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K.L. RAMESH KUMAR, A CONCEPTUAL STUDY ON PATHYA IN MADHUMEHA W.S.R. TO TYPE-2 DIABETES MELLITUS, DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN AYURVEDA SIDDHANTA, GOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGE, MYSORE. ...

K.L. RAMESH KUMAR, A CONCEPTUAL STUDY ON PATHYA IN MADHUMEHA W.S.R. TO TYPE-2 DIABETES MELLITUS, DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN AYURVEDA SIDDHANTA, GOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGE, MYSORE. 2010

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    • “A CONCEPTUAL STUDY ON PATHYA IN MADHUMEHA W.S.R.TO TYPE-2 DIABETES MELLITUS.”ByDr. K.L. RAMESH KUMAR B.A.M.S.,Dissertation submitted to theRajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,Karnataka, Bangalore.In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree ofDOCTOR OF MEDICINE (AYURVEDA)InAYURVEDA SIDDHANTAUnder The Guidance ofDr. K. NASEEMA AKHTAR M.D. (Ayu)Professor & HOD,Department of Post-Graduate Studies in Ayurveda Siddhanta,G.A.M.C., Mysore.Co-GuideDR. K.S.SHANTHARAM M.D. (Ayu)Asst.professor & HOD,Department of Basic Principles for UG,Govt Ayurveda Medical College,Mysore - 570021DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN AYURVEDA SIDDHANTA,GOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGE,MYSORE.2010
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    • viiACKNOWLEDGEMENTI bow to the sacred feet of Almighty, without the blessings of whom this study wouldnot have been completed. He is the possessor of the ocean of knowledge and wisdom –to which I would like to contribute a drop in the form of my dissertation.I am highly thankful to my beloved, Former. Professor and HOD, Department of PGStudies in Ayurveda Siddhanta, Government Ayurveda Medical College, Mysore,Dr.N.Anjaneya Murthy.Joint Director, Department of Ayush, Karnataka. For hisconstant guidance, continuous supervision and help to take up this study. Also, for histhoughtful provoking concepts and constructive criticism, which have catalysed my work.Without his guidance with regards to publication via media sources it would not havebeen possible to reach out to the society and attract the patients to volunteer for thisstudy. I owe my heartfelt gratitude for the same.I sincerely express my indebtedness and profound gratitude to my Guide Dr. NaseemaAkhtar, Professor, Department of PG Studies in Ayurveda Siddhanta, GovernmentAyurveda Medical College, Mysore for her valuable guidance & encouragementthroughout my PG studiesFirst of all it was my privilege that i had the chance to work under the one whom, iadmired since 2002, the year when i started my under graduation. I sincerelyacknowledge my reverend teacher and Co- guide Dr.K.S.Shantharam sir,Assistant.professor, Department of Kayachikitsa, Government Ayurveda MedicalCollege, Mysore. He is the one, who has made a great influence on me as a teacher, as awell wisher and as a source of vibrant energy. Without his encouragement and supportthis work could not have become possible. I am very much greatful for his valuableguidance and support throughout my student life.I owe my deep sense of gratitude and my heartfelt thanks to my respected teacher andmy well wisher Late.Dr.G.N.Shakunthala, Former.Professor& HOD, Department of
    • viiiPG Studies in Ayurveda Siddhantha, Government Ayurveda Medical College, Mysore.She was the one who supported and encouraged me in all aspects since my undergraduation.I am grateful to Principal Dr.Ashok D.Satpute, Professor and Head, Department ofRasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Government Ayurveda Medical College, Mysorefor his support and encouragement.I owe my deep sense of gratitude and my heartfelt thanks to my respected teachersDr.T.D.Ksheera sagar, Dr.V.Rajendra and Dr.Shreevathsa, for their patientobservations, valuable suggestions and corrections throughout my study without whichmy dissertation would not have taken this shape. Also, I owe my deep sense of gratitudeto all my teachers Dr.V.A.Chate, Dr. Anand Katti and all other teachers for theirsupport in this study.I sincerely express my indebtedness and profound gratitude toMr.M.C.Narasimhamurthy, Scientist, Defense food Research laboratories (DFRL),Mysore. For providing me the valuable text books and scientific journals from theLibrary, DFRL, Mysore.I express enormous amount of thanks to my colleague’s Dr. Kalyani Ashok Bhusane,Dr.Ranjit kumar shetty and Dr.Geetha, and my seniors Dr.Yogesh MukundJirankalgikar, Dr.Savitha shenoy, Dr.Soubhagya, Dr.Abdul khader patel,Dr.Annapoorani, Dr.Aparna, Dr.Pankaj pathak and Dr.Rajesh Bhat for their helpand overall support and for making my stay in the college very joyful and educative.I express my heartfelt gratitude to Mr.Sampath, senior research scholar and Lecturer,Department of Bio-technology, Maharani’s college, Mysore. and Ms.Girijamba.R.Senior Research scholar, department of Bio-Technology, University of mysore, mysore.For guided me in clarifying and identifying the taxonomical features of thePathyaaharas.
    • ixI express my heartfelt gratitude to my friend Mohan Kumar. A.P for his strong supportand encouragement throughout my student life.I wish to convey my thanks to U.G. and PG Librarian Varalakshmi and Somasundarfor providing library facilities and also thank the Lab Technicians, Hospital Staff,Physicians and other staff for their timely help.My doctoral study could not have been possible without the co-operation of myPatients and I would fail in my duties if I do not express deep sense of gratitude to eachand every one of them.I am thankful to Dr. Lancy D’Souza for helping in statistical analysis andinterpretation.I could not be able to come up in my life up to this level without the blessings of myParents, Lingaiah and Gayathri, friends and well wishers. I convey my gratitude to allof them who supported me in all ways.Last but not the least, I express my thanks to all persons who helped me directly orindirectly in my studies with apologies for my inability to identify and thank themindividually.Date: Dr. K.L.Ramesh KumarPlace: Mysore
    • xABSTRACTBackground of the StudyDiabetes was considered to have prevalence in the developed world and higherclasses. Recent studies reveal that it is an increasing problem even in the developingcountries and in lower economical strata.Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality world over. It isestimated that approximately 1% of population suffers from DM. The incidence is risingin the developed countries of the world at the rate of about 10% per year, especially oftype 2 DM, due to rising incidence of obesity and reduced activity levels.The present study is intended to evaluate the anti-diabetic efficacy of the pathyaaharas in the management of type-2 diabetes. In Sthoulya. Thus, this study is intended todevice a convenient, cost effective and specific treatment for SthoulyaObjectives of the Study To compile the available literature on pathya in madhumeha. To develop a module of pathya for madhumeha. To evaluate the efficacy of the developed module of pathya in the management ofmadhumeha w.s.r.to Type-2 diabetes mellitus.MethodA Single group Observational Study with pre and post design.InterventionAs it is a Observational study, the patients are assigned in to single group of 30patients.The Module of Pathya ahara & vihara was advised to the patients for duration of 30days. Followed by a follow-up period of 30 days.
    • xiStatistical Analysis to assess Individual and comparative effects of the groups wasdone using Chi- Square test, One Sample t- test, and Repeated Measures ANOVA.ResultsAll the patients with newly detected diabetes, considered for the study showedmild improvement during the first two visits of the study, which is statisticallysignificant. But there was no overall improvements interms of the normal glucose level ofall the patients, statistically there is no significance in the overall improvement.Interpretation and Conclusion:Statistically it shows no significance result in the overall results. The declining values inFBS & PPBS in the beginning of the dietic advice shows the definite effect action of thediet on the hyperglycemia, but the consistency in following the diet is not maintained bythe patients regularly, It results in the failure of the overall result.Keywords Pathya. Madhumeha Diabetes mellitus Hyperglycemia Anti-diabetic efficacy
    • xiiCONTENTSIntroduction 1Objectives 3Pathya Derivation Definition Historical Review Synonym Classification Classification of individual food articles Ashtavidha ahara vidhi visheshayatana Ahara vidhi vidhana Dwadasha ashana vichara Sada Pathyas Pathyatama & Apathyatama aharas Importance of Pathya568101516171819202121Review of LiteratureMadhumeha Introduction Derivation Definition Synonyms Classification Nidana Poorvaroopa Roopa Samprapti Roga nirnaya Sadhya asadhyata Upadrava Chikitsa siddhanta Diabetes mellitus262727282929303233353939404146
    • xiiiPathya aharas in Madhumeha Dhanya varga Shakha varga Harita varga Phala varga Taila varga57607888109117Pictures of Pathya aharasReview of Previous works 122Methodology 123Observation 128Results 138Discussion 154General observations 182Recommendations 183Conclusion 184Summary 185Bibliography 187Master ChartAnnexure i-xviii
    • xivNo. LIST OF TABLES P .no1. Classification of Ahara according to Charaka 162. List of Pathyatama and Apathyatama aharas 213. Classification of vataja prameha 294. Classification on the basis of prognosis 305. Specific Madhumeha Nidana 326. List of Poorva roopas in Brihatrayees 327. Prameha pidakas 418. ADA recommended diagnostic criteria of Diabetes mellitus 529. List of Pathya aharas in Madhumeha 5710. List of foods used in Diabetes mellitus 12611. The assessment criteria’s 12712. Distribution of sex 12813. Distribution of Age group 12814. Distribution of Religion 12915. Distribution of Location 12916. Distribution of Family History 12917. Distribution of Occupation 13018. Distribution of Exercising Practice 13019. Distribution of Socio Economic Status 13120. Distribution of Education 13121. Distribution of Nature of Work 13222. Distribution of Diet 13223. Distribution of Hours of Day Sleep 13324. Distribution of Hours of Night Sleep 13325. Distribution of Habits 13426. Distribution of Prakruti 13427. Distribution of Saara 13528. Distribution of Samhanana 13529. Distribution of Satmya 13530. Distribution of Sattva 13631. Distribution of Abhyavaharana Shakti 13632. Distribution of Jarana Shakti 13733. Distribution of Vyayama Shakti 13734. Results showing Mean PU values on 0th,14th, 30th&60thdays 13835. Results showing Mean PP values on 0th,14th, 30thand 60thdays 13836. Results showing Mean PD values on 0th,14th, 30thand 60thdays 13937. Results showing Mean BFP values on 0th,14th, 30thand 60thdays 13938. Results showing Mean FBS values on 0th,14th, 30thand 60thdays 140
    • xv39. Showing the results of repeated measure ANOVA for mean FBS 14040. Results showing Mean PPBS values on 0th,14th, 30thand 60thdays 14141. Showing the results of repeated measure ANOVA for mean PPBS 14142. Shows the distribution of overall results 14243. Showing the results of repeated measure ANOVA for overallresults142No. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS P. no1 Showing Distribution Of Age 1432 Showing Distribution Of Sex 1433 Showing Distribution Of Religion 1444 Showing Distribution Of Occupation 1445 Showing Distribution Of Education 1456 Showing Distribution Of Socio-Economic Status 1457 Showing Distribution Of Location 1468 Showing Distribution Of Family History 1469 Showing Distribution Of Diet 14710 Showing Distribution Of Nature Of Work 14711 Showing Distribution Of Exercising Habit 14812 Showing Distribution Of Hours Of Day Sleep 14813 Showing Distribution Of Hours Of Night Sleep 14914 Showing Distribution Of Habits 14915 Showing the Distribution of Mean values of Polyurea 15016 Showing the Distribution of Mean values of Polyphagia 15017 Showing the Distribution of Mean values of Polydypsia 15118 Showing the Distribution of Mean values of BFP 15119 Showing the Distribution of Mean values of FBS 15220 Showing the Distribution of Mean values of PPBS 15221 Showing the Distribution of Overall improvements 153No. LIST OF FLOW CHARTS P.no1 Synthesis and releas e of Insulin 542 Schematic representation of pathogenesis of Type-2 dm: 553 Pathophysiological basis of common signs and symptoms 564 Prameha nidanasNo. LIST OF PICTURE P.no1 Pthya aharas of Madhumeha 121.a2 Annexure i-
    • xvi Bh.S - Bhela Samhita Y.R - Yoga Ratnakar Cd - Chakradatta Su - Sutra Sthana Sha - Shareera Sthana Vi - Vimana Sthana Ni - Nidana Sthana Chi - Chikitsa Sthana Si - Siddhi Sthana U - Uttara Tantra Pu - Purva Khanda C.S - Charak Samhita S.S - Shusruta Samhita A.H - Astanga Hridaya A.S - Astanga Samgraha S.K.D - Shabda Kalpa Druma R.N - Raja nighantu K.N - Kaiyadeva nighantu N.R - Nighantu ratnakara D.N - Dhanvantari Nighantu B.P - Bhava Prakash M.N - Madhava Nidana Sh.S - Sharangadhara Samhita Ka.S - Kasyapa SamhitaABBREVIATION
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 1INTRODUCTIONDiabetes is a disease known from the dawn of civilization. Sedentary life style,lack of exercise, faulty food habits and improper medication and urbanizationprecipitate the disease. Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic metabolic disorderprevalent all over the world. Although diabetes has been a known morbidity sincetime immemorial, its incidence has been growing notably in recent years. It has turnedout to be the biggest “silent killer” today in the world. The mortality rate due toDiabetes mellitus is very high and is ranked fifth amongst the ten major causes ofdeath in southern part of India.The rising prevalence of diabetes is closely associated with industrializationand socio-economic development. It will soon become the first incommunicabledisease whose severity will be endorsed by the United Nation. Forecasts of soaringrates of diabetes in the next two decades may be wildly underestimated, a new studysuggests. Evidence from Canada indicates that the diabetes "time-bomb" may be a farworse global health threat than anyone imagined. The World Health Organization(WHO) predicts that the prevalence of diabetes among adults will reach 6.4% by 2030- a 60% increase since 1995.In spite of tremendous advancement of modern system of medicine i. e. oralhypoglycemic agent and insulin till date, an ideal drug which can cure diabetes is notyet available and still scientists are struggling to search an effective and harmlesstherapy.The ancient Ayurvedic classical texts, namely the Samhitas of Charaka,Sushruta, Vagbhata and the subsequent treatises have invariably given detaileddescription of the disease diabetes, its causes, types, pathology and the line ofmanagement and treatment both preventive and curative.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 2Madhumeha is mainly caused due to Apathya ahara and vihara sevana, whiledescribing the chikitsa for Madhumeha all scholars have focussed on Pathya aharas inthe management of madhumeha with a greater importance.Well known Cikitsa Grantha of medieval period “Vaidhya Jivanam” by Lolimbarajahas stated the importance of Pathya-Apathya in Cikitsa as ,mÉjrÉãxÉÌiÉ aÉSÉiÉïxrÉ ÌMüqÉÉæwÉkÉ ÌlÉwÉãuÉhÉæ: ?mÉjrÉå AxÉÌiÉ aÉSÉiÉïxrÉ ÌMüqÉÉæwÉkÉ ÌlÉwÉãuÉhÉæ: ?If a person follows the dietary rules for particular disease there is very littlesignificance of drug treatment and when a person is exposed to Apathya the drugtreatment has not value because taken drug can’t cure the disease1.Ahara is said to be Mahabhaisajya by Kasyapacarya, hence no any othermedicament just like diet is not available. In other words, one is capable to make mandisease free only with the cereals (congenial diet).One is not able to sustain lifewithout diet even of endowed with medicine that is why the diet is said to be the greatmedicament by physician2.Madhumeha is basically a disease of metabolic derangement of carbohydraytemetabolism. The fualty food itself is being a cause of the disease, it can be managedby the administration of the suitable food which is wholesome to the body channels. Itis not yet become possible to frame an ideal diabetic diet for the effectivemanagement of the disease. In ayurveda, pool of information is available in scatteredform. In the present day scenario there is need to collect the scattered matter and it isto be reproduced with a scientific data base in front of the ultra modern world. Hencethis work was undertaken to find a better dietic management for the management ofType-2 diabetes mellitus.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 3This study is a single observational Study with Pre and Post‐test design. The patients are assigned in to single group. Diet and Regimen proforma was given to all patients. This  dissertation  comprises  of  two  parts,  Part  I  and  II.  The  First  Part  deals with the Review of the literature on the concept of Pathya, Madhumeha and Pathya aharas  in  madhumeha,  which  are  carried  out,  by  thoroughly  reviewing  Ayurvedic Literature  and  also  modern  literature  regarding  Madhumeha  and  Pathya.  The Second  Part  deals  with  Materials  and  methods,  Observation,  Results,  Discussion, Conclusion and Summary. This part is based on a  Observational trial organized on 30  patients  of  newly  detected  diabetes  selected  from  OPD,  IPD  of  Government Ayurveda Medical College and Hospital, Mysore and special camps conducted in and around Mysore.  OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY  To compile the available literature on Pathya in madhumeha.  To develop a module of pathya for madhumeha.  To evaluate the efficacy of the developed module of pathya in the management of madhumeha w.s.r.to Type‐2 diabetes mellitus.     
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 4  
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 5CONTENTS1. Introduction  2. Derivation    3. Definition    4. Historical Review  5. Synonym  6. Classification    7. Classification of individual food articles:   8. Ashtavidha ahara vidhi visheshayatana  9. Ahara vidhi vidhana  10. Dwadasha ashana vichara  11.  Sada Pathyas  12.  Pathyatama & Apathyatama aharas  13. Importance of Pathya  
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 6REVIEW ON PATHYAINTRODUCTIONPathya is one which is very much wholesome to the srotases (channels ofbody) and it is very specific according to the different conditions of the body.Wholesome diet is the prime cause for the growth and development of the body, onthe contrary, unwholesome diet causes several diseases. Caraka samhita emphasizesthat, the ideal diet is that which maintains the equilibrium of the body constituents.Irrational diet acts otherwise, producing disease3.In Ayurvedic classics for the regular usage, some of the Pathyas have beentold. They are called as Sadaa Pathyas and the specific foods which are designed forthe specific diseases are avastika pathyas. In the management of disease Pathya ishaving equal and even more importance than that of Beshaja or Treatment. Hence toadvice the suitable Pathya for the diseased as well as healthy individual, it is veryimportant to understand the concept of Pathya in detail.DERIVATION:The word pathya is a streelinga shabdha, it is derived from the root of pathin i.e.,“mÉÍjÉlÉç+kÉiqÉmÉjrÉjÉïlrÉÉrÉÉSlÉmÉãiÉã |ÍcÉÌMüixÉÉSÉæ ÌWûiÉMüÉUMüqÉç iÉimÉrÉÉïrÉ: MüÉUlÉqÉç ÌWûiÉqÉç || (zÉ.Mü.SìÓ) – means hitakara in the chikista4.The word Pathya is made up of two words, mÉjÉç+AcÉç mÉëirÉrÉ.ã çmÉjrÉÇ ÍcÉÌMüixÉÉlÉÑxÉÉËU qÉÉaÉÉïrÉÌWûiÉqÉç|Means which is hitakaraka to the srotomargas according to the chikista”5.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 7DEFINITIONS:mÉjrÉÇ mÉjÉÉãlÉmÉãiÉÇ rÉkrÉŠÉã£üqÉç qÉlÉxÉ: ÌmÉërÉqÉç |rÉŠÉÌmÉërÉqÉmÉjrÉÇ cÉ ÌlÉrÉiÉã iÉ³É sÉYzÉrÉãiÉç ||In Caraka samhita, Pathya is defined as, the wholesome Àhàra, which do notadversely affect the body channels i.e Patha, and which is very pleasant to the mind 6.ÍcÉÌMüixÉÉSÉæ ÌWûiÉMüÉUMüqÉç iÉimÉrÉÉïrÉ: MüÉUlÉqÉç ÌWûiÉqÉç ||That which is good for chikitsa is called Pathya 7qÉÉaÉïxÉÉkÉÉæ mÉjÉÉãlÉmÉãiÉ: rÉiÉç |ÌWûiÉã ÍcÉÌMüixÉÉSÉ, æ ÌWûiÉ MüÉUMü pÉÉãerÉSìurÉpÉãSãWhich is, good for the sroto margas and does not harm the sroto margas, Hitakarakaahara is one among the Bhojya dravya bheda.8mÉjÉÉãlÉmÉãiÉç rÉiÉç |ĘɹqÉÉlÉxiÉÑ mÉUÉã lÉÉãmɤÉrÉ : mÉjrÉÍqÉŠiÉ |Which does not makes harm to the sroto margas is called as Pathya & that which ishaving the compatibility, wholesomeness & comfortness with marga, is called Pathya.9ÌWûiÉã ÍcÉÌMüixÉÉSÉæ ÌWûiÉMüÉUMãü ||LãiɲÉã qÉlÉuÉ; mÉjrÉÇ ÎxlÉakÉÇ AsmÉÇcÉ pÉÉãeÉlÉÇ.ÌuÉlÉÉÌmÉpÉãwÉeÉæurÉïÍkÉ: mÉjrÉÉSãuÉÌlÉuÉiÉïiÉã |That which is good for chikitsa is called Pathya, one should eat Snigdha and alpaahara. And the disease can be cured only by following Pathya even withoutmedicines.10
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 8ÌuÉ,mÉjÉÉãlÉmÉãiÉqÉç, xuÉxjÉxrÉ xuÉÉxjrÉ U¤ÉhÉqÉÉiÉÑU urÉÉÍkÉ urÉÍkÉmÉËUqÉÉã¤É¶ÉãÌiÉ mÉljÉÉxiÉxqÉSè AlÉmÉãiÉqÉç | qÉlÉ: ÌmÉërÉqÉç|That which is very wholesome to the body channels, maintains the health and curesthe disease & which is very pleasant to the mind is called Pathya.11mÉjÉÇ ÍcÉÌMüixÉÉlÉÑxÉÉËU qÉÉaÉÉïrÉ ÌWûiÉqÉç |ÍcÉÌMüixÉÉãmÉrÉÉãÌaÉÌlÉ UÉãÌaÉxÉãurÉ uÉxiÉÑÌlÉ | ÌWûiÉMüUMãü cÉ |That which is good to the channels of chikitsa , and it is very good for the diseasedperson to get cured from his Vyadhis.12Meaning of the word Pathya:Path., pathati, to go, move, to flyPatha: away, path, road, course, reach.Pathin: in a way, Path, road, course.Pathya: Belonging to the way, suitable, fit proper, wholesome, salutary, andespecially said of diet in a medical science.Pathyaasin: Eating or an eater of wholesome diet 13Modern Dictionary meaning of word Ahara:Collins dictionary defined the word food as “Any substance that can be ingested by aliving organism and metabolized into energy and body tissue is known as food”.According to TABER’s dictionary food is defined as “any material that provides thenutritive requirements of an organism to maintain growth and physical well being.Major B. N. Khan – Nutrition: “Food is a substance which, when taken in the body,is able to build up or repair tissue, protect against ill health (disease) and supplyMaterial for the production of health and energy”.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 9HISTORICAL REVIEWVeda kalaIn Yajurveda, Ahara has been praised as “oh! God, Give us food which does notcause any diseases and also gives us strength. And also, Lord Agnideva is calledannaswami. Upanishad kala:Chandogyaopanishad Bhashyartha: 7thchapter, Anna is called as Brahma. Andalso it is described that, the food that we consume gets separated in to three parts. Thesthula or exterior gets converted into pureesha, Madhyama or the middle one isconverted into mamsa and Sukshma or intrinsic part is converted into mind or mana.Taittiryopanishad: while explaining the Importance of Ahara, it is told that,All human beings are made of anna, all living creatures which are living on the earthare made up of anna, and anna is the very basic need of all living creatures on theearth. So it is called as Sarvaushada.Purana kalaIn Vishnu purana: An important rule has been told for Ahara sevana, One shouldtake half part of stomach with solid foods; one fourth part of liquids and remainingpart should be kept empty for vata.In Brihadhyajnavalkya Smriti: The food which we consume should be consideredas amrita. If we took the food through ‘Prana agnihotra vidhana’, then it destroys allthe diseases.In Ramayana: Diet has been classified into two groups by Valmeeki viz, SatvikaAhara & Tamasika Ahara.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 10In Mahabharata: The one who wants to be healthy should take food such as easilypalatable, well digestible and will be helpful for the body after digestion. And it alsotold that, the one who takes food on proper quantity lives long life without anydiseases, get strength and alertness of mind. And also he will get healthy progenies.In Bhagavat geeta: All living beings are made out of food, the purpose of food is toincrease the duration of life, purify the mind and to aid bodily strength. Thedescription of three different types of food has been told viz, Satvika, Rajasika&tamasika.In Chanakyasutra: mÉjrÉqÉmrÉmÉjrÉÉeÉÏhÉãï lÉÉÎzlÉrÉÉiÉç | (cÉÉhÉYrÉ xÉѧÉ)If somebody is suffering from indigestion due to unwholesome food and over diet, heshould not take any kind of food.In Buddhist literature: it has told that, the food should be consumed with duerespect and mercy along with the sanga bikkhus. Buddhagosha says that, the one whotakes one meal in a day will not be suffered by any illness.14SAMHITA KALA:In Charaka Samhita: The concept of Pathya is scattered everywhere in charakasamhita. In Sutrasthana only we can get many references regarding the concept ofPathya. In the first chapter Dirganjeevitiya adhyaya, the concept of hita ahita has beentold. In 5thchapter Matrashitiya, sada Pathya is told. In 6thch tasyashitiya. In CharakaSutrasthana 22, 23, 25, 27, 28, 29 and 30thchapters we can get various referencesrelated to the concept of pathya. In Ca.Vi 5thchapter the importance of Pathya hasbeen told. In Ca.Ci 1stchapter Pathya has been told as synonym for beshaja. InCa.Ci.30thchapter importances of Pathya have been told.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 11In Sushruta Samhita: The Concept of Pathya is also found scattered throughout theSusruta Samhita, In Sutra sthana 1stch Vedotpatti adhyaya, the importance of Ahara& Aushada is told. In 20thch Hitahitiya adhyaya the concept of Hita ahara and Ahitaahara is explained in 35thch, the concept of satmya and asatmya has been explained.In Uttara tantra 64thchapter, dwadasha ashana vichara has been told according to thedifferent conditions of body.SANGRAHA KALA:In Ashtanga Samgraha: The concept of Pathya is found in various chapters &Sthanas of Ashtanga samgraha, in sutra sthana 3,4,10 and 11thchapters the scatteredinformation related to pathya is available. And also the description of pathya is foundscattered in various sthanas.In Ashtanga Hridaya:In Sutra sthana 3rdch Ritu charya, Seasonal dietic regimen hasbeen told. In 8thch Matrashitiya adhyaya, Sada Pathyas, Ahara matra and diseasescaused due to atimatra and amatra, has been told. And the related concepts are alsofound in other sthanas of Ashtanga hridaya.SYNONYMS:Atmaneena, Ayushya and Hita (D.N.Mishraka varga.77)Chikitsitam, Vyadhiharam, Pathyam, Sadhanam, Oushadham, Prayaschitam,Prashamanam, Prakruti Sthapanam, Hitam, these are synonyms for the bheshaja.(ch.chi.1/3)TERMS RELATED WITH PATHYAIn the Ayurvedic classics, the terms Hita, Satmya, Pathya, Upashaya are usedto impart the perception of wholesomeness. Even though these technical terms ofAyurveda imparts similar meaning, these terms along with there antagonisms must be
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 12studied to get a proper understanding of the concepts of wholesome and unwholesomefood/diet, dietary regimens.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 13Satamya- Asatamya:A substance conductive to an individual is called Satmya and the use of suchsubstances results in the well being of that individual. This is of three types, viz.superior, inferior and mediocre. According to another mode of classification, it is ofseven types, depending upon the administration of individual Rasas (six types) andthe use of Rasas jointly (seventh type). Use of all the Rasas is of the superior type ofSatmya; use of only one Rasa is of an inferior type and in between the superior andthe inferior types is the mediocre type of Satmya. The inferior and mediocre typesshould be slowly changed over to the superior types of Satmya. 15Chakrapani opines that, the term Satmya is used to convey the idea of OkaSatmya (i.e. to make a substance conducive to the body by its habitual intake.) (Ca.Vi.1/20 Ck.) Satmya or homologation stands for such factors which are wholesome to theindividual even when continuously used. 16In Susruta samhita: Satmya (habituation, a customization) is the use of suchthings which do not cause harm to the body even though they are opposite of /different from ones own constitution, habitat, time, caste(family) season, disease,exercise (physical activities) water, day sleep, taste and such others.The taste (substance of such tastes) which consumed makes for happiness(health) only, apart from that (health) produced by exercises and others (season,habitat etc.) should be considered as Satmya .17Upasaya and AnupasayaUpasaya is also one of the synonyms of satmya. Upasaya means that which giveshappiness eventually. Though upasaya is a synonym of satmya it helps mainly in
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 14diagnosis of hidden diseases. Chakrapani comments, Upashaya is that which helps todiagnose the invisible diseases. 18Upasaya is the suitable use of drug, diet, and behavior which are contrary to the causeof diseases or the disease itself or which produce effects contrary tothem(A.S.Ni.1/6).19Such medicines, diets, regimens bring about happiness either byacting directly against the cause of the disease and or the disease itself or byproducing such effects indirectly are called upasaya.Upashaya is the explanatory theory that provides diagnostic aid for disease which isotherwise difficult for diagnosis. Most of the commentators called upasaya asvyadhisatmya.20Upasaya is divided into the following two broad groups:1. Drugs, diet, and regimens which are actually antagonistic to the cause of thedisease or disease itself. (Hetu vyadhi vipareeta )2. Drugs, diets, and regimens which are actually not antagonistic either to the cause ofthe disease or to the disease itself but when employed, they actually alleviate thecondition by counteracting either the disease or the cause of the disease.( Hetu vyadhivipareetharthakari) 20Hita and ahitaThe food articles, which maintain the equilibrium of bodily Dhàtus and help ineliminating the disturbance of their equilibrium, are to be regarded as Hitakara Àhàraotherwise they are Ahitakara to body. In Caraka, it is stated that Hitakara diet is theonly cause of growth and development of body and Ahitakara diet is the only cause ofdisease.21Wholesome and unwholesome food articles bring out opposite effects,depending upon the variations in dose, time, method of preparation, habitat, and
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 15constitution of the body, disease and the age of the individual. The bodies as well asdiseases are caused by food; wholesome and unwholesome food is responsible forhappiness and misery respectively.22Chakrapani comments on the following factors to be considered,Matra: By the Improper dosage the pathya becomes Apathya and vice versa. Ex. Pathyaahara Raktha shali, if given atimatra or heena matra it becomes apathya.Kala: Raktashali is laghu ahara, if it is given in hemanta kala where agni is very muchpredominant then it will become Ahita.Samskara: By the proper methods of processings like swinna, prasrutva etc, the odana or ricewill become Hita. And in relation with Bhumi, it becomes Apathya in Anupa desa.Avastha: The tikta rasa is Pathya in balyavasta, because of the predominance of kapha inbalyavastha, where in vriddhavasta it becomes Apathya because the vata will be moredominant in this age.23The body is constituted of food, hence one should take wholesome (Hita) Ahara onlyafter careful examination and should not indulge in unwholesome (Ahita) ones out ofgreed or ignorance.24As Susruta stated in Sutra 20, there are 3 types of dravya.1] Ekanta Hita(always/totally wholesome): Those which do not harm the body eventhough used always (routinely) are called as Ekanta Hitakara e.g. given in classics aswater, milk, ghee and audana (boiled rice), which are always suitable and accustomedto man by birth2] Ekanta Ahita: (Absolutely unsuitable): It means those which harm the bodyquickly and so can not be used even for short period, which are always unsuitable andperform actions like Dahana, Pacana and Marana such as Agni, Ksara and Visa etc.3] Hitahita Ahara: (conditional wholesome /Suitable- conditional /unsuitable): thosewhich do not harm in certain conditions (proper quantity, time, season, admixture,
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 16processing etc.) but cause harm in certain other conditions (improper quantity, time,season, admixture, processing etc.) are said to be Hitahita Ahara. Due to their natureand result of combination they become absolutely suitable, absolutely unsuitable orsuitable –unsuitable. Thus substances are of three kinds.Therefore, conditional unwholesome is called Apathya e.g. Milk is alwaysHitakari in healthy state of body but when one individual is suffering fromNavajwara, milk is not Hitakari in this condition. So milk is called Apathya inNavajwara. Another point is that Hitakari term is used mostly in healthy state ofindividuals while Pathya term is used mostly in ill conditions.25According to Sushruta, the meal processed by the special methods appropriateto the patha and desired taste etc and which is pleasant to manas, clean, not too hot,and is fresh, is considerd as hita.26PATHYA AND APATHYA:The drugs and regimen which do not adversely affect the body channels andwhich are pleasant to mind are regarded as Pathya or wholesome; those whichadversely affect them are considered to be Apathya or unwholesome27,but this cannotbe accepted as a general rule in absolute terms. The drugs and regimen in fact changetheir qualities, depending on the dosage, season, and method of preparation, habitatand combination with other useful and harmful substance.28So the natural qualities ofregimen and drugs as well as the conditions like dosage etc. are required to be wellascertained before the administration of the requisite therapy in order to achieve thedesired effect.29Chakrapani opines that, The Patha here is to be considered as shareera margasi.e. srotas, the food which do not harm the body and mind is regarded as Pathya andclarifies with an Ex. Ghee is generally regarded to be Pathya ahara but intake of ghee
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 17in excessive quantity or its intake during spring or when it is prepared with drugs ofopposite qualities or its intake by an individual of marshy land or by an individualhaving corpulent body or the one in whom Kapha is aggravated is considered to beApathya.30Conversely even an unwholesome drug like poison becomes wholesome, iftaken in proper quantity. For the purpose of rejuvenation poison is said to be given inthe quantity of a sesame seed.31generally, wholesome nature of a drug may howeverbe defined. But the definition of wholesomeness relates only to its natural form & alsoabout unwholesomeness. For example red variety of Sali rice is wholesome by natureand Yavaka etc are unwholesome. 31Gańgàdhara in Jalpakalpataru Tika of Caraka Samhita has given a very clear cutexplanation. A drug and diet not causing harmful effects to any channel of body andwhich is comfortable to Mana is granted as ‘Pathya’. Although pungent and bittercause discomfort at a time to mind but, it is ultimately comfortable for body, so it istaken as ‘Pathya’. Thus anything producing discomfort to mind initially or later on isgranted as ‘Apathya’ otherwise taken under ‘Pathya’.32From the above descriptions it is clear that hita, satmya, upasaya, and pathya, arealmost conveying the same meaning. The hita when applied for diagnostic purpose iscalled as upasaya and for therapeautic purposes as pathya, and for the conducivepurpose it is known as satmya.CLASSIFICATION OF PATHYA (Ahara):
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 18For the proper understanding of any subject a systematic classification is necessary.Pathya is also considered as hitakara bhojya dravya, hence the classification of aharacan be considered for Pathya.Table.No.1 Classification of Ahara according to Charaka 33Sr no Classified By Type Name1 Aharatva(Edible) 1 Ahara2 Yoni(Origin) 2 Sthavaram(Vegetable products)Jangama (Animal products)3 Prabhava 2 Hitam (wholesome)Ahitamn (unwholesome)4 Virya 2 SitaUsna5 Upayogat (Natureof intake)4 Pana (Beverages), Ashana (Eatables),Bhakshya (Masticable food), Lidhyam(Linctuses)6 Mahabhuta 5 Parthiva, Apya, Tejasiya,Vayaviya,Akasiya7 Rasa 6 Madhura, Amla, Lavana,Katu, Tikta, Kasaya8 Virya 8 Guru, Laghu, Sita, Usna,Snigdha,Ruksha, Manda, Tiksnab. Considering the effect of Ahara on mental faculties Srimad Bagavat Geetaclassifies ahara in to three groups.1. Satvika, 2. Rajasika and 3. Tamasika:c. According to effect of Ahara Susruta Acarya has classified it in to threegroups34Ekanta Hitakara, Ekanta-Ahitkara and Hita –Ahitkarad. Classification of Ahara according to various Acaryas:Bhavamishra, Yogaratnakar, Kasyapa, Sarangdhar has classified Ahara in sixcategories by the nature of intake.1. Chusya (which are sucked)
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 192. Peya (liquids which are drinkable)3. Lehya (which are licked)4. Bhojya (solid food)5. Bhaksya (eatable food)6. Carvya (which require mastication)Except the above classification Kashyapacarya has mentioned twelve types of Aharaas Ahara Pravicarana and 24 types of Ahara as per Kaladinam. 35Factors responsible for the Pathya DravyasThe Wholesomeness (Pathya) and unwholesomeness (Apathya) of Ahara dravyasdepends upon these following factors like, Matra, Kala, Kriya, Bhoomi, Deha, Dosha,guna. All these factors are to be taken into consideration before advising Pathya.36Ashtavidha ahara vidhi viseshayatanaIn Charaka Sutrasthana it is explained that, there are eight factors37to be consideredin dietetics. They are responsible for causing happiness or misery. These factors areto be examined before taking any food.38Definition:Ahara Vidhi Viseshayatanani consists of three different words. Here, Visesha relatesto both word - Ahara and Vidhi as, Ahara Visesha, Vidhi Visesha and Ayatana.Ahara Visesa: means – Speciality, special property, distinguished effect (of Ahara).Vidhi Visesa: means – Special system, Special method, Special manner, Special way,Special arrangement, Special rule, Special command or Special statement for dietintake.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 20Ayatana: Cause, support, Hetu etc. Thus Ahara Vidhi Vishesayatanani means thecausative factors which are responsible for the wholesome and unwholesome effect ofthe food or the method for the diet intake.The eight factors which determine the utility or otherwise of various types of food are:1) Prakrti - Nature of substances2) Karana - Processing of substances3) Samyoga - Combination of different substances4) Rasi - Quantum of substances to be taken5) Desa - Habitat of substances6) Kala - Time as age, seasons and conditions7) Upayoga Samstha - Dietetic rules8) Upayoktra - The individualAHARAVIDHI VIDHANA:These are the dietetic rules which are to be followed while taking the food.39One should consume only that in proper quantity which are, Ushna Snigdha Matravat is consumed after the digestion of previously ingested food Virya Aviruddha Ahara Is to be taken in Ishte desha, where it is provided with Ista Sarvopakarana Not to be taken speedily Not to be taken too slowly Taken without talking with others Taken without laughing
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 21 Taken with the concentration of the mind Taken after paying due regard to oneself or own self. This description given by the Caraka is mainly for the healthy and unhealthy personsand Sushruta has described it for Unhealthy persons and called it as DwadasaAsanavicara.DWADASHA ASHANA VICHARA: 401. Shita Anna: Persons afflicted with thirst, heat, alcoholism, burning sensation,Rakta-Pitta, poisoning and epileptic fits as well as those suffering from the effects ofsexual excess should be treated with cold food.2. Ushna Anna: Persons afflicted with the aggravation of bodily Kapha and Vayu aswell as those already treated with purgatives of Sneha and those whose bodies are fullof Kleda (physical moisture) should be treated with warm food.3. Snigdha Anna:Persons suffering from the aggravation of bodily Vayu and from aparched (Ruksa) condition of the body as well as those suffering from the effects ofsexual excess and those accustomed to physical exercise should be treated withSnigdha food.4. Ruksha Anna: Persons with an excess of bodily Medas and Kapha as well as thosesuffering from Meha and those previously treated with a Sneha should be treated withRuksa food.5. Drava Anna: Weak, parched and thirsty persons should be given Drava food.6. Shushka Anna: Those suffering from Meha and ulcers as well as those whosebodies are full of Kleda should be given dry food.7. Eka-Kala Anna: Persons with impaired digestion should be given only one mealevery day, so that the digestive fire may have opportunities to be rekindled.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 228. Dwi-Kala Anna: Persons with the proper amount of digestion should be given twomeals a day.9. Matra Hina: Food and drink in smaller quantity would be beneficial to personssuffering from impaired digestion or any other disease.10. Aushadha Yukta: Medicine should be given with food and drink to a person,having aversion to it.11. Dosha Prasamana: Foods consumed appropriate- suitable to season is DoshaPrasamana12. Vrityartha:All foods consumed by the healthy person is meant to maintain healthand life. Considering these twelve aspects ingestion of food should be planned. Inorder to prevent the unmanifested diseases and to cure the manifested ones, anindividual desirous of happiness, should follow the prescribed regimen.Daily indicated pathya aharaShasthika shali,Mudga, Saindhava, Amalaki,Rain water collected before falling on theground, Ghrita, Meat of animals dwelling in arid climate (jangala) and Madhu. Allthese foods to be practiced for the regular usage, but in the proper dosage andmanagement.41By the usage of these food articles, it maintains the health and itprevents the person from getting sick.In Ashtanga hridaya it is told, Shali, Godhuma, Yava, Shashtika, Jangala mamsa,Jivanti shaka, mulaka, Vastuka, Amalaka, Mridvika, Mudga, Sharkara, Ghrita,Vyodaka, Ksheera, Kshoudra, Dadima and Saindhavas are to be use habitually.42
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 23Table.No.2 THE LIST OF PATHYATAM AND APATHYATAMA AHARAS INVARIOUS CATEGORIES.43Sl.no. Ahara Dravya HitamAhara Dravya AhitamAhara Dravya1 Shukadhanya Shali Yavaka2 Shamidhanya Mudga Masha3 Udaka Toya ambu Nadi jala4 Lavana Saindhava Ushara5 Saka Jivanti Sarshapa6 Mriga mamsa Ena Gomamsa7 Pakshi mamsa Lava Kana kapota Mamsa8 Vilesaya Godha Bheka9 Matsya Rohita Cilcima10 Sarpi Goghrita Avi sarpi11 Milk Godugdha Avi dugdha12 Sthawara Sneha Tila taila Kusumbha oil13 Anupa mriga vasa Varaha vasa Mahisha vasa14 Matsya vasa Chuluki vasa Kumbhira vasa15 Jalcara Vihanga vasa Pakahamsa vasa Kakamadgu vasa16 Vishkira Sakuni vasa Kukkuta vasa Chataka vasa17 Sakhada Medsam Aja medas Medas of hasti/ Gaja18 Kanda shaka Shringavera Nikucha19 Phala Mridvika Aluka20 Iksu Vikara Sharkara PhanitaIMPORTANCE OF PATHYA:The main aim of Àyurveda is to preserve the health of a healthy person and totreat the disease of diseased one. Àhàra, Swapna (Nidra) and Brahmacarya play animportant role in the maintenance of “Swasthya” of an individual. That is why these
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 24are called as Trayopastambha of life. Àhàra plays an important role in healthy and indiseased. It is more important than the medicine itself. The body can be nourished andmaintained in good health status, by adopting suitable diet and full benefits of life canalso be reaped by adherence to proper mental hygiene. 44Wholesome diet is the prime causes for the growth and development of thebody, on the contrary, unwholesome diet causes several diseases. Caraka emphasizesthat the ideal diet rebuilds the worn out systems, nourishes the Dhàtus and maintainsthe equilibrium of the body constituents. Irrational diet acts otherwise, producingdisease.45Food sustains the life of living beings. All living beings in the universe requirefood. Complexion, clarity, good voice, longevity, geniuses’ happiness, satisfaction,nourishment, strength and intellect are all conditioned by food. Professional activitiesleading to happiness in the world, Vedic rituals leading to abode in heaven andobservance of truth, Brahmacarya leading to salvation are all based on food.Only the individual having a healthy body can afford to perform all activitiesleading to happiness, heaven and salvation, and for the preservation of health intakeof food is essential. Hence food is the basic factor for the attainment of all of them.In Chakrapani commentary of Ca.Vi.5/4, he has said that which causes doshaprakopa is Apathya, in contrary to this that causes dosha prashamana is Pathya.46Pathya is being considered as the ideal Ahara (dietic regimen) which suits for thedifferent conditions of the body, to maintain the normal state of Dosha-Dhatus & tobring back the imbalanced Dosha-Dhatus of body.Well known Cikitsa Grantha of medieval period “Vaidhya Jivanam” by Lolimbarajahas stated the importance of Pathya-Apathya in Cikitsa as ,
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 25mÉjrÉãxÉÌiÉ aÉSÉiÉïxrÉ ÌMüqÉÉæwÉkÉ ÌlÉwÉãuÉhÉæ: ?mÉjrÉå AxÉÌiÉ aÉSÉiÉïxrÉ ÌMüqÉÉæwÉkÉ ÌlÉwÉãuÉhÉæ: ?If a person follows the dietary rules for particular disease there is very littlesignificance of drug treatment and when a person is exposed to Apathya the drugtreatment has no value because the drug taken can’t cure the disease. 47In Charaka Sutrasthana 27thchapter, the importance of Pathya has been quotedas , Paying the due consideration to the quantity and time, a self controlled manshould regularly intake such useful food & drinks as are conducive to the internalpower of digestion including metabolism. Like a man who performs ‘yajna’. Theproper consumption of Pathya is compared to the ‘Yajna’ or ‘Homa’. Fuel like woodor coal is required to keep the fire continuously or enlighten. Similarly the Àhàra actsas the Indhana (fuel) for the Jatharagni and other Agnis in the body. 48Who takes the diet conducive to the power of digestion being aware of thewholesomeness of food and drinks, who resort to meditation of ‘Brahma’ and charity,enjoys the bless without any disease during the present as well as future lives.49Chakrapani: During the present life, man becomes free from diseases due to theintake of Pathya ahara. And in the future life due to the influence of the invisibleeffect occurred as a result of the righteous acts of the present life. Sinful acts andapathya ahara , these two are the important factors for the causation of diseases. Inthe absence of these factors, the individual becomes free from all the diseases.50A self controlled man, blessed by noble man lives for 100 years free from diseases bythe intake of Hita ahara (Pathya). 51
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 26The Relation of food with Body and diseases.Diseases are a result of the food taken in four fold manner via eating, drinking,licking and masticating. Intake of wholesome and unwholesome food is responsiblefor the maintenance of health and production of diseases respectively. 52The body is constituted of food; hence one should take wholesome food onlyafter careful examination and should not take unwholesome ones out of greed orignorance.Chakrapani: Out of greed some individuals indulge in unwholesome food eventhough they are fully aware of its harmful effects. Some others out of ignorance treatunwholesome food as useful one and take it. Both of them are subjected to misery. 53Need for the consideration of Pathya.The wise who always avoid the intake of Apathya food are held in high esteem bysaints. It means the one who is habitually taking Pathya aharas will be praised by thesaints. The Shareera as well as the diseases is caused by food. Wholesome andunwholesome foods are responsible for Sukha and Dukha. 54Chakrapani: The compactness of doshas (caused by chaya prakopa) which areaggrevated internally (Anta: kupita) become soft (mridu) and the non-compact doshaswhich take gross form (mahan kupita) become reduced in quantity by theadministration of Pathya aharas.Pathya can be modified according to the Palatability:Because of the regular intake of the same Pathya, if the Pathya is disliked & it is notpalatable to the eater, then it should be modified to the form of palatable one.55Due to the favorableness of the sense object (taste of food) one attains satisfaction,energy, relish, strength, happiness and consequent loss of severity of diseases.56
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 27The relish which appears due to greediness, diminution of dosha, disorder orcontrariness should be managed with Pathya ahara processed with drugs if necessary.57Diet is the greatest medicament.The food is said to be cause of stability for all living beings. There is nothing elseexcept diet for sustaining the life of living beings. Ahara is said to be Mahabhaisajyaby Kasyapacarya, hence no any other medicament just like diet is not available. Inother words, one is capable to make man disease free only with the cereals (congenialdiet).One is not able to sustain life without diet even of endowed with medicine, thatis why the diet is said to be the great medicament by physician.58and Pathya has beenconsidered as one of the Ashtavidha chikitsa in hareetha samhita. 59Pathya can be ultimately understood as the food which suits any condition of thebody. It may be in the form of satmya, hita, upashaya, that which ultimately provideshealth to the individual. To have a healthy life one should have the awarenessregarding proper diet, its dose, time, place, and wholesomeness, .etc. the food havingall these qualities, which becomes hita to the mind, body through its srotases and thusproduces health.  
