Madusnuhi vrana#dg06 mdb

4,616 views
4,508 views

Published on

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SANDHYA RAGA (MIRABILIS JALAPA. LINN) IN COMPARISON WITH MADHUSNUHI (SMILAX CHINA .LINN) WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS VRANAROPANA PROPERTY-SHEHNA.S.R., Department of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, Alva’s Ayurveda Medical College, Moodbidri, Karnataka - 574 227

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,616
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
20
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Madusnuhi vrana#dg06 mdb

  1. 1. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SANDHYA RAGA (MIRABILIS JALAPA. LINN) IN COMPARISON WITHMADHUSNUHI (SMILAX CHINA .LINN) WITH SPECIALREFERENCE TO ITS VRANAROPANA PROPERTY ’ DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, BANGALORE, KARNATAKAAS PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR AWARDING THE DEGREE OF AYURVEDA VACHASPATI [M.D (Ay)] IN Dravyaguna Vijnana BY SHEHNA.S.R. UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF Prof.Dr.N.Viswanathan M.D. (Ay) Dr.Subrahmanya P. M.D.(Ay) Guide & H.O.D Co-Guide & Assistant Professor Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, Alva’s Āyurveda Medical College, Alva’s Āyurveda Medical College, Moodbidri, Moodbidri, Karnataka. Karnataka. Department of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana Alva’s Ayurveda Medical College Moodbidri, Karnataka - 574 227
  2. 2. DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN DRAVYAGUNA VIJNANA MOODBIDRI, KARNATAKA This is to certify that the dissertation entitled ‘EXPERIMENTALSTUDY OF SANDHYA RAGA (MIRABILIS JALAPA.LINN) INCOMPARISON WITH MADHUSNUHI (SMILAX CHINA.LINN) WITHSPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS VRANAROPANA PROPERTY’” is abonafide research work done by SHEHNA S.R., in partial fulfilment ofthe requirement for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspati - M.D. (Ay) inDravyaguna Vijnana of Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,Bangalore, Karnataka. Prof.Dr.N.Viswanathan M.D. (Ay) H.O.D., Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, Alva’s Āyurveda Medical College,Moodbidri Moodbidri
  3. 3. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SANDHYA RAGA (MIRABILIS JALAPA. LINN) IN COMPARISON WITHMADHUSNUHI (SMILAX CHINA .LINN) WITH SPECIALREFERENCE TO ITS VRANAROPANA PROPERTY DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, BANGALORE, KARNATAKAAS PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR AWARDING THE DEGREE OF AYURVEDA VACHASPATI [M.D (Ay)] IN Dravyaguna Vijnana BY SHEHNA S.R. UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF Prof.Dr.N.Viswanathan M.D. (Ay) Dr.Subrahmanya P. M.D.(Ay) Guide & H.O.D Co-Guide & Assistant Professor Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, Alva’s Āyurveda Medical College, Alva’s Āyurveda Medical College, Moodbidri Moodbidri Department of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana Alva’s Ayurveda Medical College Moodbidri, Karnataka - 574 227 2009
  4. 4. DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN DRAVYAGUNA VIJNANA MOODBIDRI, KARNATAKA This is to certify that the dissertation titled ‘EXPERIMENTAL STUDY of SANDHYA RAGA (MIRABILIS JALAPA.LINN) IN COMPARISON WITH MADHUSNUHI (SMILAX CHINA.LINN) WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS VRANAROPANA PROPERTY’ submitted by SHEHNA.S.R., in partial fulfillment for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspati - M.D. (Ay) in Dravyaguna Vijnana, of the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore, is a record of research work done by her during the period of her study in this institute, under our guidance and supervision and the dissertation has not previously formed basis to the award of any degree, diploma, fellowship or other similar titles. We recommend this dissertation for the above degree to the University for approval.Prof.Dr.N.Viswanathan M.D. (Ay) Dr.Subrahmanya P. M.D.(Ay)H.O.D., Assistant Professor,Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana,Alva’s Āyurveda Medical College, Alva’s Āyurveda Medical College,Moodbidri MoodbidriMoodbidri
  5. 5. DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN DRAVYAGUNA VIJNANA MOODBIDRI, KARNATAKA I hereby declare that this dissertation titled ‘EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SANDHYA RAGA (MIRABILIS JALAPA.LINN) IN COMPARISON WITH MADHUSNUHI (SMILAX CHINA.LINN) WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS VRANAROPANA PROPERTY’ is a bonafide and genuine research work carried out by me under the guidance of Prof.Dr.N.Viswanathan M.D. (Ay) and Dr.Subrahmanya P. M.D.(Ay), Dept. of P.G. Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, Alva’s Āyurveda Medical College, Moodbidri, Karnataka.Moodbidri SHEHNA.S.R. P.G.Scholar Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, Alva’s Āyurveda Medical College, Moodbidri.
  6. 6. DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN DRAVYAGUNA VIJNANA MOODBIDRI, KARNATAKA This is to certify that the dissertation titled ‘EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OFSANDHYA RAGA (MIRABILIS JALAPA.LINN) IN COMPARISON WITHMADHUSNUHI (SMILAX CHINA.LINN) WITH SPECIAL REFERENCETO ITS VRANAROPANA PROPERTY’ is a bonafide research work done bySHEHNA S.R. under the guidance of Prof.Dr.N.Viswanathan M.D. (Ay) andDr.Subrahmanya P. M.D.(Ay), Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana,Alva’s Āyurveda Medical College, Moodbidri, Karnataka. Prof. Suresh Negalaguli M.D. (Ay.) Prof.Lakshmeesh Upadhya M.D.(Ay.) Dean Principal, Post Graduate.Studies Alva’s Āyurveda Medical College, Alva’s Āyurveda Medical College, Moodbidri. Moodbidri. Moodbidri
  7. 7. COPYRIGHT I hereby declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of HealthSciences, Karnataka shall have all rights to preserve, use anddisseminate this dissertation in print or electronic format for academic/ research purposes. Moodbidri SHEHNA.S.R P.G.Scholar Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, Alva’s Ayurveda Medical College, Moodbidri, Karnataka – 574 227 © Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka
  8. 8. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I solicit my deep and profound sense of respect to my rewarded guideProf. Dr.N.Viswanathan,M.D(Ay), H.O.D, Department of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vjnana for his advise, motivational inspiration and ever encouraging constantindefeasible guidance extended towards me through out this dissertation work I sincerely express my deep sense of gratitude to my teacher and co-guide,Dr.Subrahmanya P. M.D(Ay), Asst. Professor, Department of P.G.Studies inDravya guna for the magnitude of his dynamic and untiresome guidancethroughout the study. I express my sincere gratitude to Prof.Dr. A.P.Haridasan., Dept. ofP.G.studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana , for his constructive suggestions andmeticulous guidance given from time to time while carrying out dissertation work I offer my special thanks to Dr.Mohan Alva, Chairman, Alvas EducationFoundation for providing me an opportunity in his esteemed institution for PostGraduation studies. I wish to offer my sincere thanks to Prof. Dr. Suresh Negalaguli, Dean ofPost Graduation studies , and Prof. Dr. Lakshmeeesh Upadhya, , Principal ,AlvasAyuveda Medical College ,for their encouragement and support. I acknowledge with sincere thanks for the valuable guidance and kind co–operation of Prof. Dr.Sethumadhava Murthy H.O.D, and Dr.Srikanth, LecturerDepartment of P.G.Studies in Dravya guna Vijnana , and authorities of S.D.M.Educational Society for providing me all the requisite facilities to carry out theanimal experimentation work.
  9. 9. I express my sincere gratitude to Prof. Radhakrishna Rao MSc. PhD.Visiting Professor, Dept. of Dravyaguna for his valuable guidance in thepharmacognostical aspect and drug authentication of this work. I express my sincere gratitude to Dr.T.S.Mahesh, Dr. Ravi Rao,Dr.Vinod Joshi, and Dr.Sridevi, teaching staff , Dept. of Dravyaguna, for theirconstructive suggestions and guidance given from time to time while carrying outdissertation work. I here acknowledge the valuble help and suggestions I have had discussingmy dissertation with Dr.Krishna Murthy and Dr.Prashanth.B.K Lecturers ,Department of Bhaishajya kalpana. I offer my special thanks to Mrs.Reshma, Statistician, Managalore, for hervaluable assistance during statistical analysis of result. It is beyond the reach of my language as it is very difficult to findappropriate words to express my sincere and hearty gratitude to my husband,batch mate Dr.Suchith.M.S and my friend, classmate Dr.Subhasree.G.H forbeing with me any time I needed help, moral support, during the miseries I facedduring the work and suggestions which helped me to pull through. I am indebted to my other batch mates and my juniors and every one whohave helped me directly and indirectly during my dissertation work. I am thankful to my parents, in laws and my brother for their love, blessingsand never ending support through out the span of my work and for being there forme. I am ever indebted to the God almighty for showering his blessings upon meand for making my hurdles lighter so that I could complete my work satisfactorily.Moodbidri Shehna.S.R.
