon may be consumed in the following ways: as food, a decoction of asmuch as 3 1/3 ounces (100 ml), or 2 ounces (60 ml) of fresh juice (daily). Though stillbitter, tinctures of bitter melon (1 teaspoon [5 ml] two to three times per day) may also beused. The above dosages would be appropriate for diabetics.Side effects and interactions 118: Excessive ingestion of bitter melon juice (several times more than the amountrecommended above) may lead to diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Consuming excessiveamounts of the seeds may be linked with fever, headache, and coma. Pregnant womenshould not use bitter melon. Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, may be negativelyaffected by bitter melon because it may trigger or worsen the condition. 41
  42. 42. VISHISHTA YOGAS:- ♦ Sheeta nagankuram ♦ Jwarari rasa ♦ Kacchuradi taila ♦ Brihath Vishama jwarantaka lauha ♦ Maha vishagarbha taila ♦ Vidya vallabha rasa. 42
  43. 43. PHARMACEUTICAL REVIEW ‘Kushala Rasa Karmani’ is the quality of a RasaShastraghna120.Theintegral Part of Rasashastra lays in the successful pharmaceutical process .Among distinctSamskaras like Shodhana, Marana, and Jarana etc. Shodhana stands par excellence.So here is a gross view on the Swedana process of the drug. . In a broader sense theabove said basic pharmaceutical procedure can be denoted under the heading of theprocedures adopted and the Yantras used in the study. Practically the above saidprocedure will be carried out and hence to aid the theoretical clarity a brief note has beendrawn vide infra.PROCEDURE ADOPTED:Samskara121: ‘Gunantharaadhaanam’ i.e enhancement of the qualities of a drugand ‘Doshaapanayanam’ i.e to remove the unwanted impurities. One has to applyVarious Techniques such as122 • Toya Sannikarsha- to the vicinity of water. • Agni Sannikarsha- to the vicinity of fire. • Toyagni sannikarsha-to the vicinity of both fire and water. • Shoucha- to wash or cleanse. • Manthana- to Churn. • Bhajana-by using the utensils. • Desa- the place/region of preparation. • KalaPrakarsha- time period taken. • Bhavana- by Trituration.Shodhana123: “Shodhayati iti” (Shudh +nich+pluth) That which purifies,cleanses and makes Pure. 124Need for Shodhana : Just like a cloth that cannot be coloured until it is washed orcleansed.In the same way the process of purification is a must in case of raw drugs. Shodhana 125,126,127 is the pharmaceutical procedure in which all the drugs oforigin from metals , minerals, animals and herbs are subjected, before subjecting them toMarana or before administration in case of some Rasa Dravyas like Malla, Shilajatu,Gairika, Kasisa etc. 43
  44. 44. The literal meaning of shodhana is purification. But in Rasashastra, shodhana isnot merely purification, but is a samskara, which essentially brings out modifications oralterations in properties along with purification.Historical Background: Bruhathrayis do not mention about the special methods of shodhana of metalsand minerals. It is only in the golden era of Rasashastra and Nighantu period dealtelaborate description of shodhana of minerals and metals as well as herbal drugsspecifically. Most of the raw materials in Rasashastra are native from earth. So the very chanceof impurities, toxicity, heterogeneous qualities, mixing of other substances and unwantedqualities to a large extent. Now a days some of the Rasadravyas are artificially prepared.So shodhana is indicated to eliminate all such toxic qualities, induce and enhane certainspecial qualities which are essential for the easy assimilation of the material in the livingbody.Definition: 128,129,130 “Shodhanam karma vijneyam dravya dosha nivaaranam” The process which eliminates the blemishes is called shodhana. “Uddhishtairoushadhaihi saardham kriyate peshanaadikam Mala vichchittaye yattu shodhanam thadihochyate” When a substance is subjected to trituration etc with required medicinefor removal of unwanted materials or impurities is known as shodhana. “Loha dhatu rasaadeenamudithaihi aushadhaihi saha Swedanam mardanam chaiva tailado daalanam tatha Doshaapanuttaye vaidyaha kriyate shodhanam hi tat” Subjecting the Loha, Dhatu, Rasoparasas etc to the procedures like swedana,mardana etc with the prescribed medicines, Dhalana in tailadi dravadravyas to removethe Doshas is termed as shodhana.The meaning of shodhana can be:♦ To Clean ♦ To Dehydrate 44