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 28CONTENTS1. Introduction 2. Derivation   3. Definition   4. Synonyms 5. Classification   6. Nidana 7. Poorva Roopa 8. Roopa 9. Samprapti 10. Roga nirnaya   11. Sadhyasaadhyata 12. Upadrava 13. Chikitsa 14. Diabetes mellitus  
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 29
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 30INTRODUCTION:Madhumeha is one of the varieties of vataja meha. It is the last variety of vataja meha.Much importance is being given to the management of the disease. The disease is tobe managed with very much caution. If it is neglected it may lead to life threateningcomplications. So there are many advancements happening regarding, understandingthe pathology and management of the disease. In spite of tremendous advancement ofmodern system of medicine i. e. oral hypoglycemic agent and human insulin till date,an ideal drug which can cure diabetes is not yet available and still scientists arestruggling to search an effective and harmless therapy. Along with the currentknowledge, it is very much important to redefine the available ancient knowledge ofthe disease for the benefit of diabetic community.AYURVEDIC REVIEWIn Ayurveda, Madhumeha has been described as one among the 20 types of Prameha& is a sub-type of Vatik Prameha in which patient passes excessive amounts of urinethat tastes & looks like honey. To understand the iatrogenecity, pathophysiology,complications and management first it is merely necessary to emphasize the diseasePrameha as whole.Derivation of the word madhumeha:The word ‘Prameha’ is pullinga shabdha, it consist of two sub-words. i.e. ‘Pra’ and‘Meha’. The word Meha is derived from the root “Mih Secane” by adding ‘Lue’Pratyaya to it "Mehati, Sinchati Mutraretansi" which means to excrete(Halayudhakosha).64In Sanskrita literature, The Mih is used to denote, to make water, to wet, to emitsemen. So this root Mih is added to prefix Pra the word becomes Prameha.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 31mÉëqÉãWû: = mÉë+ÍqÉWèû= qÉãWûÌiÉ qÉÔ§ÉrÉÌiÉ CìiÉ AjÉï:|60The word Madhumeha consists of two words:Madhu and MehaThe word ‘Madhu’is also pullinga shabdha, it is derived from the root “qÉÉlrÉiÉã ÌuÉzÉãwÉãhÉeÉÉlÉÉÌlÉ eÉlÉÉ rÉÎxqÉlÉç “(Manyante Viseshena Jananti Jana Yasmin.) In Sanskrit literature,Madhu word is used in various contexts like PushpaRasa, Makarandah, Makshikam,Madhy, Ama, Kshiram, Jalam, Madhura Rasa61etc. It is termed as Mutra roga andMutraatisaara.62qÉkÉÑUÇ rÉŠ qÉãWãûwÉÑ mÉëÉrÉ qÉÎkuÉuÉ qÉãWûÌiÉ | xÉuÉãïÌmÉ qÉkqÉãWûÉZrÉÉ qÉÉkÉÑrÉÉïŠ iÉlÉÉãUiÉ: ||mÉëMüwÉãïhÉ qÉãWûÌiÉ ¤ÉUÌiÉ uÉãrÉÉïÌSUlÉãlÉãÌiÉ | qÉÉkÉÑrÉïÇ rÉŠ xÉuÉãïwÉÑ qÉkÉÑÌuÉuÉ qÉåWãûÌiÉ || 63So’ it can be defined, that the disease in which the excretion is having qualityconcordant with Madhu (honey) in its colour, taste, smell, and consistency calledMadhumeha.63Definition of madhumeha:MüwÉÉrÉ qÉkÉÑUÇ mÉÉhQÒû äÉÇ qÉãWûÌiÉ rÉÉã lÉU:| uÉÉiÉMüÉãmÉÉSxÉÉkrÉÇ iÉÇ mÉëÌiÉrÉÉlqÉkÉÑqÉãÌWûlÉÉÇ ||64qÉkÉÑqÉãWûÏ qÉkÉÑxÉqÉÇ 65qÉkÉÑqÉãWûÏ qÉkÉÑxÉqÉÇ mÉëqÉãÌWû 66The clinical entity in which patient voids the urine having concordance with Madhui.e. of Kashaya and Madhura taste, Ruksha (dry) texture and honey like colour andbody acquires sweetness called Madhumeha.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 32¤ÉÉæSìqÉãWûÉã qÉkÉÑqÉãWûÉ:67uÉÉiÉÉixÉÌmÉïuÉïxÉɤÉÉæSìqÉãWûÉxcÉiuÉÉUÉã AxÉÉkrÉiÉqÉÉ: qÉWûirÉÉÌrÉMüiuÉÉiÉç ||68Sushruta has term narrated the term Kshaudra Meha in place of Madhumeha.Kshaudra is nothing but variety of Madhu (honey), which is Kapila (tawny) in colour.So it is clear that Kshaudrameha resembles with Madhumeha. Further, he asserted thatwhen all the Pramehas are ill-treated or neglected, it is converted into Madhumehaand especially he emphasized that the disease Prameha along with Pidaka shouldtermed as Madhumeha.SYNONYMS:These are the few synonyms mentioned in the ancient treatise, which are as follows: Paushpa Meha:69 Ojo Meha: 70 Kshaudra Meha.71CLASSIFICATION OF PRAMEHA:Three important Ayurvedic ancient treatises elaboratively classified the diseasePrameha on the basis of dosha dominance, as shown below in tabular form:-A.CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF DOSHATable.No.3 VATAJA MEHA:Charaka samhita Sushruta VagbhataVasameha Vasameha VasamehaMajjameha Sarpimeha MajjamehaHastimeha Hastimeha HastimehaMadhumeha Kshaudrameha Madhumeha
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 33B.Table.No.4 CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF PROGNOSIS:SADHYA YAAPYA ASAADHYAKaphaja Pittaja VatajaObese Usually not much obese AsthenicAcquired Acquired HereditaryEarly stage Acute stage Advance stageWithout complications With complications With complicationsC.CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF BODY CONSTITUTION. 72Sthula and Krisha:D. CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF THE ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS.73Sahaja (Hereditary) and Apathyanimittaja (Acquired)E. CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF SAMPRAPTI.74 Avaranajanya and Dhatuapakarsanjanya:Vagbhata has clearly mentioned the two types of Madhumeha. (A.H.NI. 10/18-19) Dhatukshyajanya Madhumeha and Avaranajanya Madhumeha NIDANA (ETIOLOGY)All ancient treaties mentioned the common etiological factors of Prameha butCharaka samhita mainly narrated the specific etiological factors according to dosha,and also mentioned the specific etiological factors of Madhumeha. This is the uniquecontribution of Charaka samhita. Etiological factor can be classified according to thetype ie. Sahaja and Apathyanimittaja.751) Sahaja (Hereditary)Charaka samhita has clearly narrated that Madhumeha is a Kulaja Vikara whichresults due to the defect in the Beeja. As per Chakrapani it can be caused by father,
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 34mother or grand parents, which means that, disease may be inherited from generationto generation.76Charaka samhita narrated that Sahaja type of diseases can occur dueto defect in Beeja, Beejabhaga or Beejabhagavayava.77Chakrapani explained that thisdefect may be caused due to the indulgence of faulty foods at the time of pregnancy.Charaka samhita narrated that indulgence in excessive use of Madhura Rasa bymother at the time of pregnancy causes Madhumeha and Sthaulya.78Thus, genetic predisposition and the over indulgence of etiological factors at the timeof pregnancy by mother helps to precipitate the disease Madhumeha.2) Apathyanimittaja: (Acquired)Charaka samhita has narrated etiological factors according to Dosha predominance inNidana Sthana and common etiological factors in Chikitsa Sthana.SPECIFIC ETIOLOGY OF MADHUMEHA:On the basis of causative theory, Madhumeha have been subdivided into twoetiological types by Vagbhata. The specific factors which lead to excessive tissuedepletion (Dhatukshaya) cause Dhatukshayajanya Madhumeha.The specific factors which increase Kapha, Pitta, Meda and Mamsa in turn lead toobstruction (Avarana) of Vata causing Avaranajanya Madhumeha.Specific etiology of Madhumeha79Ahara: Kashaya, Katu, Tikta, Sheeta, and Laghu, Ruksha guna ahara sevana.Vihara: Vyavaya,Vyayama,Vishama ashana, Vamana, Virechana Atiyoga,Atapasevana,Shirovirechana Atiyoga, Vega Sandharana, Anashana, Abhighata andAsthapana Atiyoga.Manasika: Chinta, Shoka and Bhaya.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 35Table.No.5. Specific Madhumeha nidana AHARA VIHARAExcessive intake of Excessive indulgence in Guru Snigdha Amla Lavana Navannapana  Nidra Asyasukha Tyakta Vyayama Chinta Sanshodhana Akurvatam PURVARUPAIn Ayurvedic treatises common premonitory symptoms of Prameha are mentioned indetail, but special premonitory symptoms of Madhumeha are not mentioned.Table.No.6. List of Poorva roopas in Brihatrayees.8o, 81, 82Purvarupa C.S S.S A.S A.H M.NKesheshu Jatilabhava + + + - -Asya Madhurya + - + + +Karapada Daha + + + + +Karapada Suptata + - - - -Mukha Talu Kantha Shosha + - + + -Pipasa + + + - +Alasya + - + - -Kaye Malam + - + - -Kaya Chhidreshu Upadeha + - + - -Paridaha Angesu + - + - -ShatpadaPipilakabhi Mutrabhisaranam + - + + -Mutra Cha Mutra Doshan + - - - -Visra Sharira Gandha + + + + -Nidra Sarva Kalam + - + - -Tandra Sarva Kalam + + + - -Sweda + - + + -Shithilangata + - - + -Shaiyya Asana Swapneshu Sukhe Ratischa + - - + -Hridaya-Netra-Jihva-shravana- Upadeha + - - + -Ghanangata + - - + -
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 36Kesha Nakha Ativriddhi + + - + -Sheeta Priyata + - + + -Shatpada Pipilika Sharirabhisaranam + - + + -Snigdha Gatrata - + + - -Picchila Gatrata - + - - -Guru Gatrata - + - - -Madhura Mutrata - + - - -Shukla Mutrata - + + - -Sada - + - - -Shwasa - + + - -Deha Chikkannata - - - - +Dantadinam Maladhyatvam - - - - +Gala Talu Shosha - - + + -RUPAAll acharya have focused specifically on character of Urine in Rupa, Madhumehapatient excretes urine having Kashaya and Madhura taste, Panduta in colour and ofRuksa quality. Sushruta has clearly mentioned that the diagnosis of Prameha shouldbe made when complete or partial prodromal symptoms of Prameha accompanied byPolyuria get manifested.83In this regard Gayadasa opined that, in this disease all prodromal symptoms getconverted into Rupa due to specific nature of the disease i.e. Vyadhi Prabhava. TheRupa as described in Ayurveda includes both, signs and symptoms of the disease.GENERAL SYMPTOMATOLOGY: URINE CHARACTERISTICS:xÉÉqÉÉlrÉsɤÉhÉÇ iÉãwÉÉÇ mÉëpÉÔiÉÉÌuÉsÉqÉÔ§ÉiÉÉ | SÉãwÉSÕwrÉÌuÉzÉãwÉãÌmÉ iÉixÉqrÉÉãaÉÌuÉzÉãwÉiÉ: ||qÉÔ§ÉuÉhÉÉïÌSpÉãSãlÉ pÉãSÉã qÉãWãûwÉÑ MüsmrÉiÉã |84iɧÉÉÌuÉsÉ mÉëpÉÔiÉqÉÔ§ÉsɤÉhÉ: xÉuÉïÇ LãuÉ mÉëqÉãWûÉã pÉuÉÎliÉ || 85(1) Prabhutamutrata:
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 37This is the main cardinal sign described by all acharayas. Vagbhata mentionedPrameha as the disease of Mutraatipravrtija.86Patient voids urine more in quantity.Gayadasa, opined that this excess urine quantity is because of liquification of thedusyas and their amalgamation.87(2) Avilamutrata:Patient voids urine having hazy consistency or having turbidity. Gayadasa andDalhana both opined that, this characteristic feature of urine is because of the nexusbetween mutra, dusya and dosha.88Vagbhata also emphasized that this turbidity ofthe urine is because of its annexation with the dhatus.89(3) Picchila mutrata :Charaka samhita has mentioned this character of urine especially at the time ofdiagnosis of the Prameha.Kashaypa mentioned following symptoms of Prameha to be observed in pediatricpatients90 Akasmat Mutra Nirgama: Child excretes urine suddenly with no intention.  Makshika Akrant: Flies get attracted towards the urine.  Shweta and Ghana Mutra : Child excretes urine having Shweta colour And solid consistency i.e. turbidity.Associated signs and symptoms:In ChikitsaSthana, Sushruta before profounding the treatment of Prameha, assertedtwo types of Prameha along with their features as follows:Sahaja Pramehi: Krisha (Asthenic) 91 Ruksha (dry body)  Alpashi (consumes less food)  Bhrisha Pipasa (Excessive thirst) 
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 38 Parisaranshila (restless always want to wonder) 
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 39Apathyanimittaja: Sthula (obese) 92 Bahuashi (consumes excessive food)  Snigdha (unctuous body texture)  Shayyasanswapnasheela (like to sit down and sleep always) Psychophysiological feature (Characteristic) or manifestation:xÉ cÉÌmÉ aÉqÉlÉiÉç xjÉÉlÉÇ xjÉÉlÉÉSxÉÍqÉdcÉÎliÉ || AéxÉlÉÉSèSìÓhÉÑiÉã zÉrrÉÉÇ zÉrÉlÉÉiÉç xuÉmlÉÍqÉdcÉÌiÉ ||QûsWûhÉ: cÉiÉÑÌuÉïkÉ Ì¢ürÉÉ´ÉrÉÇ ÍsÉÇaÉÇ SzÉïrɳÉÉ: xÉ cÉÉÌmÉ aÉqÉlÉÌSirÉÉÌS:|93This special manifestation related to behavioural pattern is enumerated bySushruta that, Madhumehi prefer to stand still than walking, sitting than standing,lying down than sitting and sleeping than lying down. This manifestation mainlybecause of the Alasya (indolence).93this feature mentioned as Pancavidhakriya-Srayalinga by Dalhana in contenxt to above quotation.SAMPRAPTI:The process of manifestation of disease is called Samprapti or pathogenesis. Itincludes various stages as disease progresses.According to Sushruta, the excessive indulgence of the etiological factors related toPrameha results into Aparipakva Vata, Pitta, Kapha and Meda, which further proceeddownward through the Mutravaha Srotasa to get localized at Basti Mukha and thusleading to disease Prameha.94Dalhana interprets the term Aparipakva as Ama. Again he asserts that alongwith Aparipakva Vata, Rasa, Mamsa etc. should also be considered.95Sushruta alsoasserted that, if all the Pramehas are treated improperly or ignored they get terminatedinto Madhumeha. 96
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 40Vataja Prameha:Vata gets provoked due to its own etiological factors and draws out Vasa-adi Dhatusfrom the body towards Basti resulting into four types of Vataja Prameha. When Oja isdrawn towards Basti due to vitiation of Vata, the natural Madhura Swabhava of Ojadue to the Ruksha Guna of Vata gets transformed into Kashaya Rasa leading to themanifestation of Madhumeha.97Sushruta narrated the typical Dushya Sangrahaaccording to Dosha. He explained that, in Vataja Prameha, Kapha, Pitta, Meda, Vasaand Majja take part in pathogenesis.98SAMPRAPTI OF MADHUMEHAAccording to Vagbhata two types of pathogenesis get precipitated.99(a) Dhatukshayata(b) AvritapathataThe different types of Samprapti which are mentioned by various Acharyas are beingdescribed below.Sampraptivishishta Anilatmaka Madhumeha:This type of Samprapti of Vataja Prameha occur in the persons who have the specificbody tendency for Prameha onset i.e. Tathavidha Sharire. These persons have thespecific Abadhdhatva Meda Bahulyata. It may be due to genetic predisposition,Prakriti manifestation or sedentary habits. Due to excessive indulgence of Aharaja andviharaja nidana vata gets vitiated in these person. This vitiated Vata further getsimplicated by Meda. Now this provoked Vata – Meda complex spreads through outthe body and leads to transfer of either of Vasa, Majja, Lasika, or Oja in to basti.When Oja due to influence of Vata changes to Kashaya and Ruksha Guna and isexcreted through urinary tract then this disorder is called Madhumeha.100
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 41Tathavidha Sharire (Genetic predisposition) can also be correlated to SahajaPrameha. Sushruta narrated that Sahaja Prameha precipitates because of defect inBeeja.101Charaka samhita says that Sahaja Madhumeha is a Kulaja Vikara, because ofthe defect in Beeja (sperm/ovum)/ beeja bhaga avayava.102Madhumeha due to Shuddha Vata: 103Due to kshaya (depletion) of Kapha and Pitta, Vata gets provoked and causes theexcretion of Dhatus (like Vasa, Majja, Oja and Lasika) through urinary tract resultinginto Madhumeha.104in this category of Madhumeha is Asadhya due to Vata asArambhaka Dosha and its further consequential provocation due to Dhatukshaya.Dhatukshayajanya Madhumeha: 105The Kshaya of Gambhira and Sarabhuta Dhatus like Vasa, Majja, Oja and Lasika leadto Vata provocation. The expulsion of Sarabhuta Dhatus through urine occurs in suchexcess amount that this Kshaya itself again acts as nidana for Vata Prakopa. Hencethis vicious cycle goes on and on, but due to Ashukaritva property of Vata all thestages of Samprapti proceed so fast that it leads to Asadhya stage of disease veryquickly.Avritapathata (Avaranjanya) Madhumeha:The etiological factors of Avaranjanya Madhumeha have been described by Vagbhatabut he has not explained the pathogenesis of this type of Madhumeha. 106Charaka samhita has fully illustrated this type of Samprapti in detail.107Due toexcessive indulgence in the etiological factors mentioned above, Kapha and Pitta getprovoked and vitiates Meda and Mamsa. All are in excess quantity. They in turn causeobstruction to the normal pathway of Vata. This obstructed Vata get provoked anddraws out the Apara Oja from all over the body and carries it towards Basti causing
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 42Madhumeha.108The Kricchrasadhyata of this Avaranajanya Madhumeha is due toprovocation of Vata by Kapha-Pittakara etiological factors.Kala Prabhavaja Madhumeha:This type of Madhumeha is described by Sushruta & Vagbhata.109Though directpathogenesis is not mentioned but it is said that when all types of Prameha are ignoredor not treated properly, they get transformed into Madhumeha. We can say that this isthe last stage or further progression of Kaphaja and Pittaja Prameha110or complicatedstage of the diseases.SAMPRAPTI GHATAKA OF MADHUMEHA:On the basis of various references the Samprapti Ghataka of Madhumeha areillustrated below:-Dosha: Disease is Tridoshakopanimittaja.111Dushya: Rasa, Rakta, Mamsa, Meda, Majja, Shukra, Vasa, Oja, Lasika, Kleda112and Sweda.113Srotodushti: Sanga & Ati PravrittiSrotas:- Medovaha, Mutravaha,Udakavaha and MamsavahaAgni: Vaishamya of all Agnis (or Dhatvagnimandya)Ama: Medogata Ama produced due to Jatharagnimandya and Dhatvagnimandya.Adhishtana: BastiUdbhavaSthana: AmashayaBhedavastha: Occurrence of Upadravas such as Puti Mamsa and Prameha Pidika etc.Nature: Chirakari114
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 43ROGA NIRNAYA (Differential diagnosis of madhumeha)It has been mentioned in Charaka samhita Chikitsa Sthana regarding diagnosis ofPrameha that:In Charaka samhita Samhita –Chikitsa 6/54 it is told,Until and unless Haridra and Rudhira coloured Mutrapravritti is not associatedwith the premonitory symptoms of Prameha, the disease cannot be diagnosed asPrameha, but it goes more in favour of RaktaPitta. Here more importance is given toPurvarupa of Prameha and not only to Mutra Pravritti. Regarding Madhumeha, it is tobe specially emphasized that instead of only Mutra Madhurya, ‘Shareera Madhurya’is also found which is not present in other types of Pramehas. Apart fromMutramadhurya, other characters of urine are also helpful in differential diagnosisamong various Doshika varieties of Prameha.115In Charaka samhita chikitsa 6/12, the description has been given to describeVarna, Rasa, Sparsha and Gandha of whole body, so it may be applied to MutraPravritti also viz. in IkshuMeha, Mutra Pravritti is Atimadhura in Rasa, Sheeta-Picchila by Sparsha, Turbid and like sugarcane juice in Varna. In SheetaMeha,Mutrapravritti is Atimadhura, Bhrusha and Sheeta. While in Madhumeha, theMutrapravritti is116i.e. Rasataha Mutrapravritti is not only Madhura but it is Kashaya– Madhura due to Vata dominance, Ruksha by Sparsha instead of Picchila and alsoPandu in Varna.117SADHYA ASADHYATVA (Prognostic criteria for madhumeha):Krichhrasadhya (Difficult to treat)Madhumeha resulted because of Avaranjanya pathogenesis is difficult to treat i.e.Krichhrasadhya. Here the provocation of Vata results, but the etiological factors
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 44mainly related to the Kapha and Meda. So it should have been considered for both ofthem. There are very few therapeutic measures, which act against the Vata and Kaphacombinely.118Asadhya (Incurable):Vataja Prameha is incurable because there is involvement of vital Dhatus like Majja,Oja in the pathogenesis and the treatment modalities quite opposite to Dosha andDushya.119Sushruta mentioned that if Kaphaja and Pittaja Prameha or If all types ofPramehas are not treated properly or ill treated they become asadhya.120Charaka samhita mentioned that Madhumeha because of the BeejaDosha i.e.genetic predisposition is incurable.121Sushruta mentioned that Madhumeha inassociation with complication i.e. Pidaka is incurable.122UPADRAVA (COMPLICATIONS)Charaka samhita enumerated the general complications while Sushruta and Vagbhatadescribed according to the Dosha predominance.General Complications: These are Trishna, Atisara, Jwara, Daha, Daurbalya,Arochaka, Avipaka, Putimamsapidaka, Alaji and Vidradhi.123Chakrapani opined thatthese complications manifest because of the long term Anubandha of Pramehadisease.Specific Complications:Vataja Meha Janmanam:Hridagraha, Laulyam, Anidra, Stambha, Kampa, Shula, Badhapurishatvam, Shosha,Kasha and Shwasa. 124Complications specifically related to Madhumeha:Charaka samhita mentioned the Sapta Pidaka as complication, because of thenegligence of the Madhumeha125while Sushruta mentioned that Madhumeha along
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 45with Pidaka is Asadhya. He quoted that these Pidaka are caused by the tridosha andbecause of the vitiated Meda and Vasa. 126Sushruta and Vagbhata mentioned 10 Pidaka while Charaka samhitamentioned only 7 Pidaka. These are also follows:Table.No.7. Prameha pidakasSl No Pidaka Charaka Sushruta Vagbhata1 Saravika + + +2 Kacchapika + + +3 Jalini + + +4 Vinitha + + +5 Jalaji + + +6 Masoorika - + +7 Sarshapika + + +8 Putrini - + +9 Vidharika - + +10 Vidhradhika + + +CHIKITSA (TREATMENT)Following are the treatment modalities we can apply in the Madhumeha to alleviatethe disease. Nidana parivarjana.  Treatment according to Dosha & Dushya.  Treatment according to Complications. This is the prime treatment principle narrated by every Acharya before describing thetreatment of every disease. Charaka samhita enumerated that we should avoid theseetiological factors which are causing the disease Prameha. Avoidance of theetiological factors is the prime treatment.127Chakrapani opined that this avoidance of etiological factors in Prameha isprime concern because; this disease is Chirakari having long impact on the body.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 46Treatment According to Body ConstitutionKrishapramehi:In Krisha patient, such foods should be used which are going to increase the strengthof patient without increasing the vitiation and after proper strength gaining, mildpurificative measures can be used along with herbal medicine.128For the krishapramehi patient the Brimhana therapy is to be done with aushadha and ahara.129Sthulapramehi: 130In Sthula patient we have to apply apatarpana Chikitsa along with powerfulpurificative measures to be done. Again the treatment modalities described for MedoRoga can be applied here too.TREATMENT ACCORDING TO DOSHA PREDOMINANCE:Though the disease is of Tridosha predominant, but individual Doshika considerationfor the treatment is important for good prognosis.KAPHAJAPRAMEHA:I) Vamana and Virechana: Dalhana further commented that after Vamana Karma,Virechana is essential to alleviate the Prameha and also to reduce the Kledavitiation.131, 132ii) Basti: After vamana and virechana, Basti can be administered specially Asthapana.Arundatta especially commented133that after completion of Vamana and Virechana, ifpatient has strength then Asthapana Basti can be administered.iii.Udavartana: This procedure helps to reduce the excess of Kapha and Meda byperforming Shoshana.134
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 47Iv.Snana and Jalavaseka: This will help to eliminate the waste products byabsorption from skin and also effective in excessive sweating and bad smell, it willalso help to regain strength. 135v.Vilepana: Various herbs can be used for the external application all over thebody.136Vi.Lekhana and Apatarpana Chikitsa: Charaka samhita mentioned that thetreatment principle of Lekhana can be applied by means of purification.Charaka samhita also mentioned that we can apply the treatment principleswhich are described for Santarpanajanya Vyadhi like in MedoRoga.137, 138vii.ShamanaThere are lot of herbs and decoctions described by eminent Acharya. Sushrutaspecifically mentioned the decoctions according to the type.Pittaja prameha:Pitta is one of the prominent Dosha in the pathogenesis. Acharya mentioned followingmeasures to alleviate its vitiation.Shodhana: Vamana and Virechana along with Para-procedures like, Snana,Jalavaseka and Vilepana with the help of described herbs.Shamana: By the use of decoctions and Ghrita mentioned by Acharyas.Vataja prameha:Before treating the patient of Vataja Prameha following points should be carefullyobserved.(1) Type of Madhumeha i.e. either Kevala Vataja or Avaranjanya.(2) Strength of the patient according to Doshabala, Agnibala and Vyadhibala.(3) Involvement of genetic predisposition.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 48After observing the patient carefully we can profound the following treatmentmodalities.Shodhana: Vamana and Virechana can be performed if possible according to strengthof patient. In Madhumeha, Vata Dosha is dominant so Basti therapy is ideal treatmentfor it.Shamana: Various decoctions and some Arishta for vataja meha were described forthe treatment.Special food regimen is required for Krisha Pramehi.139 
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 49CONTENTS:1. DEFINITION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY2. CLASSIFICATION AND ETIOLOGY3. PATHOGENESIS4. CLINICAL FEATURES5. COMPLICATIONS6. DIAGNOSIS7. MANAGEMENT          
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 50DIABETES MELLITUS 2251. Definition and Epidemiology:As per WHO, diabetes mellitus (DM) is defined as heterogeneous metabolic disordercharecterised by common feature of chronic hyperglycemia with disturbance ofcarbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism.DM is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality world over. It is estimatedthat approximately 1% of population suffers from DM. The incidence is rising in thedevoloped countries of the world at the rate of about 10% per year, especially of type2 DM, due to rising incidence of obesity and reduced activity levels. DM is expectedto continue as a major health problem owing to serious complications, especially endstage renal disease, IHD, gangrene of the lower extremities, and blindness in theadults. It is anticipated that the number of diabets will exceed 250million by the year2010.2. Classification and Etiology:Etiologic classification of Diabetes Mellitus as per American DiabetesAssociation-2007I. TYPE-1 DIABETES MELLITUS (10%)(Earlier called insulin –dependent or juvenile onset diabetes )Type-1ADM: Immune mediatedType-1B DM: IdiopathicII. TYPE-2 DIABETES MELLITUS (80%)(Earlier called non-insulin dependent or maturity onset diabetes.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 51III.OTHER SPECIFIC TYPES OF DIABETES (10%)A.Genetic defect of beta-cell function due to mutations in various enzymes ( earliercalled maturity onset diabetes of young or MODY).(eg.hepatocyte nuc;leartranscription factor HNF, Glucokinase)B.Genetic defect in insulin action (eg.Type A insulin resistance)C. Diseases of exocrine pancreas (Eg.chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic tumours, postpancreatectomy)D.Endocrinopathies (Eg. Acromegaly, Cushing’s syndrome, pheochromacytoma)E.Drug or chemical induced (Eg.steroids, thyroid hormone, thiazides, beta-blockeretc.)F.Infections (Eg. Congenital rubella, cytomegalo virus.)G.Un common forms of immune mediated DM (stiffman’s sundrome, anti-insulinreceptor antibodies).H.Other genetic syndrome (Eg. Down’s syndrome, klinfelter’s syndrome, Turner’ssyndrome)IV. GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUSAmerican Diabetic Association -2007 has identified major risk factors for type-2diabetes mellitus.1. Family history of type-2 DM2. Obesity3. Habitual physical inactivity4. Race and Ethnicity (Blacks, Asians, Pacific islanders)5. Previous identification of impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance6. History of gestational DM or delivery of baby heavier than 4kgms.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 527. Hypertension.8. Dyslipedaemia ( HDL level <35mg/dl or Triglycerides > 250mg/dl)9. Poly cystic ovary diseases and acanthesis nigricans.10. History of vascular diseases.3. PATHOGENESIS:Depending upon Etiology of DM hyperglycemia may result from the following. Reduced insulin secretion.  Decreased glucose use by the body.  Increased glucose production.    PATHOGENESIS OF TYPE-2 DIABETES MELLITUS:The basic metabolic defect in type-2 DM is either a delayed insulin secretion relativeto glucose load( Impaired insulin secretion), or the peripheral tissues are unable torespond to insulin (Insulin resistance).INSULIN RESISTANCE:One of the most prominant metaboplic features of type-2 DM is the lack ofresponsiveness of pheripheral tissues to insulin, especially of the skeletal muscle andliver. Obesity, in particular is strongly associated with insulin resistance and hencetype-2 DM. Mechanism of hypergycemia in these cases is explained as under.I.Resistance to action of insulin impairs glucose utilisation and hance hyperglycemia.ii. There is increased hepatic synthesis of glucose.iii. Hyperglycemia in obesity is related to high level of free fatty acid and cytokines(eg.TNF-alpha and adeponectin) affect peripheral tissue sensitivity to respond toinsulin.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 53IMPAIRED INSULIN SECRETION:In type-2 DM, insulin resistance and insulin secretion are interlinked.i).Early in course of disease, In response to insulin resistance there is compemnsatoryincreased secretion of insulin (hyoer insulinaemia) in an attempt to maintain normalblood glucose level.ii) Eventually, however , there is failure of beta cell function to secrete adequateinsulin, although there is some secretion of insulin i.e. cases of type-2 DM have mildto moderate deficiency of insulin (which is much less severe than that in type-1 DM )but not its total absence.INCREASED HEPATIC GLUCOSE SYNTHESIS:One of the normal roles played by insulin is to promote hepatic storage of glucose asglycogen and suppress gluconeo genesis. In type-2DM as a part of insulin resistanceby pheripheral tissues , the liver also shows insulin resistance i.e. inspite of hyperinsulinaemia in the early stages of disease, gluconeogenesis in the liver is notsuppressed. This results in increased hepatic synthesis of glucode which contributes tohyperglycemia In these cases.CLINICAL FEATURES:It can be appreciated that hyperglycemia in DM does not causes single disease but itis associated with numerous diseases and symptoms, especially due to complications.Two main type of DM can be distinguished clinically. However overlapping ofclinical features occurs as regards the age of onset, duration of symptoms and familyhistory. Pathophysiology in evolution of clinical feature is schematically shoen in thefollowing figure.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 54CLINICAL FEATURES OF TYPE-2 DM:I.This form of diabetes generally manifests in middle life or beyond, usually abovethe age of 40yers.ii. The onset of symptoms in type-2 Dm is slow and insidious.iii. Generally the patient is asymptomatic when the diagnosis is made on the basis ofglucosuria or hyperglycemia during physical examination, or may present withpolyuria and polydipsia.iv. The patients frequently obese and have unexplained weakness and loss of wait.v. Metabolic complications such as ketoacidocis are infrequent.COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES MELIITUS:As a consequence of hyperglycemia of diabetes, every tissue and organ of the bodyundergoes biochemical and structural alterations which account for the majorcomplication in diabetics which may be acute matabolic or chronic systemic. Bothtype of diabetes mellitus may develop complications which are broadly divided intotwo major groups:A.ACUTE METABOLIC COMPLICATIONS: Diabetic ketoacidocis  Hyperosmolar non ketotic coma and   Hypogycemia. B.LATE SYSTEMIC COMPLICATIONS: Artherosclerosis,   Diabetic microangiopathy,  
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 55 Diabetic nephropathy,   Diabetic neuropathy,   Diabetic retenopathy and  Infections - Skin infections - Pulmonary tuberculosis- Urinary tract infections- Vaginal monoliasis etc. DIAGNOSIS OF DIABETES:Hyperglycaemia remains the fundamental basis for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.In symptomatic cases, the diagnosis is not a problem one can be confirm by findingglycosuria and a random plasma glucose concentration above 200mg/dl. The severity of clinical symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia is direcly related to the degree of hyperglycaemia.  In a symptomatic cases, when there is persistantly eleveted fasting plasma glucose level, diagnosis again posses no difficulty.  The problem aeises in asymptomatic patients who have normal fasting glucose level in  the plasma  but  are  suspected  to  have diabetes  on  other grounds and  are  thus subjected to oral GTT. If abnormal GTT values are found, these subjects are said to have “chemical diabetes”.    