  10. 10. CONTENTS ABBREVATIONS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF DIAGRAMS LIST OF GRAPHS LIST OF IMAGES ABSTRACTCHAPTER. 1 INTRODUCTION 1-5CHAPTER. 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 6-81 DRUG REVIEW- Madhusnuhi Sandhyaraga DISEASE REVIEW VranaCHAPTER. 3 DRUG ANALYSIS 82-93CHAPTER.4 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY 94-98 Materials Methods GroupingCHAPTER.5 OBSERVATION AND RESULTS 99-148CHAPTER.6 DISCUSSION 149-159CHAPTER.7 CONCLUSION 160-161CHAPTER.8 SUMMARY 162-163 LIST OF REFERENCES BIBLIOGRAPHY ANNEXURE
  11. 11. ABBREVATIONSA.H -Astanga HridayaA.P.I -Ayurvedic Pharmacopia of India.A.S -Astanga Sangraha.B.P.N -Bhavaprakasha Nighantu.C -Control group.C&C - Conservation and consumption, A study on crude drug trade in threatened medicinal plants in Trivandrum districtCh. -Charaka SamhitaChi - Chikitsa sthana.D.G.V -Dravya Guna Vinjana.Eg/eg -Example.EM -External MadhusnuhiES - External Sandhyaragagms -Grams.i.e -That is.I.M.P.K&B-Indian Medicinal Plants by Keerthikar and BasuI.M.P.O.L - Indian Medicinal Plants, Published by Orient LongmanIEM -Internal external madhusnuhiIES -Internal External sandhyaragaIM -Internal MadhusnuhiIS -Internal SandhyaragaM.M.P - Materia Medica of Local Health Traditions of PayyannurM.Ni -Madhava Nidana.mg -MilliGramsml -milli litre.mm2 -Millimeter Square.Ni. -Nidana Sthana.Pg -PageR -RatS.D -Standard Deviation.S.E -Standard Error.S.Y -Sahasra Yogam
  12. 12. Sa.Ka.Dru -Shabda kalpa druma.Sam. -Samhita.Sl.No. -Serial Number.Su .Chi -Susrutha samhitha .ChikitsasthanaSu -SuthrasthanaSu.Sam - Susrutha samhithaU -Uttarathantraviz. - NamelyVol -VolumeY..R -Yoga Ratnakara.% -Percentage.& -And
  13. 13. LIST OF TABLESTable Topic PageNo. No.2.B.1 Classifications of NijaVrana 382.B.2 Classification of Vrana based on prognosis and treatment 412.B.3 Types of Agantuja Vrana 422.B.4 Vrana Adhishtanas 462.B.5 Vrana Lakshanas as per Susrutha Samhita 472.B.6 Vrana Lakshanas as per Charaka Samhita 49 3.1 Results of phytochemical analysis 89 4.1 Physical attributes 964.2. Group, Drug and Mode of Administration 98 5.1 Percentage of closure in original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 99 4th post wounding day of Control and Trial drug A (Madhusnuhi) 5.2 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative percentage 100 of closure in excision wound area of Control and Trial drug A (Madhusnuhi) groups on 4th post wounding day 5.3 Percentage of closure in original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 100 th 8 post wounding day of Control and Trial drug A (Madhusnuhi) 5.4 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative percentage 101 of closure in excision wound area of Control and Trial drug A (Madhusnuhi)groupson 8th post wounding day 5.5 Percentage of closure in original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 101 th 12 post wounding day of Control and Trial drug A (Madhusnuhi) 5.6 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative percentage 102 of closure in excision wound area of Control and Trial drug A (Madhusnuhi)groups on 12th post wounding day
  14. 14. 5.7 Percentage of closure in original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 102 16th post wounding day of Control and Trial drug A (Madhusnuhi)5.8 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative percentage 103 of closure in excision wound area of Control and Trial drug A (Madhusnuhi)groups on 16th post wounding day.5.9 Percentage of closure in original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 103 4th post wounding day of Control and Trial drug B ( Sandhyaraga)5.10 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative percentage 104 of closure in excision wound area of Control and Trial drug B (Sandhyaraga) groups on 4th post wounding day5.11 Percentage of closure in original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 104 th 8 post wounding day of Control and Trial drug B ( Sandhyaraga)5.12 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative percentage 105 of closure in excision wound area of Control and Trial drug B (Sandhyaraga) groups on 8th post wounding day5.13 Percentage of closure in original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 105 th 12 post wounding day of Control and Trial drug B (Sandhyaraga)5.14 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative percentage 106 of closure in excision wound area of Control and Trial drug B (Sandhyaraga) groups on 12th post wounding day5.15 Percentage of closure in original excision wound area (sq.mm) 106 on16th post wounding day of Control and Trial drug B (Sandhyaraga)5.16 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative percentage 107 of closure in excision wound area of Control and Trial drug B (Sandhyaraga) groups on 16th post wounding d5.17 Percentage of closure in original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 107 4th post wounding day of Control and Internal administration groups of both Trial drug5.18 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative percentage 108 of closure in excision wound area of Control and Internal administration groups of both Trial drugs on 4th post wounding day
  15. 15. 5.19 Percentage of closure in original excision wound area (sq.mm) on8th 108 post wounding day of Control and Internal administration groups of both Trial drugs5.20 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative percentage 108 of closure in excision wound area of Control and Internal administration groups of both Trial drugs on 8th post wounding day.5.21 Percentage of closure in original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 109 th 12 post wounding day of Control and Internal administration groups of both Trial drugs:5.22 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative percentage 109 of closure in excision wound area of Control and Internal administration groups of both Trial drugs on 12th post wounding day5.23 Percentage of closure in original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 109 16th post wounding day of Control and Internal administration groups of both Trial drugs5.24 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative percentage 110 of closure in excision wound area of Control and Internal administration groups of both Trial drugs on 16th post wounding day5.25 Percentage of closure in original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 110 4th post wounding day of Control and External administration groups of both Trial drugs:5.26 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative percentage 111 of closure in excision wound area of Control and External administration groups of both Trial drugs 4th post wounding day5.27 Percentage of closure in original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 111 8th post wounding day of Control and External administration groups of both Trial drugs5.28 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative percentage 112 of closure in excision wound area of Control and External th administration groups of both Trial drugs 8 post wounding day
  16. 16. 5.29 Percentage of closure in original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 112 12th post wounding day of Control and External administration groups of both Trial drugs5.30 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative percentage 112 of closure in excision wound area of Control and External administration groups of both Trial drugs 12th post wounding day.5.31 Percentage of closure in original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 113 th 16 post wounding day of Control and External administration groups of both Trial drugs:5.32 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative percentage 113 of closure in excision wound area of Control and External administration groups of both Trial drugs 16th post wounding day.5.33 Percentage of closure in original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 114 4th post wounding day of Control and Combined Internal and External administration groups of both Trial drugs5.34 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative percentage 114 of closure in excision wound area of Control and Combined Internal and External administration groups of both Trial drugs 4th post wounding day5.35 Percentage of closure in original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 115 8th post wounding day of Control and Combined Internal and External administration groups of both Trial drugs5.36 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative percentage 115 of closure in excision wound area of Control and Combined Internal and External administration groups of both Trial drugs 8th post wounding day5.37 Percentage of closure in original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 116 12th post wounding day of Control and Combined Internal and External administration groups of both Trial drugs5.38 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the percentage of closure in 116 excision wound area of Control and Combined Internal and External administration groups of both Trial drugs 12th post wounding day
  17. 17. 5.39 Percentage of closure in original excision wound area (sq.mm) 117 on16th post wounding day of Control and Combined Internal and External administration groups of both Trial drugs5.40 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative percentage 117 of closure in excision wound area of Control and Combined Internal and External administration groups of both Trial drugs 16th post wounding day5.41 Percentage of closure in original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 118 4th post wounding day of Control and all groups of Trial drugs5.42 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the percentage of closure in 118 excision wound area of Control and all groups of Trial drugs on on 4th post wounding day of Control and all groups of Trial drugs5.43 Percentage of closure in original excision wound area (sq.mm) on8th 119 post wounding day of Control and all groups of Trial drugs5.44 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the percentage of closure in 120 excision wound area of Control and all groups of Trial drugs on 8th post wounding day5.45 Percentage of closure in original excision wound area (sq.mm) 121 on12th post wounding day of Control and all groups of Trial drugs5.46 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative percentage 121 of closure in excision wound area of Control and all groups of Trial drugs on 12th post wounding day5.47 Percentage of closure in original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 123 16th post wounding day of Control and all groups of Trial drugs5.48 interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative percentage 123 of closure in excision wound area of Control and all groups of Trial drugs on 16th post wounding day5.49 Comparison of period of epithelialization (in no. of days) between 125 Control and Trial drug A (Madhusnuhi)5.50 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative period of 125 epithelialization (in no. of days) of Control and Trial drug A (Madhusnuhi)