  45. 45. ♦ To Distil ♦ To Polish♦ To Peel ♦ To Dehusk♦ To Clarify ♦ To Filter♦ To Wash ♦ To PurifyObjectives of Shodhana: • To make metallic substances suitable for Marana. • To remove Physical and Chemical impurities & Regulation of Physico- chemical attributes. • Separation of admixtures & Elimination of harmful matters from the drug. • Metals are made free from blemishes. • Reduce or minimize toxic effect. • Make metal or mineral soft and brittle. • Reduction in particle size. • Make substance suitable for further processing. • Transformation of attributes or imbue organic qualities to inorganic substances. • Increasing the potency of the drugs. • Modification of undesirable physical properties of the drug. • Conversion of some of the characteristics of the drug to different stages. • Enhancement of therapeutic action. • Conversion of drugs from heterogeneous state to homogenous state. • Corrects the imperfections.Types of shodhana: 1. Samanya shodhana 2. Vishesha shodhanaSamanya shodhana: The common method used to purify a group of drugs is known asSamanya shodhana. This process eliminates general impurities of metals and mineralsand converts them into powder which is essential for further process. Ex: Samanya shodhana of dhatus by repeatedly quenching various liquid media.Vishesha shodhana:It is done specifically for a particular drug with the view ofpurifying it with the help of particular or specific shodhana material as well as procedure. 45
  46. 46. Ex: Swedana of Haratala in Kushmanda Swarasa by Dolayantra method.Various methods of Shodhana Various methods of shodhana are mentioned in Rasa classics. ♦ Swedana ♦ Prakshalana ♦ Mardana ♦ Bhavana ♦ Murchana ♦ Shoshana ♦ Patana ♦ Bharjana ♦ Avapa ♦ Samyoga ♦ Nirvapa ♦ Vibhaga ♦ Dalana ♦ Nimajjana ♦ Galana ♦ Pachana ♦ Dhavana. ♦ Washing ♦ Desumption ♦ Shifting ♦ Decoloration ♦ Bleaching ♦ Elutriation ♦ Boiling ♦ Maceration ♦ Pulverization ♦ Lixiviation ♦ Dipping ♦ Percolation ♦ Sublimation ♦ Dialysis ♦ Chemical combination These are also some of the methods of shodhana for many Rasadravyas. Thedravyas used might be kshara,amla,sneha etc.SHODHANA YANTRA: Different types of Yantras are mentioned in the Rasa classics for differentshodhana procedures. Viz Dolayantra,Damaru Yantra, Khalva Yantra, Urdhwapatanayantra, Sharava,Sthalika,Sandamsani, Darvi etc.Shodhana depends upon: Structure,Composition, Impurities, Qualities, Action of the drug.In the present study, for the shodhana of Malla, the Swedana method of shodhana hasbeen adopted as per classical text.Swedana:-Definition132: “Gharmodhgama roopa upakramam” “Samskaram mala shithila aapaadanaarthanam” The word ‘Swedana’ literally means causing to perspire, the act of sweating orperspiring. Boiling the drug by suspending in liquids (bathing) i.e. acids or alkalis or anymedicines, decoctions with the help of Dolayantra (a special apparatus for boiling) isknown as Swedana.133 46
  47. 47. “Kshaaramlairoushadhairvaapi dola yantre sthitasya hi Pachanam swedanaakhyam syanmalashaithilyakarakam”Uses: • Impurities soluble in acid or alkali are eliminated. • Mala shaithilyata. Different Yantras have been used for shodhana procedures and associated worksin the present study. They are 134 1. Dolayantra 2.Khalva yantra.Dolayantra 135,136,137: It is called Dola yantra because here the drug bundle to be subjected toSwedana is hung or suspended in a vessel containing liquid like a Dola (swing).A pottaliis prepared using three folds of cloth in which the drug is placed.Take a Pot and fill itwith the drava dravya prescribed to half of the pot . A strong rod should be placedtransversely after making small holes on either sides of the pot near its mouth. On thisrod, the pottali should be hanged with the help of a string till it is submerged in the liquidat the bottom of the jar. Ignite by placing the yantra over fire. Thereafter fomentationinitiates.Applied aspect: It is used to apply heat treatment to the drugs either through the boiling liquids orthrough the vapours for a specified time to loosen its impurities. The advantage ofapplying swedana by this method is to put the drug directly in contact with the boilingliquid which may help the drugs to be softened first and then allowing their solubleimpurities to be dissolved into the boiling liquids used for and thus making the drugs freefrom some of the impurities135. According to media used for Swedana, acidic, alkaline, volatile impurities geteliminated.Khalva Yantra : “yantram dronyaakaaram peshanopayogi yantram”138 It is a hollow, round or boat shaped apparatus made of iron, stone, glass or porcelain as per need. For mercurial operations, Khalvas made out of iron are preferred while for preparing pistis, bhasmas and formulations, shodhana of certain Rasadravyas Khalvas made out of stone are preferred.Generally Khalvas are of two types i.e. Vartula and Dronyakriti. 47