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 56    Table.No.8. the American Diabetes Association (2007) has recommended definite diagnostic drieteria for early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Revised Criteria for Diagnosis of Diabetes by oral GTT(American DiabetesAssociation (2007)PLASMA GLUCOSE VALUE DIAGNOSISFASTING ( for > 8 hours) VALUE Below 100mg/dl  Normal fasting value 100‐125mg/dl  Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 126mg/dl or more   Diabetes mellitusTWO-HOUR AFTER 75GM ORAL GLUCOSE LOAD Less than 140mg/dl  Normal post prandial GTT 140‐199mg/dl  Impaired post prandial glucosetolerance(IGT) 200mg/dl or more  Diabetes mellitusRANDOM VALUE 200mg/dl or more in asymptomatic patient Diabetes mellitusTHE FOLLOWING INVESTIGATIONS ARE HELPFUL IN ESTABLISHINGTHE DIAGNOSIS OF DIABETES MELLITUS.1. Urine testing: Glucosuria and Ketonuria2. Single Blood Sugar estimation3. Screening by fasting glucose test4. Oral glucose tolerance test.5. Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) test.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 576. Glycated albumin7. Extended GTT8. Intravenous GTT9. Cortisone primed GTT10. Insulin Assay11. C-Peptide assay12. Islet Auto antibodies13. Screening for diabetes associated complications7. MANAGEMENT:Diabetes mellitus requires ongoing medical care as well as patient and familyeducation both to prevent acute illness and to reduce the risk of long termcomplications. The therapeutic objective is to restore known metabolicderangements towards normal in order to prevent and delay progression ofdiabetic complications.The goals of therapy for type 1 or type 2 DM are to:(1) Eliminate symptoms related to hyperglycemia,(2) Reduce or eliminate the long-term microvascular and macrovascularcomplications of DM, and(3) Allow the patient to achieve as normal a life-style as possible.(4)Education of the patient about DM, Nutrition, and ExerciseOral Drugs for Treating Hyperglycemia: Oral drugs are used to lower Bloodglucose level by achieving following goals.1. Drugs that primarily stimulate insulin secretion2. Drugs that alter insulin action.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 583. Drugs that principally affect absorption of glucose.A. Pathway of normal insulin synthesis and release in beta cells of pancreatic islets. B. Chain of events in action of insulin on target cell. A.SYNTHESIS AND RELEAS E OF INSULIN Altered ion channel Activity                       Betacell Outflow of K+ Influx of Ca+ ATP A&B chains with C‐peptide Pro‐insulin GLU‐6 Ph Nucls GLUTPre‐pro‐insulin Release of insulin Hypoglycaemia(<70mg/dl) Insulin receptor TARGET CELLIrs1
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 59B.ACTIONS OF INSULINSCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF PATHOGENESIS OF TYPE-2 DM:Irs2NUCLEUS  Concordance in identical twins  Both parents Diabetic, 50% risk to the child Obesity  Hypertension  Low physical activity DECREASED INSULIN INSULIN RESISTANCE Amylin ?  Glucose Toxicity of islets ?  Receptor and post receptor defects INCREASED HEPATICGLUCOSE SYNTHESISHYPERGLYCAEMIAGENETIC FACTORS CONSTITUTIONAL 
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 60PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS OF COMMON SIGNS AND SYMPTOMSDUE TO UNCONTROLLED HYPERGLYCEMIA IN DIABETES MELLITUS:TYPE-2 DMHYPERGLYCAEMIAGLYCOSURIAFatigueVulvitis, BalanitisHungerPolyphagiaWeight lossWastingIncreased catabolismLipolysis (in adipose)Free fatty acids (in plasma)& Oxidation (liver)Decreased anabolismOsmotic diuresisDehydration &Loss of ElecrolytesPoluuria,polydipsiaTachycardiaHypotensionDIABETIC COMAKETOACIDOCISINSULIN DEFICIENCY
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 61CHAPTER-3PATHYA AHARAS IN MADHUMEHA:The description of pathyaaharas for madhumeha is found in many classical text booksunder the chapter Prameha. As madhumeha is one of the varieties of prameha, thepathyas mentioned in prameha should be considered for the management ofmadhumeha too (Su.Ci.13/3). For the convenience of understanding, the pathyas arecategorised in to Dhanya varga, Shimbhi varga, Shaaka varga, Hareeta varga, Phalavarga and Taila varga.Table.No.9. List of Pathya aharas in MadhumehaA.Dhanyavarga(Cereals&Millets ) B.Shimbhi varga(Pulses)1. Yava 1. Chanaka2. Godhuma 2. Adaki3. Shastika Shali 3. Kulattha4. Kangu 4. Mudga5. Shyamaka 5. Masura6. Kodrava7. Joorna8. MadhulikaC. Shaka varga (Vegetables) D. Harita varga (Leafy vegetables)1.Kushmanda 1. Katillaka2. Karavellaka 2. Shigru patra
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 623. Patola 3. Lonika4. Shobhanjana 4. Drona pushpi patra5. Brihati/ Vartaki 5. Guduchi patra6. Bimbi 6. Kakamachi patra7. Indravaruni 7. Vastuka8. Karkotaka9. Palandu10.Rasona11.Katutumbi13.Koshataki14. Kadali kaccha phalaE.Phala varga (Fruits) F.Taila varga (Oils)1.Karjura 1. Sarshapa2. Aruka 2. Tila3. Kapittha4. Jambu G. Others5. Udumbara 1. Aja mamsa6. Kalinga 2. TakraReferences of food articles found in various classical text books.A.Shuka dhanya varga (Cereals)Sl.noShukadhanyasC.S S.S A.S A.H B.P Y.R B.R B.N.R1 Yava + + - - + - + +2 Godhuma + + - - + + + +3 Puranashali + + - - + + + +4 Kangu + - - + - - + -5 Shyamaka + - + + + + + -6 Kodrava + + - + + + - +7 Joorna - - - + - - - -8 Madhulika - - - + - - + +B.Shimbi dhanya varga (Pulses)
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 63Sl.noShukadhanyasC.S S.S A.S A.H B.P Y.R B.R B.N.RR.N1 Chanaka - + + - + + + + +2 Adaki - + + - + + + +3 Kulattha - + + + + + + +4 Mudga + + - + + + + +5 Masura - - - - - - + +C.Shakavarga: (Vegetables)Sl.n ShakavargaC.SS.SA.SA.HB.PY.RB.RB.N.RK.NR.ND.N1 Kushmanda - + - - - - - - + + -2 Karavellaka + + + + + + - - + - -3 Patola + + + + - + - - - - -4 Shigru phala - - - - - - + + - - +5 Brihati/Vartaki - + - - - - + - - - -6 Bimbi + + + + + + - - + - -7 Indravaruni + - - + + + + - + - -8 Karkotaka - - - - - + + + + - -9 Palandu - - - - - - - + - - -10 Rasona - - - - - + + + + - -11 Koshataki - - - - - - - - + - -12 Katutumbi - - - - - - - - + - +13 Kadali kacchaphala- - - - - - - - + - -14 Trapusa - - - - - - - - - - +D.Harita varga: (Leafy vegetables)Sl.noC.S S.S A.S A.H B.P Y.R B.R B.N.RK.N1 Katillaka - + + + - - - +2 Shigru patra - - - - - - - + +3 Lonika - - - - + - - - +4 Vastuka
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 645 Dronapushpi - - - - + - - -6 Guduchi + + - + + - + +7 Kakamachi - - - - + - - +E.Phalavarga: (Fruits)Sl.n PhalavargaC.SS.S A.SA.HB.PY.RB.RB.N.RK.NR.ND.N1 Karjura - - - - + - + - - -2 Aruka - - - - + - - + + +3 Kapitha + + + - + - + - - -4 Jambu + + + - + - + - - -5 Udumbara + + - - + - + - - -6 Kalinga + - - + - - + + - - -F.Others:Sl.no Others C.S S.S A.S A.H B.P Y.R B.R B.N.R1 Sarshapa taila + + + + - + - +2 Tila taila - - - + - - + +3 Takra - - - - - - + -A.Shuka dhanya varga:1. Yava: 140Latin name: Hordeum vulgareFamily: GraminaeSyn: Akshata, Sita shuka, Divya, Kanchuki, Teekshna shuka (K.N) 141
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 65Eng: BarleyHin: Jeve, Jan, JoKan: Jave godiTam: Barli arisiTel: Paccha yavuluHabitat: This cereal is largely cultivated in several varieties in sindh, Bombaypresidency, and other provinces in India.Parts used: Dried decorticated grain called pearl barley and the seeds of yava.Guna karma: Guna:Ruksha,eshat guru; Rasa:Madhura,Kashaya; Veerya: Sheeta;Vipaka: Madhura; Doshakarma:Kapha shamaka, Vata vardhaka; Karma:Pureeshajanaka, Balya and Sthairyakrita.Constituents: Fixed oil or Fat, starch, proteoid compound ( gluten albumin) ;cellulose , other nitrogenous principles and Ash containing salicilic acid, phosphoricacid, Iron and lime. Fixed oil or fat contains glycerine mixed with palmitic and lauricacids. Hypoxanthine (sarcine) is found to occur in this cereal.Energy 1,474 kJ (352 kcal) Carbohydrates 77.7 g Sugars 0.8 g Dietary fiber 15.6 g Fat1.2 g Protein 9.9 g Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg ,Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.1 mg, Niacin (Vit. B3)4.6 mg, Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.3 mg, Vitamin B6 0.3 mg, Folate (Vit. B9) 23 μg,Vitamin C 0.0 mg Calcium 29.0 mg,Iron 2.5 mg, Magnesium 79.0 mg, Phosphorus 221mg, Potassium 280 mg, Zinc 2.1 mg per 100g and Amino acids like Alanine-4.60,Arginine-5.15, Asparic acid-5.56, Cysteine-2.01, Glutamic acid- 22.35, Glycine-4.55,Hisidine-1.87, Isoleusinee-4.26, Lysine- 3.38, Methionine- 1.44, Phenylalanine-5.16,Proline- 9.02, serine- 4.65, Threonine—3.38, Tryosine-3.64 and Valine—5.02p.c.respectively by weight.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 66Action: Yava is nutritive; Seed or grain is demulscent. Decoction of seeds is bittertonic & astringent.2. Godhuma: 142Latin name: Triticum Sativum lamFamily: GraminaeSyn: Bahu dugdha, Apupa, Mleccha bhojana, Yavana, Nishtuva, Ksheeri (K.N)Eng: WheatHin: GehunKan: GodhiTam: GodumaiTel: GodumuluMal: GodhumaHabitat: Wheat is extensively cultivated in various forms or varieties, in punjab, inthe united and the central provinces, sind, central India, Rajputana and the Bombaypresidency and in the Deccan platue.Varieties: There are four principle divisions, 1.Hard white, 2.Hard red, 3. Soft whiteand 4. Soft red.Parts used: Dried decorticated grainGuna karma: Guna: Guru snigda guna; Rasa: Madhura kshaya; Veerya: sheeta;Vipaka: madhura; Doshakarma: Vata pitta shamaka; Karma: Sandhanakara,Jivaniya, Brimhana, Sthairyakara and Vrishya.Constituents: Wheat contains all the elements necessary for the support of humanframe; hence it is that bread is often and very properly called the “Staff of Life”. Agrain of wheat can be divided in to six parts, viz (1) outer skin; (2) middle skin; (3)
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 67inner skin or cerealin cells containing cerealin; (4) germ; (5) gluten cells; (6) starchgranule. The first or outer skin contains chiefly Fibre. The second and third skincontains a quantity of salts and acids. These are the most essential as food, beingbone, hair and teeth procedures. In wheat nitrigenous substances are in largeproportion and the starchy substances with the sugar, are also in large proportions.Wheat  germ  crude  Nutritional  value  per  100 g  (3.5  oz)  Energy  1,506 kJ  (360  kcal) Carbohydrates 51.8 g Dietary fiber 13.2 g Fat 9.72 g Protein 23.15 g Thiamine (Vit. B1) 1.882 mg, Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.499 mg, Niacin (Vit. B3) 6.813 mg, Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.05 mg, Vitamin B6 1.3 mg,  Folate (Vit. B9) 281 μg, Calcium 39 mg, Iron 6.26 mg,  Magnesium  239  mg,  Phosphorus  842  mg,  Potassium  892  mg,  Zinc  12.29  mg, Manganese 13.301  mg  per 100gm  respectively  and Amino acids  like Alanine‐3.50, Arginine‐4.79,  Asparic  acid‐5.46,  Cysteine‐2.19,  Glutamic  acid‐  31.25,  Glycine‐6.11, Hisidine‐2.04, Isoleusinee‐4.34, Lysine‐ 2.82, Methionine‐ 1.29, Phenylalanine‐4.94, Proline‐  10.44,    serine‐  4.61,    Threonine—2.88,  Tryosine‐3.74  and  Valine—4.63 p.c.respectively  by weight. 3. Shaali143Latin name : Oryza sativa, LinnFamily: GraminaeSyn: Vrihi, Tandula, Dhanya (K, N) 144Eng: Rice (husked); Paddy (Un husked)Hin: Chaval (grain), Dhan (Paddy)Kan: Akki (grain), Bhatta (paddy)Tam: Arisi (grain), Nellu (paddy)Tel: Biyyam (grain), Vadlu (paddy)
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 68Mal: Ari (grain), Nellu (paddy)Habitat: This is a principal food crop in India, Ceylon, Burma, China, Japan andSiam, and is spread over the tropical and sub tropical regions of both hemispheres.Varieties: In Ayurveda many varieties of shali have been explained like, rakta shali,maha shali, kalama, sugandhika, shakunahrit, deergha shuka, goura and maha shali.There are hundreds of varieties of rice i.e., bhura, hemdi, rata, Gudhya, Varanga,Raybag, etc. Ambemohor, kamod, jiresal, pankhali are a few of the scentedvarieties.(Bombay Govt. Agri dept.)Parts used: Dehusked GrainGuna Karma: Guna:Snigdha; Rasa:Madhura rasa; Vipaka: madhura; Veerya:sheeta, Doshakarma: Pitta shammaka, tridoshagna,; Karma: :mutra, pureeshakaraka, chskshushya, balya, vrishya amnd Mutrala.Constituents; Rice contains more starch than any other starchy grains, but noappreciable Fat, a very small quantity of proteins and a trace of mineral matter. In ricethere is an alkaloid ‘oridine’ (anti neuritic when impure) As-7mg in 100gr. Ash ofcorn. Bran from the rice mills contains a considerable amount of oil. Oil extractedfrom bran is highly acid, the acid value being 34.75p.c. Approximate composition oftotal Fatty acids is palmitic 20, oleic 45 and Isolinolic 35p.c. Natural or unmilled ricecontains three times the food value of white rice. Milled rice is found to be the causeof beri-beri among Indians living on such rice.Rice,  white,  long‐grain  vegetable,  raw  Nutritional  value  per  100 g(3.5  oz),  Energy 1,527 kJ (365 kcal), Carbohydrates 79 g, Sugars 0.12 g, Dietary fiber 1.3 g, Fat 500 mg, Protein 7.12 g, Water 11.62 g, Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.0701 mg, Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.0149 mg, Niacin (Vit. B3) 1.62 mg, Pantothenic acid (B5) 1.014 mg, Vitamin B6 0.164 
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 69mg,  Calcium  28  mg,  Iron  0.80  mg,    Magnesium  25  mg,  Manganese  1.088  mg, Phosphorus 115 mg, Potassium 115 mg, Zinc 1.09 mg  and Amino acids like Alanine‐3.56, Arginine‐5.76, Asparic acid‐4.72, Cysteine‐1.36, Glutamic acid‐ 13.69, Glycine‐6.84, Hisidine‐1.68, Isoleusinee‐4.69, Lysine‐ 3.95, Methionine‐ 1.80, Phenylalanine‐5.03, Proline‐ 4.84,  serine‐ 5.08,  Threonine—3.92, Tryosine‐4.57 and Valine—6.99 p.c.respectively  by weight. 4. Kodrava: 145Latin name: Paspalum scrobiculatum, LinnFamily: GraminaeSyn: Koradusha, Kuchala, kuddhala, madanagraja (K.N)Eng: KodomilletHin: Kodo, Kodava, Kodo dhanKan: HarakaTam: Varugu, KirarugaTel: AruguMal: VaruguHabitat: This is a native of India; mostly grown in Gujarat, Konkan and over theDeccan platue.Parts used: dried decorticated grainGuna karma: Guna:Laghu ruksha; Rasa: Kashaya madhura; Veeraya: sheeta;Doshakarma: vata vardhaka, kapha pitta shamaka; Karma: shoshaka and graahi.Constituents: Two cleaned samples of kodra-one from poona and one from ratnagiridistrict gave the following results. Poona: Moisture 8.0; Ether extract 3.36;
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 70Albuminoids 5.8 (Containing nitrogen 0.93) soluble carbohydrates 70.06; woodyFibre 8.43; and Ash 4.29 p.c.Ratnagiri: Mosture 9.07; Etherextract 3.34; Albuminoids 5.46 (Containing nitrogen0.87), soluble carbohydrates 70.77; woody Fibre 9.37; and Ash 1.99 p.c. respectively.Uses: The new grain is said to be powerfully narcotic and is eaten only by th poorwho prepare it in various ways and from use, are able to use it with impunity.5. Shyamaka146Latin name : Panicum frumentaceumFamily: GraminaeSyn: Shyama, Tribeeja, Avipriya, Sukumara, raja dhanya, Trina beeja, Uttam (R.N)Eng: Barnyard milletHin: Saamva, samaKan: Syame akkiTam: shane, Kudurai valli pulluTel: ShyamuluHabitat: It is almost cultivated in the deccan platue of India, most parts of the southIndian states like Tamil nadu, Karnataka and Andhra pradesh are the major producersof shyamaka.Guna karma: Guna:Ruksha; Rasa: Kashaya, Madhura; Veerya:sheeta, Vipaka:madhura Doshakarma: vatakaraka, kapha pitta hara; Karma: shoshana,sangraahiand vishaghna.Parts used: dried decorticated grainConstituents: Moisture: 11.6; Protein 6.2; Carbohydrate 65.5; minerals 4.4; Calcium0.02; posphorous o.28; and Iron 2.26 mg per 100 gm grains. Traces of vit-A ans vit-B
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 71are also found. It also contains a small amount of Protein called prolemin, in whichlysine, custine and histidine.6. Kangu: 147Latin name : Sertaria italica, LinnFamily: GraminaeSyn: Kanguni, kangani, Pita tandula, Vatala, and Sukumara (R.N)Eng: Italian millet, Deccan grass, Fox tail milletHin: Kanguni, kangniKan:Navane akkiTam: TinnaiMal: TinaTel: KorraluHabitat: Depending on its country of origin, it is also known as Italian, German,Hungerian and Siberian millet. In Europe it was used for human food, but presently itis cultivated for fodder. Fox tail millet probably originated in Asia. In India it iscultivated in the plains of Deccan platue and in dry agricultural lands.Parts used: dried decorticated grainGuna karma: Guna:Ruksha shitala; Rasa:Kashaya,Madhura;Doshakarma:Pittagna; Karma: Ruchikaraka, daha shamaka, Bhagnasandhanakaraka.Constituents: Moisture 11.2; Protein 12.3; Fat 4.3; Minerals 3.3; Carbohydrate 60.6p.c respectively. Ca 31; Mg 120; P 260; Fe 12.6 mg per 100 gm of grains. It alsocontains Vit-A and B, and some amounts of prolein, a Protein.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 727. Madhulika: 148Latin name : Eleusine coracana / Eleusine indicaFamily: GraminaeSyn: Soma, Krishna, Madhuli, Ragika, Nartaka, Nrityakundala (N.R)Eng: Indian millet, Finger millet, Bird’s foot millet and African millet.Hin: Makra, ManduaKan: RaagiTam: Raagi, IragiMal: RagiTel: Ragulu, TamidaluHabitat: It originated in India and is grown in all parts of India. The countries likeChina, Malaya and parts of central Africa are also cultivating the grain.Parts used: dried decorticated grainGunakarma: Guna: Laghu ruksha; Rasa: Tikta, madhura, Kashaya, Veerya: sheeta;Vipaka: madhura; Doshakarma: tridosha shamaka, especially pitta shamaka:Karma: triptikaraka,Constituents: Albuminoids, starch, oil, Fibre and Ash; phosphoric acid 0.4p.c.‘Poona ragi on the analysis shows the following composition’. Moisture 14.3p.c,Ether extract 1.34p.c, Albuminoids 6.4 (Nitrogen 1.03) p.c., Soluble carbohydrates73.34 p.c.,woody Fibre 1.83p.c., Ash 2.69p.c., Mysore ragi, Moisture 13.22 p.c., Ether extract1.20p.c., Albuminoids 5.39 ( Nitrogen o.86) p.c., Soluble carbohydrates 75.13 p.c.,woody Fibre 2.10p.c Ash 2.98 (sand nil) p.c.Action & Uses: Raagi is highly protenaceous and nourishing food stuff. It is mostsuitable to hard working classes and to the poorer classes. The population of the
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 73Mysore platue, especially the lower classes eat a great deal of this nutritious food stuffin addition to rice, and as such that keep better health and have better physique thanthe rice eaters of south India. Ragi kanji with buttermilk in the morning is a diet indiabetes. (Bombay Govt. Agri Dept).8. Vajranna/ Sajja149Latin name: Pennisetum typhoideumFamily: GraminaeSyn: Vajranna, SajakaEng: Pearl millet, Spiked millet, Bull rush millet, cat tail milletHin: Bajra, BajdaKan: Kambina akki, SajjeTam: KambuTel: Sajja, SadduluHabitat: Pearl millet is probably originated in tropical Africa. It is Largely cultivatedin africa and India especially in Bombay presidency and the Deccan platue.Parts used: dried decorticated grainGunakarma: Guna:Ruksha; Rasa:Madhura, Kashaya; Veerya: Ushna;Doshakarma: Kapha vata nAshaka ; Karma: balya.Varieties: Deshi of gujarat or nadiad bajri; Bhavnagiri; Jabalpuri; Poona bajri andDeccan bajri.Uses: This grain constitutes the principal food of the working classes of the Sind,Punjab, Bombay ptresidency and the Deccan.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 74Constituents: It contains moisture 60.0; Ether extract (oils 0.4; Albuminoids,nitrogen 0.21.p.c.) digestible carbohydrate 20.0; woody Fibre 15.8; Ash 2.5 p.c. per100 percent. Bajri contains about 10% of proteids and 70% starch.Action: On account of the millets heating qualities, this is largely consumed by thetribes of Northern India during the cold weather.9. Joorna150Latin name: Sorghum vulgare/Andropogon sorghumFamily: GraminaeSyn: jurna, Jurnahva, YavanalaEng: Great milletHin: Jinor, Jondhari, JwaarKan: JolaTam: CholamMal: CholamTel: JonnaluHabitat: Sorghum belongs to the tribe Andropogonae and was known cereal crop inancient Egypt by 2200B.C. It was probably domesticated in Africa then it spreadthrough India and china. These are drought tolerant. It is cultivated in almost all partsof India in the dry agricultural land.Parts used: dried decorticated grainGunakarma: Guna:Laghu, ruksha; Rasa: Kashaya,Madhura; Veerya:Sheeta;Doshakarma: kapha pitta shamaka ; Karma: kledahara.Constituents: Sorghum Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy -1,418 kJ (339kcal) Carbohydrates -74.63 g and Fibre1-.7g /100gm. Dietary fiber- 6.3 p.c., Fat- 3.30p.c., Protein- 11.30 p.c., Nitrogen-1.7.p.c.,; Fibre -2.2 p.c., Ash -1.6 p.c., Amino acids
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 75like Arginine -3.79 Cysteine -1.66 Glutamic acid- 21.92 Histidine- 1.92 , Leucine-16.o6 , Lysine- 2.72, Methionine-1.73, Phenylalanine- 4.97, Serine- 5.05, Threonine -3.58 , Tryptophan- 1.12, Tryosine- 2.75, Valine- 5.71 p.c. respectively. Minerals likeCa.-4o mg, fe- 4 mg, Mg- 170mg, P- 310mg, K- 340 mg, Cu-0.96mg, Mn-1.45 mgand Zn- 1.37mg/ 100gm of dry sorghum. Vitamins like, Thiamine- o.38 mg,Riboflavin-0.15mg, Niacin-3.9 mg/ 100g.B.Shimbi dhanya varga1. Mudga: 151Latin name: Phaseolus mungo, Linn.Family: PapillionaceaeSyn: Harita mudga, mangalya, Balishta, Mada.Eng: Green gramHin: Moong,MungKan: Hesaru KaaluTam: Pachai payiru, Pasi parupuMal: CherupayarTel: Pachai payulu, PesaluHabitat: Extensively cultivated for its seed, in all parts of India especially in southIndia, to which it is a native. It is also grown in africa. There is a yellow-seededvariety also.Parts used: Whole seed and dehusked pulses.Varieties: In Ayurvedic literature ther are four varieties of mudgas has beenmentioned. viz, 1.Harita mudga, 2.Peeta mudga, 3. Krishna mudga and 4.Vanyamudga (R.N) 152
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 76Gunakarma: It is considered as the best among the shimbi dhanya varga, it alsomentioned as sadapathya. Guna: Laghu, Ruksha, Vishada; Rasa:KAshaya, madhura;Vipaka:Katu; Veerya:Sheeta; Doshakarma: Kapha pitta hara; Karma:Chakshushya.Constituents: Church gives the following analysis of mung with husk: Water-10.8,Albuminoids- 22.2, Starch- 54.1, Oil-2.7, Fibre-5.8 and Ash-4.4 p.c. respectively.Raw mung bean:Energy-1,452 kj (347 kcal), Carbohydrates-62.62 g, Sugars-6.60 g, Dietary fiber-16.3 g,Fat-1.15 g, Protein-23.86 g, Vitamin C-4.8 mg (8%), Calcium-132 mg(13%),Magnesium-189 mg (51%), Sodium-15 mg (1%) .boiled mung beans:Energy- 441 kcal, Carbohydrates- 19.15 g, Sugars- 2.00 g, Dietary fiber- 7.6 g, Fat-0.38 g, Protein- 7.02 g, Vitamin C- 1.0 mg (2%), Calcium- 27 mg (3%),Magnesium-0.298 mg ( 0%), Sodium- 2 mg ( 0%) (Percentages are relative to US recommendations foradults ;Source: USDA Nutrient database,).2. Adaki 153Latin name: Cajanus indicusFamily: PapillionaceaeSyn: Adaki, Tuvari, Varyya, Karaveera beeja, Peeta pushpa, Vritta bija (R.N) 154Eng: Pigeon peaHin: AraharKan: Togari kaalu, Togari beleTam: Adagi, TovaraiMal: Tuvara
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 77Tel: KanduluHabitat: Extensively cultivated throughout India, especially southern India, as anarticle of food. White seeded variety extensively cultivated in Gujrat, and red orbrown seeded variety generally cultivated in other parts of the bombay presidency.Parts used: Seeds or beans and leaves.Variety: In Ayurveda there are three types, 1. Shwetha, 2.Raktha, and3.Shyama.(R.N)Khadesh red, Nadiad red, Baramati white, Bangalore red, Salem red, Bangalorevarigated, sambalpur Ash.Gunakarma: Guna: Laghu, Ruksha; Rasa: Kashaya, madhura; Veerya: Sheeta;Doshakarma:Vata vardhaka, Kapha pitta shamaka; Karma:Graahi.Constituents: This pulse which has three varieties, viz. Yellow, Red and White,contains food elements: nitrogenous matter, oil, Fatty matter, starch or Carbohydrate,nutritive salts and watery matter. Analysis of Deccan unsplit grains with huskcontains these following constituents.Moisture-6.96, Ether extract-2.50, Albuminoids-19.57, Soluble carbohydrate- 6o.77,woody Fibre- 6.70, Ash-3.50.percents respectively.Analysis of split tuvar grain with husk removed.In Deccan tur: Moisture-6.00, Ether extract-1.60, Albuminoids-21.12(nitrogen-3.38), Soluble carbohydrate- 66.88, woody fibre- 1.10, Ash-3.30.percentsrespectively.In Tur white: Moisture-10.87, Ether extract-1.46, Albuminoids-14.25(nitrogen-2.28),Soluble carbohydrate- 63.68, woody fibre- 6.22, Ash-3.50.(containing sand 0.05)percents respectively.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 78In Tur Red: Moisture-10.94, Ether extract-1.03, Albuminoids-19.62, (nitrogen-2.66), Soluble carbohydrate- 62. 92, woody fibre- 4.76, Ash-3.50.(containing sand 0.05)percents respectively. General analysis of the two seeds for Proteins, Fats,Carbohydrates, fibre and Ash contents were carried out and the results were given ing/100 g dry seeds. Pigeon pea contained Protein-25.2 g, Calcium-170 mg and Iron-8.9mg.3. Kulatha: 155Latin name: Dolichos biflorus, Linn.Family: PapiliionaceaeSyn: Kulattha, Tamrabeeja, Shwetha beeja, SitetaraEng: Horse gram, Kidney beanHin: KoolatheeKan: Huruli kaaluTam: KolluMal: KulluTel: UlavaluHabitat: A common twining plant growing all over India, especially in bombay ,madras and Deccan regions.Parts used: Dry seedsGuna karma: Guna:Ruksha, Teekshna; Rasa:Kashaya, Madhura; Veerya:Ushna;Vipaka: Amla (Katu vipaka in susrutha); Doshakarma: Kapha vata shamaka;Karma: Bhedana, Graahi, Vidahi, Ashmarigna, Shukrashmarigna, Shwasa kasa,Shopha, Arsha and Peenasagna.Constituents: The grain with husk contains the following contents. Moisture:4.30-10.25 p.c., Ether extract:0.65-1.84 p.c., Albuminoids: 20.75-22.25 ( Containing
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 79nitrogen 3.32-3.56) p.c., Soluble carbohydrates: 56.04-63.20 p.c., woody Fibre-:4.85-5.50 p.c., and Ash: 4.20- 7.5 p.c.( Containing sand 0.72-1.70) and Energry (cals) 321kcal, Moisture-12 gm , Protein-22 gm , Fat-0 gm, Minera- 3 gm, Fibre-5 gm,Carbohydrates-57 gm, Calcium-287 mg ,Phosphorous-311 mg, Iron-7 mg. The Proteincontent of kidney bean was 23 g, while Calcium and Iron contents were 134 mg and8.02 mg respectively.4. Chanaka 156Latin name: Cicer ArietinumFamily: PapillionaceaeSyn: Harimantha, Vaji mantha, Hari jivana (K.N) 157, Chana, Sugandha, Bala bhojya,Vaji bhaksha, Krishna kanchuka (R.N) 158Eng: Bengal gram, Chicken- Pea, Chick- Pea,Hin: ChanaKan: Kadle kaaluTam:KadalaiMal: KadalaTel: SenagaluHabitat: A pulse cultivated in sindh, Bombay region and growing wild in all parts ofsouth India.Varieties: There are two varieties mentioned in Raja nigantu viz, 1.Krishna chanaka2. Goura chanaka.There are four varieties of gram which differ obviously in the colour of the seed viz,1.Black, 2.Red or brown, 3.Yellow and 4.White.Parts used: Seeds or peas and leaves.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 80Guna karma: Guna: Laghu Ruksha; Rasa: Kashaya, madhura; Veerya: Ushna;Vipaka: Katu; Doshakarma: Vata karaka, Kapha nashala; Karma: Vishtambhaka,Rakta, Pitta and Kapha vikara nashaka.Constituents: Chick peas are a helpful source of Zinc, Folate and Protein.They arealso very high in dietary fiber and hence a healthy source of Carbohydrates forpersons with insulin sensitivity or diabetes. Chickpeas are low in Fat and most of thisis polyunsaturated. Nutrient profile of desi chana (the smaller variety) is different,especially the Fibre content which is much higher than the light coloured variety. Onehundred grams of mature boiled chickpeas contains 164 calories, 2.6 grams of Fat (ofwhich only 0.27 grams is saturated), 7.6 grams of dietary fiber and 8.9 grams ofProtein. Chickpeas also provides dietary Calcium (49–53 mg/100 g).Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz), Energy 686 kJ (164 kcal), Carbohydrates27.42 g, Sugars 4.8 g, Dietary fiber 7.6 g,Fat 2.59 g, saturated 0.269 g, monounsaturated0.583 g, polyunsaturated 1.156 g, Protein 8.86 g, Water 60.21 g, Vitamin A equiv. 1 μg,Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.116 mg, Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.063 mg, Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.526 mg,Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.286 mg, Vitamin B6 0.139 mg, Folate (Vit. B9) 172 μg, VitaminB12 0 μg, Vitamin C 1.3 mg, Vitamin E 0.35 mg, Vitamin K 4 μg, Calcium 49 mg, Iron2.89 mg, Magnesium 48 mg, Phosphorus 168 mg, Potassium 291 mg, Sodium 7 mg, Zinc1.53 mg, (value per 100 g. Source: USDA National Nutrient data base )5. Masurika 159Latin name: Lens esculenta/ Ervum lens/ Cicer lensFamily: PapillionaceaeSyn: Mangalya, Pandura, Masura (K.N)160, Ramadali, Pruthu bijaka, Shura, Kalyanabija, Guru bija,Masura, Masuraka, Mangalya (R.N)161
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 81Eng: LentilsHin: MasurKan: ChannangiTam: Misur-paruppuTel: Misur-pappuHabitat: Grown in all parts of India.Parts used: PulsesGuna karma: Guna: Laghu, Ruksha; Rasa: Kashaya, madhura; Vipaka: Madhura;Veerya: Sheeta; Doshakarma:Kapha hara; Karma: Bala vardhaka, Graahi, Useful inRakta pitta, Kapha vikaras and Mutrakruccha.Constituents: Lentils contain high levels of Proteins, including the essential aminoacids isoleucine and lysine, and are an essential source of inexpensive Protein in manyparts of the world for those who adhere to a vegetariandiet.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masoor_dal  ‐  cite_note‐3 Lentils are deficient in twoessential amino acids, methionine and cystine. However, sprouted lentils containsufficient levels of all essential amino acids, including methionine and cystine.Apart from a high level of Proteins, lentils also contain dietary fiber, Folate, Vitamin B1, and  minerals. Red (or pink) lentils contain a lower concentration of fiber than green lentils (11% rather than 31%).http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masoor_dal ‐ cite_note‐6 Health magazine has selected lentils as one of the five healthiest foods . Lentils are often mixed with grains, such as rice, which results in a complete Protein dish. Lentils  also  have  "anti‐nutritional  factors"  such  as  trypsin  inhibitors  and  relatively high phytate content. Trypsin is an enzyme involved in digestion and phytates reduce the  bioavailability  of  dietary  minerals.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masoor_dal  ‐ 