  18. 18. 5.51 Comparison of period of epithelialization (in no. of days) between o 126 Control and Trial drug B (Sandhyaraga)5.52 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative period of 126 epithelialization (in no. of days) of Control and Trial drug B (Sandhyaraga)5.53 Comparison of period of epithelialization (in no. of days) between 127 Control and Trial drugs internal administration groups5.54 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative period of 127 epithelialization (in no. of days) of Control and Trial drugs internal administration groups :5.55 Comparison of period of epithelialization (in no. of days) between 128 Control and Trial drugs external administration groups5.56 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative period of 128 epithelialization (in no. of days) of Control and Trial drugs External administration groups:5.57 Comparison of period of epithelialization (in no. of days) between 129 Control and Trial drugs combined internal and external mode of administration groups5.58 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative period of 129 epithelialization (in no. of days) of Control and Trial drugs combined internal and external mode of administration groups5.59 Comparison of period of epithelialization (in no. of days) between o 130 Control and all groups of both Trial drugs5.60 Interpretation of statistical analysis on the comparative period of 130 epithelialization (in no. of days) of Control and all groups of both Trial drugs
  19. 19. LIST OF DIAGRAMS No. Topic Page No. List of Graphs5.1 Mean percentage of closure of original excision wound area 132 (sq.mm) on 4h post wounding day of Control and Trial drug A (Madhusnuhi)5.2 Mean percentage of closure of original excision wound area 132 (sq.mm) on 8h post wounding day of Control and Trial drug A (Madhusnuhi)5.3 Mean percentage of closure of original excision wound area 133 th (sq.mm) on 12 post wounding day of Control and Trial drug A (Madhusnuhi)5.4 Mean percentage of closure of original excision wound area 133 (sq.mm) on 16h post wounding day of Control and Trial drug A (Madhusnuhi)5.5 Mean percentage of closure of original excision wound area 134 (sq.mm) on 4th post wounding day of Control and Trial drug B ( Sandhyaraga)5.6 Mean percentage closure of original excision wound area 134 (sq.mm) on 8th post wounding day of Control and Trial drug B ( Sandhyaraga)5.7 Mean percentage closure of original excision wound area 135 (sq.mm) on 12th post wounding day of Control and Trial drug B ( Sandhyaraga)5.8 Mean percentage closure of original excision wound area 135 (sq.mm) on 16th post wounding day of Control and Trial drug B ( Sandhyaraga)5.9 Mean percentage closure of original excision wound area 136 (sq.mm) on 4th post wounding day of Control and Internal administration groups of both Trial drugs
  20. 20. 5.10 Mean percentage closure of original excision wound area 136 (sq.mm) on 8th post wounding day of Control and Internal administration groups of both Trial drugs5.11 Mean percentage of closure of original excision wound area 137 (sq.mm) on 12th post wounding day of Control and Internal administration groups of both Trial drugs5.12 Mean percentage wounding day of Control and Internal 137 administration groups of both Trial drugs5.13 Mean percentage of closure of original excision wound area 138 (sq.mm) on 4th post wounding day of Control and External administration groups of both Trial drugs5.14 Mean percentage of closure of original excision wound area 138 (sq.mm) on 8h post wounding day of Control and External administration groups of both Trial drugs:5.15 Mean percentage of closure of original excision wound area 139 (sq.mm) on 12h post wounding day of Control and External administration groups of both Trial drugs:5.16 Mean percentage of closure of original excision wound area 139 (sq.mm) on 16h post wounding day of Control and External administration groups of both Trial drugs:5.17 Mean percentage of closure of original excision wound area 140 th (sq.mm) on 4 post wounding day of Control and Combined Internal and External administration groups of both Trial drugs5.18 Mean percentage of closure of original excision wound area 140 (sq.mm) on 8th post wounding day of Control and Combined Internal and External administration groups of both Trial drugs5.19 Mean percentage of closure of original excision wound area 141 (sq.mm) on12th post wounding day of Control and Combined Internal and External administration groups of both Trial drugs
  21. 21. 5.20 Mean percentage of closure of original excision wound area 141 (sq.mm) on 16th post wounding day of Control and Combined Internal and External administration groups of both Trial drugs5.21 Mean percentage of closure of original excision wound area 142 (sq.mm) on 4th post wounding day of Control and all groups of Trial drug A and B5.22 Mean percentage of closure of original excision wound area 142 (sq.mm) on 8th post wounding day of Control and all groups of Trial drug A and B5.23 Mean percentage of closure of original excision wound area 143 (sq.mm) on 12th post wounding day of Control and all groups of Trial drug A and B5.24 Mean percentage of closure of original excision wound area 143 (sq.mm) on 16th post wounding day of Control and all groups ofTrial drug A and B5.25 Mean percentage of closure of original excision wound area 144 (sq.mm) on every fourth day of Control and all groups of Trial drug A and B5.26 Mean period of epithelialization (in no. of days) of Control 144 and Trial drug A (Madhusnuhi)5.27 Mean period of epithelialization (in no. of days) of Control 145 and Trial drug B (Sandhyaraga)5.28 Mean period of epithelialization (in no. of days) of Control 145 and Trial drugs internal administration groups5.29 Mean period of epithelialization (in no. of days) of Control 146 and Trial drugs external administration groups5.30 Mean period of epithelialization (in no. of days) of Control 146 and Trial drugs combined internal and external mode of administration groups5.31 Mean period of epithelialization (in no. of days) of Control 147 and all groups of both Trial drugs
  22. 22. List of Images2.1 Madhusnuhi. 352.2 Madhusnuhi-Inflorescence 352.3 Sandhyaraga 352.4 Sandhyaraga Inflorscence and fruit 352.5 Dry specimen of Madhusnuhi tuber 352.6 Dry specimen of Sandhyaraga tuber 353.1 Tuber of Sandhyaraga 843.2 T.S of Sandhyaraga tuber 843.3 Outer cork cells of Sandhyaraga tuber 843.4 Xylem bundles of Sandhyaraga tuber 844.1 Madhusnuhi Churna 974.2 Sandhyaraga Churna 975.1 Stages of Excision Wound Healing 148
  23. 23. ABSTRACTTitle:‘Experimental study of Sandhyaraga (Mirabilis jalapa.Linn) incomparison with Madhusnuhi (Smilax china.Linn) with special reference to itsVranaropana property’ Sandhyaraga, (Mirabilis jalapa Linn) is a common herb, tubers of whichhave been sold in the market as an adulterant of Madhusnuhi (Smilax chinaLinn.). On literary review it is seen that both drugs possess wound healingproperty. So an investigation to bring out the wound healing property of theplant Sandhyaraga and to compare its efficacy with that of Madhusnuhi issought. The objectives of the study are to conduct scientific investigations onSandhyaraga viz; Pharmacognostical study ,Phytochemical studies ,study onPharmacological property (Rasa estimation) amd to evaluate the Vranaropana(wound healing) property of Sandhyaraga in comparison with Madhusnuhi inexperimental animals(Morton and Malone -1972 methodology) and thus to findout the most effective route of administration of both trial drugs .Albino ratswere the experimental model. 42 albino rats were selected and divided into 7groups of 6 rats each. 3 groups were used for trial drug A and 3 for trial drug Bwhere one group being served as the control. Trial drug groups wereadministered by the respective drugs internally, externally and in combinedinternal and external form. Albino rats were wounded under aseptic conditionsusing wound techniques suggested by Marton and Malone [1972]. Wound areawas measured by planimetry contraction percentage calculated and day of fallingof eschar was noted.The statistical values of three groups of both trial drugs werecompared with Control group. The results conclude that the trial drugs Sandhyaraga and Madhusnuhi areeffective, safe and well tolerated in the treatment of excision wound and thedrugs can be used for human trial.Key words: Madhusnuhi, Sandhyaraga, Adulteration, Comparison, Albino rats,Excision wound, Planimetry, Wound healing.
  24. 24. Chapter-1 Introduction INTRODUCTION Ayurveda originated long back in pre-vedic period. Rigveda and Atharva-veda(5000 years B.C.), the earliest documented knowledge have references on health anddiseases. Ayurveda is the science based up on principles like Panchamahabhuta,Tridosha and Trisutras. Ayurveda considers every Dravya in the nature as Aushadhi. Dravyaguna vijnana is a branch of Ayurveda, in which numerous herbal drugshave been discussed in detail regarding their pharmacological & therapeutic aspects.As the tradition of it spreads through out the country, various plants have beenmentioned for maintaining health and curing ailments. Medicinal plants constitute a source of raw materials for both traditionalsystems of medicine (e.g. Ayurveda, Chinese, Unani and Siddha) and modernmedicine. Most rural populations, especially in the under developed and developingcountries, depend on medicinal herbs as their main source of primary healthcare. Mostmedicinal herbs are not fit for administration as such. Hence, preparations suitable foradministration are made according to the pharmacopeial directions known asKalpanas. Some factors, which have led to the increased usage of plant materials as asource of medicines for a wide variety of human ailments are – increased population,inadequate supply of drugs, prohibitive cost of treatments, side effects anddevelopment of resistance to isolated principles and their synthetic versions. In Ayurvedic system, the crude plants are used in the preparation of medicinesby which the undesired side effects and resistance are not developed. But the isolationand identification of the active principles and elucidation of the mechanism of actionDept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 1