  48. 48. • Vartula Khalva is made of porcelain or stone. It should be 12 angula in radius, 4 angula in depth and 8 angula in length. • Dronyakriti or boat shaped Khalvas are generally used for mercury processing and made of iron or stone. Their height varies from 9” to 16”, length 16” to 24”, breadth 9” to 10”, depth 6” to 7” and thickness of their edges is 2” 139Uses: It is used for grinding, rubbing, triturating or mixing of drugs and liquids139.In the present study mortar and pestle made of porcelain were used for making smallpieces of Malla before subjecting to shodhana and after shodhana to make it a softpowder. ANALYTICAL REVIEW To evaluate the quality of the drugs, the scientific validation plays an importantrole. As a part of standardization, the classically processed Rasadravyas, preparedRasayogas will be subjected to mandatory baseline and current instrumental analysis. Inthe present study the two samples of Malla i.e. Ashuddha Malla and KaravellakaShodhita Shuddha Malla are screened for physicochemical and instrumentalstandardization methods. So the review of analytical procedures is carried out vide infra.Physico – Chemical tests: Ash value, Acid insoluble ash,Water insoluble ash, Loss on drying,Loss onignition, and pH value are some of the physicochemical tests, employed in the presentstudy. The brief review of the same is made herewith as under.1) Determination of Ash value140, 141:Definition of Ash: The residue remaining of incineration is the ash content of the drug,which represents the inorganic salts naturally occurring in drug or adhering to it ordeliberately added to it as a form of adulteration.Method: Total ash is designed to measure the total amount of material produced aftercomplete incineration of the ground drug at as low temperature as possible (about 4500)to remove all the carbons. 2 to 3gms of the air dried crude drug has to be accuratelyweighed in the tarred Platinum or Silica dish and incinerate at a temperature notexceeding 4500 C until free from carbon. Cool and weigh. If a carbon free ash cannot beobtained exhausts the charged mass with hot water, residue to be collected on ash less 48
  49. 49. filter paper, incinerate the residue and filter paper until the ash is white or nearly so.Percentage of ash to be calculated with reference to the air-dried drug.Applied aspect: Controlled incineration of crude, results in an ash residue consisting of inorganicmaterial. Total ash value represents the inorganic salts naturally occurring in drug oradhering to it or deliberately added to it as a form of adulteration. This value varieswithin fairly wide limits and therefore an important parameter for the purpose ofevaluation of crude drugs. The total ash usually consists of carbonates, phosphates,silicates and silica. High ash value is indicative of contamination, substitution,adulteration or carelessness in preparing the drug2) Determination of Acid insoluble ash142, 143:Definition: Acid insoluble ash is a part of total ash insoluble in dilute hydrochloric acid.This is a test to find out adhering dirt, silica material and sand.Method: The ash obtained by the above procedure should be boiled with 25ml of dilute Hclfor 5 minutes, the obtained insoluble matter is to be collected on Whatman’s filter paperno. 42 and washed with hot water. The residue to be taken in a crucible, dried and ignitedallowed to cool in a desiccator and weighed. The percentage of acid insoluble ash iscalculated with reference to the air dried drug.144Applied aspect: This ash value is used particularly to determine adhering dirt, silica material andsand.1453) Determination of Loss on dryingDefinition: This is a test to find out loss of moisture content in a given sample on drying.The remnant material indicates the weight of solid active substance of the given sample.Procedure146: The weight of glass–stoppered, shallow weighing bottle that has been dried underthe same conditions to be employed in the determination should be noted. Two grams ofaccurately weighed sample should be transferred to the bottle. The bottle should becovered and weight of the bottle and the contents noted. The sample is to be distributedevenly as practicable by gentle sidewise shaking to a depth not exceeding 10mm. Theloaded bottle is to be placed in the drying chamber (oven) at 1100C. 49