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 82cite_note‐8  The  phytates  can  be  reduced  by  soaking  the  lentils  in  warm  water overnight. Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 1,477 kJ (353 kcal) ,Carbohydrates- 60 g,Sugars -2 g , Dietary fiber-31 g , Protein -26 g, Iron-7.5 mg (60%) . Fat total-0.75 g,saturated Fat-0.10 g, Vitamin A IU-15.84 IU, Thiamin B1-0.33 mg, Riboflavin B2-0.14 mg, Niacin B3-2.10 mg, Vitamin B6-0.35 mg, Vitamin B12-0.00 mcg , VitaminE mg-1.16 mg, Folate- 357.98 mcg, Vitamin K-3.37 mcg, Pantothenic acid- 1.26 mg,Calcium-37.62 mg, Copper-0.50 mg, Magnesium-71.28 mg, Manganese-0.98 mg,Phosphorus-356.40 mg, Potassium-730.62 mg, Selenium-2.51 m,Sodium-3.96 mg,Zinc- 5.54 mcg. omega 3 Fatty acids-0.07 g, omega 6 Fatty acids-0.27 g (value per100 g. Source: USDA National Nutrient data base )
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 83C.Hareeta varga1. Katillaka 162Latin name: Boerhaavia diffusa, Linn.Family: NyctagineaeGana: Vayasthapana, Kasa hara, Swedopaga, Anuvasanopaga (C.S), Vidarigandhadi(S.S)Syn: Punarnava, punarbhu, Sada(Sthayi), Mandala patraka, Shweta mula,Vrishcheeva, Varshabhu, Shophagni, Jatila, Sadhyo vishoshi and Deerga patraka.(K.N)Eng: Spreading hog weedHin: Beshakapore, ThikriKan: Sanadika, Gonajali, Bagarotte soppuTam: Mukkaratai keeraiTel: AttatamamidiMal: TamilamaHabitat: Boerhavia diffusa It is found growing in waste lands, it also found in thetropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world. This plant is indigenous toIndia and U.S.A. In India it is found in the warmer parts and up to an altitude of2000m.Varieties: It is of two kinds, White and Red flower. In the Tibetian literaturea thirdvariety with blue flowers has also been described. In Ayurveda there are two varietiesof Punarnava has been explained they are, Shwetha punarnava and Raktapunarnava(B.P)Parts used: Leaves along with stems.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 84Guna karma: Guna:Laghu Ruksha; Rasa:Tikta Kashaya Madhura,Kshareeya;Vipaka: Madhura ; Veerya: Ushna; Doshakarma: Vata kapha nashaka ;Karma:Saraka,Agni deepaka, Shotagna.Constituents: The plant extract contains a large number of biochemicals likealkaloids, flavonoides, steroids, triterpenoides, lipids, lignins, Carbohydrates,Proteins, glycoproteins and Punarnavine and Boerhavinone (Agarwal and Dutt, 1936,Basu et al.,1947,1968; Surange and Pendse, 1972, Laxmi et al., 1990,92),hypoxanthine 0-L-arabinofuranoside, lirodendrin(Jain and Khanna,1998 and Aftab etal., 1996). Some workers have reported that the plant extract contains good quantitiesof Potassium nitrate. Mishra and Tiwari (1971) in an important study reported that theplant extract contains ursolic acid. Studies reveal that the plant – root contains sixessential amino acids where as root system contains 14 amino acids.moisture -82.22% , carbohydrate -10.56% , Vitamin C -44.80mg /100g dryweight, Vitamin B1 -97.00 mg/100g and Vitamin B2 -22.00 mg/100g respectively.The mineral contents of the defatted leaf extracts were found to be Na -162.50mg/100g, Ca -174.09 mg/100g and Mg -8.68 mg/100g, Iron 0.012, Manganese 0.43,Aluminum 0.46, Iodine 0.002mg/100gm.2. Shigru 163Latin name: Moringa olifera/ M.PterogospermaFamily: MoringaceaeGana: Swedopaga, Krimigna, Shirovirechanopaga, Katuskanda, Haritaka varga(C.S), Varunadi, Shirovirechana (S.S)Syn: Shobhanjana, Krishna gandha, Murangi, Shalanakshama, Ghanacchada,Teekshna gandha, Bahalacchada, Avadamsha, Mulaparni, Mukha banga, Haricchada,Subanjana, Vidhradhigna, Akshiva and Mulakacchada. (K.N) 164
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 85Eng: Horse-radish tree, Drum stick tree.Hin: Sahinjan, Soanja, SegveKan: Nugge soppuTam: Muranga keeraiTel: Mulaga akuMal: MurinaHabitat: A beautiful tree wild in all parts of India and burma.Parts used: Leaves, flowers, immature capsules and root are eaten as vegetables incurries.Guna karma: Guna: Laghu, Ruksha, Teekshna; Rasa:Katu(Kshariya),Tikta,madhuram; Vipaka: Katu; Veerya:Ushna; Doshakarma: Kapha vata nashaka;Karma: Agni deepaka, Rochaka, Sangraahi, Vidahakari, Hrudhya, Netrya, Shotagnaand usefull in Medoroga and visha.Constituents: The main constituents of Moringa plant are palmitic and stearic acid,saponins, glycoside, gum, Protein Vitamin: A (8855 IU per 100g), B1, B2, B3,C Minerals: Calcium, Iron, Phosphorus and Magnesium. The leaves, flowers and podsare used as significant sources of Vitamins A, B and C, Riboflavin, nicotinic acid,folic acid, pyridoxine, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, Calcium, Iron, and alpha-tocopherol (Dahot, 1988). The pods are considered good sources of the essentialamino acids. A compound found in the flowers and roots of the moringa tree,pterygospermin, has powerful antibiotic and fungicidal effects (Das et al., 1957)Leaves: The Moringa oleifera leaves are highly nutritious, being a significant sourceof beta-carotene, Vitamin C, Protein, Iron, and Potassium.Moisture content was 74.42%, Protein 16.7%, fibre 3.5%, Ash 8%, and oil 1.7%. Alsothe minerals content were determined and they were found that the Calcium content
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 86was 0.20 mg/100g, Magnesium 0.13mg/100g, Potassium 0.075mg/100g, andPhosphorus 0.031 mg/100g3. Lonika 165Latin name: Portulaca oleracea, LinnFamily: PortulacaceaeEng: Common Indian purselane, garden purselaneHin: KhursaKan: Duda-gorai, guni soppuTam: Paruppu keeraiTel: Peddapavila kuraMal: Neela keeraHabitat: it is found throught India in all warm climates, it is an abundant weed incultivated ground throughout Cylone.Parts used: Leaves and whole plantGuna karma: Guna:Ruksha, Guru; Rasa:Katu,amla; Veerya:Ushna; Vipaka:Katu;Doshakarma: Vata nashaka, Pitta vardhaka; Karma: Agni deepaka and it is useful inVrana, Shotha, Kasa, Shwasa, and Netra vikara.Constituents: Purslane contains large amounts of l-norepinephrine (l-noradrenaline;0.25% in fresh herb), a neurohormone that has vasopressor and antihypotensiveactivities and reduces haemorrhage at the tissue level. It also contains numerouscommon nutrients (varying from low to high concentrations depending on report),including: Vitamins (A, B1, B2, C, niacinamide, nicotinic acid, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, etc.); minerals (especially Potassium); Fatty acids, especially omega-3 acidswhose concentration in purslane is the highest found in leafy vegetables; glutathione;glutamic acid; and aspartic acid. Other constituents include a mucilage composed of
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 87an acidic and a neutral fraction with structure determined, Calcium oxalate, malic andcitric acids, dopamine and dopa, coumarins, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, and ureaamong others used [Leung & Foster, 1996].Recent research has shown that P. oleracea is a rich source of omega-3 Fattyacids, which are thought to be important in preventing heart attacks and strengtheningthe immune system [Bown, 1995].Oxalates and noradrenalin have been isolated from the plant. The plant also containssaponins [Iwu, 1993]. The plan contains tannin, phosphates, urea, and variousminerals with a large amount of Magnessium [Keys, 1976]. The whole plant containscarotene, Vitamins C, B1, B2, Ca, Mg, Na, K salts; organic acids, nicotinic and oxalic;nor adrenaline, and the bioflavonoid liquiritin [World Health Organisation, 1990].4. Drona pushpin 166Latin name: Leucas cephalotes/ Indicus/ LinifoliaFamily: LabiataeSyn: Kumba yoni, Drona, Chatra kutumbaka, Koundinyotha, Maha drona, Dronakutumbaka, (K.N) 167Chitra patrika, Deerga patra, Kumba yoni, Kurambika, Chitrakshupa, Kuramba, Supushpa (R.N) 168Hin: Gooma madhupatiKan: Tumbe soppuTam: Tumbay keeraiTel: TumniMal: TumbaHabitat: It found throughout India, It usually grown as a common weed wildly.Parts used: Flowers,and leaves
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 88Gunakarma: Guna: Guru, Ruksha,Kshareeya,Teekshna ; Rasa: Katu, Lavana andMadhura; Veerya:Ushna; Vipaka:Katu; Doshakarma:Vata pitta vardha ,Kaphashamaka; Karma:useful in Baddha mala, Kamala, Shopha, Kasa, Tamaka shwasa andin Agni mandya.PHYSICALCONSTITUENTSTotal Ash: not more than 17%, acid insoluble Ash: not more than 6%, alcohol solubleextractive: not less than 5%, water soluble extractive: not less than 14 %.CHEMICALCONSTITUENTS Plant :- β-sitosterol & its glycoside new labdane, nor labdane ,  and abietone‐type diterpenes  named  leucasdins  A,B,and  C  respectively  and  two  protostane  –  type triterpenes  named  leucastrins  A  and  B,  oleonolic  acid,  7‐  oxositosterol,  7‐ oxostigmasterol,7alpha ‐hydroxysitosterol,7 alpha‐ hydroxystigmasterol,sigmasterol, 5‐hydroxy‐7,4‐dimethoxyflavone, pillion,gonzali‐ tosin 1, tricin,cosmosin,a pigenin 7‐o‐beta‐D{6‐0‐p‐caumaroyl glucopyranoside,  anisofolin A  and luteolin 4‐0‐beta  ‐D – glucurono pyranoside, Seedoil: Laballenic acid { octadeca ‐ 5, 6‐dienoic acid }lauric acid, glutanic acid ,tridecanonic acid , adipic acid.(IMM, Nadakarni & NIN,Hbd, India) 5. Guduchi patra 169Latin name: Tinospora cordifoliaFamily: MenispermaceaeSyn: Guduchi, Kundali, Soma, Chinna, Chinnodbhava, Amruta, Madhuparni, Chinnaruha, Vayastha, Chandra hasa, Amrita latha, Dhara,Vatsadhani and Varaye.(K.N) 170Guduchi, Amritavalli, Dhara, Naga kumari, Chinnangi, Tantrika, Devanirmita,Soumya, Vishalyamrutha sambhava, Bhishagjita, Kanya, Kandodbhava andKandamrutha kanda. (R.N)
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 89Gana: Vaya sthapana, Daha prashamana, Trishna nigrahana, Sthanya shodana,Truptigna, (C.S), Guduchyadi, Patoladi, Aragvadadhi, Kakolyadi, Vallipanchamula(S.S)Eng: Heart leaved moonseedHin: Gulancha, GiloyaKan: Amrutha balli soppuTam: Sindilkodi, Amrudavalli keeraiTel: TippategaMal: ChittamrutamHabitat: A common climbing shrub growing on neem and other trees in trophicalwestern ghats and grows wild all over India, it also grows wildly in the farm lands.Parts used: Stem and fecula (starchy extract of guduchi), leaves as a curry with mealsand root for medicinal purpose.Guna karma: Guna: Guru ,snigdha and laghu; Rasa: Tikta, Kashaya and Madura ;Vipaka:Madhura; Veerya:Ushna; Doshakarma:Trodoshagna; Karma: Useful inKushta, Krimi, Chardhi, Daha, Pandu, Kamala, Trishna and Vatarakta.Constituents: Different constituents reported include a glucoside, alkaloids, bitterprinciples, crystalline components etc. The bitter principles have been identified ascolumbin, chasmanthin and palmarin.The alkaloid tinosporin has also identified.The active adaptogenic constituents are diterpene compounds includingtinosporone, tinosporic acid, cordifolisides A to E, syringen, the yellow alkaloid,berberine, Giloin, crude Giloininand, a glucosidal bitter principle as well aspolysaccharides, including arabinogalactan polysaccharide (TSP). Picrotene andbergenin were also found in the plant. The active principles of Tinospora cordifolia, atraditional Indian medicinal plant were found to possess anticomplementary and
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 90immunomodulatory activities. Main chemical components are tinocordifolin,tinocordifolioside, tinosponone, tinocordioside, cordioside, picroretine, colombine,and columbin.A large number of compounds have been isolated from the aerial parts androots of T. cordifolia . In the early 1900s, giloin, gilenin, and gilosterol, as well as thebitter principles columbin, chasmanthin, and palmarin, were identified in the plant.http://www.drugs.com/npp/tinospora.html  ‐  ref6In addition, syringin, cordiol,cordioside, and the phenylpropene disaccharides cordifoliosides A and B wereidentified as the active principles with anticomplement and immunomodulatoryactivities. (National institute of Nutrition, Hybd, India)6. Kakamachi 171Latin name: Solanum nigrum /S. americanumFamily: SolanaceaeGana: Tiktaskanda (C.S)Syn: Dhwankshamachi, Kakahva, Vayasi, Katvi, Katu phala, Rasayanavara (R.N)172, Kakasahva, Kamata, Jaghanephala, Sarva tikta, Bahuphala, Swadhupaka phala,Kamachi, Kakini, Gudaphala, Katu and Kushtaghni. (K.N)Eng: Black night shadeHin: Makoi, GurkamaiKan: Ganake soppu, KakamunchiTam: Man thakkali keerai, Milagu takkali, Mann thakkali palamTel: Kamanchi chettu, Kanchi-pundu, KachiMal: Tudavalam
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 91Habitat: Black nightshade is a fairly common herb or short-lived perennial shrub,found in many wooded areas, as well as disturbed habitats. It grows wildly throughtIndia.Parts used: Leaves and fruits, leaves are used as a vegetable curry very commonly inIndia.Guna karma: Guna:Lagu,Ruksha; Rasa:Katu, Tikata; Vipaka:Katu;Veerya:Ushna; Doshakarma:Tridoshaghna; Karma: Hrudya, Rasayana and it isused in Kushta, Shota, Arsha, Shwasa, Kasa, Aruchi and Jwara.Constituents: Leaves contain quercetin glycosides, Immature fruits contain glucoalkaloids, Leaves and fruits contain solasodine type compounds, Fruits containsteroidal glycosides, glycoalkaloids, α – solamargine & α – solasonine,Seeds containa Fatty oil. Protein - 5-6% , Fat - 1% , Minerals - 2% , Carbohydrates - 8-9% ,Calcium - 410mg , Riboflavin - 0.5mg ,Nicotinic acid - 0.92mg , Vitamin C - 11mg ,β Carotene - 0.74mg , Iron - 20.5mg and Alkaloids like Solanine ,Solanorine,Solamargine ,Solanigrine – A & B ,Total alkaloids - 0.101 to 0.43% . In fruits:Glucose and fructose - 15 to 20% , Vitamin C and β - Carotene . Seeds :Yellow oil -15 to 20% , Leaf is rich source of Riboflavin. Seeds : Yellow oil - 15 to 20% , Leaf isrich source of Riboflavin. (National institute of Nutrition, Hybd, India)7.Vastuka/ Chilli shaka 173Latin name: Chenopodium albumFamily: ChenopodiaceaeSyn: Palasalohita, Vastuka, Chillika, Mrudupatri, Ksharadala, Kshara patri andVastuki (R.N)174Shaka veera, Pranalaka, Tanka vastuka, Prasadaka, Chandrila, Tankavastuka and Veera shaka.(K.N)175Eng: Goose foot
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 92Hin: Chandan betuKan: Bayi basale soppuTam: Paruppu keeraiTel: Pappu keeraHabitat: Usually grown in gardens, but sometimes in corners of early grain fields allover India.Parts used: The plant is much esteemed as a pot herb. Leaves are taken in the form ofinfusion or decoction, as a laxative and anti helmenthic, Seeds are consumed by hilltribes as an article of food.Gunakarma:Guna:Lagu,Saraka,Ruksha,Teekshna;Rasa:Madhura,Katu,Ksharayukta;Vipaka:Katu;Veerya:Ushna;Doshakarma:Pittavardhaka,Kaphavatanashaka;Karma:Ruchikaraka, Agni deepaka, Medhya and useful in Prameha, Krimi,Pleeharoga and Mutrakricha. (R.N)Constituents: Water-84.300 g, Energy-43.000 kcal, Energy-180.000 kj,Protein-4.200 g, Total lipid (fat)0-0.800 g, Ash- 3.400 g, Carbohydrate, by difference-7.300 g, Dietary Fiber- 4.000 g, Calcium, Ca- 309.000 mg, Iron, Fe- 1.200 mg,Magnesium, Mg- 34.000 mg, Phosphorus, P- 72.000 mg, Potassium, K- 452.000 mg,Sodium, Na- 43.000 mg, Zinc, Zn- 0.440 mg, Copper, Cu- 0.293 mg, Manganese,Mn-0.782 mg, Selenium, Se- 0.900 mcg, Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid- 80.000mg, Thiamin-0.160 mg, Riboflavin-0.440 mg, Niacin- 1.200 mg, Pantothenic acid-0.092 mg, Vitamin B-6-0.274 mg, Folate, total-30.000 mcg, Folate, food-30.000mcg, Folate, DFE-30.000 mcg_DFE, Vitamin A, IU-11600.000 IU, Vitamin A,RAE-580.000 mcg_RAE, Fatty acids, total saturated-0.059 g, Saturated Fattyacids 16:0-0.047 g, Fatty acids, total monounsaturated-0.150 g, Fatty acids, totalpolyunsaturated-0.351 , Polyunsaturated Fatty acids 18:2 undifferentiated-0.313
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 93g, Polyunsaturated Fatty acids 18:3 undifferentiated- 0.036 g, PolyunsaturatedFatty acids 20:4 undifferentiated- 0.002 g, Cholesterol- 0, Tryptophan-0.038 g,Threonine-0.163 g, Isoleucine-0.253 g, Leucine-0.350 g, Lysine-0.354 g,Methionine-0.049 g, Cystine-0.089 g, Phenylalanine-0.166 g, Tyrosine-0.175 g,Valine-0.226 g, Arginine-0.253 g, Histidine-0.116 g, Alanine-0.322 g, Asparticacid-0.431 g, Glutamic acid-0.521 g, Glycine-0.249 g, Proline-0.223 g, Serine-0.200 g.(value per 100 g. Source: USDA National Nutrient data base )D.Shakavarga1. Kushmanda 176Latin name: Benincasa hispidaFamily: CucurbitaceaeVarga: Valli phalaSyn: Kushmandika, Kumbhaphala, Sthiraphala, Somasrushta, Peetaka, Bruhat phala,Suphala and Kumbandi (R.N). Mahaphala, Pushpa phala, Somagrushtika, (K.N) 177English: Ash gourd, White gourd melon, White pumpkinHin: Golkaddu, Peta, Rakasa and BhatuaKan: Boodigumbala, SandhigumbalaTam: Kalyan-pooshiniTel: Boodi gummadiMal: KumpalamHabitat: Cultivated in gardens throught IndiaParts used: Seeds, Fruits and fruit juice.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 94Gunakarma: Guna: Laghu, Snigdha; Rasa:Madhura; Vipaka:Madhura;Veerya:Sheeta; Doshakarma:Vata-pitta shamaka, Kapha vardhaka; Karma:Shukrala, Hrudya, Ashmari chedanam, Pushtidayaka, Vrushya, Balya and Thishashamaka.Constituents: Water-96.100 g, Energy-13.000 kcal, Energy-54.000 kj, Protein-0.400 g, Total lipid (fat)- 0.200 g, Ash-0.300 g, Carbohydrate, by difference-3.000g, Dietary Fiber- 2.900 g, Calcium, Ca -19.000 mg, Iron, Fe- 0.400 mg,Magnesium, Mg -10.000 mg, Phosphorus, P- 19.000 mg, Potassium, K- 6.000 mg,Sodium, Na- 111.000 mg, Zinc, Zn - 0.610 mg, Copper, Cu -0.023 mg, Manganese,Mn-0.058 mg , Selenium, Se-0.200 mcg , Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid- 13.000mg, Thiamin-0.040 mg , Riboflavin-0.110 mg , Niacin-0.400 mg , Vitamin B-6-0.035 mg , Folate, total- 5.000 mcg, Pantothenic acid- 0.133 mg , Fatty acids,total saturated- 0.016 g, Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated-0.087 g, Tryptophan-0.002 g, Lysine-0.009 g, Methionine- 0.003 g. (Source: USDA: Nutrient Data basefor Average amount in 100g )2. Karavellaka178Latin name: Momordica charantiaFamily: CucurbitaceaeGana: Tiktaskanda (C.S)Syn: Kandiram, Kanda katukam, Sukandam, Karavellakam, Ugra kandam and Katilla(K.N) 179Eng: Bitter gourdHin: KarelaKan: Hagala kayi
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 95Tam: Pavakkai, PagalTel: KakaraMal: Paval, KaipavalliHabitat: This climbing plant is cultivated all parts of India in the gardens, for itsfruits.Varieties: There are two varieties, one with a small roundish or ovoid fruit and theother longer and more cucumber like (kerula-in bengal)Parts used: Fruits, seeds and leaves.Gunakarma: Guna: Laghu, Ruksha; Rasa:Tikta, katu; Vipaka:Katu; Veerya:Ushna; Doshakarma:Kapha pitta shamaka, Kinchit vata vardhaka ; Karma: It is useful inAruchi, Rakta pitta, Pandu, Vrana, Krimi roga, Shwasa, Kasa, Rakta vikara, Kota,Kushta and Jwara.Constituents: Water-94.030 g, Energy-17.000 kcal, Energy- 71.000 kj, Protein-1.000 g, Total lipid (fat)- 0.170 g, Ash-1.100 g, Carbohydrate, by difference-3.700 g, Dietary Fiber-2.800 g, Calcium, Ca- 19.000 mg, Iron, Fe-0.430 mg,Magnesium, Mg-17.000 mg, Phosphorus, P- 31.000 mg, Potassium, K- 296.000 mg,Sodium, Na-5.000 mg, Zinc, Zn-0.800 mg, Copper, Cu-0.034 mg, Manganese, Mn-0.089 mg, Selenium, Se-0.200 mcg, Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid-84.000 mg,Thiamin-0.040 mg, Riboflavin-0.040 mg, Niacin- 0.400 mg, Pantothenic acid-0.212mg, Vitamin B-6-0.043 mg, Folate, total- 72.000 mcg, Folate, food- 72.000 mcg,Folate, DFE-72.000 mcg_DFE, Vitamin A, IU-471.000 IU, Vitamin A, RAE-24.000 mcg_RAE, Carotene, beta- 190.000 mcg, Carotene, alpha- 185.000 mcg,Lutein + zeaxanthin-170.000 mcg. (Source: USDA: Nutrient Data base for Averageamount in 100g )
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 963. Bimbi 180Latin name: Coccina grandis/ C.IndicusFamily: CucurbitaceaeGana: Mulini (C.S), Urdhwa bhaga hara (S.S)Syn: Bimbi, Rakta phala, Tundi, Tundikeri, Oshtopama phala, Gohla, Piluparna andTundika. (D.N) Tikta tundi, Katuka, Katu tundika, Tikta tundi (R.N), Raktaphala,Ushna phala, vidhruma pakya,Dantacchada, Tundikeri, Tundi, Golha, Tundiki andPiluparnika (K.N)181Eng: Ivy gourdHin: Kanduriki bel, KunduruKan: Tonde kayiTam: Kovai kaiTel: Dondatiga, KakidondaHabitat: Grows in a wild state abundantly in bengal and most parts of India.Parts used: Leaves, root, fruit and barkVarieties: It is of two varieties, first one is Katu bheda, its all parts are very muchbitter in taste and used as vegetable and medicine. The second one is sweet fruitvariety, used as vegetable. Guna karma: Guna:Laghu, ruksha, teekshna; Rasa:Tikta, Katu; Vipaka:Katu;Veerya: ushna; Doshakarma: Kapha pitta nashaka, Vatakara; Karma:Ruchikaraka, vishahara and useful in shota, rakta vikara and in pandu.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 974. Patola182Latin name: Trichosanthes anguinaFamily: CucurbitaceaeGana: Triptighna, Trishna nigrahana (C.S) Patoladi, Aragvadadi (S.S)Syn: Patola, Kulaka, Panduke, KarekAshacchada, Raji phala, Panduphala, amritaphala (R.N) Raji phala, Pandu phala, Jaali, Jyotsna, Rajimana, Tiktottama, Rajapatolika and Bija garbha.(K.N)183Eng: Snake gourdHin: Chichonda, ChachindaKan: Padavala kayiTam: PodalangaiTel: Potla kayaMal: PatolamHabitat: It is a creeper, the fruit resembles like snake and cultivated throughout India.Variety: It is of twokinds 1. Gramya veriety which is not too much bitter 2. Wildvariety, it is very much bitter in taste.Parts used: FruitsGuna karma: Guna:Laghu, ruksha; Rasa:Tikta, katu; Veerya:Ushna; Vipaka:Katu;Doshakarma: Tridoshashamaka; Karma: Agni deepaka, Pachaka, Ruchikaraka anduseful in Shwasa, Jwara, Kushta, Rakta vikara and in Krimi.Constituents: Tricosanthes anguina is a rich source of nutrition. It is highlyconstituted with Proteins, Fat, Fibre, Carbohydrates,Vitamin A and E. The totalphenolics and flavonoids content is 46.8% and 78.0% respectively. The fruit is rich inVitamin C and E. The crude Protein content is 30.18%8. The predominant mineral
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 98elements were Potassium (121.60mg 100-1g) and Phosphorus (135.0mg 100-1g).Other elements found in fairly high amounts are Sodium, Magnesium and Zinc. Thetriterpenes found are 23, 24-dihydrocucurbitacin D, 23,24-dihydrocucurbitacin B,cucurbitacin B, 3β-hydroxyolean- 13(18)-en-28-oic acid, 3-oxo-olean-13(18)-en-30-oic acid and the sterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-24ξ-ethylcholest- 7,22-dien-3β-ol.The percentage free Fatty acid and acid values were low suggesting increased stabilityand usefulness in nutritional and industrial applications.The chemical constituentspresent in T. anguina are cucurbitacin B, cucurbitacin E, isocucurbitacin B, 23,24-dihydroisocucurbitacin B, 23,24-dihydrocucurbitacin E, sterols 2 β-sitosterolstigmasterol 11. Low amount of chemical substances like oxalate, phytates andtannins are also present. Analysis showed that the seed of T. cucumerina have high oilcontent up to 42.5±5%. The ascorbic acid content found was 24.8 – 25.7 mg/100gfresh weight and lycopene content was16.0 and 18.1 mg/100g.5. Shigru phala: 184Latin name: Moringa olifera/ M.PterogospermaFamily: MoringaceaeGana: Swedopaga, Krimigna, Shirovirechanopaga, Katukaskanda, Haritaka varga(C.S), Varunadi, Shirovirechana (S.S)Syn: Shobhanjana, Krishna gandha, Murangi, Shalanakshama, Ghanacchada,Teekshna gandha, Bahalacchada, Avadamsha, Mulaparni, Mukha banga, Haricchada,Subanjana, Vidhradhigna, Akshiva and Mulakacchada. (K.N) 185Eng: Horse-radish, Drum stickHin: Sahinjan, Soanja, SegveKan: Nugge kaayi
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 99Tam: Muranga kaiTel: MulagaMal: MurinaHabitat: A beautiful tree wild in all parts of India and burma.Parts used: Leaves, flowers, immature capsules and root are eaten as vegetables incurries.Guna karma: Guna: Laghu, Ruksha, Teekshna; Rasa:Katu(Kshariya),Tikta,madhuram; Vipaka: Katu; Veerya:Ushna; Doshakarma: Kapha vata nashaka;Karma: Agni deepaka, Rochaka, Sangraahi, Vidahakari, Hrudhya, Netrya, Shotagnaand usefull in Medoroga and visha.Constituents: Water-78.660 g, Energy-64.000 kcal, Energy- 268.000 kj, Protein-9.400 g, Total lipid (fat)-1.400 g, Ash-2.260 g, Carbohydrate, by difference -8.280g, Dietary Fiber- 2.000 g, Calcium, Ca- 185.000 mg, Iron, Fe-4.000 mg,Magnesium, Mg- 147.000 mg, Phosphorus, P- 112.000 mg, Potassium, K- 337.000mg , Sodium, Na-9.000 mg, Zinc, Zn -0.600 mg, Copper, Cu- 0.105 mg, Manganese,Mn- 1.063 mg, Selenium, Se-0.900 mcg, Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid- 51.700mg, Thiamin- 0.257 mg, Riboflavin-0.660 mg, Niacin- 2.220 mg, Pantothenic acid-0.125 mg, Vitamin B-6-1.200 mg, Folate, total-40.000 mcg, Folate, food-40.000mcg, Folate, DFE-40.000 mcg_DFE, Vitamin A, IU-7564.000 IU, Vitamin A, RAE-378.000 mcg_RAE, Tryptophan- 0.144 g, Threonine -0.411 g, Isoleucine-0.451 g,Leucine-0.791 g, Lysine-0.537 g, Methionine-0.123 g, Cystine- 0.140 g,Phenylalanine-0.487 g, Tyrosine-0.347 g, Valine-0.611 g, Arginine- 0.532 g,Histidine- 0.196 g, Alanine-0.705 g, Aspartic acid-0.920 g, Glutamic acid- 1.035 g,Glycine-0.517 g, Proline-0.451 g, Serine- 0.414 g. ( Nutrient in 100g: Source,USDA Nutrient Data Base )
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 1006. Indravaruni186Latin name: Citrullus colocynthisFamily: CucurbitaceaeGana: Virechana, Mulini (C.S), Adobhagahara, Shyamadi (S.S)Syn: Aendri, Indrahva, Surendrahva, Gavakshi, Suravaruni, Aendrervaru,Kshudraphala, Vrishabakshi, Vrishadani, Mrigabhaksha, Mrugairvaru, Vishala,Atmaraksha, Chitraphala, Chitravedi, Mahaphala, Dhanushreni, Trapusi, Gajachirbati,Hastidanti, Surpahva and Marusambhava (K.N)187, Aendri, Varuni, Indrahva,Kshudraphala, Vrishabhakshi (D.N)188, Mrigadani, Kshudra sahendra, Chirbita,Surya, Vishagni, Gunakarnika, Suvarna, Suphala,Indra vallari, Hemapushpi,Balakapriya and Taraka(R.N)Eng: Bitter apple, Indian wild gourdHin: IndrayanKan: Mekke kayi, Tamate kayiTam: Tumbikkai, Vasi-tummatti, Attu-tummatti, Peyt-tummattiTel: Eti-puccha, Paperabudama, Verri-pucchaMal:Paikummatti, KattuvelleriHabitat: Common weed found wild in the sandy lands of north west, the punjab,Sindh, Central and Southern India, and on the coromandal coast, Colocynth isnotsymmetrically grown anywhere in India.Parts used: Fruit deprived of its rind, root, dried pulp of the fruit free from seeds andoil from seeds.Gunakarma: Guna:Laghu, Ruksha, Teekshna; Rasa:Katu Tikta; Vipaka:Katu;Veerya:Ushna ; Doshakarma:Kapha pitta shamaka; Karma: Agni deepaka and
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 101useful in Kasa, Shwasa, Apachi, Galaganda, Anaha, Vrana, Krimi, Kushta, Kamala,Ashmari, Granthi and visha.Constituents: Active drug contains an ether-chloroform soluble resin, a phytosterolglycoside (citrullol), other glucosides (elaterin, elatericin B and dihydro-elatericin B),pectins and albuminoids. Bitter substance is colocynthin and colocynthetin. Rootscontain a-elaterin, hentriacontane, and saponins. Per 100 g, the seed is reported tocontain 556 calories, 6.7 g H2O, 23.6 g Protein, 47.2 g Fat, 19.5 g total Carbohydrates,1.5 g fiber, 3.0 g Ash, 46 mg Ca, and 580 mg P. The oil contains oleic, linoleic,myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Seeds contain the phyto sterolin (ipurand), 2phytosterols, 2 hydrocarbons, a saponin, an alkaloid, a polysaccharide or glycoside,and tannin.7. Katu tumbi189Latin name: Lagenaria vulgarisFamily: CucurbitaceaeGana: Vamana, Phalini (C.S) Urdwa bhaga hara (S.S)Syn: Tumbi, Lamba, Pinda phala, Rajanya, Pravara, tikta bija, Tiktalabu, Mahaphala,Raja putri, Gugdhinika and Dugdhika.(K.N)190, Katukalambini, Tumbi, Lamba,Pindaphala, Ikshuvaku, Kshatriyavara, Tikta bija and Mahaphala (D.N)191Eng: Bitter bottle gourd, long white gourdHin: Lauki, Jangli lauki, Khaddu.Kan: Kahi sorekayiTam: SorakkaiTel: Chiti-Anab, Sorakaya, Anap kayaMal:Anapa-kai, Katuchuram
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 102Habitat: This climbing plant is found wild and cultivated nearly all over India.Parts used: Fruit pulp, Seeds and Seed oil.Gunakarma: Guna:Laghu, Ruksha; Rasa:Tikta; Vipaka:Katu; Veerya:Ushna;Doshakarma:Vata pitta nashaka; Karma: Useful in Shitala, Kasa, Shwasa, Jwaraand Visha.Constituents: The fruit is reported to contain the triterepeniode cucurbitacins B, D,G, H and 22-deoxy cucurbitacin the bitter principle of cucurbitaceae. Two sterols i.e.,fucosterol and campesterol, aerpene byonolic acid (an allergic compound), flavone-Cglycosides, a ribosome inactivating Protein), Lagenin, (antiproliferative,immunosuppressive, antifertility . The edible portion of fruits is fair source ofascorbic acid, beta carotene and good source of Vitamin B complex, pectin dietarysoluble fibers and contains highest source of choline level-a lipotropic factor, a healerof mental disorders. It is also reported to have content more proportion of SolubleDietary Fibers (SDF) than insoluble fibers. SDF are having profound effect inlowering serum cholesterol, which also reveals that the pectin is predominantcomponent of soluble fibers in Lagenaria vulgaris fruits. Carbohydrate and dietaryconstituents:Total sugar-5.870g, Reducing sugar-5.220g, Starch-1.310g,Hemicellulose-6.450g , Cellulose- 16.070g , Legnine-0.193g , Mineral : fe-11.87mg ,P- 240.33mg, K- 3320mg, Na-27.88 , zn-3.77mg , Mg-162.33mg , Mn- 0.26mg, Cu-0.19mg. Amino acids: Tryptophan-0.003 , Threonin-0.018 , Isoleucine-0.033 ,Leucine-0.036 , Methionine-0.004, Phenylalanine-0.015, Valine-0.027, Arginine-0.014, Histidine- 0.004, Vitamins content: Vit C- 10.100mg, Thiamine-0,029mg,Riboflavin-0.022mg , Niacin-0.320mg, Vit B6-0.040mg, Pantothenic acid-0.152mg,Vit E-16.02mg. (dietary content of Bottle gourd mg/100 g dry weight basis).