  25. 25. Chapter-1 Introductionof a drug is of paramount importance as far as the standardization point of view ofAyurvedic drugs is concerned. A drug is said to be adulterated if it does not meet the quality and puritycharacteristics it is represented to possess or if sold under the name, which pertains toanother drug, or if it is imitation or a substitute for the other drug or resemblinganother drug in a manner likely to deceive. Different methods adopted for adulteration may be grouped as follows:Substitution with inferior commercial varieties adulteration by artificiallymanufactured substitutes, substitution by exhausted drugs, substitution bysuperficially similar but cheaper natural substances, adulteration by addition ofworthless heavy materials, addition of synthetic principles and usage of vegetativematter from the same plant. Sandhyaraga, (Mirabilis jalapa Linn) is a common herb seen in western ghats andcoastal areas of Karnataka and Kerala. It has been noted that the tubers of the planthave been sold in the crude drug market as an adulterant of Madhusnuhi (Smilaxchina Linn.). The drug Madhusnuhi (Dweepantharavacha) has been mentioned inBhavaprakasa nighantu by Bhavamisra in Hareethakyadi varga as beneficial inPhiranga roga . 1 Being a non classical drug Sandhyaraga is not found in ancient classical texts ofAyurveda. References regarding Mirabilis jalapa Linn. as adulterant is obtained fromthe research work viz‘Materia Medica of Local Health Traditions of Payyannur’ by E.Unnikrishnan2 and ‘Conservation and consumption, A study on crude drug trade inthreatened medicinal plants in Trivandrum district’ by Parvathi Menon3. SeveralDept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 2
  26. 26. Chapter-1 Introductionreferences regarding ethnomedical practices of Sandhyaaga is mentioned in websiteswhich shows its medical importance. So an investigation to bring out the medicinal property of the plant Sandhyaragaif any, and to compare its efficacy with that of Madhusnuhi has become the need ofthe day. References regarding medicinal property of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. especiallyits wound healing property is mentioned in the text books – ‘Indian Materia Medica’by K.M.Nadkarni and ‘Indian Medicinal Plants Vol. – III’ by Kirthikar.K.R. andBasu.B.D. The references regarding its ethno medical practice in the disease Syphilisand as a remedy for wound is also available. The common property which was found to be claimed in both the drugs isVranaropana. In Ayurveda classical use of Madhusnuhi is mentioned inPhirangaroga where Vrana is a symptom. Hence Vranaropana is the criteria selectedto compare the medicinal property of trial drugs. Aims and objectives of the study are: 1. To conduct scientific studies on Sandhyaraga viz a) Pharmacognostical study(.Both macroscopically and microscopically) b) Phytochemical studies (test for alkaloids, tannins, saponins etc) c) Study on Pharmacological property (Rasa estimation) 2. To evaluate the Vranaropana (wound healing) property of Sandhyaraga in comparison with Madhusnuhi in experimental animals(Morton and Malone [1972]methodology). 3. To find out the most effective mode of administration of both trial drugs .Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 3
  27. 27. Chapter-1 Introduction Susuruta Samhita has explained Vrana, its complications and management indetail. In the Vranitopasaneeya adhyaya4, he has explained that, “If the RakshaKarma of Vrana is proper then the Nishachara’s leave the patient, same as theMrugaas (deer) run away from the jungle terrified by a lion.” Sandhyaraga is a drug which was not described in Ayurvedic classics. Henceit is a need to postulate Rasadi Gunas of the drug. So an attempt is made in thepresent study to evaluate the Rasa of the drug Sandhyaraga. A vast scope of research exists in the field of Ayurveda for the benefit of thescience and humanity at large. Hopefully, a number of scientists and experts workingin this field may help in achieving this goal.Plan of the studyChapter 1. Introduction part gives a general view on, Ayurveda Dravyaguna Vijnana, need of the study and a brief outline of trial drugs , disease , and experimental studyChapter 2. Review of literature:An extensive collection regarding trial drugs and disease is mentioned in this chapterChapter 3. Drug analysis part is where the pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological analysis (regarding Rasa estimation)of drug Sandhyaraga is explained.Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 4
  28. 28. Chapter-1 IntroductionChapter 4. Experimental study is the chapter where materials and methods, experimental procedure, grouping of experimental animals are explainedChapter 5. Result: This section deals with the analysis of observation and interpretations of statistical analysis.Chapter 6. Discussion: Major findings and probable mode of action of drugs are discussed here.Chapter 7. Conclusion: The dissertation concludes with highlighting important findings, further scope, limitations and recommendations of the study.Chapter 8. Summary part summarises the study in a nutshellDept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 5
  29. 29. Chapter-2 Review of Literature REVIEW OF LITERATURE In Ayurveda, Dravya is one among the Padachatustaya. Dravya isvery important as the instrument for Chikitsa Siddhi. It has been told by Acharyas thatthere is no Dravya which cannot be used as medicine because of itsPanchabhoutikatva. But in classical texts of Ayurveda only a limited number of plantsare considerd for the management of diseases. Even though plants possessingmedicinal properties are abundantly seen around us they are not being used asmedicine because they are not recommended by classical texts. The present trial drugs are Madhusnuhi and Sandhyaraga.Madhusnuhi is a drug mentioned in Bhavaprakasa samhita by Acharya Bhava Misraaround 15th century A.D. It is used effectively by the practitioners of Ayurveda for thetreatment of Phiranga, the outstanding symptom of which is Vrana. Hence it has beendecided to study for its Vranaropana (wound healing) property. Sandhyaraga is a plant which is not mentioned in any Ayurvedicclassical texts.It is commonly found all over India especially in the valleys of WesternGhats. Many crude drug sellers are using the tuber of this plant as an adulterant ofMadhusnuhi because of similar therapeutic property. It also possesses enormousethnomedical importance in the treatment of skin ailments and wound. Theinformations received from traditional physicians this plant is having good curativeeffect on ulcers, wounds, skin disease etc. Hence to verify the claims of traditionalDept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 6
  30. 30. Chapter-2 Review of Literaturephysicians and drug sellers and with the informations received from world wideethnomedical uses of the plant5, this study has been undertaken to evaluate thecomparative efficacy of Madhusnuhi and Sandhyaraga for their Vranaropanaproperty in experimental animals and analyze it statistically. PART-A DRUG REVIEWMADHUSNUHI (SMILAX CHINA.LINN)Ayurvedic Review of the Plant The drug Madhusnuhi is commonly known as Chopacini. It is grown in China andJapan. Probably this plant might have been brought to India during 15th century A.Din order to treat syphilis (Phiranga). Hence there is no much reference about the drugin the ancient classical texts. This drug is first found mentioned and explained inBhavaprakshanighantu. It is not found in earlier nighantus like Astanga nighantu,Dhanvanthari nighantu, Raja nighanu etc. But it is found explained extensively intext books of later period.SYNONYMS 6,7,8 The description about medicinal plants in Ayurvedic texts is in a simple andinformative pattern, i.e. through the synonyms. The ancient Taxonomy is designed forcommunicating about the plant both morphologically and pharmacologically.Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 7
  31. 31. Chapter-2 Review of Literature Madhusnuhi- Snuhivat thekshnasodhanadigunayukthamapi madhuram. (It possess aall the pharmacological properties of snuhi,but it is madhura rasa) 9 Dveepantharavaca- Dweepantharath aagatham idam vacha sadrusham kandham. (The rhizome was first brought from Java nd Sumatra islands to india) Susnuhi Subhachini Chopachini Sumuulika Dwipautra VacaROOPA VIJNANA10 It is a tuber possessing nodes on them yellowish white colored, taut, possessingMadhura rasa and leaves like Aswagandha.GANA /VARGABhavaprakasa nighantu - Haritakyadi vargaNighantu Adarsa - Lashunadi vargaSaligrama nighantu - Haritakyadi vargaPriya nighantu - Satapushpadi vargaDept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 8
  32. 32. Chapter-2 Review of LiteratureGUNA-KARMA11,12,13Rasa : TikthaGuna : Laghu,RukshaVirya : UshnaVipaka : KatuDoshaghnatha : Vataharam ,TridosaharaKarma : Sothahara,Sukrasodhaka, Deepana, Mutrala,Raktasodhaka,Rasayana Tridosahara, Varnya, Vedanasthapana, ,Nadeebalya, Anulomana, Svedajanana. Tarunyatha, Poushtiki, GarbhapradaVyadhighnatha:Angagraha,Upadamsha, Kateegraha, Urustambha, Rajayaksma, Vrana, Gandamaala,Netraroga,SarvangavaataKampavaata, Kubjavaata, Rakta vikara,Rakta dushti, Phiranga, Shodha, Klaibya, Sukra vikara, Agni mandya, Adhmana, Udarashoola, Krimiroga, Mootravikara,Pooyamootra, Sandhivikara, Sandhishodha, Jadya, Kushta, Dourbalya, Unmaada, Apasmara,VaatavyadhiPakshaghatha, AmavaataPRAYOGA In Upadamshaja sandhigatavaata, decoction of Ushava and Copacini is mixedwith honey and taken internally.14 In Phiranga, powder of Copacini with honey shall be taken while keeping on saltfree diet.15 Decoction of fresh roots is used in veneral complaints and sores.Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 9