  50. 50. The stopper should be removed in the chamber; sample should be dried toconstant weight. After drying is completed, the drying chamber is to be opened and thebottle closed promptly and allowed to cool to room temperature. The percentage of losson drying is to be calculated.Applied aspect: It determines the amount of volatile matter (i.e. water drying of from the drug).The moisture content of a drug should be minimized in order to prevent decompositioneither due to chemical change or due to microbial contamination 147.4) Determination of pH value:Definition: pH value of an aqueous liquid may be defined as the common logarithm ofthe reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration expressed in grammes.148Method: One percent sample solution is to be prepared by adding 1 gm of sample mixed in100 ml water and the pH reading to be taken by using a digital pH meterApplied aspect: - pH value of a drug signifies the acidic and basic nature of the drug. This helps indetermining the pharmacokinetic property of the drug.5) Estimation of Arsenic:Procedure:Arsenic Trioxide stock Solution: Dissolve 132 mg of Arsenic Trioxide previously driesat 105 0c for 1 hour accurately weighed in 5 ml of sodium Hydroxide solution in a 1000ml of volumetric flask. Neutralize the solution with 2 N Sulphuric acid, add 10 ml moreof 2 N Sulphuric acid then add recently boiled and cooled water to volume and mix.Standard Arsenic solution: Transfer 10 ml of Arsenic trioxide stock solution to a 1000ml volumetric flask. Add 10 ml of 2 N Sulphuric acid, and then add water to make upvolume and mix. Each ml of standard Arsenic solution contains equivalent of 1 Mg ofArsenic.Test Preparation: Add a known quantity of the sample in a muffle furnace at atemperature not exceeding 4500C.To this add 25 ml of dilute Hydrochloric acid and boilfor 5 min. filter and make up to 50 ml. 50
  51. 51. ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY 149 :Principle: The principle used in atomic absorption spectroscopy was discovered in 1802by Wollaston when he observed the "Fraunhoffer lines" or absorption lines in thespectrum of the sun, yet this principle was only applied in 1955 by an Australianphysicist, Alan Walsh. The principle states that "Matter absorbs light at the samewavelength at which it emits light". Basically this means that atoms in the ground stateabsorb the same radiation as they emit in the excited state. An atom in the ground statewill absorb an amount of energy equal to the energy difference between the energy levelof the electron in the excited state and the energy level that the electron occupies in theexcited state. In Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, the sample solution is first vaporized andatomized in a flame, transforming it to unexcited ground state atoms, which absorb lightat specific wavelengths. A light beam from a lamp whose cathode is made of the elementin question is passed through the flame. Radiation is absorbed, transforming the groundstate atoms to an excited state. The amount of radiation absorbed depends on the amountof the sample element present. Absorption at a selected wavelength is measured by thechange in light intensity striking the detector and is directly related to the amount of theelement in the sample.Process: An unknown sample in a solution is dissolved and sprayed finely, in thepresence of suitable conditions, into the flame burner of the atomic absorptionspectrometer. A cathode lamp will emit light to reach these electrons. The lamp mustcontain a cathode of the same element within the sample. This is because of the energyrequired to excite the similar electrons in the sample, hence enabling concentration to bedetermined. Most spectrometers contain a number of different cathode lamps suitable forvarious solution samples. In the lamp, taking in energy excites electrons. They jump to higher energy levelsby taking in a fixed quantum amount of energy. As they fall back down, they emit a fixedamount of light. This light radiates to the ground atoms in the sample solution, underspecific conditions. These unexcited electrons absorb the light. It is of a fixedwavelength. As the amount required to excite the electrons in the atoms is fixed,according to the radiated light, the spectrometer can detect the measure of light absorbed.In this way, the concentration of the elements can be calculated, as it is directlyproportional to the amount of element present. This is calculated in parts per million(ppm). The element is detected by an atomic absorption spectrum, by the light intensity 51