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 1038. Karkotaka192Latin name: Momordica dioicaFamily: CucurbitaceaeVarga: Mulakadi (R.N)Syn: Swadhupala, Manogna, Kumarika, Avandhya, Devi and Vishaprashamani(D.N)193Manasvini, Bhodana, Vandhya karkoti, Kantaphala, VishaprAshamani (R.N)Kumarika, Nagaripu, Vishakantakini, Nishpala and Majjadamani (K.N)194Eng: Wild gourdHin: Khekasa, KakodaKan: Mada hagala kayi, Giddahagala, KartikayiTam: Aegaravalli, Pallephagil, Palupaghel-kalung.Tel: KarkotakiHabitat: This climbing creeper is generally met with in Bengal and in the forests ofSouth India.Parts used: Fruits and tuberous root.Gunakarma: Guna: Laghu, Ruksha; Rasa: Tikta; Vipaka: Katu; Veerya: Ushna;Doshakarma: Tridoshahara; Karma: Useful in Kushta, Gulma, Kasa, Jwara and inVisha.Constituents: It contains Lectins, Proteins, triterpenes and Vitamins.The fruitcontains a high amount of Vitamin C.The fruit is rich in ascorbic acid and containiodine. The fruit also contain alkaloid, flavonoids, glycosides and amino acids.Momordica dioica also contains an alkaloid, a fragrant extractive matter and Ash 3 to4 p.c. Ash contains a trace of Manganese. Momordica dioica as the averagenutritional value per 100 g edible fruit was found to contain 84.1% Moisture, 7.7 gcarbohydrate, 3.1 g Protein, 3.1 g Fat, 3.0 g fiber and 1.1 g minerals. It also contained
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 104small quantities of essential Vitamins like ascorbic acid, carotene, Thiamin,Riboflavin and niacin. It also content Protein in the leaves and dry weight of aerialplant parts remained higher in male as compared to female defruited, and monoeciousplants.From Momordica dioica fruit isolated 6-methyl tritriacont-50on-28-of and 8-methyl hentracont- 3-ene along with the known sterol pleuchiol. Momodicaursenol,an unknown pentacylic triterpene isolated from the seeds, had been identified as urs-12, 18(19)-dien-3 beta-ol on. Phytochemical investigations have revealed the presenceof traces of alkaloids and ascorbic acid in fruits. Lectins, sitosterol, saponinglycosides, triterpenes of ursolic acid, hederagenin, oleanolic acid, spiranosterol,stearic acid, gypsogenin, two novel aliphatic constituents.From the dry root ofMomordica dioica isolated three triterpenes and two steroidal compounds. Thesewere alphaspinasterol octadecanonate(I), alphaspinasterol- 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(II), 3- O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl gypsogenin(III), 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl gypsogenin(IV) and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl hederagenin(V).Constituent III was a new compound.9. Bruhati/ (Vartaki) 195Latin name: Solanum melongenaFamily: SolanaceaeGana: Kantya, Hikka nigraha, Shothahara, Angamardha prashamana (C.S),Brihatyadi, Laghu panchamula (S.S)Syn: Vartaki, Bruhati, Simhi, Sthulakanta, Mahoshtrica, Kantaki, Vishada, Kranta,Mahati, Kuli, Bhantaki, Bahupatra and Vidhavika (K.N), Kanta, Vartaki, Simmhi,RAshtrika, Vishada, Mahati and Mahotika (D.N) Bahupatri, Kantalu, Katphala,Dorali and Vana vrintaki.(R.N)Eng: Egg plant, Brinjal
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 105Hin: Baigun, BegunKan: BadanekayiTam: KatterikayiTel: Vankayi, Vankaya, VangaMal: Valutina, MulukutakaliHabitat: This is a common plan in India, It is extensively cultivated in India for itsfruit.Parts used: Fruits and SeedsGunakarma: Guna: Laghu, Ruksha, Teekshna; Rasa:Tikta, Katu; Vipaka:Katu ;Veerya:Ushna; Doshakarma:Kapha-Vata nashaka; Karma: It is useful in Shwasa,Kasa, Shula, Aruchi and Mukhavairasya.Constituents: Eggplant is an excellent source of dietary Fibre. Its a very goodsource of Vitamins B1, B6 and Potassium. It’s a good source of Copper, Magnesium,Manganese, Phosphorus, niacin, and folic acid. Nasunin, an anthocyanin fromeggplant peels, is a potent antioxidant and free-radical scavenger, and hasprotective activity against lipid peroxidation.Energy-24 Kcal, Carbohydrates-5.7g, Protein-1 g, Cholesterol-0 mg, Dietary Fiber-3.40 g, Total Fat- 0.19 g, Vitamins: Folates-22 mcg, Niacin-0.649 mg, Pantothenicacid- 0.281 mg, Pyridoxine-0.084 mg, Riboflavin-0.037 mg, Thiamin-0.039 mg,Vitamin A-27IU, Vitamin C- 2.2mg, Vitamin E-0.30 mg, Vitamin K-3.5 mcg.Electrolytes: Sodium-2 mg, Potassium-230 mg. Minerals: Calcium-9 mg, Copper-0.082mg, Iron-0.24 mg, Magnesium-14 mg, Manganese-0.250 mg, Zinc-0.16 mg.(Nutritive value per 100 g. Source: USDA National Nutrient data base)
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 10610. Koshataki 196Latin name: Luffa acutanggulaFamily: CucurbitaceaeGana: Vamana, Phalini (C.S) Urdhwabhagahara, Ubhayotobhagahara (S.S)Syn: Shweta gosha, Krimicchidra, Ghantali, Krutavedana, Mridangavat, Koshavati,Mrudanga phalini, Koshataki, Karkoti, Jalini, KarkAshacchada, Kshwela, Tikta,Jyotsna, Jali and Ghoshaka.(K.N), Kritichidra, Kritavedhani, Kshweda, Sutikta,Ghantali and Mrudanga phalika.(D.N), Dharaphala, Karkotaki, deergha phala, Peetapushpa, Sukosha and Dhamargava (R.N)Eng: Ridged gourd, ribbed luffa, Sharp corned cucumber.Hin: Torai, JingaKan: Heere kayiTam: Pikumkai, PeerakaiTel: Beerakaya, BurkaiMal: Peecchakam, Cheru-peeramHabitat: Cultivated in all parts of India.Parts used: Fruit, Fruit juice, Seeds, root and leaves.Gunakarma: Guna: Laghu, Ruksha, Teekshna; Rasa: Tikta, Katu; Vipaka: Katu;Veerya: Ushna; Doshakarma: Kapha pitta shamaka; Karma: Agni deepaka anduseful in Vatarakta, Aruchi, Kasa, Shwasa, Jwara, Kushta, Pleeha roga and in Arsha.Constituents: Dried fruit deprived of seeds contains a principle allied to Colocynthinand a gelatinous bitter principles nameed luffin. Seeds contain a bland fixed oil. Freshvegetable contains Moisture-91.77 p.c., and the completely dried material containsEther extract 2.98 p.c., Albuminoids -0.87 p.c.(Containing Nitrogen 0.14 p.c.),Soluble carbohydrates -73.47 p.c., woody Fibre 16.56 p.c. and Ash-6.12p.c.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 107(containing sand-0.17 p.c.) respectively.(IMM,Nadakarni), The following researchshows the chemical analysis of luffa acutangula, The seed oils containingAcylglycerol classes were estimated to be monoacylglycerols -1.6-1.9% ,diacylglycerols -4.0-4.6%, and triacylglycerols -84.6-86.7% .whereas lipid classes tobe neutral lipids -92.5-94.2% , glycolipids -2.8-3.2%, and phospholipids -1.9-2.4%.GLC analysis showed the presence of only four Fatty acids from series C16:0 to C18:2.Linoleic acid was the major ranging from 49.5% to 51.0%. It also containsconsiderable amounts of lipid -26.8-28.2% , Protein -20.8-23.1%. and other essentialnutrients.11. Trapusa197Latin name: Cucumis sativusFamily: CucurbitaceaeSyn: Sudhavasa, Mutrala, Katuka, Katutikta, Vipandu, Mutraphala, Panduputra andMukha priya (K.N), Hasti parnini, Deerga parni, Lata, Karkatika (D.N), Peetapushpi,Kantalu, Karkati, Bahuphala, Kosha phala and Tundi phala.( R.N)Eng: CucumberHin: KhiraKan: Savate kayiTam: Velleri kaiTel: DosekayaMal: VellariHabitat: Found wild in the farm lands, it is cultivated all over India.Parts used: Seeds, Leaves, Fruits and Pulp.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 108Gunakarma: Guna:Laghu, Ruksha; Rasa:Tikta, Madhura; Veerya:Sheeta;Vipaka: Madhura; Doshakarma: Pitta shamaka; Karma: Atyanta mutrala and usefulin Bastivikaras, Mutra kruccha and Rakta pitta.Constituents: Water-95.230 g, Energy- 15.000 kcal, Energy- 65.000 kj, Protein-0.650 g, Total lipid (fat)- 0.110 g, Ash- 0.380 g, Dietary Fiber-0.500 g, Sugars,total-1.670 g, Sucrose-0.030 g, Glucose (dextrose)-0.760 g, Fructose-0.870 g,Maltose-0.010 g, Starch-0.830 g, Calcium, Ca- 16.000 mg, Iron, Fe- 0.280 mg,Magnesium, Mg- 13.000 mg, Phosphorus, P- 24.000 mg, Potassium, K- 147.000 mg,Sodium, Na-2.000 mg, Zinc, Zn-0.200 mg, Copper, Cu- 0.041 mg, Manganese, Mn-0.079 mg, Selenium, Se-0.300 mcg, Fluoride, F-1.300 mcg, Vitamin C, totalascorbic acid- 2.800 mg, Thiamin-0.027 mg, Riboflavin-0.033 mg, Niacin-0.098 mg,Pantothenic acid- 0.259 mg, Vitamin B-6-0.040 mg, Folate, total-7.000 mcg,Choline, total- 6.000 mg, Betaine-0.100 mg, Vitamin A, IU-105.000 IU, VitaminA, RAE-5.000 mcg_RAE, Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)-0.030 mg, Tocopherol,beta-0.010 mg, Tocopherol, gamma-0.030 mg, Vitamin K (phylloquinone)-16.400mcg, Fatty acids, total saturated - 0.037 g, Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated-0.032 g, Phytosterols-14.000 mg, Tryptophan- 0.005 g, Threonine-0.019 g,Isoleucine-0.021 g, Leucine-0.029 g, Lysine-0.029 g, Methionine-0.006 g, Cystine-0.004 g, Phenylalanine-0.019 g, Tyrosine-0.011 g, Valine-0.022 g, Arginine- 0.044g, Histidine- 0.010 g, Alanine-0.024 g, Aspartic acid-0.041 g, Glutamic acid-0.196g, Glycine-0.024 g, Proline-0.015 g, Serine-0.020 g. (Nutritive valueper100g. Source: USDA National Nutrient data base)
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 10912. Kadali (Kaccha Phala) 198Latin name: Musa sapientum/ M.paradisiacaFamily: Musaceae/ ScitaminaceaSyn: Kalirasa, Hastibusa, Ramba, Veera, Amshumatphala, Charmanvati, Kanuphala,Mocha, Hastivishanika, Bruhatpushpa, Mukta sara, Granthini, Sukumarika,Kashtalika, Palashika, Mrutyupushpa, Hastivisha, Deerga patrika andPalashika.(K.N), Sakrutphala, Guccha phala, Guccha dantika, Koshti rasa, Nissara,Rajeshta, Balaka priya, Urusthambha, Bhanuphala, Vana lakshmi and ShodAsha.Eng: Plantain or BananaHin: KelaKan: Bale kayiTam: Vazhai kai, Vazhai palamTel: Kadalamu, Arati pandu/ Arati kayaMal: ValaHabitat: This plant is cultivated throughout India; it is a very delicious and nutritiousfruit.Parts used: Raw Fruit as a vegetable, Ripen fruit as a fruit, Flowes and stem stalk.Varieties: In Raja nigantu there are three varieties of kadali has been explained viz, 1.Kashta kadali, 2. Giri kadali and 3.Suvarna kadali (R.N.Amr Vrga-111-114). InKaiyyadeva nighantu three varieties has been explained viz, 1. Sugandha kadali,2.Krishna kadali, 3.Shailkadali. (K.N.Osh.Vrg.261)Gunakarma: Guna: Laghu ruksga; Rasa: Tikta, Kashaya; Veerya: Ushna; Vipaka:Katu; Karma: Samgrahaka and it is useful in Thrishna, Rakta pitta, Netraroga,Prameha and Raktatisara.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 110Constituents: Nutrients value of raw banana per 100gms; Water- 74.91g, Energy- 89kcal, Energy-371kj, Protein- 1.09g, Total lipid (fat) 0.82g, Ash- 0.33g, Carbohydrate,by difference- 22.84g, Fiber, total dietary- 2.6g, Sugars, total- 12.23g, Sucrose-2.39g,Glucose (dextrose)-4.98g, Minerals: Calcium, Ca- 5mg, Iron, Fe-0.26mg,Magnesium, Mg- 27mg, Phosphorus, P-22mg, Potassium, K-358mg, Sodium, Na-1mg, Zinc, Zn- 0.15mg, Copper, Cu- 0.078mg, Manganese, Mn-0.270mg, Fluoride,F-2.2mg, Selenium, Se- 1.0mg. Vitamins: Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid- 8.7mg,Thiamin- 0.031mg, Riboflavin- 0.073mg, Niacin- 0.665mg, Pantothenic acid-0.334mg, Vitamin B-6- 0.367mg, Folate, total-20mcg, Folate, food-20mcg, Folate,DFE-20mcg DFE, Choline, total- 9.8mcg, Betaine- 0.1mcg, Vitamin A, RAE- 3mcg,Carotene, beta-26mcg, Carotene, alpha- 25mcg, Vitamin A, IU- 64mcg, Lutein +zeaxanthin- 22mcg, Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)- 0.10mg, Tocopherol, gamma-0.02mg, Tocopherol, delta- 0.01mg, Vitamin K (phylloquinone)- 0.5mcg, Lipids:Fatty acids, total saturated -0.112g, Fatty acids, total monounsaturated- 0.032g, Fattyacids, total polyunsaturated- 0.073g, Cholesterol- 0mg, Phytosterols-16mg. Aminoacids: Threonine- 0.028g, Isoleucine- 0.028g, Leucine- 0.068g, Lysine-0.050g,Methionine-0.008g, Phenylalanine-0.049g, Valine- 0.047g, Arginine- 0.049g,Histidine-0.077, Alanine-0.040g, Aspartic acid-0.124g, Glutamic acid-0.152g,Glycine- 0.038, Proline- 0.028g, Serine-0.040g. (value per 100 g. Source: USDANational Nutrient data base )13. Palandu 199Latin name: Alium cepaFamily: LiliaceaeVarga: Mulakadi (R.N)
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 111Syn: Mukhadushi, Sukanda, Latarka, Dudruma, Dhavalakshaka and Ksheera palandu(K.N),Haritonya, Latarko, Yavaneshta (D.N), Teekshnakanda, Ulli, Shudrapriya,Krimighna, Deepano and Mukhagandhaka.(R.N)Eng: OnionHin: PiyazKan: Neerulli, Eerulli, UllegaddiTam: VengayamTel: Yerragadda, UlligaddaMal: Eerulli, BavangHabitat: Cultivated all over IndiaParts used: Bulb and SeedGunakarma: Guna: Snigdha, Teekshna, Guru; Rasa: Katu, Madhura; Veerya: Eshatushna; Vipaka: Madhura; Doshakarma: Kaphavardhaka, Kinchit pittakaraka, Vatahara; Karma: Vrishya and useful in Aruchi, Agnimandya and Krimi.Constituents: Water-89.110 g, Energy-40.000 kcal, Energy-166.000 kj, Protein-1.100 g, Total lipid (fat)-0.100 g, Ash-0.350 g, Carbohydrate, by difference-9.340g, Dietary Fiber-1.700 g, Sugars, total-4.240 g, Sucrose-0.990 g, Glucose(dextrose)-1.970 g, Fructose-1.290 g, Calcium, Ca- 23.000 mg, Iron, Fe-0.210 mg,Magnesium, Mg-10.000 mg, Phosphorus, P-29.000 mg, Potassium, K-146.000 mg,Sodium, Na-4.000 mg, Zinc, Zn-0.170 mg, Copper, Cu- 0.039 mg, Manganese, Mn-0.129 mg, Selenium, Se-0.500 mcg, Fluoride, F-1.100 mcg, Vitamin C, totalascorbic acid- 7.400 mg, Thiamin-0.046 mg, Riboflavin- 0.027 mg, Niacin-0.116mg, Pantothenic acid-0.123 mg, Vitamin B-6-0.120 mg, Folate, total-19.000 mcg,Folate, food- 19.000 mcg, Choline, total- 6.100 mg, Betaine- 0.100 mg, Vitamin A,IU- 2.000 IU, Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)- 0.020 mg, Vitamin K
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 112(phylloquinone)- 0.400 mcg, Fatty acids, total saturated- 0.042 g, Fatty acids, totalmonounsaturated- 0.013 g, Phytosterols- 15.000 mg, Tryptophan- 0.014 g,Threonine- 0.021 g, Isoleucine- 0.014 g, Leucine- 0.025 g, Lysine-0.039 g,Methionine-0.002 g, Cystine-0.004 g, Phenylalanine-0.025 g, Tyrosine-0.014 g,Valine-0.021 g, Arginine-0.104g, Histidine-0.014 g, Alanine-0.021 g, Asparticacid-0.091 g, Glutamic acid- 0.258 g, Glycine- 0.025 g, Proline-0.012 g, Serine-0.021 g, Carotene, beta-1.000 mcg, Lutein + zeaxanthin-4.000 mcg. (Nutritivevalue per100g. Source: USDA National Nutrient data base)14. Lashuna 200Latin name: Alium SativumFamily: LiliaceaeVarga: Mulakadi (R.N)Syn: Rasona, Mlecchakanda, Jugupsita, Ugraganha, Mlecchagandha, Yavaneshta andMahoushada (K.N) Grunjana, Deerga patrika (D.N), Bhutaghna, Sheeta mardhaka(R.N)Eng: GarlicHin: LasunKan: BellulliTam: Vella punduTel: Vellulli, TellagaddaMal: VellulliHabitat: Cultivated all over IndiaParts used: Bulb and oil
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 113Gunakarma: Guna:Snigdha, Guru, Saraka, Teekshna; Rasa:Katu, madhura;Vipaka: Katu; Veerya:Ushna; Doshakarma: Kapha vata shamaka; Karma:Agnideepaka, Bala karaka, Medhya, Varnya, Keshya, and Useful in Kasa, Shwasa,Jwara, Kushta, Ama, Pinasa, Shwitra, Arsha, Gulma, Hridroga, Shula and Shopa.Constituents: Water-58.580 g, Energy-149.000 kcal, Energy-623.000 kj, Protein-6.360 g, Total lipid (fat)-0.500 g, Ash-1.500 g, Carbohydrate, by difference-33.060g, Dietary Fiber-2.100 g, Sugars, total-1.000 g, Calcium, Ca-181.000 mg, Iron, Fe-1.700 mg, Magnesium, Mg-25.000 mg, Phosphorus, P-153.000 mg, Potassium, K-401.000 mg, Sodium, Na-17.000 mg, Zinc, Zn-1.160 mg, Copper, Cu-0.299 mg,Manganese, Mn-1.672 mg, Selenium, Se-14.200 mcg, Vitamin C, total ascorbicacid-31.200 mg, Thiamin- 0.200 mg, Riboflavin-0.110 mg, Niacin-0.700 mg,Pantothenic acid-0.596 mg, Vitamin B-6-1.235 mg, Folate, total-3.000 mcg, Folate,food-3.000 mcg, Folate, DFE-3.000 mcg_DFE, Choline, total-23.200 mg, VitaminA, IU-.000 IU, Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)-0.080 mg, Vitamin K(phylloquinone)-1.700 mcg, Fatty acids, total saturated-0.089 g, Fatty acids, totalmonounsaturated-0.011 g, Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated- 0.249 ,Tryptophan-0.066 g, Threonine-0.157 g, Isoleucine-0.217 g, Leucine-0.308 g,Lysine-0.273 g, Methionine-0.076 g, Cystine-0.065 g, Phenylalanine-0.183 g,Tyrosine-0.081 g, Valine-0.291 g, Arginine-0.634 g, Histidine-0.113 g, Alanine-0.132 g, Aspartic acid-0.489 g, Glutamic acid-0.805 g, Glycine-0.200 g, Proline-0.100 g, Serine-0.190 g, Carotene, beta-5.000 mcg, Lutein + zeaxanthin- 16.000mcg. (Nutritive value per100g. Source: USDA National Nutrient data base)
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 114Phalavarga1. Kharjura 201Latin name: Phoenx dactyliferaFamily: PalmaeGana: Shramahara, Virechanopaga, Madhraskanda, Kashayaskanda, Phalasava (C.S)Syn: Simhi, Shroni, Kharaskanda, Nishroni, Dridakanta, Madhura, Kashaya,Swaadvi, Duraroha, Bhumikharjurika, Kaka karkati, Kharjurika, Swaduphala,Suphala, Swadumastaka, Sukantaka and Pinda karjurika (K.N), Madhuragraja, Swadumastaka (D.N), Haripriya, Yavaneshta (R.N)Eng: Edible date, Date fruitHin: Pinda khejurKan: Gijjira hannu, Khajjuri hannu, Uttatti hannuTam: Perichchangayi, PerichchambalamTel: Karjura kayaHabitat: This is a tall palm, a native of North Africa, Egypt, Syria and Arabia, butnow cultivated in Sindh and the Punjab, chiefly in the multandistrict.(Bomb.Agri.Dept)Varieties: Grown in Rohri of Sind province:- 1.Lahore, 2.Assuli, 3.Thottair,4.Idulshali, the first two are very superior.Parts used: Fruits and Dry fruitsGunakarma: Guna: Snigdha, Guru; Rasa: Kashaya, Madhura; Vipaka: Madhura;Veerya: Sheeta; Doshakarma: Vata shamak; Karma: Hrudya, Pushti karaka and it isuseful in Daha, Jwara, Trushna, Kasa and Shwasa.Constituents: Water- 22.50g, Energy- 275kcal, Energy- 1151 kj, Protein-1.97 g,Total lipid (fat)- 0.45 g, Ash- 1.58 g, Carbohydrate, by difference- 73.51 g, Dietary
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 115Fiber- 7.5 g, Minerals: Calcium, Ca- 32mg, Iron, Fe- 1.15 mg, Magnesium, Mg-35 mg, Phosphorus, P- 40mg, Potassium, K- 652mg, Sodium, Na- 3 mg, Zinc, Zn-0.29mg, Copper, Cu- 0.288mg, Manganese, Mn- 0.298 mg, Selenium, Se- 1.9mcg,Vitamins : Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid- 0.0mg, Thiamin- 0.090 mg, Riboflavin-0.100mg, Niacin- 2.200mg, Pantothenic acid- 0.780mg, Vitamin B-6- 0.192mg,Folate, total- 13 mcg, Folate, food- 13 mcg, Folate, DFE- 13mcg_DFE, Vitamin A,IU-. 50 IU, Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)- 0.100mg, Vitamin B-12-0.00, Lipids:Fatty acids, total saturated-0.191g, Fatty acids, total monounsaturated-0.149g, Fattyacids, total polyunsaturated- 0.031g, Cholesterol-0, Amino acids: Tryptophan-0.050 g, Threonine- 0.052 g, Isoleucine-0.047 g, Leucine- 0.088g, Lysine- 0.060 g,Methionine- 0.022 g, Cystine- 0.045 g, Phenylalanine- 0.056 g, Tyrosine- 0.030g,Valine- 0.066 g, Arginine- 0.066 g, Histidine- 0.030 g, Alanine- 0.100g, Asparticacid- 0.126 g, Glutamic acid- 0.213g, Glycine- 0.095g, Proline- 0.106 g, Serine-0.066g, Phyto-nutrients : Carotene, beta- 89 mcg, Lutein + zeaxanthin- 23mcg.Crypto-xanthin-ß- 0 mc. .(Nutritive value per100g. Source: USDA National Nutrientdata base)2. Aruka 202Latin name: Prunus communis, Huds.Family: RosaceaeSyn: Veerasena, China, Chinaruka (K.N), Veram, Veeranakam, (D.N),Eng: Pear fruit, Peach fruitHin: AlubhokaraTam: Pichchees palam, Alpagodam palamTel: Alpagoda pundu
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 116Habitat: This is a small tree usually grows in high altitude places, this fruit wasmigrated from the west. In India it is growing in North east region hill stations. InSouth India it is grown in Udagamandalam (Ooty) , Kodaikkanal, Munnar etc.Parts used: Unripen fruit is used for chutney and ripen fruit.Gunakarma:Guna:Guru,teekshna;Rasa:Madhura,Kashaya;Veerya:Ushna;Doshakarma: Kapha Pitta kara; Karma: Mala bedakaand useful in Arsha, gulma andAsradosha.(R.N, K.N )Constituents: Wonderfully delicious peaches are low in calories and contain nosaturated Fats; but contain numerous health promoting compounds, minerals andVitamins. Fresh peaches are a very good source of antioxidant Vitamin C.Fresh peaches are also good source of Vitamin A and beta carotene. Beta carotene isa pro-Vitamin which converts into Vitamin A in the body. Peaches contain manyhealth promoting flavonoid poly phenolic antioxidants such as lutein,zeaxanthinand beta cryptoxanthin. Energy- 39 Kcal, Carbohydrates-9.54 g, Protein-0.91 g, Total Fat- 0.25 g, Cholesterol-0 mg, Dietary Fiber-1.5 g. Vitamins: Folates-4mcg, Niacin- 0.806 mg, Pantothenic acid- 0.153 mg, Pyridoxine-0.025 mg,Riboflavin-0.031 mg, Thiamin-0.024 mg, Vitamin A- 326 IU, Vitamin C- 6.6 mg,Vitamin E-0.73 mg, Vitamin K- 2.6 mcg. Electrolytes: Sodium-0 mg, Potassium-190mg, Minerals: Calcium-6 mg, Copper- 0.068 mg, Iron-0.25 mg, Magnesium-9 mg,Manganese-0.61 mg, Phosphorus-11 mg, Zinc-0.17 mg, Phyto-nutrients: Carotene-ß-162 mcg, Crypto-xanthin-ß-67 mcg, Lutein-zeaxanthin- 91 mcg.(Nutritive valueper100g. Source: USDA National Nutrient data base) 
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 1173. Kapittha 203Latin name: Feronia elephantumFamily: RutaceaeSyn: Dadittha, Takrachid, Surabhicchada, Akshisasya, dadhipala, graahi,Graahiphala, Dadhi, Hridya, Kashayamlaphala, Chirapaki and Kapipriya (K.N),Gandhaphala (D.N), Mangala, Neelamallika, Granthiphala, Karabavallabha (R.N)Eng: Wood apple, Elephant appleHin: Kavath, KavithaKan: Belada hannuTam: Vilappalam, Vila, Nelavilam, VilakpittamTel: VelagaMal: VilavHabitat: Grows throughout India, Cultivated for its fruit.Parts used: Fruit, gum, leaves, bark and pulpGunakarma: Apakva phala Guna: Lekhana, Rukshana, Laghu; Rasa: Kashaya,Amla, Madhura; Veerya: Ushna; Vipaka: Katu; Doshakarma: Vata-Pittakara,Kaphashamaka, Karma: Trishna shamaka. Swarabedaka, VishanashakaPakwa phala: Guna: Guru; Rasa: Kashaya, Amla, Swadishta, Doshakarma:Tridosha hara; Karma: Kanta shodana, Sangraahi, ruchikara, Hridhya, Hikka nigraha,it alleviates vamana, Kasa, Shwasa, and trishna.Constituents:  The bael fruit pulp contains a large quantity of citric acid, mucilage and refrigerant. A hundred gm of bael fruit pulp contains 31 gm of carbohydrate and two gm of Protein, which adds up to nearly 140 calories. The ripe fruit is rich in beta‐carotene,  a precursor  of Vitamin  A; it  also contains  significant  quantities  of  the  B 
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 118Vitamins Thiamine and Riboflavin, and small amounts of Vitamin C. Wild bael fruit tends to have more tannin than the cultivated one. (IMM, Nadakarni & Wkipaedia) 4. Jambu 204Latin name: Syzygium cumuniFamily: MyrtaceaeGana: mutra sangrahaniya, Pureesha virajaniya, Chardhi nigrahana (C.S) Nyagrodadi(S.S)Syn: Mahajambu, Shyamapatra, Mahaskanda, Maharasa, Kumarika, Gandha patra,Jambu, Neelanjanacchada, Bruhatphala, raja jambu, suphala and supratishtita. Are thesynonym for Shtula jambu and Neelapatra, Meghaba, Shita pallava, Vaideshi,Megavarni and Alpaka are the synonym for kshudra jambu.(K.N).; Surabhi patra,Surabhi (D.N),; Shyamala, raja priya, Shukra phala and mega modini (R.N).Eng: Jambu fruit, JamanHin: JamunKan: Nerale hannuTam: Navala palam, Naga palamTel: Neredu palluMal: NavalHabitat: A native of East indies, Cultivated in India . It is a big tree grows wildly allover India. This especially grows over the bank of the river and lake shores.Parts used: Leaves, fruits and seedsGunakarma: Guna:Laghu, Ruksha; Rasa:Madhura, Amla, Kashaya;Veerya:Sheeta; Vipaka:Katu; Doshakarma:Kapha Pitta shamaka; Karma:it isvishtambi, Lekhana, Vibandha, admanakara and useful in medoroga and Atisara.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 119Constituents: The ripe fruit is widely eaten in India. The edible pulp forms 75% ofthe whole fruit. Analysis of the edible part shows the following composition:Moisture-83%, Protein-0.7%, Fat-0.3%, Fibre-0.9%, Carbohydrate- 14.0%, Ash-0.4%, Calcium- 15mg, Phosphorus-15mg, Magnesium-35mg, Iron-1.2mg, VitaminA- 80IU, Vitamin B1- 0.03mg, VitaminB2-0.01mg, Neotinic acid- 0.2mg, Vitamin C-18mg, Choline -7mg, Folic acid- 3mg, Glucose and fructose are the principal sugarsfound in ripe fruit; not even a trace of cane sugar is found. Mallic acid is the majoracid (0.5% of the weight of the fruit) a small quantity of oxalic acid is also reported.Garlic acid and tannins account for the astringency of the fruit. The purplecolour ofthe fruit is due to the presence of flavours and anthocyanin pigments occuring as plantdiglycosides.2285. Udumbara 205Latin name: Ficus glomerataFamily: MoraceaeGana: Mutra sangrahaniya, Kashayaskanda (C.S) Nyagrodadi (S.S), Ksheerivruksha(B.P)Syn: Hemadugdha, Haritaksha, Vasudruma, Sachakshu, MAshaki, Ksheeri,Ksheeradru, Sheeta valkala, Yajnanga, Jantu vriksha, supratishta, Sadaphala, Apushpaphala, Kanchana and Jantu phala.(K.N) Kalaskanda, Yajniya, Pushya shunya,Pavitraka, Soumya and Madhu sanjna.(R.N)Eng: Country fig tree, Cluster figHin: Gular, Paroa, Lelka, Umar, DimeriKan: Atti hannuTam: Atti palam
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 120Tel: Patti panduMal: AttiHabitat: A native of India, Cultivated all over the country. It is a big tree growswildly all over India.Parts used: Fruits and galls.Gunakarma: Apakva phala: Guna: Ruksha; Rasa: Kashaya Madhura; Veerya:Sheeta; Vipaka: Katu; Doshakarma: Kapha Pitta shamaka; Karma: Stambanauseful in Trishna, Vamana, Moorcha and rakta srava.Pakva phala: Guna: Guru; Rasa: Madhura; Doshakarma: Kapha Kara, pittashamaka; Karma: useful in Trishna, Aruchi and Rakta vikara.Constituents: Fresh fig is a delicious fruit with high nutritive value. It consists of84% of pulp and 16% skin. The chemical composition varies with type. The avgcomposition of edible part of the fresh Indian fig is as follows (per 100gms).Moisture- 80.03%, Protein-1.3%, Minerals total-0.6%, Carbohydrates- 17.1%,Calcium-0.06mg, Phosphorus- 0.03mg, Iron- 1.2mg, B-Carotene-270 I.U., Nocotinicacid-0.6mg, Riboflavin (B2)-50 mcg, Ascorbic acid-2mg. It is richer in Iron andCopper than nearly all fruits.The principle acids in fresh figs are citric and acitic.Small amounts of malic, boric and oxalic acids are also present. The content rangesfrom 0.1 to 0.44%. A phosphatide with nitrogen: Phosphorus ratio at 1:2 andcontaining palmitic acid and oleic acids is reported to be present.and Fruitalso containsthe phytochemicals like, glauanol, hentriacontane, β sitosterol, glauanolacetate,glucose, tiglic acid, esters of taraxasterol, lupeolacetate, friedelin, higherhydrocarbons and other phytosterol. Analysis of fig skin gave the followingcomposition (Per 100gms): Moisture-76%, Protein-1.5%, Fat-0.5%, Fibre-2.3%,Carbohydrate-18.7%, Ash-0.7%, Calcium-162mg, Phosphorus-233mg, sugar-5.4%,
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 121Gum-mucilage-2.74%, sugar in fig juice-20.7%. Fig seeds contain both unsaturatedand Saturated Fatty acids , oleic acid 18.99; linoleic acid 33.72 and linolenic acid32.95 (unsaturated); palmitic acid 5.23; stearic acid 2.18%.(Source: Fruits &Vegtheraphy By, Dr.S.A.ahmed, Dr.S.C.Sharma)6. Kalinga 206Latin name: Citrulus vulgarisFamily: CucurbitaceaeSyn: Kalinda, Kaalinga and Krishna bijaEng: Water melonHin: TarbuzKan: Kallangadi hannuTam: PitchapalamTel: Darbuje, Kallangadi panduMal: Mandeki-patakHabitat: Cultivated throught India. The best water melons are found at Garhi-Yasinin sukkur dist of Sind in India.Parts used: Seeds, Juice and Pulp of the fruit.Gunakarma: Guna: Guru, Ushna, Grahi; Rasa: Madhura, Kinchit kshareeya;Veerya: shita; Doshakarma: Pitta karaka and Kapha vata shamaka; Karma: Balya,Mutrala, Vrushya and Saraka. (B.P)Constituents: This sweet, crunchy, cooling fruit is exceptionally high in citrulline, anamino acid our bodies use to make another amino acid, arginine, which is used in theurea cycle to remove ammonia from the body, and by the cells lining our bloodvessels to make nitric oxide. Nitric oxide not only relaxes blood vessels, loweringhigh blood pressure, it is the compound whose production is enhanced by Viagra to
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 122prevent erectile dysfunction. Arginine has been shown to improve insulin sensitivityin obese type 2 diabetic patients with insulin resistance.Calories-48.64, calories from Fat- 5.88, calories from saturated Fat- 0.66, Protein-0.94 g, Carbohydrates- 10.91 g, dietary fiber- 0.76g, soluble fiber-0.49 g, insolublefiber-0.27 g, sugar – total-10.15 gm, onosaccharides-5.47 g, disaccharides-4.68 g, Fattotal- 0.65 g, saturated Fat- 0.07 g, mono Fat- 0.16 g, poly Fat- 0.22 g, water- 139.10g, Ash- 0.40 g, Vitamins: Vitamin A IU- 556.32 IU, Vitamin A RE-56.24 REA,carotenoid- 56.24 REA, beta carotene- 336.83 mcg, Thiamin – B- 10.12 mg,Riboflavin B- 20.03 mg, niacin B- 30.30 mg, niacin equiv- 48 mg, Vitamin B6- 0.22mg, biotin-1.52 mcg, Vitamin C- 14.59 mg, Vitamin D IU-0.00 IU, Vitamin E alphaequiv- 0.23 mg, Vitamin E IU- 0.34 IU, Vitamin E -0.23 mg, Folate- 3.34 mcg,Pantothenic acid- 0.32 mg, Minerals: Calcium- 12.16 mg, Copper- 0.05 mg, Iron-0.26 mg, Magnesium- 16.72 mg, Manganese- 0.06 mg, Phosphorus- 13.68 mg,Potassium- 176.32 mg, Selenium-0.15 mcg, Sodium- 3.04 mg , Sodium- 0.11 mg. ,omega 6 Fatty acids-0.22 g, Amino Acids: alanine-0.03 g, arginine-0.09 g, aspartate-0.06 g, cystine- 0.00 g, glutamate-0.10 g, glycine-0.02 g, histidine-0.01 g, isoleucine-0.03 g, leucine-0.03 g.(value per 100 g. Source: USDA National Nutrient data base )Taila varga1. Sarshapa taila 207Latin name: Brassica campestrisFamily: CruciferaeSyn: Katu sneha, Rajika phala, Grahagna, BhutanAshana, Siddhartha (D.N)Teekshnaka, Kushta nAshana, Siddha prayojana, Siddha sadana, Sita sarshapa (R.N);Dumbara, Bhogi, Rakshoghna, Tantubha, Teevra, Suteevra, Krishnika , Krishnasarshapa (K.N)
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 123Eng: Mustard seedsHin: Sarso, shulgumKan: SasiveTam: KaduguTel: AvaluMal: SarasumHabitat: Belongs to the cabbage species. Two varieties are grown in India; one isWhite seeds and other has black seeds and hairy leaves. The variety sarson; oil yieldby seeds of this on pressure is largely used in cookery.Parts used: Seeds and thick fleshy stems.Gunakarma: Guna: Teekshna, Ruksha (Shaka), Kshariya, Snigda (Bija); Rasa:Katu, Tikta, Lavana; Veerya: Ushna; Vipaka: Katu; Doshakarma: Tridosha karaka;Karma: Mutrala, Pureeshajanaka, Swadishta.Taila: Guna: Laghu, Lekhana, Teekshna; Rasa: Katu; Vipaka: Katu; Veerya:Ushna; Doshakarma: Rakta, Pitta dushaka, Kapha hara; Karma: Medo hara,Arshagna an useful in Meha, Karna roga, Shororoga, Kandu, Kota, Krimi, shwethakushta, Kushta and Dushta vrana.Constituents: Water - 6.86 g, Energy - 1964 kj, Energy - 469 kcal, Carbohydrate, bydifference - 34.94 g, Total Fat: 218g; 335%Saturated Fat: 25.2g ;126%, Fiber, totaldietary - 14.7 g , Total Omega-3 Fatty acids-12862mg, Total Omega-6 Fattyacids:33424mg, Protein - 24.94 g, Ash - 4.51 g, Fatty acids, total monounsaturated -19.830 g, Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated - 5.390 g, Fatty acids, total saturated -1.460 g, , Folate, total - 76 mcg, Fructose - 0.02 g, Galactose - 0.20 g, Glucose(dextrose) - 2.88 g, Minerals: Potassium, K - 682 mg, Iron, Fe - 9.98 mg, Calcium,Ca - 521 mg,Copper, Cu - 0.410 mg,Phosphorus, P - 841 mg,Magnesium, Mg - 298
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 124mg, Manganese, Mn - 1.767 mg, Selenium, Se - 133.6 mcg, Sodium, Na - 5 mg.Amino acids: Alanine - 1.187 g, Arginine - 1.750 g ,Cystine - 0.582 g,Glycine -1.312 g, Histidine - 0.762 g,Isoleucine - 1.081 g, Leucine - 1.783 g, Methionine -0.480 g, Niacin - 7.890 mg, Phenylalanine - 1.067 g, Phytosterols - 118 mg, Lutein +zeaxanthin - 448 mcg, Lysine - 1.519mg, Proline - 1.944 g, , , Serine - 1.081 g,Threonine - 1.095 g, Tocopherol, beta - 0.01 mg, Tocopherol, delta - 0.71 mg,Tocopherol, gamma - 18.76 mg, Tryptophan - 0.526 g, Tyrosine - 0.744 g, Valine -1.325 g, Vitamins: Vitamin A, IU - 62 IU, Vitamin A, RAE - 3 mcg_RAE, VitaminB-6 - 0.430 mg, Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid - 3.0 mg, Riboflavin - 0.381 mg,Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) - 2.89 mg, Vitamin K (phylloquinone) - 5.4 mcg, ,Thiamin - 0.543 mg, Zinc, Zn - 5.70 mg. (value per 100 g. Source: USDA NationalNutrient data base )2. Tila taila 208 Latin name: Sesamum indicumFamily: PedaliaceaeSyn: Homa dhanya, Pavitra, Pitru tarpana, Papaghna, Puta dhanya, Vanodbhava(D.N); Taila phala, Puta, Sneha pura phala (K.N)Eng: Gingelly seed, Sesamum, SesameHin: Til, Tir / Til telKan: Yellu, uru ellu/ EllenneTam: Yellu/ NallennaiTel: Nuvvulu, Nuvvu, Pollanuvullu, Guvvulu/ ManchinuneMal: Karuellu/ Nallennai
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 125Habitat: This small bush is indigenous to India and extensively cultivated in warmerregions.Parts used: Seeds snd the fixed oil expressed from the seedsVarieties: Three varieties of sesamum seeds are found: Black, White and Red orBrown. The black variety is the most common and yields the best quality of oil and isalso the best suited for medicinal purposes. But the white variety is a rich container ofoil.Gunakarma: Guna: Guru, Kashya; Rasa: Madhura, Tikta and Katu; Vipaka: Katu;Veerya: Ushna; Doshakarma: Vata hara, Kapha pitta Kara; Karma: Balakaraka,Medhya, Keshya, agnivardeepaka and It is good for Danta, Twacha and Vrana.Taila: Guna: Sukshma, Ushna; Rasa: Kashya, Madhura; Doshakarma: Pittala,Kapha vata shamaka; Karma: Medo hara, Triptikaraka, Agni deepaka, Vibandhakaraka, and Snehottama. It is very much useful in Snana, karna, akshi purana, Nasyaand abhyanjana.Constituents: Water- 0.00 g, Energy- 884 kcal, Energy- 3699kj, Protein-0.00 g,Total lipid (fat) 0-100.00g, Ash- 0.00g, Carbohydrate, by difference- 0.00g, Fiber, totaldietary- 0.0g, Sugars, total-0.00 g. Minerals: Calcium, Ca- 0mg, Iron, Fe-0.00mg,Magnesium, Mg- 0.00mg, Phosphorus, P-0mg, Potassium, K-0mg, Sodium, Na-0mg,Zinc, Zn- 0.00mg, Copper, Cu-0.00 mg, Selenium, Se-0.0mg. Vitamins: Vitamin C,total ascorbic acid-0.0mg, Thiamin- 0.000mg, Riboflavin- 0.000mg, Niacin- 0.000mg,Pantothenic acid- 0.000mg, Vitamin B-6- 0.000mg, Folate, total-0 mcg, Folate, food-0mcg, Folate, DFE-0mcg DFE, Choline, total- 0.2mcg, Vitamin A, RAE- 0mcg,Carotene, beta-0mcg, Carotene, alpha- 0mcg, Vitamin A, IU- 0mcg, Lutein+zeaxanthin- 0mcg, Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)- 1.40mg, Tocopherol, gamma- mg,Vitamin K (phylloquinone)- 13.6mcg, Lipids: Fatty acids, total saturated-14.200g,
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 126Fatty acids, total monounsaturated-39.700 g, Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated-41.700g, Cholesterol- 0mg, Phytosterols-865mg. Amino acids: Threonine-0.000 g,Isoleucine- 0.000g, Leucine-0.000 g, Lysine-0.000g, Methionine-0.000g,Phenylalanine-0.000g, Valine- 0.000g, Arginine-0.000g, Histidine-0.000, Alanine-0.000g, Aspartic acid-0.000g, Glutamic acid-0.000g, Glycine- , Proline-0.000 g,Serine-0.000g. (value per 100 g. Source: USDA National Nutrient data base ) 
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 127PREVIOUS WORKS DONE Kavishvar. K.D‐Ayurvediya samhita granthon mein pathyapathya‐ek anusheelan‐  ,Dept of Basic principles,Shri Ayurveda Mahavidhyalaya, Nagpur university;NAGPUR‐1994  V.A.Shah ‐A conceptual study of pathya and its clinical application in the management of Amlapitta‐ –Dept of Basic Principles, GUJARAT AYURVEDIC UNIVERSITY, JAMNAGAR 1999.  Navel Ajay‐ Comparitive study of Charaka’s dietary principles with modern dietics‐ NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AYURVEDA, JAIPUR‐2000.  Vargeese Anita‐An Evalution of Pathya‐Apathya w.s.r to Desha and Kala, Dept of Basic principles,Govt Ayurvedic College, KERALA UNIVERSITY, THIRUVANANTA PURAM‐2000.  Prashant gokhale‐Role of Triphala bhavita yava in the management of madhumeha –Dept of Kaya Chikitsa‐Govt. Ayurvedic Medical College, Mysore‐2006. 