  33. 33. Chapter-2 Review of Literature It is used in India like sarsaparilla as a depurative, alterative, antisyphilitic andaphrodisiac in the form of decoction which is prepared by boiling 2 ounces of root inone pint of water till the water is reduced to ten ounce. It is useful in rheumatism,epilepsy, insanity and syphilis.16 17MATHRA (DOSE): Dose of a drug is an important factor for achieving desired therapeutic effect. Thedose is decided or fixed according to the condition of the disease with respect to itsstage, the age of the patient, the structure of the patient, the body weight, etc. It alsodepends on the potency of the drug, mode of action and also the form of applicationlike Churna, Kwatha, etc. The usual dose of this drug is 3-6 gms of Churna as perAyurvedic Pharmacopeae of India.VISISHTA YOGAS Chukkuthippalyadi Kashayam18 Pavukashayam18 Madhusnuhi rasayana18 Chopachini paka19 20FORMULATIONS IN OTHER SYSTEMS Parangi pattai choornam Parangi rasayanam Parangipattai pathangamDept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 10
  34. 34. Chapter-2 Review of LiteratureNISHEDHA One should abstain from Madya, Taila, Kanjika, Shaaka, Kshara, Amla,Lavana and Tikta Bhojana.21REVIEW OF MODERN LITERATURE OF SMILAX CHINA.LINN 22History The drug Smilax china was introduced into Goa from China aboutA.D.1535.Previous to this date it was not noticed by any of the Mahometanphysicians. The Portugese, how ever, appear to have lost no time in carrying it to theirfactories in Persia, as it was mentioned, a few years after its introduction into Goa, byMir –Immad_ed-din Mahmud of Shiraz, Mirza Kazi of Yezd, andMir MuhMMeadHashim of Teheran. In 1669 it was described as a well known drug in the Tuhfat-el-muminin under the name of Chub-chini (Chinese wood) in Arabic Khasab -es –sini.The author of theMahzan el Adwiya has a long article upon its medicinalvirtues. He also notices particularly the variable appearances of different samples ofthe drug, and directs that what is heavy, of a rosy colour, free from knots is to beselected. He tells us that fresh root is some times brought to India; some of this heplanted at Moorshedabad (A.H.1178); it produced a climbing stem with smallelongated leaves, not unlike bamboo; after a years time he dug it up , but found thatthe roots degenerated and did not retain the qualities of the China article. Chubchini isconsidered by these writers to be anti-rheumatic anti-syphilitic, aphrodisiacal, anddemulcent. Loureiro says of it, “valet in quibusquunque doloribus vagis, veneris, autrheumaticis”Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 11
  35. 35. Chapter-2 Review of Literature Ainslie (Mat.Ind.,i.,70)notices its use in southern India as an anti-syphilitic and asa remedy of much repute in a disease called maygum vaivoo, in which the limbs arestiff and contracted. He also states on the authority of the AbbeRochon (voyage toMadagascar and East indies, London, 1792) that “the Chinese often eat the rootinstead of rice, and that it contributes to make them lusty.” Roxburgh states that theSmilax glabra ,a native of Sylhet and of the adjacent Garrow country, where it iscalled Hurina -shook- China , has large tuberous roots, not to be distinguished by theeye from the China root and that the natives of the country use a decoction of thefresh root for the cure of sores and venereal complaints(Flora Indica). This plant alsogrows in China and affords some of the china-root of commerce. (Trimen’s Journ.ofBot.,i.,102) The reported good effects of China root on the Emperor Charles.V. who wassuffering from gout acquired for the drug a great celebrity in Europe, and severalworks were written in praise of its virtues. But though its powers were soon found tobe over-rated, it still retained some reputation as a sudorific and alternative, and wasmuch used at the end of the 17th century in the same way as sarsaparilla. It still retainsits place in some pharmacopoeias. (Pharmacographia).In the East the Chub-chini isstill as highly esteemed as it ever was , and the China trade Returns show a steadyyealy increase in the quantity shipped from Southern ChinaTaxonomyKingdom - Plantae – PlantsSubkingdom - Tracheobionta – Vascular plantsSuperdivision - Spermatophyta – Seed plantsDept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 12
  36. 36. Chapter-2 Review of LiteratureDivision - Magnoliophyta – Flowering plantsClass - Liliopsida – MonocotyledonsSubclass - LiliidaeOrder - LilialesFamily - Smilacaceae – Catbrier familyGenus - Smilax L. – greenbrierSpecies - china L. – China rootVernacular names 23Arab -Kasbussini,Kashabchinae, AslussiniBengali -Thopchini, Kumarika, Harna shukhochinaChinese -Too-fup,English -China-root,Bamboo Briar rootGujarathi -ChopchiniHindi -Chobchini,ThopchiniJapanese -Too-PufKannada -Chinipavu,Neerubetta balliMalayalam -Chenapavu,Cheenapairu,Marathi -ChobchiniPersian -Chob-chinaePunjabi -ChobchiniSanskrit -Dveepantharavaca,Chopchini,MadhusnuhiSinhala -China allaDept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 13
  37. 37. Chapter-2 Review of LiteratureTamil -Parankichekkai, Parankipatte, Shukchina, ParingayTelugu -Pirangichekka,Gali-chekkaFAMILY CHARACTER23LILIACEAE Herbs (very rarely shrubs or small trees) with fibrous roots, or a creeping rootstock, or a bulb or corm. Leaves various. Flowers usually hermaphrodite, axillary orterminal, solitary, or twin, or umbellate, spicate, racemose, paniculate, or fasciculate ;bracts usually small, scarious, sometimes, whwn the flowersa are umbellate, spathelike. Perianth herbaceous or petaloid, usually 6-merous in two series, imbricate (rarelyvalvate) in bud. Stamens 6 (rarely 3 or fewer), hypogynous or adnate to the perianth ;filaments free or connate ; anthers oblong or linear, often dorsifixed, usually dehiscinglongitudinally. Ovary 3 celled ; ovules 2 or more from the inner angles of the cells,anatropous (rarely orthotropus) ; style usually simple, often long (rarely short or 0), orstyles 3. Fruit a capsule or berry, usually 3 – (rarely 1- ) celled. Seeds 1 or more,globose or flattened ; albumin horny or fleshy ; embryo small, terete. Genera 250.Species 2,700. Cosmopolitan.GENUS CHARACTERSMILAX.Linn Climbing shrubs (rarely erect herbs). Leaves alternate (rarely opposite), persistent,3-7 nerved, reticulately veined ; petiole usually with 2 tendrils above its base. Flowersmall, umbellate, dioecious. Perianth of 6 free, usually incurved or recurved, subequalsegments. Male flowers : stamens 6 or more, inserted at the base of the perianth ;Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 14
  38. 38. Chapter-2 Review of Literaturefilaments erect, free long or short ; anthers oblong, 2 celled, didymous, withcontiguous cells or with cells discrete by a forking of the connective. Pistillode 0.Female flowers: staminodes 3 or 6, filiform. Ovary 3 celled, 3-gonous ; ovules 1-3 ineach cell;, orthotropous, pendulous ; style short or 0 ; stigmas 3, stout, recurved. Fruita globose berry. Seed solitary, or more often 2. , hemispheric, rarely 3; albumenhorny; embryo small, Species 210, Tropics and subtropics.HABIT , HABITAT and DISTRIBUTIONHabit It is a thorny climbing shrub with good vegetation with tendrils. It ia havingsmallwhite flowers whichIt is in flowers in May, and the seeds ripen in October. Theplant is not self-fertile.Habitat Forests, thickets, hillsides, grassy slopes, shaded places along valleys or streamsfrom near sea level to 2000 metres. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy)and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cangrow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.DistributionAssam, Khasi and Garo hills, Japan,ChinaMORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF SMILAX CHINA.LINNRoot : The tubers which are formed on the fibrous root of the plant, are of shape andsize of an elongated kidney potato, some what flattened, knotty, covered with a rustyDept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 15
  39. 39. Chapter-2 Review of Literaturecoloured bark, some times smooth and shining, sometimes rough, internally theirsubstance is of a pinkish white colour ,hard and farinaceous, insipid, mucilaginousand inodorousStem: It is a climbing shrub with slender branchlets,Leaf: Terete smooth unarmed leaves rather than 7.5 to 15cm by3.2 to 5.7cm ,ellipticor ovate lanceolate, acuminate,3 costate to the rounded or cuneate base ,petiole 13.5to17mm,narrowly sheathing, unarmed sheath 8 to17mm.longaxillary;cirrhi veryslender.FlowersUmbels subsessile,many flowerd;peduncle ebractat;pedcels t8 mm;bracteolessubulat;flowrs very small, white,buds depressed globose,deeply 6lobed from thegoove on the back othe obovate cucullate cornaceous sepals;minute petalsstamensvery short;staminoids in female flowers.MICROSCOPIC CHARACTER OF TUBERS OF SMILAX CHINA.LINN24 The bark consists of thick walled dark brown brick shaped cells, which containsbundles of crystalline needles and resinous matter. The bulk of the tuber is made up ofa parenchyma, the cells of which are large and have a radiate hilum .The vascularsystem is scalariform and is associated with porous wood cells.CULTIVATION & PROPAGATION25Seed – sown on March in a warm greenhouse. This method probably refers to thetropical members of the genus, seeds of plants from cooler areas seem to require aperiod of cold stratification, some species taking 2 or more years to germinate. Seedsof temperate species are sown in a cold frame as soon as they are received . Seeds areDept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 16
  40. 40. Chapter-2 Review of Literatureobtained as soon as they are ripe .When the seedlings eventually germinate, they arepricked out into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow themon in the greenhouse for at least their first year, though normally in pots for 2 years.They shall be planted out into their permanent positions in early summer. Division inearly spring as new growth begins. Larger divisions can be planted out direct intotheir permanent positions. It is found out best to pot up the smaller divisions andgrow them on in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame, planting them out once theyare well established in the summer. The flowers are dioeciou, so both male and femaleplants must be grown if seed is requiredPHYTOCHEMISTRY26 Root contain fat ,sugar glucoside, colouring matter, saponin, gum and starch.Aproximate analysis the air dried drug afforded :Ether extract (fat) …………………… 0.33Alchoholic extract(sugar, glucoside)……… 1.72Aqueous extract (sugar, gum )……..… 6.79Crude fibre……………………………… 13.79Ash………………………………………….1.47Moisture……………………………………. 6.10Starch (by difference)…………………… 69.80 100.00 The root contained no alkaloid, but the alcoholic extract contained a glucoside anda colouring matter which gave an olive-green tint with ferric chloride, but noprecipitate with gelatine. With soda it afforded a deep red colour, and was precipitatedfrom the solution by neutral plumbic acetate. The sugar present abundantly reducedFehling’s test without previous inversion. The amount of ash, consisting of allalkaline salts is very small.Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 17