  52. 52. emitted by the sample. This is a series of coloured lines on a dark background, dependingon the element, at differing wavelengths.Applications: This process is employed in both qualitative and quantitative use. AAS is arapid method for the former, if only a few elements are being tested. However if manyelements are of interest the process can be too time consuming and uneconomical. Theusual quantitative method brackets the samples absorption spectrum with that of standardconcentrations to produce a linear calibration curve.Examples of the applications of AAS include: • Analysis of water for metals like lead, mercury and cadmium • Drug testing • Identification of unknown compositions • Analysis of rocks on space missionsX-RAY DIFFRACTION150, 151Introduction: X-ray diffraction is a novel and a powerful technique in the elucidation of 3-dimensional structure, composition of any matter. Structural features can be determinedat molecular and atomic level. It is an important technique for establishing the batch-to-batch reproducibility of a crystalline form in X-ray Powder diffraction. Randomorientation of a crystal lattice in a powder sample causes the x-rays to scatter in areproducible pattern of peak intensifies at distinct angles (θ) relative to the incident beam.Each diffraction pattern is characteristic of a specific crystalline lattice for a givencompound. Hence X-RD has become invariably indispensable tool in the pharmaceuticalindustry in the crackdown of structure.Discovery: In 1912 Walter Fredrich and C M Paul discovered that if a beam of X-Raypasses through a crystal or any matter turned in various directions.Principle: The main principle behind X-RD is the process of scattering of X-rays when itpasses through a matter in crystalline or powder state. The reason for this diffractionpattern is, X-rays are scattered in various directions by the electrons that form the outerpart of each atom in the matter. If the scattering centers are separated by distancescomparable to the wavelength of the X-rays, then interference between the X-raysscattered from particular electron centers can occur.Technique: The technique of X-RD is subjecting the powder matter or crystal matter tothe irradiation by beam of X-Rays and making a record of 3-dimensional diffractionpattern. In all X-RD procedures the transforming of these diffraction fractions into an 52
  53. 53. image (on photographic film) are involved. For interpretation construction of image isindispensable with the help of crystallographers and also from modern computers. Thisoperational process is called ‘Fourier transformation’.Diffraction as Plane Reflections: The diffraction pattern generated from single crystalor powder is an array of sharp spots. To explain these parts W.L.Bragg suggested that themechanism of X-RD could be cast in terms of reflections from regular, parallel arrays ofplanes within a crystal. Only under special conditions would the reflected radiationsinterfere constructively and a diffracted beam be observed. The required condition is thatthe angle of incidence (θ) of the incident beam obey the following relationship. Sinθ = n λ/2d Where lambda (λ) is the wavelength of incident radiation, d is the interplanarspacing and is an integer constant. This relationship is known as Bragg’s law and theta(θ) is known as Braggs angle.Methods: Laue method : lambda variable, theta fixed Rotating crystal method : lambda fixed, theta partly variable Powder method : lambda fixed, theta variable.Experimental procedure:1. Choices of radiation – While selecting radiation, the factors to be considered are Effect of unit cell size, Effect of specific absorption, Relative exposure timings.2. Sample preparation – Most using method is cylinder technique (rolling with binder technique). Here the specimen is ground to a uniform size and placed on a glass plate. A few milligrams of the sample are then mixed with a drop of colliodion until a homogeneous paste results. The paste then scooped up on a razor blade and rolled in to a rod shaped specimen with fingers.3. Powder Camera – Consists of Sample holder, direct beam catcher, Collimator, Screw, Slider. Basically the method involves diffraction of monochromatic X-rays by a powder specimen. Each particle in the specimen is a tiny crystal oriented at random with respect to the incident beam, there is a fair chance that a certain plane will be currently oriented to reflect the incident beam. Thus every set off planes will be capable of reflection.Applications: 53

×