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 128METHODOLOGY  After the completion of review of literature the actual procedures which wereundertaken in this study are dealt here.MATERIALS: This study was an observational study, No medicines were used inthis study. The prepared diet module was given to the newly detected Type-2 Diabetespatients.Method of Collection of Pathyas and Diet module PreparationThe specific pathyaaharas were collected from different classical text booksand a diet module was prepared as per the modern diabetic diet chart for theconvenience & need of the present day population.METHODSObjectives of the study1. To compile the available literature on Pathya in Madhumeha.2. To develop a module of Pathya for Madhumeha.3. To evaluate the efficacy of the developed module of pathya in the management ofmadhumeha w.s.r.to Type-2 diabetes mellitus.SOURCE OF DATA:
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 129Literary: Literary data was collected from the Vedic scriptures ,Upanishads,darshana shastra, Ayurvedic classical texts, Modern texts , Reputed journal,retrospective study conducted on related Works from different Universities ,internetetc.Sample: Minimum of 30 patients coming under inclusion criteria approaching OPD,IPD of Govt.Ayurvedic medical college& Hospital, Mysore, Special Campsconducted in and around Mysore, and other referrals from in and around Mysore wasselected for the Study.METHODS OF COLLECTION OF DATA 1. Patients of either sex between the age group of 30-60 years was selected on thebasis of diagnostic criteria of Diabetes mellitus.2. They were assigned to a single group consisting of 30 patients.3. The results of the present study was analyzed statisticallyINCLUSION CRIETERIA:1. Patients of either sex between the age group of 30-60 years with the signs andsymptom s of Diabetes mellitus were selected for the study.2.Patients of Non insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or Type-2 DM weresalected3.Patients with Fasting blood sugar more than 110mg/dl & below 150mg/dl wereselected4. Patients with Post prandial Blood sugar more than 140 mg/dl & below 200mg/dlwere selected.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 1305. In this study, only fresh/ Newly detected type-2 DM patients was selected.EXCLUSION CRITERIA1. Patients of Insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus (IDDM)/ Type-12. Patients with Fasting Blood sugar above 150 mg/dl & Post prandial Blood sugarmore than 200mg /dl3.Multisystem involved complicated diabetic Patients.Patients with any other systemic ailments which interferes with the study.DIAGNOSTIC CRIETERIA    Based on the signs and symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus (Polyuria,Polydypsia, Polyphagia) / Madhumeha and laboratory findings shows FBS>120mg/dl & <150mg/dl, PPBS >140 mg/ dl & < 200mg/dl.INVESTIGATIONS1. Fasting Blood sugar2.Post prandial Blood sugar3. Urine Sugar 
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 131Research Design – Total 30 patients were assigned into single group.INTERVENTION The developed module of Pathya was given to each patient, it includes the list of dietsand Diabetic diet menu for 5 days, and the patients were adviced to repeat the diabeticmenu chart for one month after completing each cycle.Table.No. 10. The List of Diabetic Foods used in madhumeha: Cereals &Millets / zsÁ£Àå UÀ¼ÀÄ  Pulses/ ¨ÉÃ¼É PÁ¼ÀÄUÀ¼ÀÄ 1. Barley/¨Á°Ãð CQÌ 1.Green gram / ºÀ¹gÀÄ PÁ¼ÀÄ2. Wheat/ UÉÆâ 2. Tuvar dal/ vÉÆUÀj PÁ¼ÀÄ3. Old rice/ PÉA¥ÀÅ CQÌ 3. Horsegram/ ºÀÄgÀĽ PÁ¼ÀÄ4. Fox tail millet/£ÀªÀuÉ CQÌ 4. Bengal gram/ PÀqÀ¯É PÁ¼ÀÄ5. Barnyard millet/¸ÁåªÉÄ CQÌ 5. Lentils/ ZÀ£ÀßAV/ «Ä¸ÀÄgï ¨ÉüÉ6. Kodo millet/ ºÁgÀPÀ D.Leafy vegetables/ ¸ÉÆ¥ÀÅöàUÀ¼ÀÄ7. Jowar/ eÉÆüÀ 1.Hog weed/ §UÀgÉÆmÉÖ ¸ÉÆ¥ÀÅöà8. Raagi/Finger millet/ gÁV 2.Drum stick leaves / £ÀÄUÉÎ ¸ÉÆ¥ÀÅöà9. Pearl millet/ PÀA©£À CQÌ, ¸ÀeÉÓ CQÌ 3.Purselane/ UÉÆÃt ¸ÉÆ¥ÀÅöàC. Vegetables/ vÀgÀPÁjUÀ¼ÀÄ 4.Tumbe / vÀÄA¨É ¸ÉÆ¥ÀÅöà1. Ash gourd/ §ÆzÀÄUÀÄA§¼À 5.Heart leaved moonseed/ CªÀÄÈvÀ §½î ¸ÉÆ¥ÀÅöà2. Bitter gourd/ ºÁUÀ® PÁ¬Ä 6.Black night shade / UÀtPÉ ¸ÉÆ¥ÀÅöà3.Snake gourd / ¥ÀqÀªÀ® PÁ¬Ä 7.Goose foot / ¨Á¬Ä §¸À¼É ¸ÉÆ¥ÀÅöà4.Drum stick/ £ÀÄUÉÎ PÁ¬Ä E. Fruits/ ºÀtÄÚUÀ¼ÀÄ5.Brinjal / §zÀ£É PÁ¬Ä 1. Date fruit/ RdÆðgÀ6.Ivy gourd/ vÉÆAqÉ PÁ¬Ä 2.Peaches / ¦ÃZï ºÀtÄÚ
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 1327.Bitter apple/ ªÉÄPÉÌ PÁ¬Ä/vÀªÀÄmÉ PÁ¬Ä 3. Wood apple/ ¨ÉîzÀ ºÀtÄÚ 8.Wild gourd/ ªÀÄqÀ ºÁUÀ® PÁ¬Ä 4.Indian fig/ CwÛ ºÀtÄÚ9.Onion/ FgÀĽî 5. Jamun / £ÉÃgÀ¼É ºÀtÄÚ10.Garlic/ ¨É¼ÀÄî½î 6.Water melon / PÀ®èAUÀr ºÀtÄÚ11.Bottle gourd/ ¸ÉÆÃgÉ PÁ¬Ä G. Others/ EvÀgÉ ¥ÀzÀxÀðUÀ¼ÀÄ13.Ridge gourd/ »ÃgÉà PÁ¬Ä 1. Goat meat/ Dr£À ªÀiÁA¸À14.Raw Banana / ¨Á¼É PÁ¬Ä 2. Butter milk /¨ÉuÉÚ vÉUÉ¢gÀĪÀ ªÀÄfÓUÉF. Oils/ JuÉÚ ¥ÀzÁxÀð1. Mustard oil/ ¸Á¹ªÉ JuÉÚ2. Sesame oil/ J¼ÀÄî JuÉÚASSESSMENT CRITERIAThe assessment was done on a single group of 30 patients. Assessment was done atthe 0thday, 14thday, and 30thday followed by one month follow up at 60thday.Duration-30 days.Follow up-30 days.The following parameters were considered, graded and scores were given.Table.No.16. the assessment criterias(A)Polyuria:PolyureaPU(In12hrs) (B)Polyphagia-PP0-3 times Normal-0 Normal-03-5 times-1 Mild-15-7 times-2 Moderate-2More than 7 times-3 Excess-3 (C)Polydypsia-PD (D)Burning foot &Palm-BFPNormal-0 No Burning sensation -0Mild-1 Mild -1Moderate-2 Moderate -2Excess-3 Severe -3(E) Urine sugar (F)Over all resultNil- 0 Very good improvement-1
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 133O.5%- 1 Mild improvement-21%- 2 Poor improvement-31.5%- 3 Very poor improvemenet2%- 42.5%- 5Assessment of blood glucose level both FBS,PPBS& Urine Sugar was done atthe 0thday, 14thday, and 30thday followed by one month follow up at 60thday.Statistical analysis by Chi square test and Student Pair ‘t’test.OBSERVATIONSIn the present study 59 patients were registered, and the study was conducted on 30patients.Other Observations:    Table No. 17: Distribution of Sex among the 30 patients taken for Study Frequency PercentMale 21 70Female 9 30SEXTotal 30 100.0Out of 30 samples, 21 were Males (70 %) & 9 were Females (30 %).Table No. 18 : Distribution of Age Group among the  patients taken for Study Frequency Percent30-40 5 16.7AGE 41-50 11 36.7
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 13451-60 14 46.7Total 30 100.0Out of 30 samples, 5 patients (16.7%) were in the age group of 30-40; 11 patients(36.7%) were in the age group of 41-50 and 14 patients (46.7%) were in the age groupof 51-60.Table No.19. Distribution of Religion among the 30 patients taken for StudyFrequency PercentHindu 26 86.7Muslim 4 13.3RELIGIONTotal 30 100.0Out of 30 samples, 26 patients (86.7%) were Hindus and 4 patients (13.3%) wereMuslims.Table No. 20: Distribution of Location among the 30 patients taken for StudyFrequency PercentRural 8 26.7Urban 22 73.3LOCATIONTotal 30 100.0
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 135 Out of 30 samples, 8 patients (26.7%) were belonging to Rural area and 22 patients(73.3%) were belonging to Urban area.Table No. 21: Distribution of Family History among the 30 patients taken forStudyFrequency PercentAbsent 19 63.3Paternal 5 16.7Maternal 6 20.0FAMILYHISTORYTotal 30 100.0Out of 30 samples, 19 patients (63.3%) did not have a Family history of Madhumeha,5 patients (16.7%) had paternal history of Madhumeha, 6 patients (20.0%) hadmaternal history of Madhumeha.Table No. 22: Distribution of Occupation among the 30 patients taken for StudyFrequency PercentHouse wives 7 23.3Retiered employee 3 10.0Farmer 1 3.3Teacher 3 10.0Police 2 6.7Business 6 20.0Office work 4 13.3Manual work 4 13.3OCCUPATIONTotal 30 100.0
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 136Out of 30 samples, 7 patients were House wives (23.3%), 3 patients were Retiredemployees (10.0%), Only 1 patient was a farmer (3.3%), 3 patient were Teacher(10.0%), 2 patients were Police (6.7%), 6 patients were into Business (20.0%), 4patients were into office work (13.3%), and 4 patients were Manual workers(13.3%).Table No. 23: Distribution of Exercise among the 30 patients taken for StudyFrequency PercentNo exercise 8 26.7Does exercise 22 73.3EXERCISINGPRACTICE Total 30 100.0Out of 30 samples, 8 patients did not involve in Exercise (26.7%) and 22 patientsinvolved in Exercise (73.3%).Table No. 24: Distribution of Socio-Economic Status among the 30 patients takenfor StudyFrequency PercentBelow poverty line 1 3.3Lower middle class 9 30.0Middle class 18 60.0Upper middle class 2 6.7SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUSTotal 30 100.0Out of 30 samples,1 patient belongs to BPL(3.3%), 9 patients belonged to Lowermiddle class(30.0%), 18 patients belonged to Middle class(60.0%) and 2 patientsbelonged to Upper middle class(6.7%).Table No. 25: Distribution of Education among the 30 patients taken for Study
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 137Frequency PercentUneducated 3 10.0Primary 2 6.7High school 7 23.3PUC 9 30.0Graduate 8 26.7Post graduate 1 3.3EDUCATIONTotal 30 100.0Out of 30 samples, 3 patient was uneducated (10.0%), 2 patient had studied tillPrimary (6.7%), 7 patient had studied till High School (23.3%), 9 patient had studiedtill PUC (30.0%), 8 patient were Graduates (26.7%) and 1 patient was Post graduate(3.3%)Table No. 26: Distribution of Nature of Work among the 30 patients taken forStudyFrequency PercentSedentary 1 3.3Mild 19 63.3Moderate manual 10 33.3NATUREOFWORK Total 30 100.0Out of 30 samples, 1 patients was doing Sedentary work (3.3%), 19 patients weredoing Mild work (63.3%) and 10 patients were doing Moderate manual work(33.3%).Table No. 27: Distribution of Diets among the 30 patients taken for Study
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 138Frequency PercentVeg 10 33.3Mixed 20 63.3DIETTotal 30 100.0Out of 30 samples, 10 patients were Vegetarians (33.3%) and 20 patients were havingMixed diet (63.3%).Table No. 28: Distribution of Hours of Day Sleep among the 30 patients taken forStudyFrequency PercentNo day sleep 15 50.00-1 hour 12 40.01-3hour 3 10.0HOURS OFDAYSLEEP Total 30 100.0Out of 30 samples, 15 patients (50.0%) were not having the habit of day sleep,12 Patients(40.0%) were having the habit of sleeping in day times for about 0-1 hourand 3 patients (10.0%) were having the habit of day sleep for about 1-3 hours.Table No. 29: Distribution of Hours of Night Sleep among the 30 patients takenfor StudyFrequency Percent5 hours 2 6.7
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 1396 hours 17 56.77 hours 10 33.38 hours 1 3.3HOURS OFNIGHT SLEEPTotal 30 100Out of 30 samples, 2 patients slept for 5 hrs at night (6.7%), 17patients slept for6 hrs at night (56.7%), 10 patients slept for 7 hrs at night (33.3 %)and 1 patient sleptfor 8 hrs at night (3.3%).Table No.30: Distribution of Habits among the 30 patients taken for StudyFrequency PercentNo habits 1 3.3Tea 4 13.3Tea & Coffee 17 56.7Alchohol 3 10.0All above 5 16.7HABITSTotal 30 100.0Out of 30 samples, 1 patient (3.3%) had no Habits, 4 patients (13.3%) had theHabit of taking tea, 17 patients (56.7%) had the Habit of taking both Tea& coffee, 3patients (10%) had the Habit of taking Alchohol, and 5 patients (16.7%) had theHabit of taking all above.Table No. 31: Distribution of Prakruti among the 30 patients taken for Study
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 140Frequency PercentVata+pitta 20 66.7Vata+Kapha 6 20.0Kapha+ Pitta 4 13.3PRAKRUTITotal 30 100.0Out of 30 samples, 20 patients (66.7%) were of Vata Pitta Prakruti, 6 patients (20.0%)were of Vata Kapha Prakruti and 4 patients (13.3%) were of Kapha Pitta Prakruti.Table No.32: Distribution of Sara among the 30 patients taken for StudyFrequency PercentPravara 4 13.3Madhyama 24 80.0Avara 2 6.7SARATotal 30 100.0Out of 30 samples, 4 patients had Pravara Sara (13.3%), 24 patients had MadhyamaSara (80.0%) and 2 patient had Avara Sara (6.7%).Table No. 33: Distribution of Samhanana among the 30 patients taken for StudyFrequency PercentPravara 1 3.3SAMHANANA Madhyama 26 86.7
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 141Avara 3 10.0Total 30 100.0Out of 30 samples, 1 patient had Pravara Samhanana (3.3%) , 26 patients hadMadhyama Samhanana (86.7%) and 3 Patients had Avara samhanana(10.0%).Table No. 34: Distribution of Satmya among the 30 patients taken for StudyFrequency PercentPravara 1 3.3Madhyama 23 76.7Avara 6 20.0SATMYATotal 30 100.0Out of 30 samples, 1 patient had Pravara Satmya (3.3%), 23 patients had MadhyamaSatmya (76.7%) and 6 patients had Avara Satmya (20.0%).Table No. 35: Distribution of Sattva among the 30 patients taken for StudyFrequency PercentPravara 3 10.0Madhyama 19 63.3Avara 8 26.7SATTVATotal 30 100.0Out of 30 samples, 3 patients had Pravara Sattva (10.0%), 19 patients had MadhyamaSattva (63.3%) and 8 patients had Avara Sattva (26.7%).Table No. 36: Distribution of Abhyavaharana Shakti among the 30 patientstaken for StudyFrequency Percent
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 142Pravara 6 20.0Madhyama 23 76.7Avara 1 3.3ABHYAVAHARANASHAKTITotal 30 100.0Out of 30 samples, 6 patients had Pravara Abhyavaharana shakti (20.0%), 23patients had Madhyama Abhyavaharana Shakti (76.7%) and 1 patient had AvaraAbhyavaharana shakti (3.3%).Table No. 37: Distribution of Jarana Shakti among the 30 patients taken forStudyFrequency PercentPravara 3 10.0Madhyama 23 76.7Avara 4 13.3JARANA SHAKTITotal 30 100.0Out of 30 samples, 3 patients had Pravara Jarana Shakti (10.0%), 23 patients hadMadhyama Jarana Shakti (76.7%) and 4 patients had Avara Jarana Shakti (13.3%).Table No. 38: Distribution of Vyayama Shakti among the 30 patients taken forStudy
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 143Frequency PercentPravara 1 3.3Madhyama 22 73.3Avara 7 23.3VYAYAMA SHAKTITotal 30 100.0Out of 30 samples, 1 patient had Pravara Vyayama Shakti (3.3%), 22 patientshad Madhyama Vyayama Shakti (73.3%) and 7 patients had Avara Vyayama Shakti(23.3%).RESULTSTable No. 39: Showing the results of Mean Polyurea values of 0th, 14th, 30thand60 Days.Polyurrea Mean Std.deviation NPU1 2.0667 .78492 30PU14 1.8667 .43417 30PU30 1.8333 .59209 30PU60 2.1333 .57135 30In the selected cases before the diet advice Polyurea mean on the 0thday it was 2.0667which reduced to 1.8667 on 14thday, and still decreased to 1.8333 on 30thday. Andagain it increased to 2.1333 on the 60thday.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 144Table No. 40: Showing the results of Mean Polyphagia values of 0th, 14th, 30thand 60 DaysPolyphagia Mean Std.deviation NPP1 1.6667 .54667 30PP14 1.4333 .50401 30PP30 1.5333 .57135 30PP60 1.7667 .62606 30In the selected cases before the diet advice Polyphagia mean on the 0thday it was1.6667 which reduced to 1.4333 on 14thday, and still decreased to 1.5333 on 30thday. And again it increased to 1.7667 on the 60thday.Table No. 41: Showing the results of Mean Polydypsia values of 0th, 14th, 30thand 60 DaysPolydypsia Mean Std.deviation NPD1 1.5667 .67891 30PD14 1.4667 .50742 30PD30 1.3333 .54667 30PD60 1.7000 .59596 30In the selected cases before treatment Polydypsia mean on the 0thday it was 1.5667which reduced to 1.4667 on 14thday, and still decreased to 1.3333 on 30thday. Andagain it increased to 1.7000 on the 60thday.Table No. 42: Showing the results of Mean Burning foot and palm values of 0th,14th, 30thand 60 Days.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 145BFP Mean Std.deviation NBFP1 .2000 .40684 30BFP14 .0000 .00000 30BFP30 .0667 .25371 30BFP60 .2000 .40684 30In the selected cases before the diet advice Burning foot and palm, mean on the 0thday it was 1.5667 which reduced to 1.4667 on 14thday, and still decreased to 1.3333on 30thday. And again it increased to 1.7000 on the 60thday.Table No. 43: Showing the results of Mean FBS values of 0th, 14th, 30thand 60Days.FBS Mean Standard Deviation N0thDay 129.4000 11.88914 3014thDay 123.8000 10.43998 3030thDay 121.4333 8.71655 3060thDay 136.4333 14.42623 30Table No. 44: Showing the results of repeated measure ANOVA for mean FBSvalues of fresh cases before, during and after treatment (0th, 14th, 30th& 60Days).Source of variationType IIISum ofSquaresdfMeanSquareF value P valueCHANGES 4008.733 3 1336.244 12.596 .000Error(CHANGES) 9229.267 87 106.084
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 146Note: Change refers to change from before to after treatment.In the selected cases before the diet advice FBS mean was129.4000 which reduced to123.8000 on 14thday, and still decreased to 121.4333 on 30thday. And again itincreased to 136.4333 on the 60thday. Statistically it gives significant reduction inthe FBS during the observation period, But the FBS level once again increased verysignificantly at the follow up time.Table No. 45: Showing the results of Mean PPBS values of 0th, 14th, 30thand 60Days.PPBS Mean Standard Deviation N0thDay 166.0667 10.90692 3014thDay 154.4333 11.72878 3030thDay 151.2000 20.30186 3060thDay 160.6333 10.60411 30Table No. 46: Showing the results of repeated measure ANOVA for mean FBSvalues of fresh cases before, during and after treatment (0th, 14th, 30th& 60Days).Source of variationType III Sumof SquaresdfMeanSquareF valuePvalueCHANGES 3928.167 3 1309.389 8.280 .000Error(CHANGES) 13757.333 87 158.130Note: Change refers to change from before to after treatment
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 147In seleceted cases before the Diet advice, PPBS mean was 166.0667 which decreasedto 154.4333 on 14thday, and still decreased to 151.2000 on 30thday. On the 60thdayagain the mean value icreased to 160.6333. Statistically it shows slight significancewas observed in PPBS values, but the values during the whole observational periodwas not under the actual control level.OVER ALL RESULTThe subjective and Objective assesment of all 30 patients are graded in to Very goodimprovement-1, Mild improvement-2, Poor improvement-3 and Very poorimprovement-4 and the results are given below.Table.No.47. shows the distribution of overall resultsGrades frequency Percentage(%)Very good improvement 0 0Mild improvemenet 6 20Poor improvemenet 12 40Very poor improvement 12 40Total 30 100In the selected 30 no of Diabetic diet adviced cases none of the patients were havingvery good improvement, 6 Patients were having mild improvement(20%), 12 patients
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 148were having (40%) Poor improvement and 12 patients were having very poorimprovement (40%).Table No.48: Showing the results of repeated measure ANOVA of the overalltreatment.Chi-Square 2.4df 2Asymp. Sig.(P value) 0.301194The over all treatment Result shows the P value 0.301194, it is not significant.Graph No.1 Showing the Distribution of the sample by AgeGraph No.2 Showing the Distribution of the sample by Sex
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 149Graph No.3 Showing the Distribution of the sample by Religion
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 150Graph No.4 Showing the Distribution of the sample by occupationGraph No.5 Showing the Distribution of the sample by Education
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 151Graph No.6 Showing the Distribution of the sample by Socio-Economic statusGraph No.7 Showing the Distribution of the sample by Location
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 152Graph No.8 Showing the Distribution of the sample by Family historyGraph No.9 Showing the Distribution of the sample by Diet
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 153Graph No.10 Showing the Distribution of the sample by Nature of workGraph No.11 Showing the Distribution of the sample by ExcerciseGraph No.12 Showing the Distribution of the sample by HODS
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 154Graph No.13 Showing the Distribution of the sample by HONSGraph No.14 Showing the Distribution of the sample by Habits
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 155Graph No.15 Showing the Distribution of Mean values of Polyurea
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 156Graph No.16 Showing the Distribution of Mean values of PolyphagiaGraph No.17 Showing the Distribution of Mean values of PolydypsiaGraph No.18 Showing the Distribution of Mean values of Burning foot and Palm
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 157Graph No.19 Showing the Distribution of Mean values of FBSGraph No.20 Showing the Distribution of Mean values of PPBS
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 158Graph No.21 Showing the over all results of Improvements
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 159DISCUSSIONDiscussion on Satmya and PathyaA Substance which is conducive to an individual is called Satmya and the use of suchsubstances result in the well being of that individual.209Chakrapani opines to theabove verse, the term satmya which is used to convey okasatmya i.e, by the prolongedusage of the particular subject it becomes very much wholesome to the body. By theabove description it can be understood that the termed as satmya. Chakrapanicommentary on charaka vimana 5/4 opines that the food substance which causesdosha prakopa is apathya and in contrary to this that causes dosha prashamana. Insushrutha samhita it is said that satmya is the use of such things which do not causeharm to the body even though they are opposite or different form to once ownconstitution, habitat, season, disease etc. while formulating pathya for a particular
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 160disease we consider the opposite qualities to that of prakriti, desha, kala, jati, ritu &roga in order to bring back the vitiated doshas to their normal state. By observing themodalities of satmya and pathya we can understand that, pathya can be satmya alwaysbut not the satmya.Difference between satmya and PathyaSl no: SATMYA PATHYA1 Satmya is a thing, which givespleasure to individual, it variesfrom person to person and it isgenerally due to longexperience of that particularsubstanceIt may or may not be the same withPathya.2 Kala, Desa etc. are the types ofSatmya.It has to be framed according tokala,desha,.etc. which are favorable toPathya.3 Satmya may be beneficial orharmfulPathya is always beneficial accordingto situation.4 Satmya can be categorized assuperior (Pravara), mediocare(Madhyama) & inferior (Avara)Depending upon theadministration of Rasa.Pathya can never be graded in thatway, it is always designed according tothe condition.5 Satmya is the Substance ofpleasure of one self. May or maynot have the beneficial effect o thebody.Pathya has beneficial effect for relatedcondition.Upashaya and Pathya:The definition of Upashaya states that, the medicines, diet and the regimens whichinstantaneously relieve the diseased condition by which the person will getsukhanubandha. The suitable use of drug, diet and behavior which are contrary to thecause of the disease or the disease itself or which produce effects contrary to them.Such medicines, diets and regimens bring about happiness either by acting directly
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 161against the cause of the disease and or the disease itself or by producing such effectsindirectly are called upashaya. Even the administration of pathya also acts against tothe disease, by which it relieves the diseased condition. If the Aushada, ahara andvihaaras are used for the diagnostic purpose, then it is Upashaya and if the same iscontinued for long time in order to manage the disease it becomes Pathya. Even thepathya can also be made according to hetuviparita, vyadhiviparita andhetuvyadhiviparita.Hita and Pathya:The food articles which maintain the equilibrium of the dathus and help inmaintaining the equilibrium state are to be regarded as hitakara aharas otherwise theybecome ahitakara to body. Here hitakara to the body is actually hitakara to the bodychannels via the tissues being nourished, in caraka samhita the definition of pathyahas been stated as, the food articles which are wholesome to the body channels and itdoesn’t causes any harm to the channels. Chakrapani opines certain factors like matra,kala, samskara and avastha are to be considered prior to the formulation of diet toanykind of personalities. The hitaahara if administered by considering the abovefactors it becomes pathya and hita is said as a synonym of pathya in DhanvantariNigantu & Charaka samhita.Difference between Pathya and Hitakara:Slno:Hita Ahara Pathya1 Hitakara term is used generally for allhuman beings or mass.Pathya is mostly related to the conditionslike disease, prakriti,Bala, Vrddha, MadyaVaya,Etc.2 It is good for all people. It is good for specific people.3 Some foods which are commonly usedhave been told as hitahara based on theconcept of ‘ Jatisatmya’The specific foods have been told for eachdiseases based on the Dosha, dhatu andsroto satmyata.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 162.4 It is useful in Dosha samyavastha It is useful in DoshavaishamyavasthaAhara and pathyaAhara is the food substance which is swallowed through throat after mastication(SKD). In vachaspatyam it is mentioned that, the one which is good for thesrotomargas and does not harm the srotomargas is called as hita ahara and it is avariety of bhojya dravya. By the above description we can understand pathya is alsoan invariable form of ahara only, because generally when a food substance passesthrough the throat it becomes the ahara dravya and when the same food substance isadvised after the assessment of the sarira srotases it becomes hita ahara and it isnothing but pathya. Even the pathya can also be taken in any form as per thepalatability. Because of these similarities the classification of ahara can also beconsidered for pathya also.Importance of pathya in the management of chirakaleena vyadhisDiseases manifests as a result of the food taken in fourfold manner via eating,drinking, licking and mastication. Intake of wholesome and unwholesome food isresponsible for the maintenance of health and production of diseases respectively.(ca.su.28/5). The factors like, the usage of apathya ahara, state of dosha and the stateof vyadhikshamtva in the sharira determines the acute or chronic onset of diseases.Where in the the person who is consuming apathya ahara, having dosha vaishamyaand avyadhikshamatva (Lack of body’s defence mechanism), in such conditions hewill get acute (Sheegra) onset of diseases and the one who is consuming pathyaaharas, aprabala doshas (Not having too much aggravated doshas) and very good
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 163body defence mechanism (Vyadhi kshamatva shareera) will have mild (mridu) anddelayed onset of diseases.Individuals whose body is sthooa or Krisha, or having shithila mamsa, rakta,asthi , durbala and who is indulged in apathya ahara( unwholesome ) or accustomed totake alpa ahara or having feeble mind, are unable to resist diseases. On the other handindividuals having opposite type of physical constitution are capable of resistingdiseases. The factors like intake of apathya ahara, vaishamya dosha and physicalconstitution of above description gives rise to diseases of many types via, mild orsevere and acute or chronic. 210The body is constituted by food; hence one should take wholesome food onlyafter careful examination and should not take unwholesome ones out of greed orignorance.Chakrapani opines that, out of greed some individuals indulge in unwholesome foodeven though they are fully aware of its harmful effects. Some others out of ignorancetreat unwholesome food as useful one and take it. Both of them are subjected tomisery. 211Pathyas to be advised after the assessment of the state of accumulation of doshasinside the body via unabhava and khatinyata. 212The above verses can be explainedin a different way also. Khatinyata or compactness and unabhava or noncompactness,both may occur by the union of doshas and dhatus. But the former ie, khatinyata orcompactness takes place when this union is stablised. Both this events takes place inthe interior of the body(antaha) and both of them are of serious nature(mahan).Because of deep seated as well as the serious nature of the morbidity, the conditiondoes not get alleviated completely. By the administration of pathya ahara andaushadha both of these morbidities continue to be manifested in a milder form.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 164Having ascertained this(Jnatvaivam), the pathya ahara and aushadha are to beadministered in a required dose continuously for a long time.213From the abovedescription it can be stated that, by the regular intake of pathya aharas, the chronicand severe diseases can be managed without detoriating the general health of thepatient.Discussion on MadhumehaThe clinical condition where as the patient voids the urine which is similar to that ofhoney is called madhumeha. The word Madhu is like honey and meha is excessiveurination. By analyzing the clinical condition we can understand it as Diabetesmellitus.Discussion on TitleMadhumeha is metabolic derangement state of Carbohydrates, in the management ofdiabetes the folloing modalities are followed like; Pathya alone, Pathya with Exercise,Hypoglycemic rugs with pathya and Insulin with pathya. In all types of managementPahya is the invariably associated. In Ayurveda there is pool of information isavailable regarding diets in the management of madhumeha. Hence to rule out the antidiabetic efficacy of the pathya aharas mentioned in ayurvedic classics, this study was
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 165undertaken under the title, “A Conceptual Study of Pathya in madhumeha with specialreference to Type-2 Diabetes mellitus.Discussion on synonymPaushpa Meha: Narrated in Anjana Nidana. Paushpa Rasa is again resembles withMadhu.Ojo Meha: This is enumerated as a subtype of Vataja Prameha amongst thefour.Therefore, the depletion of Oja through the urine along with changing its taste andtexture by vitiated Vata resulting OjoMeha. Change in qualities of Oja is because ofVata Prabhava.Kshaudra Meha: This synonym narrated by Sushruta because of its closeresemblance with Madhu. From above synonyms, we can postulate that anonymouslyall Acharyas mentioned the urine culture concordant with Madhu. Some scholar alsoopines that the another meaning of the madhu is liquor, when the liquor is kept forlong it is fermented just like that the urine of the diabetic person gets fermented.Discussion on classificationFrom the above classification it is very necessary to find out the basic ideology behindthis. Vagbhata clearly narrated that these types result because of the nexus betweenDosha, Dushya and their specific combination according to concordance. That’s whyin each subtype specific type of urine is voided.214Charaka put forth his theory that all these types and their nomenclature isbecause of the specific qualities and their combinations with each other but, thenomenclature is mainly based upon the predominance of one quality. 224Chakrapanialso explained that the nomenclature is because close resemblance of urine withparticular quality (guna) i.e. Shitameha, Shuklameha, etc.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 166While going through the details of this classification it can be easilyunderstood the Dosha predominance, Dushya involvement, nature of urine voidingand can also find out the etiological factors, state of the disease and progression.Discussion on etiologyKnowledge of etiological factor and their role in the pathology is very muchnecessary to find out the constituents like dosha, dushya, mala, progression of thedisease and their role in diagnosis and prognosis.Charaka samhita narrated that sahaja type of diseases can occur due to defect inBeeja, Beejabhaga or Beejabhagavayava which can be correlated to ovum and sperm,to chromosomes and to genes respectively. 215Chakrapani explained that this defectmay be caused due to the indulgence of faulty foods at the time of pregnancy.Charaka samhita narrated that indulgence in excessive use of Madhura Rasa bymother at the time of pregnancy causes Madhumeha and Sthaulya. 216From above Nidana we can highlight the following points:(1) All the etiological factors having qualities like Snigdha, Sheeta, Guru, Madhuraand Picchila.(2) All the etiological factors mainly causes excessive burden over digestion and formaparipakva dhatus.(3) All the etiological factors causes deposition of excess and unwanted matter in thebody i.e. Excess of vitiated Meda, Kleda, Lasika etc.(4) All the etiological factors leads to the formation of excessive mala i.e. Mutra andSweda.(5) The viharas which are mentioned above are exclusively the habits of sedentarylifestylePrameha NidanaSahaja (Hereditary) Apathya Nimittaja (Acquired) 
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 167Discussion on purvarupaDiscussion on Purva rupaPurvarupa are valuable signs & symptoms to predict the nature of disease and a wayto check the full blown symptoms by timely management. As a matter of fact,prodromal symptoms are produced at the stage of Sthana Samshraya and it is a kindof caution to the person to stop the ingestion of etiological factors of Prameha.By clean observation of above prodermal sign and symptoms we can postulate theopinion that the disease having wast field of etiopathology and the patient shows veryfew prodromal sign and symptoms. So it is very hard to diagnose Prameha by meansof above description but Sushruta makes it easy by narrating that a man with slightincrease in the urine output along with the premonitory symptoms should be consideras the patient of Prameha. Here ‘Dantadinam Maladhyatvam’ is due to Meda dhatudusti. ‘Deha chikkannata’ is due to Meda and Kapha dusti.The signs like KeshaMainly causesVitiation of Kapha(Bahudrava), Meda(Bahu &Abadhdha), Mamsa(Shaithilya) Kleda,Lasika, Rasa,Vitiates mainly Pitta,Shonita Mamsa,Increases Mutra andSweda Quantity. Mainly vitiatesVata, Causessevere depletion ofVasa Majja andOja. Kaphakara  Pittakara