  41. 41. Chapter-2 Review of LiteratureIDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH27Foreign matter -Not more than 2 per cent,.Total Ash -Not more than 0.6 per cent.Acid-insoluble ash -Not more than 0.006per centAlcohol-soluble extractive -Not less than 0.8 per centWater-soluble extractive -Not less than 5 per centTHIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (T.L.C.) T.L.C. of the alcoholic extract on precoated Silica gel G plate (0.2 mm thick)using Toluene : Ethyl acetate : Methanol (10 : 10 : 4) as mobile phase and on sprayingwith Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 1050C for tenminutes ten spots appear at Rf. 0.09 (dark green), 0.17 (violet), 0.21 (dirty yellow),0.26 (grey), 0.32 (yellow), 0.48, 0.55 and 0.58 (all violet), 0.73 (greenish blue) and0.77 (violet).THERAPEUTIC USES28 Apart from the classical texts the other valuable sources for Dravya GunaVignana like Indian medicinal plants ,The Indian Materia Medica, etc have given theelaborate usage of Smilax china as follows Aphrodisiac in the form of decoction (1 in 10 or 2 ounces in a pinch of water andboiled down and reduced to 5) dose- 1 ounce thrice daily. It is boiled with milk to which Mastaki, cardamoms and cinnamons are added andtaken internally, in Rheumatism, gout, epilepsy, Chronic nervous disease, Cachexia,Seminal weakness and Constitutional Syphilis.Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 18
  42. 42. Chapter-2 Review of Literature It is used along with Anathamool, and other drugs of reputed efficacy in syphilisand rheumatism. In Unani system it is indicated in syphilis, leprosy, kidney and bladder diseases,paralysis, headache, convulsions etcADULTERATION China root is used in India to some extent like sarasaparilla.28 Tubers of Mirabilis jalapa, (naalumani) are used as an adulterant of Smilax china ( Cheenappavu).29,30 Smilax china is adulterated with Smilax pseudochina and Pachyma cocos. 31SANDHYARAGA(MIRABILIS JALAPA.LINN) Traditional use of medicinal plant is very important to researchers. If a plant hasbeen used in a specific way for a specific purpose for many years and in manydifferent geographical areas, there is probably a reason for it. Science that deals withthe study of such traditionally used plants is called Ethnobotany. This branch ofscience help scientist to do research and study them scientifically. All indigenoussystems have originally discovered the medicinal uses of plant derived drugs fromsuch traditional practice and experience. Sandhyaraga is such a drug which has verymuch ethnobotanical relevance.AYURVEDIC REVIEW OF THE PLANT Sandhyaraga is a drug which is not mentioned in classical texts of ayurveda.According to some authors a reference is seen in Rajanighantu32 in KaraveeradiDept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 19
  43. 43. Chapter-2 Review of Literaturevarga about a plant called Trisandhya33 Gosh (probably the name is due to the reasonthat it flowers in the evening). But in later text books such references are not seen. InBhavaprakasha Nighantu the plant Trisandhya has been equated to Japapushpa34.PARYAYA Krishnakeli35 Sandhyaraga 36 (Sandhyaya iva rago asya) Sandhyakali Trisondi 37 Krishnakali ‘Swanaama khyate pushpa pradhane vrukshe’38REVIEW OF MODERN LITERATURE OF MIRABILIS JALAPA. LINNHISTORY39 Five varieties of the plant , Mirabilis jalapa, with white red ,yellow ,red& white,red and yellow flowers were introduced from West Indies in 1596 and must havebeen carried by the Portuguese to the east shortly afterwards , as the plant is said tohave been introduced into Persia in the reign of Shah Abbas the first , and wasestablished on the Malabar coast Van Rheede.It was at time supposed to produce theJalap of commerce. M.Jalapa has been given the Sanskrit name Sandhyakali,or“evening flower “ but is best known by its Persian name Gul A’bbas or “flower ofAbbas”; it is a favorite flower or Persians, who cultivate it in ornamental flower pots.The Arabs call it Shab-el-leili which is evidently a translation of the French “belle denuit”; it is the “Fula quodrahoras” or “four o’clock” flower of the Portuguese as itsflower open at the hour in the after noon.Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 20
  44. 44. Chapter-2 Review of LiteratureBIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH40 The plant and root have demonstrated other biological activities in addition to theantiviral actions of the Mirabilis Anti-viral Protiens. In 2001, researchers found newphenolic compounds in clavillia which demonstrated in vitro action against the yeastCandida albicans. A hot water extract of the flower, leaf, and root of clavillia hasshown antifungal activity in another in vitro study. Other research on the leaf andbranches of clavillia did not confirm any antimicrobial actions; therefore, theseproperties are probably attributed only to the root of the plant. In early research, theroot of the plant (in water and ethanol extracts) also demonstrated mild uterinestimulant actions in rats, and antispasmodic actions in guinea pigs.TAXONOMYKingdom - Plantae -- Planta, plantes, plants, VegetalSubkingdom - Tracheobionta -- vascular plantDivision - Magnoliophyta , Angiospermes, angiosperms, flowering plants, phanérogames, plantes à fleurs, plantes à fruitsClass - Magnoliopsida -- dicots, dicotylédones, dicotyledonsSubclass - CaryophyllidaeOrder - CaryophyllalesFamily - Nyctaginaceae (four oclocks, nyctaginacées)Genus - Mirabilis L. ( four oclock, four-oclockSpecies - Mirabilis jalapa L. -- common four oclock, common four-oclock, marvel of Peru, marvel-of-PeruDept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 21
  45. 45. Chapter-2 Review of LiteratureCOMMON NAMES:40 Clavillia, Four-o’clocks Marvel of peruVERNACULAR NAMES 40,41,42,43.Africans -VieruurbomArabic -Shahelleilli, ZahrulajlAssamese -GodhuligopalBengal -Gulabas, Krishnakeli, KrishnokeliBombay -Gubhaji, GulabbasBurma -Mizubin, MyoezuCanarese -Chandramallige, Gulamaji, Madhyahnamallige, Sanjamallige, SanjimalligeCatalan -Diego de noche, Don Diego de noche, Juan de noche, Don Juan de nocheChinese -Tche Kia HoaDeccan -GulabashEnglish -Four o’clock flower, Marvel of peru, ClavilliaFanti -Guaamboroba,SankaniFrench -Belle de nuit, Fleur admirable, Herbe triste, Faux jalap, Jasmin rouge, Merveille du Perou, Nyctage, Nyctage fauxjalap,French Guiana -Belle de nuit, Herbe de quatre heuresDept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 22
  46. 46. Chapter-2 Review of LiteratureGa -Dmaidzi edzwai forforiGerman -AbendblumeGujarathi -GubbajiHindi -Gulabbas, Gulabash, GuleaabbasHova -Vanimpolera, Voampoleri, VonimpoleraKonkani -AkasamugriLareunion -Belle de nuitMalayalam -Anthimalari, AnthimantharamNorthwestern provinces -GulbansaOriya -RangaiPersian -Guleabbas, GuliaabbasPhilippines -Diego de noche, Maravillas, Oricion, SuspirosPunjab -Abasi , GulabbasSanskrit -Krishnakeli, SandhyakaliSinhalese -Sendrikka, SindrikagahaSpanish -Don diego de noche, Don juan de noche, Maravilla de noche, TrompetillaSynd -AbhasieTagalog -Gilalas, GuilalasTamil -Andhimalligai, Pattarachi,PattarashuTelugu -Batharachi, Bhadrakshi, Chandrakantha, Chandramallige,Twi -NnonnannhwiranUrudu -GuleabbasDept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 23
  47. 47. Chapter-2 Review of LiteratureFAMILY CHARACTER44NYCTAGINACEAE Herbs, shrubs, or trees. Leaves usually opposite, entire; stipules 0. Flowershermaphrodite (rarely unisexual), regular, sometimes dimorphous ; inflorescencevarious; bracts often involucrate, free or connate. Perianth monosepalous, usuallysmall, petaloid; tube persistent, enveloping the fruit ; limb 3-5 lobed, persistent ordecidous, the lobes plicate in bud. Stamens 1-30, hypogynous, sometimes unilateral ;filaments small, unequal, inflexed in bud ; anthers included or exserted, dorsifixed,didymous. Ovary one celled, free, ovule solitary, basal, erect; style filiform, involutein bud,; stigma small; simple or multifid. Fruit membranous, indehiscent,, enclosed ina coriacceous perianth tube . seed erect; testa adherent; albumin soft or foury; embryostraight with convolute cotyledons or incurved; radicle inferior. Genera-20. Species-160. Mostly tropical and especially in America.GENUS CHARACTERMIRABILIS .Linn Herbs often with tuberous roots and medium sized or somewhat large flowersclustered on the branches of large leafy panicles, each or clusters of 2-10 surroundedby a calyx like involucre of 4-5 connate bracts. Perianth brightly colored, salver –shaped to campanulate. Stamens 3-5, rarely 6 somewhat exserted. Nut ellipsoid orobpyramidal, often ribbed or rugose. Cotyledons large sub orbicular on germination.Species 25. tropical American. Mirabilis jalapa Linn. Is used medicinally inPhilippine islands, La Reunion, Guiana ; Mirabilis dichotoma Linn. in Brazil ;Mirabilis dichotoma Linn. and Mirabilis longiflora Linn in tropical America.Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 24
  48. 48. Chapter-2 Review of LiteratureHABIT, HABITAT and DISTRIBUTION OF MIRABILIS JALAPA. LINN45HABITIt is a perennial herb growing upto 0.6m. It flowers from July to Oct, and the fruitsripen from August to October. The scented flowers are hermaphrodites. Four o’clocks are grown as annuals in cool regions.HABITATCulture – Fast growing four o’ clocks are easy to grow and essentially trouble free,thriving mostly in any soil.Light - four o’ clocks do best in full sun but also perform well in partial shade.Moisture - regular garden moisture, reduced watering in winter. It is planted forornamental purposes in gardens, houses, and along railway lines, exotic, cultivated forbeautiful flowers of variegated colors.DISTRIBUTION46 It was officially botanically recorded in 1753 although it already had beendistributed as an ornamental plant throughout the tropics of the world. There is somedisagreement about where it came from originally: Mexico, Chile, or India. Today,clavillia is naturalized throughout the tropics of South America, Latin America,France, and India. In Brazil the plant is known as clavillia, maravilha, or bonina; inPeru it is known as jalapa or maravilla. Hybrids of clavillia can be found in nurseriesthroughout the U.S. where they are sold as ornamental landscape plants.Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 25
  49. 49. Chapter-2 Review of LiteratureMORPHOLOGICAL CHARECTERS OF MIRABILIS JALAPA. LINN A well known herbaceous dichotomous plant 1 metre high with largeperennial tuberous roots, rather fleshy stems and cordate leaves.Root of young plants is cylindrical above and tapering below, but in old plants, itbecomes napiform or subrotund. The external surface is dark brown and marked withnumerous circular rings. Internally it is dirtywhite or grayish in transverse sectionpresenting concentrate rings of a darker color, it shows numerous acicular crystalswhen magnified. When dry, very old roots become hard, compact and heavy anddeepen in color, but younger roots are of a leathery consistence.47Stem: dichotomous branching,Fleshy stems,purplish coloured,which thickens at thenode48Leaves -Simple,opposite, reticulate venation, entire margin,acute and cordate, ovatewith acuminate tip, smooth and of dark green color leaf blade 5.1-6.3cm longpetiolate, petiole 2.5-3.8cm long and exstipulate.Flowers usually purple but very numerous colors (white, yellow to crimson, oftenstriped or blotched )are found and the perianth is sometimes variegated. There is onlyone flower (Solitary)to the involucre in this species, which latter therefore is apt to bemistaken for a calyx.49 Flowers brilliant, elongate, fragrant, long tubular flowersopening in the evening borne in clusters among the leaves at the end of branches.Slender tube 4 to 5 cm, widening abruptly to a wide limit with rounded petal likelobes spreading 3-4cm across, perianth –undivided terminally incised.Fruits –Achenes, black, muricated rough resembling black pepper.Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 26
  50. 50. Chapter-2 Review of LiteratureCULTIVATION & PROPAGATION They succeed in almost any ordinary garden soil, prefers a fertile well-drained soilin full sun or part day shade. Plant seeds in early spring or divide tubers any time. Iflarge black seeds are soaked in water overnight before planting they will germinatequicker. tuber can also be dug up at the end of the season and replant it next spring.Four oclocks will self seed.PHYTOCHEMISTRY50,51,52 This plant contains alanine, alpha amyrins, arabinose, beta amyrines, campesterol,daucosterol and dopamine. (ref. from – Antibacterial activity of some selected Indianmedicinal flora) The roots are collected in July, cut into slices, exposed to warm air, and thenreduced to powder and desiccation completed at 100o C. the fresh roots dried oversulphuric acid lost 81.136 % in wweight ; the ash amounted to 6.135% and was freefrom manganese. The proximate analysis was made with the powdered roots dried at 100 0 C andwas conducted according to Dragendroff’s plan with the following results. Light petroleum ether extract - 0.580% Ether extract, soluble in water - 0.09% Ether extract, soluble in alcohol - 0.222% Residue insoluble in water or alcohol - 0.02% - 0.340% Absolute alcohol extract - 3.040% Aqueous extract containing glucose - 1.6% Saccharose or allied carbohydrate - 7.97%....30.62%Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 27
  51. 51. Chapter-2 Review of Literature The petroleum ether extract was soft and pale yellowish in color, not crystallineand without any special odour. It consisted of wax and pale yellow oil soluble inabsolute alcohol with neutral reaction. The ethereal extract was soft and yellowish. The portion soluble in water had anacid reaction but gave no coloration with ferric chloride. Acidulated with sulphuricacid, a slight precipitate was afforded with Mayer’s reagent. The residue of theethereal extract soluble in alcohol was also yellowish, soft and on standing becameindistinctly crystalline. Treated with water acidulated with Sulphuric acid, it gave noalkaloidal reactions; with alkalies on gently warming, it was slightly soluble withpale yellow coloration, the color being destroyed by acids and whitish flocksprecipitated. The alcoholic tincture of the roots was of a port wine color and the extract of adeep orange tint. In water part was soluble with acid reaction and afforded aprecipitate with alkaloidal reagents. The extract was treated with ammonia in whichthe greater part dissolved affording a dirty brownish red solution and the solutionagitated with ether- the ethereal extract amounted to 0.384% and contained a smallamount of alkaloid with much coloring matter. An attempt was made to purify thealkaloid by reagitating this extract from an acid solution with ether, and thenneutralizing and again agitating with ether; an unweighable amount of alkaloid was,however obtained. No special color reactions of the alkaloid were observed. Analkaline solution of the alcoholic extract was only slightly precipitated by acids,solution remaining dark colored. The aqueous extract contained 1.6% of glucosecalculated on the roots dried at 1000 C. after boiling with dilute sulphuric acid, aDept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 28
  52. 52. Chapter-2 Review of Literaturesecond determination with Fehling’s solution was made, and the result calculated asSaccharose which was equivalent to 7.97%. In order to determine whether the plant had any injurious properties, the alcoholicextract from 10gms of the dried and pounded roots was mixed with a few drops ofammonia and water and injected into a cat’s stomach; the cat vomited once but wasnot otherwise inconvenienced. Four new miraxanthins- I,II,III and IV isolated from flowers and charectarised;Indica xanthin and Vulga xanthin – I also isolated. As recorded in Rainforest Database chemical analysis of clavillia shows that it isrich in many active compounds including triterpenes, proteins, flavonoids, alkaloids,and steroids. Of particular interest to researchers is a group of amino acid-basedproteins, called mirabilis antiviral proteins (MAPs). These chemicals have shownspecific antiviral and antifungal actions. They are produced in the seeds, roots, andyoung shoots, and help the plant protect against various plant viruses and soil-bornefungi. In 1994, a Japanese tobacco company was awarded a U.S. patent on the MAPsin clavillia as being effective in protecting economically-important crops (such astobacco, corn, and potatoes) from a large variety of plant viruses (such as tobaccomosaic virus, spotted leaf virus and root rot virus). Researchers in Hong Kongisolated another MAP in the roots of clavillia with the same antiviral actions, and alsonoted, "The MAP demonstrated to possess abortifacient [abortion-causing] activity inpregnant mice, inhibitory effects on cell-free protein synthesis, and antiproliferativeeffects on tumor cells." The MAPs found in clavillia have shown to inhibit cellularprocesses in viral cells.Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 29
  53. 53. Chapter-2 Review of Literature The highest concentration of MAPs is found in the seeds of the plant, followed bythe roots, then leaves. The seeds, however, are a significant source of other peptidechemicals with actions similar to the neurotoxic peptides found in spider venom. These peptides are in the same classification as (and act similarly to) anotherplant-derived toxic peptide, ricin (now being employed as a biological weapon). Ascompared with ricin, though, clavillias peptides are only about 1/30th as toxic.Because of this toxicity, though, the seeds are not generally used in herbal medicinesystems (despite researchers documentation of the significant antimicrobial actionsattributed to them). Clavillias main chemicals include: alanine, alpha-amyrins, arabinose, betaamyrins, betalamic acid, betanin, brassicasterol, beta-sitosterols, 2-carbosyarabinitol,campesterol, daucosterol, d-glucan, dopamine, hexacosan-1-ol, indicaxanthin,isobetanin, 6-methoxyboeravinone C, methylabronisoflavone, mirabilis antiviralproteins, mirabilis peptides, miraxanthins, n-dotriacontane, n-hentriacontane, n-heptacosane, n-hexacosane, n-nonacosane, n-octacosane, n-pentacosane, n-pentatriacontane, n-tetracosane, n-tetratriacontane, n-triacontane, n-tricosane, n-tritriacontane, oleanolic acid, stigmasterol, tartaric acid, trigonelline, tryptophan,ursolic acid, and vulgaxanthin I.PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES The leaves have a sharp taste; maturant;lessen inflammations. The root isaphrodisiac; good for syphilitic sores (Yunani). Its roots are known as aphrodisiac and mild purgative.Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 30
  54. 54. Chapter-2 Review of Literature Mirabilis jalapa was screened for its antibacterial activity and is proved to possessantifungal, antimicrobial, antiviral, antispasmodic, antibacterial, diuretic, carminative,cathartic, hydrogogue, purgative, stomachic, tonic, and Vermifuge propertiesLeavesare tonic & antiseptic.53.Root, in powder form, possess a distinct odour and a slightlyacrid taste followed by a tingling warm and numbing sensation stimulating the flow ofsaliva. Moistant powder is irritant to skin and mucus membrane..It also cures woundsand Bruises.INDICATIONS 52 Sandhyaraga is indicated in several diseases and is practiced world wide .It isindicated mainly in skin related ailments and for intestinal parasites. Brazil :for candida, chagas disease, colic, constipation, contusions, diarrhea,dysentery, earache, edema, eczema, freckles, herpes, hives, itch, intestinal parasites,liver problems, pain, skin problems, skin infections, syphilis, vaginal discharge,urinary insufficiency, wounds, worms Cuba: for herpes, intestinal parasites Guatemala: for abscesses, aches, boils, bruises, conjunctivitis, dermatitis, fungalinfections, gonorrhea, inflammation, mucosal lesions, ringworm, scrofula, skinproblems, sores, ulcers (skin), vaginal discharge, vaginitis, wounds India: for conjunctivitis, edema, fungal infections, inflammation, pain, swellings Mexico:for bee stings, dysentery, scorpion stings, vaginal discharge, wounds Peru:for constipation, dermatitis, earaches, herpes, urinary insufficiency U.S.A.: for abortions, bone fractures, childbirth, mumpsDept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 31