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 168Nakha Ativriddhi and Kesheshu Jatilabhava is not due to any single dosha and dushyadusti but it is the results of specific type of samyoga between specific Dosha andanukula dushya.Discussion on Rupa(1) Prabhutamutrata:This is the main cardinal sign described by all scholars. Vagbhata mentioned Pramehaas the disease of Mutraatipravrtija.217Patient Voids urine more in quantity. Gayadasaopined that this excess urine quantity is because of liquification of the dushyas andtheir amalgamation.218(2) Avilamutrata:Patient voids urine having hazy consistency or having turbidity. Gayadasa andDalhana both opined that, this characteristic feature of urine is because of the nexusbetween mutra, dushya and dosha.219Vagbhata also emphasized that this turbidity ofthe urine is because of its annexation with the dhatus.220(3) Picchila mutrata:Charaka samhita has mentioned this character of urine especially at the time ofdiagnosis of the Prameha.Kashaypa mentioned the following symptoms of Prameha to be observed in pediatricpatients 221Discussion on SampraptiThe process of manifestation of disease is called Samprapti or pathogenesis. Itincludes various stages as disease progresses. Madhumeha is the disorder mainlytridoshaja. Classics emphasized its Pathophysiology by two ways, eitherDhatukshayaja or Avaranajanya. Though Datukshayaja pathogenesis leads toincurability while Avaranjanya pathogenesis can be disrupted. Here in the
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 169pathogenesis etiological factors mainly vitiates Kapha, Pitta and Meda. They in turnobstruct the path of Vata. Vyana the sub-component of Vata mainly perform thefunctions related to gati and transportation of various vital essence at required place.Obstruction to the path of Vata leads its aggravation causes severe depletion of vitaldhatu. Oja carried out towards Basti.. Along with this, vitiation of various bodyelements like Meda, Mamsa, Kleda, Vasa and Lasika occurs which causes varioussymptom and signs. Medo dosha were also manifests as the disease progress.The disease Diabetes mellitus is caused because of disrupted carbohydrate and Fatmetabolism. Sedentary life, faulty foods and lack of exercise precipitate the disease.Various metabolic changes involved in the pathogenesis here, genetical inheritance isone of the major etiological factor.The main Patho-physiology behind Diabetes mellitus is the disturbed metabolism ofthe carbohydrates, fats and proteins due to either absolute or relative lack of Insulin.The Diabetes mellitus has been broadly classified as type I and type II. The type IDiabetes mellitus patients are usually asthenic in body constitution and suffer from itin the early years of life, while the type II Diabetes mellitus patients are usually obeseand suffer from it in their 40’s. The type II Diabetes mellitus patients can be managedeasily by hypoglycemic drugs whereas in type I Diabetes mellitus patients the Insulintherapy is obscure. So, the type I Diabetes mellitus is nearer toDhatuapakarshanajanya Madhumeha while the type II Diabetes mellitus resembles toAvaranajanya Madhumeha.Major dosha involved in the manifestation of MadhumehaVata is the main prime Dosha in the pathogenesis of Madhumeha. Here Vata getaggravated either because of its own etiological factors or because of Avarana causedby Kapha Pitta and Meda. This provoked Vata carries the vital constituents of the
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 170body like Vasa, Majja, and Oja towards Basti and excretes them outside through urineresultingin depletion of the Dhatus. Thus due to severe depletion of Dhatus, the symptommanifests are Karshya, Daurbalya, Angasuptata and Parisarana shila nature.In Su.Ni.1/20, it is described that Vyana and Apana are the main culprits inPrameha. Here mainly the function of Vyanavayu gets hampered because of theaccumulation of vitiated Dushya at macro and microcellular level. Thus in all theSamprapti of Pramehas Vyana acts as the gatherer of Kleda and Apana as excretor.The function of Apana Vayu gets aggravated resulting excretion of vital Dhatusthrough the urine outside the body.Srotas Involvement:Madhumeha is the disease mainly of systemic consideration. In the pathogenesis thereis involvement of each and every constituent of the body.In the pathogenesis there isreference of Srotodushti only related to Mutravaha Srotasa. But when, we observe thepathogenesis and symptomatology, it can be easily understood that the involvement ofMedovaha, Mamsavaha, Swedavaha and Udakavaha Srotas occurs.In the pathogenesis we can find the two types of Srotodushti: Atipravritti VimargagamanaThus we can find out the Srotas involvement according to the symptoms as followsPurvarupa of Prameha Medovahasrotodushti.Putimamsapidaka Mamsavaha SrotodushtiTrishna, Mukha TaluKanthashoshaUdakavaha Srotodushti.Atisrishta AbhikshanaMutrapravrritiMutravaha Srotodushti.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 171Agni:All the metabolic activities (Paka, Parinamana) are governed by agni and its mandataleads to so many metabolic disorders and madhumeha is one of them. In madhumeha,dhatvagnimandya is a major etiological component. It has been mentioned thatdhatvagnimandya leads to dhatu Vriddhi and dhatvagni – Tikshnata causesDhatukshaya.222In the Samanya Samprapti, Agnimandya develop due to AjirnaBhojana, Atibhojana, Asatmya, Guru, Sheeta Bhojana leads to Bahudrava Kapha andBahubadhdha Meda as well as excessive quantity of Mamsa and Kleda. But in case ofavaranajanya madhumeha due to kaphakara Nidana a, Dhatvagnimandya developsand due to this agnimandya excessive dhatu cannot be assimilated properly leading tomore vitiation of specific dhatu. Such vitiated dhatu obstruct the gati of vata leadingto its provocation. But due to this provocation of vata, Jatharagni gets stimulateddemanding more food. This cycle goes on. Therefore, in Madhumeha the dushyadushti mostly occurs in the form of vriddhi and not in the form of kshaya reflectingdhatvagnimandya. Kshaya Lakshana of Majja and Shukra Dhatu may be due toMedodhatvagnimandya there is less nourishment to further Dhatus.So the role of Dhatvagni in the Samprapti of Madhumeha is important. Onemay observe the difference between two types of Agnimandya. In SamanyaSamprapti one may get symptoms like Kshudhamandya due to Jatharagnimandya, butin Avrita Vata Samprapti, Kshudhadhikya will be prominent.Discussion on Chikitsa:Following are the treatment modalities we can apply in the Madhumeha to alleviatethe disease. Nidana parivarjana.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 172 Treatment According to Dosha. Treatment According to Dushya. Treatment According to Mala. Treatment According to Complications. Nidana parivarjanam :This is the prime treatment principle narrated by every Acharya before describing thetreatment of every disease.Charaka enumerated that we should avoid these etiological factors which arecausing the disease Prameha, Avoidance of the etiological factors is the primetreatment.223Chakrapani opined that this avoidance of etiological factors in Prameha is primeconcern because; this disease is Chirakari having long impact on the body.Only Nidanaparivarjana is not the aim but along with that proper dietmanagement is necessary. This diet management should be according to bodyconstitution.Discussion on Chapter 3In Charaka chikitsa prameha adhyaya it is told that, the prime treatment principle is toavoid the apathya aharas and one should regularly take the pathya aharas. Theexcessive indulgence in nidana sevana of guru, snigdhadi ahara and avyayamadivihara leads to kaphadosha sanchaya.224In prakrita avastha the kapha will be inbaddha form i.e, solid or binded form but due to nidana sevana the baddha formchanges to dravatwa leading to bahudravatwa and thus vitiated kapha gets provoked.The provoked kapha having affinity towards meda due to their similar propertiesbinds along with other dushyas like kleda, mamsa and lasika resulting in Sthoulya.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 173Always the treatment should have the counteraction against either the cause of thedisease or disease itself or the both. In all major classics the greater importance hasbeen given to pathya aharas in the management of Madhumeha. By observing thequalities of pathya aharas mentioned in the prameha chapter, we can reveal that thepathya aharas are having the qualities opposite to that of the disease and itscomponents.Discussion on Dhanya vargaThe Dhanyas like Yava, Godhuma, Purana shali, and Rakta shali and truna dhanyashave been told as the major source of food. Most of the Dhanyas are laghu, ruksha,sara gunas, tikta Kashaya madhura rasa, ushna virya, katu vipaka, kaphahara,medohara, lekhana, sthairyakara, soshana, kledahara properties which are antagonisticto the dosha and dushyas of madhumeha. While explaining the shali variety Puranashali is advised as the best one. And it is not same for Trina dhanya; it can beconsumed immediately after harvesting. The biochemical change from New to oldshali reduces the moisture content significantly and the simple sugar compounds willbe converted into cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin or complex sugar compounds.When these foods consumed in the older state it delays the absorption of glucose intothe blood and thus reduces the hyperglycemia and it is not same for the Trina dhanyasbecause they have the similar properties of purana shali in their fresh state only. Andthese Trina dhanyas are rich contents of soluable fibres, a vital component of Diabeticdiet.The pulses like Mudga, Chanaka, Aadaki, Kulatha and Masurika are havinglaghu, ruksha, vishada, tikshna gunas, Kashaya madhura rasas, ushna virya, katu andamla vipaka, kapha vata shamaka, bhedhana, grahi properties. And these pulses arethe rich source of vitamin B complex, high levels of proteins and essential aminoacids
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 174and have low glycemic index, which are the essential factors in the management ofDiabetes mellitus.Discussion on Harita and Shaka vargaThe shakas are mainly having gunas like laghu, ruksha, tikta Kashaya madhura rasas,ushna virya, katu vipaka, vata kaphanashaka, agni dipaka, hrudya, netrya, shothagna,medohara, trushna nigraha etc are antagonistic to the doshas and dushyas ofMadhumeha. These also contains highest amount of dietary fibres, rich sources ofminerals and vitamins, low caloric energy level, essential amminoacids and someamminoacids are also having hypoglycemic effect which in turn helps to bring backthe impaired metabolic activity. Most of the vegetables from cucurbitaceae family arehaving the bitter principle, cucurbitin. It is known to have the stimulatory effect on theislets of langerhans cells of pancreas and also increases the insulin sensitivity on thecells of peripheral tissues.Discussion on Phala vargaThe phalas described in madhumeha mainly having Kashaya pradhana madhura rasa,ushna virya, madhura vipaka, trishnahara, mutrala, kanthashodhaka, lekhana,medohara, and malabhedaka properties. When these fruits are consumed in a divideddoses it will have continuous antagonistic effect on the samprapti and these fruits arerich sources of vitamin B complex, vitamin C, Carotenoids, antioxidents, solublefibres and micronutrients like calcium, selenium, zinc, copper, magnesium, potassiumetc, these ionic compounds plays a very significant role in the trans cellular absorptionof insulin by the ionic exchanges between calcium influx and potassium outflux.Discussion on TailasIn prameha adhyaya the tailas like atasi, danti, ingudi, sarshapa and tilatailas havebeen mentioned. But in the present study only tila and sarshapa tailas have been
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 175selected because of the availability and palatability to the patients. These tailas havetikshna, ruksha and sara guna, katu tikta Kashaya, and madhura rasa, ushna virya,katu vipaka, lekhana, karshana and medohara properties. These oils havingconsiderable amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids and traces of cholesterol and richamount of omega 3 and 6 fattyacids. These vital components reduces the LDL andVLDL in considerable amount and thus prevents the formation of plaques inside thearteries and prevents the chances of heart attack a later complication of Diabetesmellitus.Discussion on Nutrient components in Diabetes mellitus 227Several revolutions in the dietary management of diabetes have not resolved all thedilemmas conserning balanced diabetic diets. The progress in the evaluation of themost appropriate diet for diabetes has been rather slow, partly because of largevariation among diabetics with regard to insulin resistence, body size and insulinsecretion. The education and dietic management of type 2 diabetes depend on theirindividual needs. The basic aim in all patients is to relieve the symptoms of diabetesand to minimize its impact on micro and macrovascular complications. The traditionalmethods used a sequence of treatments to manage type 2 diabetes. Dieting is first usedto reduce weight and intake of quickly absorbed carbohydrates. Diet is aimed to limitthe saturated fat intake to prevent cardiovascular disease associated with type-2diabetes. Among all, prescribing the right amount of energy has always remained acentral issue in the dietic management of type 2 diabetes. The total intake of caloriesis more important for a diabetic than the exact proportion of proteins, fats andcarbohydrates in the diet.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 176A diabetic should be kept on a well balanced diet providing just enoughcalories to maintain ideal body weight. For the same calorie intake it is advisable totake 5 small meals a day, it includes morning breakfast, midmorning snack, lunch, teatime snack and dinner rather than usual three or even one meal. The usual distributionof the nutrients in the diet is carbohydrate, 50-75% of calories ; protein 10-14%(usually 1g per body weight) and the remaining energy to be drawn by fat.CARBOHYDRATESCarbohydrates are deposited as glycogen in the muscles and liver by the action ofinsulin. In diabetes, due to deficiency of insulin this metabolism is disturbed. The riseof blood sugar after a meal does not depend only on the amount of carbohydrateingested, but also on the rapidity of absorption. This varies with the fibre contentphytate. Lactins, tannins, saponins, and enzyme inhibitors. The ability of a food itemto rise the blood sugar is measured in terms of glycemic index. In diabetic patientusually the low GI value foods are appreciated.Fibre rich foods slow stomach emptying and delay intestinal transit and soreduce the rate of glucose absorption, lower blood sugar rise and decrease urinaryglucose excretion. Fibre also contributes to satiety and the consequent decreased foodintake helps reduce weight. Thus fibre containing food such as barley, wheat, millets,pulses etc will produce less rise in blood sugar and less excretion of urine sugar. Theinclusion of high fibre food in diets has improved control of both blood glucose andlipids. Diabetics should therefore eat more fibres. Phytic acid, usually contain in
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 177cereals and pulses, may have a dominant role in decrease in the blood sugar rise thanfibre. The blood glucose response becomes less with the increasing content of phyticacid in food. Inclusion of food with low glycemic index (GI) decreases therequirement for antidiabetic drugs. Sorbitol an alcohol of fructose is less sweet,natural sorbitol occurs in pears, peech and cherries. Unlike the sugar, sorbitol isabsorbed very slowly in the intestine and so does not appreciably alter the blood sugarlevel during absorption, though it supplies as many calories as sugar.PROTEINSA diet high in protein is good for the health of diabetics because (I). it supplies theessential aminoacids needed for tissue repair. (2). Does not rise blood sugar duringabsorption as much as carbohydrates. (3). Does not supply as many calories as fats.(4).Proteins has stimulating and satiating effect. One gram of protein per kg bodyweight is adequate, more proteins may be given if necessary and the amount of fatsand carbohydrates reduced proportionately.FATSFats should provide about 20-25% of calories. They cannot be oxidized has readily ascarbohydrates. The normal end products of oxidation of fats are CO2 and H2O. Whencarbohydrate metabolism is normal fats are metabolized to a relatively small extent,and the small quantity of ketone bodies produced is completely utilized by the tissueto supply energy. In a neglected diabetic, carbohydrates cannot be utilized because ofthe deficiency of insulin, and so the energy requirements have to be met with fats. Theensuing excessive breakdown of fats results in accumulation of ketone bodies which
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 178are then excreted in the urine. Daily metabolism of about 100gm carbohydratesprevents accumulation of ketone bodies.VITAMINSCarbohydrates are not completely metabolized when there is a deficiency of vitaminB. it is postulated that products of partial carbohydrate metabolism like pyruvic acid,accumulate in such situations and damange the nerves resulting in pheripheralneuropathy. The diabetic requires the supplementation of Vitamin B. it is alsoadvisable to supply vitamain A, as the liver which is store house of these Vitamins,may be damaged in diabetes.EXERCISEExercise is a very useful measure in the management of diabetes. It utilizescarbohydrate for energy and reduces the requirement for insulin or antidiabetictablets. Uniform and regulated exercise like brisk walk, swimming, or a suitable gamefor middle aged patients. Exercise benefits the cardiovascular risk factors namely highblood pressure, lipids (it raises HDL and decreases LDL) and obesity. Physicallyactive middle-aged men who participate regularly in sports have lower plasmaconcentration of insulin when fasting as well as after a meal. Exercise increasesinsulin sensitivity, but this disappears within a few days of stopping exercise. Goodattention of feet diminishes the occurance of diabetic feet ulcer.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 179DISCUSSION ON METHODOLOGYAfter completion of the study and collecting the data at regular intervals theobtained data were analyzed to give a better picture of demographic observations andresults. The interpretation of the observations is discussed in this chapter along withdiscussion of methodology.Discussion on MaterialsThe study was an observational study, The newly detected Type-2 diabetic patientswere adviced to follow the prepared dietic module specially devoloped for themanagement of diabetic patients.The diabetic diet module contains the list of foodsand daily diet menu, the foods which are mentioned in the chapter prameha wereselected on the basis of their present day availability and affordability.The selectedfoods were first identified Taxonomically and Botanically under the guidance ofBotanists, Department of Botany, University of Mysore, then the habitats of each food
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 180was identified geographically. The regional names of the each food item wereclarified by the Departments of Dravyaguna, Horticulture and Botany, and also by thetraditional vegetable sellers and Farmers. Finally all patients were informed regardingthe place of availability of all food items.Discussion on MethodsPatients were assigned in a single group because of the study wasobservational. The patients aged between 30 to 60 years of having newly detected andless than one year chronicity without treatment were selected. as Type-2 Diabetes(NIDDM) is more common in the middle aged people, and it is also called as Maturityonset of Diabetes in Young (MODY). The patients of uncontrolled diabetes andchronic patients with other systemic complications were excluded from the study,because they need Oral Hypoglycemic agents and Insulin therapy along with thediabetic diet.The diabetic diet menu has been prepared as per the standards ofAmerican diabetes associations general guidelines, that a diabetic diet menu shouldinclude three meals a day along with light snax inorder to provide the required energyand Nutrition. The patients were also adviced to do Physical excercise for one hr or abrisk walk for about 4km a day.Discussion on InterventionAs per the objective, the present study was undertaken on the newly detected Type-2DM patients. The prepared diet module was adviced to the patients to evaluate theAnti-Diabetic efficacy of prepared diet module. The changes in the Polyurea,Polyphagia, Polydipsia and Burning foot & Palm, FBS, PPBS and Urine sugar wasassessed on 0thday, 14thday and 30thday followed by a follow up after 60 days.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 181Discussion on ObservationsAvailabilityMost of the cases reported to GAMC hospital OPD directly. Special camp isconducted in GAMC for the same time and the cases were also selectedAgeMajority of the patient in this study i.e. 46.7% belonging to the age group 51 to 60yrs. this reveals that maximum prevalence of the disease at Madhyama Avastha.These findings were concordant to the recent statistical data which shows that theonset of Type II Diabetes mellitus after the forties is most common. While 36.7%patients belonging to the age group between 41-50 years. A strong predisposingfactor in middle age diabetes is obesity. Middle aged diabetes is due to increase in thesize of fat cells. With weight reduction, the fat cells decrease in size and the glucosetolerance test may return to normal.SexIn this series, maximum number of patients i.e. 70.0 % were male (21) and 30.0%were female (9). Nothing specific can be derived from this. This may be due to thedemographic facts.ReligionIn this study 26 patients were Hindus (86.7% )and Muslims were only 4 patients(13.3%) which again indicative of demographic situation of this region.EducationOut of 30 patients, 3 was uneducateds, 2 had studied upto primary level, & hadstudied upto high school, 9 upto PUC, 8 were graduates and only one was postgraduate. Chi square test reveals no difference between these frequencies notingeducation is independent of DM for the selected sample.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 182Occupation:In the present study maximum number of patients were housewives(7) i.e. 23.3next tothis 20.0% of the patients were business mens(6) .These figure shows that diseaseoccurs in those classes who, usually lead sedentary life style and eat more than theirrequirement.LocationMajority of the patients i.e. 73.3% were living in urban area and 26.7% patients fromrural area. This data is concordant with the recent W.H.O. Annual Report (2009) thatthe prevalence of Diabetes mellitus is greater in urban than in rural areas. This showsthe effect of fast foods, decreased levels of physical activity, sedentary life, andsudden change in life style in urban areas.Socio economic statusMajority of the patients’ i.e.60.0% belonged to middle socioeconomic status. Thisfinding reflects the pattern of patients coming to the hospital of this instituteaccording to their socio-economic conditions and also the increasing substantialsedentary habits among them.Family historyIn this study 36.7% people were having the family history of Type-2 diabetesmellitus. Heredity plays the most important role in confering susceptibility todiabetes. The closer the blood relationship of a person to a diabetic, the greater thechances of developing the disease. When both parents are diabetic, the chances of thechildren getting diabetes are considerably increased. Insulin dependent diabetes ismore likely to be transmitted to the offspring by a diabetic father than a diabeticmother.Nature of work
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 183Majority of the patients in this study were doing Mild work i.e, 63.3% (19) and 33.3%(10) of the patients were doing moderate manual work. As it well known the peoplewho doesnot involved in more physical activity they are more prone to become obeseand thus lead to diabetes.DietMajority of the patients i.e. 63.3% of this series were mixed type of food, whereas33.3% patients had vegetarian diet pattern. It is mentioned in the recent studies thatpeople eating mixed diet are more likely to get excess fat deposition in their bodycauses obesity, and then it leads to diabetes.HabitsObservations of addiction in the present study revealed that majority of the patientswere addicted to some or other things. Maximum number of patients i.e. 56.7% wereaddicted to Tea& Coffee followed by 10 % of the people were alchohol consumersand 16.7% Alchohol, Tea, Coffee and smoking. All these addictions decreased thenatural immunity and also provoke the Vata to manifest the disease Madhumehaearlier and with severity.ChronicityIn this all patiens were newly detected diabetics and having the history of diabeteswithin one year, it was selected because the newly detected diabetes patients intiallyhave impaired glucose absorption, and during this stage if the proper diet is advicedthe oral hypoglycemic drugs can be avoided. It is also recommended by WHO.Hours of day sleep
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 184In this study totally 50.0% of the people were having the habit of sleeping duringday times in which 40.0% of the patients were sleeping upto 1 hour daily and 10.0%of the patients were sleeping upto 3 hours daily. It shows that day sleep is one of themajor features of sedentary life style, the major cause of Type-2 diabetes mellitus.Divasvapna causes Kapha vriddhi and its Abhishyandi property leads to blockage inwhole body micro channels, specifically in Medovaha Srotas. Because of excessivesleep at night and day, physical activity diminishes which aggravates Kapha leadingto Meda deposition. Moreover reduced metabolic rate during sleep is an importantfactor for genesis of excess fat.Prakrityadi pareekshaAll the patients were having Dwandvaja Prakriti with maximum number of patientsi.e. % were Vataj-Pittaaja Prakriti followed by Vata-kaphaja prakriti 20.0%, Majorityof the patients i.e. 80.0% were having Madhyama Sara, Madhyama Samhanana 86.7%and Madhyama Satva 63.3 %.Abhyavarana shaktiMost of the patients i. e. 76.7% were found to have Madhyama Abhyavaharana Shaktiand also maximum patients having Madhyama jarana Shakti 76.7%.Discussion on ResultsPolyuriaIn 30 patients participated in the study had mean values of the polyurea was 2.0667on the 0thday, then it reduced to the mean of 1.8667 on the 14thday and still reduces
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 185to 2.1333 on the 30thday, but it again increased to 2.1333 on the 60thday. But thepoly urea observed in this study was almost in the normal level, when the bloodglucose exceeds more than 180mg/dl then only it crosses the renal thresh holdcapacity.PolyphagiaIn 30 patients participated in the study had mean values of the polyurea was 1.6667on the 0thday, then it reduces to the mean of 1.4333 on the 14thday and still reducesto 1.5333 on the 30thday, but it again increased to 1.7667 on the 60thday. It shows nosignificance changes from before to after the dietic therapy.PolydypsiaIn 30 patients participated in the study had mean values of the polyurea was 1.5667on the 0thday, then it reduces to the mean of 1.4667 on the 14thday and still reducesto 1.3333 on the 30thday, but it again increased to 1.7000 on the 60thday. It shows nosignificance changes from before to after the dietic theraphy.Burning foot and PalmIn this study only 6 patients were having very mild burning foot before the Dieticadvice and it decresed gradually during the course of the study, and rest of the patientswas not having the complaint of Burning foot and palm. Usually in the course of thedisease, burning foot and palm is associated with peripheral neuropathy, a latercomplication of diabetes in chronic patients.FBSIn all patients after the advice of diabetic diet the mean value of the FBS wassignificantly reduced for a milder extent. The mean FBS on 0thday was 129.4000, itreduced to 123.8000 on 14thday, and still reduced to 121.4333 on 30thday but afterthe followup period it again shoot up to 136.4333, and the ‘P’ value shows little
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 186significance (0.000). Even though the FBS reduced to a milder extent, still it is morethan the normal limit of FBS i.e, 70-110mg/dl. Generally the patients follow theinstructions of the doctor very punctually in the begining, later because of theignorance of the patient to maintain the prescribed diet the variation in the FBSoccurs. The declining trend in mean value of FBS shows hypoglycemic action of thediet in the early stage of diabetes.PPBSIn all patients after the advice of diabetic diet the mean value of the PPBSwas significantly reduced for a milder extent. The mean PPBS on 0thday was166.0667, it reduced to 154.4333 on 14thday, and still reduced to 151.2000 on 30thday but after the followup period it again shoot up to 160.6333 and the ‘P’ value is.000 which is significant. Even though the PPBS reduced significantly, still it is morethan the normal limit of PPBS i.e, 100-140mg/dl. The major aspect to be observedhere is, the PPBS will done two hours after the breakfast.In south indian culture thebreakfast is always very light food when compared to the Mid day heavy lunch.Obviousely the mean content of the PPBS after morning breakfast will always lesserthan the PPBS after the mid day lunch.Urine sugarIn the present study only 5 patients had traces of urine sugar in the begining,as this study was mainly taken on the newly detected diabetic patients the level ofblood glucose was not that much to break the renal thresh hold of glucose. The urinesugar test will become positive only when the blood glucose is more than 180mg/dl.As most of the patients were not having urine sugar, it shows no statisticalimportance.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 187Discussion on overall ResultAfter assessing the individual assessment criterias, the overall results of bothsubjective and objective parameters of all patients were graded in to very goodimprovement-1, mild improvement-2, poor improvement and very-poor improvement.None of the patients were having very good improvement (FBS.70-110mg/dl &PPBS100-140mg/dl), 6 patients (20%) had mild improvement (FBS.110-130 & PPBS140-160mg/dl), 12 patients (40%) had poor improvement (FBS.130-150 & PPBS160-180mg/dl) and 12 patients(40%) had very poor improvement (FBS > 150 &PPBS 180mg/dl). And the ‘P’ value is 0.301194, statistically it shows no significance.The declining values in FBS & PPBS in the begining of the dietic advice shows thedefinite effect action of the diet on the hyperglycemia, but the consistancy infollowing the diet is not maintained by the patients regularly, It results in the failure ofthe overall result.GENERAL OBSERVATION1.  The  study  shows  the  definite  effect  of  the  Pathyaaharas  in  decreasing  the hyperglycemia, but it is practically very much difficult to monitor the patients very closely. 2. There are many possibilities for the error results in the assessment criterias like FBS, PPBS and Urine sugar. Because the glucose in the blood is always not satble, the changes in the blood glucose level is influenced by many factors like physical activity, pattern of food, type of food, state of mental stress and hormonal influences. Along with  the  above  tests,  HbA1c  can  also  be  included  in  the  stydy  to  asses  the  three month average maintenance of blood sugar level. 
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 1883. Even though the patient is not following the prescribed diet, he fasts over night prior to the doctors visit on the regular intervals, obviously the FBS will be reduced because of either over night fast or less food intake on the last night. 4. If the Diabetic diet is provided either by the researcher or by the institution, the possible errors can be avoided.      RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY 1. Because of the practical difficulties in the present study to monitor the scattered diabetic patients very closely, the study can be conducted in the Ashramas, Old age homes or as in‐patient in the hospitals. 2. The  study  will  be  one  of  the  best  suitable  Research  work  for  the  Animal experimental study in Alloxan induced Type‐2 diabetic rats.By this it can give the very accurate biochemical, endocrinal and histopathological changes.  3. The raw diabetic diet can also be made availabe in a redaymade form. 
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 1894. To rule out the geographical influence on diet, the study can be conducted in a major sample from different geographical areas.   CONCLUSIONOn  the  basis  of  conceptual  Analysis  and  Observations  made  in  this  Study,  the following conclusion can be drawn  Madhumeha can be considered as Diabetes mellitus.  Madhumeha is more a metabolic derangement, than a disease  Faulty  food  habits  and  sedentary  life  style  is  the  core  cause  of  the  majority  of patients.  The dietic management difinitely plays a central role in the management of diabetes. 