  55. 55. Chapter-2 Review of Literature Elsewhere for abscesses, arthritis, boils, bowel cleansing, burns, bruises, colic,constipation, diabetes, digestion stimulation, dropsy, dyspepsia, fungal infections,gonorrhea, hepatitis, herpes, hypochondria, intestinal gas, intestinal parasites, libidostimulation, liver problems, menstrual irregularities, muscle pains, piles, pimples,sores, splenitis, strains, syphilis, thrush, tonic, tumors, urinary insufficiency,urogenital inflammation, urticaria, woundsTHERAPEUTIC USESThe root is used as a purgative in La Reunion and the Philippine islands. The leavesare applied to boils, phlegmons and whitlow, as a maturant.55 The fresh juice of its leaves is considered as demulsant and found useful inUrticaria. Also cures the inflammation and bruises. Its roots after rubbing with waterare applied externally in contusions.56 Tuber is used as a poultice on carbuncles, fresh leaf juice is very soothing andallays the heat and itching when applied to the body in urticaria. It also cures woundsand bruises. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices, it is given in milk as nourishingor strengthening medicine. Rubbed with water, it is applied as lepa in contusions. Theleaves bruised and heated and applied as poultice to boils and abscesses hasten thesuppurative process.57 Dr. P.S.Mootooswamy states that in Thanjavur, the roots boiled and made intocurry are considered beneficial to those who suffer from piles and that a powder andconfection are also in use. according to Thunberg, the Japanese prepare a kind ofwhite paint for their complexion from the seeds58.Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 32
  56. 56. Chapter-2 Review of Literature Tender twigs extract taken in stomach pain, flatulence, and gastritis by villagers inNorth India. There are lots of indigenous practices which have impelled clavillias presence inherbal medicine systems around the world59 The indigenous people of the Amazon enjoy the beauty of clavillias flowers asmuch as city dwellers, and often plant it in their gardens. They employ the plantmedicinally as well. Indigenous Peruvian people use a root decoction as a diuretic. The Shipibo-Conibo Indians put the flowers in baths to treat colds and flu. In Brazil, the Kayapo Indians inhale the powdered, dried flowers as a snuff forheadaches, and use a root decoction to wash wounds and to treat such skin afflictionsas leprosy. The Assuraní Indians in Brazil crush the seeds to use as a peppery condiment onfoods, and grate the tuberous root into cold water and drink it for intestinal parasites. The tribal people of Orissa, India grind the roots of the plant into a paste withblack pepper and take it orally for conjunctivitis. They also apply the juice of theleaves to fungal infections of the skin. In Peru, the plant and/or tuber is used as a diuretic, laxative, and bowel cleanser. The juice of the flower is used to clear herpes lesions and for earaches. InBrazilian herbal medicine, a paste is made of the leaf and flower and applied toaffections of the skin such as itchiness, eczema, herpes, skin spots, and skininfections.Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 33
  57. 57. Chapter-2 Review of Literature The juice of the root is dropped into the ear for earaches. Brazilians also use theroot to combat worms, intestinal parasites, leucorrhea, edema, diarrhea, dysentery,abdominal colic, syphilis, and liver affections. In Mexico, the entire plant is decocted and used for dysentery, vaginal discharge,infected wounds, and bee and scorpion stings. In the United States, the plant is used for mumps, bone fractures, and as an uterinestimulant to hasten childbirth.DOSE59The standard dose of the drug is mentioned in Rainforest data baseStandard DosagePowdered drug : 1 g twice dailyTincture : 1-2 ml twice dailyInfusion : 1/2 cup twice dailyAS AN ADULTERANT The seeds are used to adulterate black pepper.60 Root is a substitute or adulterant of true jalapa. (Exogonium purga)61 Tubers of Mirabilis jalapa, (naalumani) are used as an adulterant of Smilax china(Cheenappavu) 62,63Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 34
  58. 58. Chapter-2 Review of LiteratureImage2.1 Madhusnuhi. Image 2.2 Madhusnuhi-InflorescenceImage2.3.Sandhyaraga Image 2.4.Sandhyaraga-Inflorescence and fruitImage2.5 Dry specimen of Image2.6 Dry specimen ofMadhusnuhi tuber Sandhyaraga tuberDept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 35
  59. 59. Chapter-2 Review of Literature PART B. REVIEW OF LITERATURE ON VRANAHistory of the disease Vrana (wound) is as old as mankind. Large number ofreferences pertaining to the wound and wound healing was found in ancient Indianliterature. For better insight about the disease, apart from knowledge of types ofwounds and the process of wound healing, history of wounds is also of utmostimportance. Much reference regarding Vrana and its management is not found during prevedicperiod we get references in Vedic period. Rigveda and Atharva Veda are c the texts ofwhich have given importance to medical and treatment aspect during Vedic period.These texts contribute to us with some references regarding Vrana.References inRigveda include Sandhaan karma done by Ashwini Kumaaras in case of severedhead of Yajnya (Daksha)and joining the limb of Vishpala the daughter of Khela.Enumeration of Sadhyo Vranas and references regarding healing medicines are got inAtharva veda. Indirect references about Vrana were got Puranas like Agnipurana andin Epics like Ramayana & Mahabharata.AYURVEDIC LITERARY REVIEW OF VRANA A vast and elaborate description regarding Vrana is available in Ayurvedic textbooks. Vrana is a topic which is dealt in detail by all the basic Samhitha-s ofayurveda.According to Acharya Charaka diseases are grouped into four, out of whichthree are caused by innate factors and fourth is caused by exogenous factors. Adetailed description of skin i.e. about its formation, layers, disease afflicting it and itsphysiological as well as anatomical significance are mentioned in our classics.Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 36
  60. 60. Chapter-2 Review of LiteratureEtymology:Vrana has the meaning to recover, which is further suffixed by ‘Ach’, is the sense ofBhava. The ‘Ch’ sound is elided and the form remains Vrana + ‘A’ in the sense ofGatra vicurnane.64DEFINITION ‘Vrunoti Yasmat Roodeapi Vranavastu Na Nashyathi Adeha Dharanat Tasmat Vrana Ityuchyathey Budhaihi’65 As the scar of a wound never disappears even after complete healing and itsimprint persists for long time, this lesion is called Vrana by wise. “Vranagathra vicurnane Vranayatiti Vrana:” 66 Gathra Vicurnana has a grammatical meaning i.e., a particular type of rogawhich creats a feeling of cutting the body in to small pieces. Word Vicurnane has theother meaning with reference to this disease like destruction, break, rupture,discontinuation etc. Therefore, Vrana gatra vicurnane means phenomenon complexcausing destruction, rupture, or discontinuation of tissue in a particular part of thebody leading to discolouration. Dalhana in his commentary mentions that, “Vrana Gathra Vaivarnyam Karotiiti”67.Vivarnyata is the prime feature i.e., there is discoloration of the affected part.According to Ashtanga Sangraha68 “Yavadayurvraneete Vivrunoti Va ShareeramitiVrana” i.e., Vrana is one that produces a distortion of the affected part whichremaines through out the life.Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 37
  61. 61. Chapter-2 Review of Literature CLASSIFICATION OF WOUNDS: Ayurvedic treaties classified the Vrana mainly in to two category, i.e, 1) Nija and 2) Agantuja Ashtanga samgrahakara tells about another classification 1) Suddha and 2) Dushta Nija Vrana Based on dosa predominance NijaVrana is classified into Ekadosaja, Dwidosaja, Sannipataja and Raktaja as per different Acharyas: Table 2.B.1 showing classifications of NijaVranaNo Of Acharya Susrutha Acharya Charaka Acharya Vagbhatatypes 3 - Vataja, Pittaja and Kaphaja - Vataja, Pittaja 5 Kaphaja,Raktaja & - - Sannipataja Vataja, Pittaja, Kaphaja,VataPittaja, 7 - - VataKaphaja,PittaKaphaja, VataPittaKaphaja Vataja, Pithaja, Vataja, Pittaja, Sleshmaja, Sleshmaja, Sonitaja, Sonitaja, VataPittaja, VataPittaja, VataSleshmaja, VataSleshmaja, PittaSleshmaja, PittaSleshmaja, VataSonitaja, PittaSonitaja, VataSonitaja, 15 SleshmaSonitaja, - PittaSonitaja, VataPittaSonitaja, SleshmaSonitaja, VatasleshmaSonitaja, VataPittaSonitaja, PittasleshmaSonitaja, VatasleshmaSonitaja, VataPittaSleshmaja, PittasleshmaSonitaja, VataPittaKaphaSonitaja VataPittaSleshmaja, VataPittaKaphaSonitaja Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 38
  62. 62. Chapter-2 Review of LiteratureAccording to Acharya Sushruta: 69 Sushruta had quoted sixteen types of nija-Vranas, including Suddha-Vrana, thatare given below: 1. Vataja Vrana – Vrana caused by Vata is dark and reddish, thin, cold, slimy,with little discharge, rough, cracking, having pain of twitching, stretching, prickingand tearing nature and devoid of muscle occurs mainly in Adhah Kaya Predominanlyon Basthi.70 2. Pittaja Vrana – Vrana caused by Pitta emerges quickly, is yellow and blue incolour, discharges white liquid resembling washing of kimsuka flowers, attended withburning, suppuration and redness and covered with yellow boils. 3. Kaphaja Vrana – Vrana caused by Kapha has extensive and severe itching,thick margins, covered with net of stiff veins and ligaments, hard, pale, with mild painand exuding white, cold, thick and slimy discharge and is heavy. 4. Raktaja Vrana –Vrana caused by Rakta looks like collection of coral pieces,is covered with network of black eruptive boils and pustules, smells likes stable, ispainful, fuming, bleeding and having signs and symptoms of Pitta. 5. VataPittaja Vrana – Vrana caused by Vata and Pitta has pricking pain,burning and fuming, yellow and reddish in colour and with discharge of the samecolour. 6. VataKaphaja Vrana – Vrana caused by Vata and Kapha has excessiveitching, pricking pain, is rough, Guru, hard, occasionaly discharging cold, slimy andlittle fluid. 7. PittaKaphaja Vrana – Vrana caused by Pitta and Kapha is Guru, withburning sensation, and warm discharge as yellow and pale.Dept. of P.G.Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana, AAMC, Moodbidri 39

×