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 190 Along with the diet the physical activity is also very much important in diabetes.  The diets which are told for madhumeha in Ayurvedic classics are having the exact antagonostic effect on the disease.  The  content  of  blood  glucose  is  having  a  direct  relation  with  the  type  of  food consumed by a diabetic.  The people, who are well educated and know the causes of the disease are, followed the diet regimen very punctually.   Pathya may the central key to open the blocked channels of a diabetic patient.   Pathya ahara is a Mahabeshaja, is proved beyond doubts for all times and its utility and applicability is proved in this era too as being effective in Madhumeha by this study. SUMMARY  The tremendous development in the modern medicine has made a revolution in health care system. Inspite of so many latest advancements, still the science has not  yet  succeeded  in  all  aspects  of  medicine.  There  is  a  continous  flow  of  newer discoveries are happening all over the world. In the path of research, the ancient sciences are also moving along with the main stream. 
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 191Ayurveda being ancient system of medicine has dealt all kinds of disease and their managements.  As  madhumeha  being  a  lifestyle  disease,  it  is  found  since  time immemorial. The study “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with specialreference to Type-2 Diabetes mellitus”. Was undertaken to gather the scatteredinformation of Pathya aharas told in madhumeha, and to make a module of pathya toevaluate its anti-diabetic efficacy by FBS and PPBS.In this observational study total 30 patients under a single group were incidentallyselected by confirming clinical features, Urine routine, FBS & PPBS. The developedmodule of the Pathya aharas was adviced to all patients. And the assessment was doneregularly on the 0thday, 14thday and 30thday followed by a 30 days of followupperiod.The observations done on the factors like age, sex, occupation, religion,educational status, marital status, socio-economic status, locality, chronicity, akruti,along with general observation during treatment was also done.The scores of polyuria, polyphagia, polydypsia, burning foot and palm wascollected before, during and after the treatment were subjected for ContingencyCoefficient test.In the observation of results, the result was significant in the first two visitsand again it goes back to the Non-significant level at the follow up period. Thestatistical data shows the result as significant according to the mean values of Polyuria, Polu phagia, Poly dipsia and Burning foot and Palm, FBS and PPBS. But theover all assessment on the basis of the general observations in terms of standard database the result of this study shows non-significant result. It is because the patient doesnot follow the strict diet regimen regularly for a long time.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 192By observing the intial decrease of the assessment parameters, it can beconcluded that, the pathya mentioned in madhumeha has got the propertyhypoglycemic activity and thus prevents the hyperglyce.mia.BIBLIOGRAPHY1. Lolimbaraja, ‘Sudha’ hindi teekayukta, Vaidya jeevanam, 3rd Edition, Varanasi, The choukamba Sanskrit Series office, 1965, PP: 4 2.  Pandit hemaraja Sharma, Kashyapa samhita of Vriddha jeeveka with vidhyotini hindi teeka, Varanasi, Choukamba Sanskrit samsthan, 2006, PP:249. 
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    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 204179. Acharya Priya vrata Sharma and Dr.Guruprasad Sharma, Kaiyyadevanighantu, Pathyapathya vibhodaka, Varanasi, Choukamba orientalaia, 1999, PP:107.180. Dr.K.M.Nadakarni’s, Indian Materia medica, volume-1, Bombay, Popularprakashan limited, 1999, PP: 300.181. Acharya Priya vrata Sharma and Dr.Guruprasad Sharma, Kaiyyadevanighantu, Pathyapathya vibhodaka, Varanasi, Choukamba orientalaia, 1999, PP:106.182. Dr.K.M.Nadakarni’s, Indian Materia medica, volume-1, Bombay, Popularprakashan limited, 1999, PP: 1234.183. Acharya Priya vrata Sharma and Dr.Guruprasad Sharma, Kaiyyadevanighantu, Pathyapathya vibhodaka, Varanasi, Choukamba orientalaia, 1999, PP:103.184. Dr.K.M.Nadakarni’s, Indian Materia medica, volume-1, Bombay, Popularprakashan limited, 1999, PP: 811.185. Acharya Priya vrata Sharma and Dr.Guruprasad Sharma, Kaiyyadevanighantu, Pathyapathya vibhodaka, Varanasi, Choukamba orientalaia, 1999, PP:137.186. Dr.K.M.Nadakarni’s, Indian Materia medica, volume-1, Bombay, Popularprakashan limited, 1999, PP:335.187. Acharya Priya vrata Sharma and Dr.Guruprasad Sharma, Kaiyyadevanighantu, Pathyapathya vibhodaka, Varanasi, Choukamba orientalaia, 1999,PP:189.188. Vinayaka Ganesh Apte, Rajanighantu sahita Dhanvantari nighantu,Sikandarabad, Anandashrama mudranalay, 1925, PP:427.189. Dr.K.M.Nadakarni’s, Indian Materia medica, volume-1, Bombay, Popularprakashan limited, 1999, PP: 721.190. Acharya Priya vrata Sharma and Dr.Guruprasad Sharma, Kaiyyadevanighantu, Pathyapathya vibhodaka, Varanasi, Choukamba orientalaia, 1999,PP:99.191. Vinayaka Ganesh Apte, Rajanighantu sahita Dhanvantari nighantu,Sikandarabad, Anandashrama mudranalay, 1925, PP:431.192. Dr.K.M.Nadakarni’s, Indian Materia medica, volume-1, Bombay, Popularprakashan limited, 1999, PP: 807.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 205193. Vinayaka Ganesh Apte, Rajanighantu sahita Dhanvantari nighantu,Sikandarabad, Anandashrama mudranalay, 1925, PP:423.194. Acharya Priya vrata Sharma and Dr.Guruprasad Sharma, Kaiyyadevanighantu, Pathyapathya vibhodaka, Varanasi, Choukamba orientalaia, 1999,PP:106.195. Dr.K.M.Nadakarni’s, Indian Materia medica, volume-1, Bombay, Popularprakashan limited, 1999, PP: 1149, 1151.196. Dr.K.M.Nadakarni’s, Indian Materia medica, volume-1, Bombay, Popularprakashan limited, 1999, PP: 751.197. Dr.K.M.Nadakarni’s, Indian Materia medica, volume-1, Bombay, Popularprakashan limited, 1999, PP: 403.198. Dr.K.M.Nadakarni’s, Indian Materia medica, volume-1, Bombay, Popularprakashan limited, 1999, PP: 822.199. Dr.K.M.Nadakarni’s, Indian Materia medica, volume-1, Bombay, Popularprakashan limited, 1999, PP: 63.200. Dr.K.M.Nadakarni’s, Indian Materia medica, volume-1, Bombay, Popularprakashan limited, 1999, PP: 65.201. Dr.K.M.Nadakarni’s, Indian Materia medica, volume-1, Bombay, Popularprakashan limited, 1999, PP: 943.202. Dr.K.M.Nadakarni’s, Indian Materia medica, volume-1, Bombay, Popularprakashan limited, 1999, PP: 1014.203. Dr.K.M.Nadakarni’s, Indian Materia medica, volume-1, Bombay, Popularprakashan limited, 1999, PP:535.204. Dr.K.M.Nadakarni’s, Indian Materia medica, volume-1, Bombay, Popularprakashan limited, 1999, PP: 518.205. Dr.K.M.Nadakarni’s, Indian Materia medica, volume-1, Bombay, Popularprakashan limited, 1999, PP:548.206. Dr.K.M.Nadakarni’s, Indian Materia medica, volume-1, Bombay, Popularprakashan limited, 1999, PP: 338.207. Dr.K.M.Nadakarni’s, Indian Materia medica, volume-1, Bombay, Popularprakashan limited, 1999, PP: 1140.208. Dr.K.M.Nadakarni’s, Indian Materia medica, volume-1, Bombay, Popularprakashan limited, 1999, PP: 1126.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 206209. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi,Chaukhambha Prakashan, 2007, PP: 236.210. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi,Chaukhambha Prakashan, 2007, PP: 178.211. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi,Chaukhambha Prakashan, 2007, PP: 181.212. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi,Chaukhambha Prakashan, 2007, PP: 649.213. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi,Chaukhambha Prakashan, 2007, PP: 649.214. Vaidhya Harishatri Paradakara, Ashtanga Hrudaya of Vagbhata, Nidanasthana, 10/8, 9th Edition, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Orientalia, 2009, PP: 504.215. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi,Chaukhambha Prakashan, 2007, PP: 212.216. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi,Chaukhambha Prakashan, 2007, PP: 322.217. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi,Chaukhambha Prakashan, 2007, PP: 344.218. Vaidhya Harishatri Paradakara, Ashtanga Hrudaya of Vagbhata, Nidanasthana, 9/40, 9th Edition, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Orientalia, 2009, PP: 401219. Acharya Y.T, Acharya NR, Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta, Varanasi,Chaukhamba Surabharati Prakashan, Reprinted 2008, PP: 291.220. Shivprasad Sharma, Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhata, Nidana sthana 10/9, 1stedition, Varanasi, Choukhamba Sanskrit Series Office, 2006, PP:34221. Kashyapa samhita, Sutra sthana, 25/22. 222. Vaidhya Harishatri Paradakara, Ashtanga Hrudaya of Vagbhata, Nidanasthana, 10/8, 9th Edition, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Orientalia, 2009.PP: 188223. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi,Chaukhambha Prakashan, 2007, PP: 448.224. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi,Chaukhambha Prakashan, 2007, PP: 212.225. Harsh mohan’s, Text book of Pathology, Sixth edition, Jay pee brothersmedical publication, 2010, PP: 818.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”. Dr.Ramesh Kumar.K.L 207226. Baba sahib B.Desai, Hand book of nutrition and diet, New York, Marceldekker, 2000, PP:582227. F.P. Antia, Clinical Dietics and Nutriton, New delhi, Fourth Edition, Oxforduniversity press, 2007, PP:347228. Dr.Syed Aziz Ahmed, Dr.S.C.Sharma, Fruit and Vegetable therapy, Delhi,Pustak mahal, 2006.229. Narendranath shasthri, Madhava nidana of Acharya Madhavakara pranita,Delhi, Motilal banarasidas publications, 2005: PP: 460.230. Narendranath shasthri, Madhava nidana of Acharya Madhavakara pranita,Delhi, Motilal banarasidas publications, 2005: PP: 479.
    •   1.Yava (Barley)2.Godhuma (Wheat)3. Rakta shali
    •   4.Kangu ( Fox tail millet)5.Shyamaka (Barnyard millet)6.Kodrava (Kodo millet)
    •   7. Bajra/ Sajja ( Pearl millet)8. Madhulika ( Finger millet/ Raagi)9. Joornahva ( Great millet/ Jowar)
    •   Shimbi dhanya varga1.Mudga ( Green gram) 2. Chanaka (Chick pea)3. Adaki ( Pigeon pea) 4.Kulatha ( Horse gram/ Kidney bean)5. Masura ( Lentils)
    •   Harita varga1.Katillaka( Punarnava/ Hog weed) 2. Shigru patra( Moringa leaves)3. Lonika( Indian Purselane) 4. Drona pushpi patra( Tumbe soppu)5.Gduchi (Heartleaved moonseed) 6. Kakamachi (Black night shade)
    •   7. Vastuka( Goose foot)Shaka varga1.Kushmanda ( Ashgourd) 2.Karavellaka (Bitter gourd)3. Patola ( Snake gourd) 4. Bimbi (Ivy gourd)
    •   5.Shigruphala( Drum stick) 6.Indravaruni ( Bitter apple)7. Katutumbi ( Bottle gourd) 8. Karkotaka ( Wild gourd)9. Vartaki ( Egg plant) 10.Koshataki ( Ridge gourd)
    •   11.Trapusa ( Cucumber) 12. Kadali kaccha phala ( Raw Banana)13. Palandu (Onion) 14. Lashuna ( Garlic)Phalavarga1.Karjura ( Dates) 2. Aruka ( Peaches)
    •   3.Kapitha ( Wood apple) 4. Jambu ( Jamun)5.Udumbara ( Indian Fig) 6. Kalinga ( Watermelon)Taila varga1.Tila ( Sesame/ Gingelly) 2. Sarshapa ( Black mustard seeds)
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2DM”  Dr.Ramesh Kumar. K.L     2 KEY TO MASTER CHARTSexMale – 1Female –2Age – AgeReligion – RelHindu – 1Muslim – 2Marital Status – M.S.Unmarried – 1Married – 2Locality – LRural – 1Urban – 2Occupation – OccHouse Wife – 1Retiered emloyee-2Farmer-3Teacher – 4Police-5Business – 6Office work-7Manual work – 8Socio Economical Status– SESBelow Poverty Line-0Lower Middle Class (LMC) – 1Middle Class -- 2Upper Middle Class (UMC) – 3Education – EduUneducated – 0Primary – 1High School – 2PUC-3Graduate – 4Post Graduated – 5Family History – F.H.Absent – 0Paternal -1Maternal – 2Paternal & Maternal – 4Nature of Work – NOWSedentary work – 1Mild Work – 2Moderate Manual Work– 3Hard Manual Work – 4Exercise – ExNo Exercise – 0Does Exercise – 1Diet – DVegetarian – 1Mixed – 2Hours of Day Sleep – HODSHours of Night Sleep – HONSHabits – HNone – 0Tea – 1Coffee– 2Smoking – 3Alcohol – 4Tea & Coffee– 5All above – 6Prakruthi – PrVataPitta – 1VataKapha – 2PittaKapha – 3Fresh/TrearedFresh-1Treated-2
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2DM”  Dr.Ramesh Kumar. K.L     2 Polyphagia-PPNormal-0Mild-1Excess-3Moderate-2Burning foot &Palm-BFPNo Burning sensation -0Mild -1Severe -3Moderate -2Urine sugarNil- 02.5%- 51%- 21.5%- 32%- 4O.5%- 1Over all resultVery good improvement-1Very poor improvemenetPoor improvement-3Mild improvement-2Sara - SaSamhanan - SamSatmya - SatSattva – SattAbhyavaharana – AbhyJarana – JarVyayamashakti – VyPravara – 1Madhyama – 2Aavara – 3Polyuria: Polu urea-PU0-3 times Normal-03-5 times-15-7 times-2More than 7 times-3Polydypsia-PDNormal-0Mild-1Excess-3Moderate-2
    •     Case no OP No  Age Sex Rel Occu Edu M.S SES Loc F.H Fr/Tr Chr  Diet NoW Exc HODS HONS Hab Pra Sara SamSat  Satt Ab.Sh Jrn.Sh Vym.S Desha 1  25664  59  1  1  4  3  2  3  2  0  1  1  2  2  1  0  7  5  4  2  2  1  1  2  3  1  3 2  27889  49  2  1  1  4  2  3  2  2  1  1  1  2  1  1  7  1  4  1  2  3  1  2  2  3  3 3  28475  46  2  1  1  0  2  0  1  0  1  1  2  3  0  0  6  1  6  2  2  2  3  2  2  2  3 4  28663  54  2  1  1  3  2  2  2  1  1  1  1  2  1  1  6  0  6  2  2  2  1  2  2  2  3 5  4143  55  1  1  4  5  2  2  1  0  1  1  2  2  1  1  6  4  4  2  2  3  2  2  3  3  3 6  6745  56  1  1  6  3  2  2  1  0  1  1  2  2  1  0  6  5  4  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  3 7  9565  49  1  1  5  2  2  2  2  2  1  1  2  3  1  0  6  4  4  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  3 8  10575  58  1  1  7  3  2  2  2  0  1  1  1  2  1  0  8  5  6  2  2  2  2  1  2  2  3 9  11748  37  1  1  6  4  2  2  2  1  1  1  1  2  1  0  6  1  4  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  3 10  11960  50  2  1  7  4  2  2  2  0  1  1  2  2  1  0  7  1  5  3  3  3  3  2  2  2  3 11  13407  59  1  1  7  3  2  1  2  0  1  1  2  2  1  0  7  6  5  3  3  3  3  3  2  3  3 12  14635  32  1  1  6  4  2  2  1  2  1  1  1  2  0  0  6  5  5  1  2  2  2  2  2  3  3 13  12101  51  1  1  5  2  2  1  1  0  1  1  2  3  1  0  6  5  4  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  3 14  15984  60  1  1  6  3  2  2  2  0  1  1  1  1  1  0  6  5  4  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  3 15  16003  60  1  1  2  2  2  2  2  0  1  1  2  2  1  1  6  6  4  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  3 16  16037  48  1  1  6  4  2  2  2  0  1  1  2  3  1  3  5  5  4  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  3 17  16030  39  1  1  8  3  2  1  1  1  1  1  1  3  1  0  6  5  4  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  3 18  15980  45  1  1  8  2  2  1  2  1  1  1  1  2  1  3  6  5  4  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  3 19  15981  49  1  1  7  2  2  1  2  2  1  1  2  3  1  1  6  4  4  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  3 20  15982  49  1  1  8  2  2  2  2  0  1  1  2  3  1  1  7  6  4  1  2  2  3  1  1  2  3 21  16158  60  1  1  2  4  2  2  2  0  1  1  1  3  1  1  7  5  6  2  1  3  3  2  2  2  3 22  16149  46  1  1  6  4  2  2  2  0  1  1  1  2  0  1  7  5  4  2  2  2  2  2  3  2  3 23  17894  33  2  2  1  3  2  1  2  1  1  1  2  2  1  3  7  5  4  1  2  2  2  1  2  3  3 24  17896  39  2  2  4  3  2  2  2  2  1  1  2  2  1  1  6  5  4  2  2  2  3  2  2    3 25  17897  55  2  2  1  1  2  1  2  0  1  1  2  2  0  1  7  5  4  2  2  2  2  2  2  3  3 26  17898  41  2  2  1  2  2  1  2  2  1  1  2  2  0  1  6  5  4  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  3 27  19337  60  1  1  2  4  2  2  2  0  1  1  2  2  1  1  5  5  5  2  2  2  2  1  1  2  3 28  20072  60  1  1  3  0  2  2  1  0  1  1  2  3  0  0  7  6  4  2  2  2  3  1  1  2  3 29  20073  55  2  1  1  0  2  2  1  0  1  1  2  2  0  0  6  5  5  2  3  3  3  2  3  3  3 30  21951  50  1  1  8  1  2  1  2  0  1  1  2  3  0  0  6  6  5  2  2  2  2  1  2  2  3 
    •        Polyurea                    Poly phagia              Polydipsia                 BFP  FBS  PPBS  Urine Sugar  FR   0  14  30  60  0  14  30  60  0 14  30  60  0 14  30  60  0  14  30  60  0  14  30  60  0  14  30  60   1  2  2  2  3  2  1  1  2  2 2  1  2  0 0  0  0  126  108  115  120  180  135  158  170  0  0  0  0  2 2  3  2  2  2  2  1  2  2  3 2  1  2  1 0  0  0  148  131  120  117  189  174  153  158  1  0  0  0  2 3  2  2  1  3  2  2  2  3  1 1  1  2  0 0  0  0  134  123  111  118  156  144  150  154  1  0  0  0  3 4  3  2  2  3  2  1  2  2  1 1  1  2  0 0  0  0  128  132  118  115  160  166  136  141          2 5  1  2  1  2  1  2  1  2  1 2  1  2  0 0  0  0  128  120  126  138  164  150  144  158  0  0  0  0  3 6  3  2  2  2  2  2  3  3  2 2  2  2  0 0  0  0  104  114  108  126  156  144  138  162  0  0  0  0  3 7  3  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2 2  2  2  0 0  0  0  130  116  128  121  165  160  143  151  0  0  0  0  2 8  2  2  2  2  2  1  1  1  1 1  1  1  0 0  0  0  123  134  119  127  167  154  143  158  0  0  0  0  3 9  2  2  1  2  2  2  2  3  2 2  2  2  0 0  0  0  134  126  134  128  170  162  165  170  0  0  0  0  3 10  3  3  3  3  2  1  2  2  2 2  1  2  0 0  0  1  138  96  128  136  170  148  144  168  0  0  0  1  3 11  2  2  2  2  1  1  1  1  1 1  1  1  0 0  0  0  118  132  117  163  153  159  145  171  0  0  0  0  4 12  2  2  2  2  1  1  1  1  2 1  1  1  0 0  0  0  140  128  119  162  172  166  170  146  0  0  0  0  4 13  1  1  1  1  2  1  1  2  1 1  1  1  0 0  0  0  103  116  131  158  161  138  155  170  0  0  0  0  4 14  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 1  1  1  0 0  0  0  132  126  123  160  180  154  136  145  0  0  0  0  4 15  3  2  2  3  2  2  2  2  2 2  2  2  1 0  0  0  146  140  134  156  176  162  158  182  1  0  0  1  4 16  2  2  2  2  1  1  1  1  1 1  1  1  0 0  0  0  124  126  118  116  142  154  136  146  0  0  0  0  2 17  1  2  2  2  1  1  1  1  1 1  1  1  0 0  0  0  140  128  135  144  168  144  238  176  0  0  0  1  4 18  2  2  2  2  1  1  1  1  1 1  1  1  0 0  0  0  136  108  112  134  172  166  142  160  0  0  0  0  3 19  1  2  2  2  1  1  1  2  1 1  1  2  0 0  0  0  131  108  119  140  159  132  140  168  0  0  0  0  4 20  3  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2 2  2  2  1 0  1  1  144  132  138  148  181  162  174  178  1  0  0  1  4 21  2  2  2  2  1  1  1  1  1 1  1  2  0 0  0  0  128  139  111  134  158  165  143  152  0  0  0  0  4 22  1  1  2  2  2  2  2  2  1 1  1  1  0 0  0  0  100  124  131  128  172  169  156  164  0  0  0  0  3 23  2  2  2  2  2  1  1  2  1 1  1  1  0 0  0  0  129  131  109  136  164  158  130  153  0  0  0  0  3 24  2  2  1  2  1  1  1  1  1 2  1  2  0 0  0  0  124  129  114  134  156  148  132  154  0  0  0  0  3 25  1  1  2  2  2  2  2  2  1 1  1  1  0 0  0  0  121  128  118  132  153  162  146  148  0  0  0  0  3 26  3  2  3  3  2  2  2  2  3 2  3  3  1 0  1  1  134  116  128  136  153  138  160  174  0  0  0  1  4 27  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  2 1  1  2  0 0  0  0  127  116  108  126  161  134  130  158  0  0  0  0  2 28  3  2  2  2  3  2  2  2  2 2  2  2  1 0  0  1  146  138  130  156  186  171  168  160  1  0  0  1  4 29  2  2  1  2  2  2  2  2  2 2  2  2  0 0  0  1  136  131  117  146  174  161  143  158  1  0  0  0  4 30  3  2  3  3  2  2  2  2  3 2  2  3  1 0  0  1  130  118  124  138  164  153  160  166  0  0  0  0  3 
    •      
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”   Dr.Ramesh Kumar iPROFORMA OF CASE STUDY OFA CONCEPTUAL STUDY ON PATHYAIN MADHUMEHA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TYPE-2 DIABETESMELLITUSHead of the Department : Dr. G.N.ShakunthalaGuide : Dr. K. Naseema AkhtharCo-guide : Dr. K. S. ShantharamResearcher : Dr. K. L. Ramesh KumarPART – AHISTORY AND EXAMINATIONSl.No:Name : O. P. No.:Age : I. P. No.:Sex : Date of commencement:Religion : Date of completion :Occupation :Marital status :Married ( ) Unmarried ( ) Widow ( ) Widower ( )Educational :Socio-Economic Status:High ( ) Middle ( ) BPL ( )Address : Ph:
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”   Dr.Ramesh Kumar iiPradhana Vedana:Known case of Diabetes Mellitus Avadhi (Duration)General symptomsPolydypsia Yes/No Avadhi (Duration)Polyurea Yes/No Avadhi (Duration)Polyphagia Yes/No Avadhi (Duration)Weight Loss Yes/No kgs Avadhi (Duration)Weight gain Yes/No kgs Avadhi (Duration)Any other specify with duration:Anubandhi Vedana:a. Trishna ( ) Avadhi (Duration)b. Atisweda ( ) Avadhi (Duration)c. Angagandha ( ) Avadhi (Duration)d. Keshanakhativriddha ( ) Avadhi (Duration)e. Angamaduryata ( ) Avadhi (Duration)f. Sheetapriyatva ( ) Avadhi (Duration)g. Any other ( ) Specify with duration:Poorva Vyadhi Vrittanta:Known case of Diabetes Mellitus ( ) Avadhi (Duration)History of Asthma ( ), HTN ( ), Epilepsy ( )Any other diseases:Specify :
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”   Dr.Ramesh Kumar iiiVayaktika Vrittanta:a. Ahara - Veg/ non-veg Particular type of food- -Predominantly used Any change in food habit - If so reason and duration -b. Nidra: Night : hours/day Sound sleep ( ) Disturbedsleep ( )Diwaswapna : hours/day Sound sleep ( ) Disturbedsleep ( )c. Shareera bhara: Weight gain: Spontaneous ( ) DurationGradual ( ) DurationWeight loss: Spontaneous ( ) DurationGradual ( ) Durationd. Desha:At Birth: Jangala ( ) Anoopa ( ) Sadharana( )Presently Residing at: Jangala ( ) Anoopa ( ) Sadharana( )Vyadhi at: Jangala ( ) Anoopa ( ) Sadharana( )e. Vritti: Nature of work: Period: hrs/day Annual income:Physical worker ( )Farmer ( )Office work ( )Teacher ( )
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”   Dr.Ramesh Kumar ivBusiness ( )Any change in occupation: Yes/NoIf Yes, Duration:f. Vyayama: Yes/NoIf Yes, Nature of vyayama: Duration hrs/dayYoga ( )Walking ( )Jogging ( )Aerobics ( )Gym ( )g. Vyasana: i. Alcohol: ( )Type: Beer ( ), Vodka ( ) Brandy ( ) Whisky ( ) Rum ( ) Arrack ( ) Toddy ( )Quantity: ml/day Age when started: Age when stopped:ii. Smoking: Beedi ( ) /day Age when started:Cigarette ( ) Age when stopped:iii. Tobacco ( )iv. Betel leaves & nuts ( )v. Gutka ( )h. Arthava & Prasava Vrittanta:G ( ) P ( ) D ( ) A ( ) L ( )Age of menarche: Age of Menopause:Kulavrittanta:a. Any member in family suffering from Diabetes mellitus: Yes/Nob. Type ( )c. If Yes, relation with the patient:d. Duration:
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”   Dr.Ramesh Kumar vChikitsa Vrittanta:Any previous treatment for Madhumeha?Ayurveda: Homeopathy:Allopathic: Oral hypoglycemic Agents ( )Insulin ( ) units/day any other:II. Rogi pareeksha:Samanya pareeksha: Akriti : krisha ( ) Madhyama ( ) Sthoola ( ) Upachaya: Pravara ( ) Madhyama ( ) Avara ( ) Pramana Ht……..cm’s, weight………..kgs Varna Prakrita ( ), Vikrita ( ) specify: Naadi: ……./min, V ( ), P ( ), K ( ), VP ( ), VK ( ), PK ( ) Shwasagati………/min Dehoshma…….F Twacha: Colour:…………… Pigmentation: , Eruptions: Jihwa: Lipta ( ) / Alipta ( ) Drik: Prakrita( ) / Vikrita ( ) Nakha: Prakrita ( ) Ativriddha ( ) Anyother: B P: ………mm of hg Lymphadenopathy: Oedema: Absent ( ), General ( ), Facial ( ),Limb- pitting ( ), Non-pitting ( ) Other finding:Dashavidha pareekshaa) Prakruti : Shareera: V / P / K / VP /VK / PKManasika: Pravara / Madhyama / Avarab) Sara: Pravara / Madhyama / Avarac) Satmya: Pravara / Madhyama / Avarad) Satwa: Pravara / Madhyama / Avarae) Samhanana: Pravara / Madhyama / Avaraf) Aharashakti: Abhyavarana shakti: Pravara / Madhyama / AvaraJarana shakti: Pravara / Madhyama / Avara
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”   Dr.Ramesh Kumar vig) Vyayama shakti: Pravara / Madhyama / Avarah) Pramana: Pravara / Madhyama / Avarai) Vayatahj) Desha: Anupa ( )/ Jangala ( ) / Sadharana ( )Vishesha Pareeksha (Systemic Examinations):a) Cardio- Vascular System:b) Respiratory System:c) Gastro Intestinal System:d) Central Nervous System:Specific enquiry in the following heads:Mootra:a) Frequency: Day Nightb) Quantity: Below1000ml ( ) 1000- 1500ml( ) more than 1500ml( )c) Varna: At Beginning: At End:d) Turbidity:e) Approximate quantity in 24 hours:f) Any other:Malapravritti:a) Frequency:b) Consistency:c) Colour:d) Constipated:e) Any other:
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”   Dr.Ramesh Kumar viiTrishna: Ati ( ) Alpa ( ) Samyak ( )Approximate fluid intake per day:Laboratory Investigations:a) Urine: Sugar: b) Blood: Hb:Albumin: FBS:Micro: PPBS:Any other: Any other (if done):PART – B - INTERPRETATIONSingle group of 30 Known case of Type-2 Diabetes mellitus patients agedbetween 30- 60 yrs of either sex will be selected.Madhumeha pathya (Diabetic diet) i.e. strict diet regimen will be given for 30 days tosingle group of Known case of Type-2 Diabetes mellitus patients aged between 30- 60yrs of either sex will be selected. (Diet module enclosed)Pathyapathya: Module enclosed.PART – C – OBSERVATIONS AND ASSESSMENTSASSESSEMENTFor the assessment of the management following parameters were considered &they were graded and scores are given as follows; assessment will be done on 7th, 14th,21st, 31stdays.Polyurea---- PU 0 0 to 1 times (normal nocturnal Micturation)PU 1 2 to 3 timesPU 2 4 to 5 timesPU3 more than 5 timesPolydypsia--- PD 0 NormalPD 1 MildPD 2 ModeratePD3 Excess
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”   Dr.Ramesh Kumar viiiPolyphagia---- PP 0 Normal appetitePP 1 Mild (can tolerate appetite up to one hour)PP 2 Moderate (can tolerate appetite up to three hour)PP3 Excess (cannot tolerate appetite)Burning feet -- BFP 0 No burning sensation& palm BFP 1 MildBFP 2 ModerateBFP3 SevereObservations:Subjective Before 7thDay 14thDay 21stDay 31stDayPolydypsiaPolyureaPolyphagiaBurning feet & palmObjective Before 7thDay 14thDay 21stDay 31stDayFBSPPBSUrine SugarSignature of the Researcher Signature of the Co- GuideSignature of the Guide Signature of the HOD
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”   Dr.Ramesh Kumar ixDiabetic diet menu chartDIABETIC DIET CHARTDAY-1Patient:Age:Note:ForThe Preparations of Roti, Dosa, Raagi ball the following millets are to be taken in equalproportion and Make it Atta powder (flour). Millets: Raagi(finger millet), Navane( wildrice), Kambina akki ( fox tail millet), Syame akki ( Barnyard millet)Time Diet / Recipes1 Morning :7.00-7.30 AMRaagi Ganji/ Amblee: 200 ml( Raagi atta+Onion+ pinch salt)2 Breakfast:8.00- 9.00 AMWheat Upma – 200 gm,( Wheat Coarse powder+Onion+ Coriander Leaves+Curry leaves)Raw Cucumber pieces3 Mid After noon:11.30 –12.00Elephant apple juice( Beleda hannina panaka)(Elephant apple, Cardamom, pepper)4 Lunch: 1.00 - 1.30 PMChapathi ( Wheat+ Barley) 2 no,Vegetable+ Pulses sambar, Leafy vegetable Curry½ Bowl old cooked rice5 Evening Snacks :5 .00-5.30 PMGinger Tea 1cup( Sugar less)Wheat buiscuts( sugar free) 2 no6 Dinner : 8.00 –8.30 PMRaagi Ball (medium size) 1 noVegetable+ Pulses sambar, Leafy vegetable Curry½ Bowl old cooked rice
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”   Dr.Ramesh Kumar xDIABETIC DIET CHARTDAY-2Patient name:Age:Note: For The Preparations of Roti, Dosa, Raagi ball the following millets are to be takenin equal proportion and Make it Atta powder (flour). Millets: Raagi(finger millet),Navane( wild rice), Kambina akki ( fox tail millet), Syame akki ( Barnyard millet).Time Diet / Recipes1 Morning : 7.00 -7.30 AMOat soup 200 ml(Oats, Green gram, pepper, pinch of salt)2 Breakfast : 8 .00- 9.00 AMRaagi rotti 2 no(Raagi flour, onion, pinch salt, corianderleaves)Onion Chutney3 Mid After noon :11.30 –12.00Churned Butter milk ( fat less)(Butter milk, ginger, garlic, onion, corianderleaves)4 Lunch: 1.00 - 1.30 PMRoti 2 noCucumber salad ( kosambari)Leafy vegetable curry, vegetable + Pulsessambar½ Bowl old cooked rice5 Evening Snacks:5.00 - 5.30PMCorn soup 200ml(corn flakes, onion, garlic, pepper, pinch ofsalt)6 Dinner : 8 .00– 8.30 PMRaagi Ball (medium size) 1 noVegetable+ Pulses sambar, Leafy vegetableCurry½ Bowl old cooked rice
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”   Dr.Ramesh Kumar xiDIABETIC DIET CHARTDAY-3Patient name:Age:Note: For The Preparations of Roti, Dosa, Raagi ball the following millets are to be takenin equal proportion and Make it Atta powder (flour). Millets: Raagi(finger millet),Navane( wild rice), Kambina akki ( fox tail millet), Syame akki ( Barnyard millet).Time Diet / Recipes1 Morning : 7.00-7.30 AM Bitter guard soup( Bitter gourd,moong dal, Onion, Pepper, pinch ofsalt)2 Breakfast: 8.00 - 9.00 AMBarley Pongal( Barley, moong dal, ginger, pepper, pinch of salt)3 Mid After noon:11.30 –12.00Lemon juice( Lemon, pepper, Ginger, pinch of salt)4 Lunch: 1.00 - 1.30 PMRaagi Ball (medium size) 1 noVegetable+ Pulses sambar, Leafy vegetable Curry½ Bowl old cooked rice5 Evening Snacks:5.00 -5.30 PMRaagi amblee-200ml6 Dinner : 8.00 – 8.30 PMChapathi ( Wheat+barley) 2 noVegetable curryLeafy vegetable + Pulses sambar½ Bowl old cooked rice
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”   Dr.Ramesh Kumar xiiDIABETIC DIET CHARTDAY-4Patient name:Age:NotNote: For The Preparations of Roti, Dosa, Raagi ball the following millets are to be takenin equal proportion and Make it Atta powder (flour). Millets: Raagi(finger millet),Navane( wild rice), Kambina akki ( fox tail millet), Syame akki ( Barnyard millet).Time Diet / Recipes1 Morning : 7.00 -7.30 AM Barley soup( Coarse powdered barley, Ginger, Pepper, pinch ofsalt)2 Breakfast:8.00 - 9.00 AMDosa 2 noHorse gram chutneyLeafy Vegetable curry3 Mid After noon :11.30 –12.00Watermelon juice( Watermelon, Cardamom, Pepper, Ginger)4 Lunch : 1.00 - 1.30 PMRoti 2 noCucumber salad 1cupLeafy vegetable curry, Vegetable + Pulses sambar½ Bowl old cooked rice5 Evening Snacks :5.00 -5.30 PMVegetable soup 200ml(Vegetables, Pepper, Ginger, Pinch of salt)6 Dinner : 8.00 – 8.30 PMRaagi Ball (medium size) 1 noLeafy vegetable Curry,Vegetable+ Pulses sambar,½ Bowl old cooked rice
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”   Dr.Ramesh Kumar xiiiDIABETIC DIET CHARTDAY-5Patient name:Age:Note: For The Preparations of Roti, Dosa, Raagi ball the following millets are to be takenin equal proportion and Make it Atta powder (flour). Millets: Raagi(finger millet),Navane( wild rice), Kambina akki ( fox tail millet), Syame akki ( Barnyard millet).Time Diet / Recipes1 Morning : 7.00 -7.30 AM Vegetable soup(Vegetables, Pepper, Ginger, Pinch of salt)2Breakfast : 8.00- 9.00 AM Barley upma( Barley Coarse powder+Onion+ CorianderLeaves+ Curry leaves)3Mid Afternoon: 11.30 –12.00Cucumber salad ( kosambari)4 Lunch : 1.00 - 1.30 PMChapathi (Barley+ Wheat) 2 noVegetable curryLeafy vegetable + Pulses sambar½ Bowl old cooked rice5 Evening Snacks :5.00 - 5.30PMMoong dal soup( moong dal, Ginger, Pepper, Pinch of salt)6 Dinner : 8.00 – 8.30 PMRaagi Ball (medium size) 1 noVegetable+ Pulses sambar, Leafy vegetableCurry½ Bowl old cooked rice
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”   Dr.Ramesh Kumar xivªÀÄzsÀĪÉÄúÀ DºÁgÀ PÉʦr¢£À-1ºÉ¸ÀgÀÄ:ªÀAiÀĸÀÄì:PÀæ.¸ÀA ¸ÀªÀÄAiÀÄ DºÁgÀ/ SÁzÀå1. ¨É½UÉÎ: 7 .00 -7.30 AM gÁV CA§°/ UÀAf 200 «Ä.°(gÁV »lÄÖ, FgÀĽî, anPÉ G¥ÀÅöà)2. G¥ÁºÁgÀ:8.30 - 9.00 AM £ÀÄZÀÄÑ UÉÆâü G¦àlÄÖ- 200 UÁæA(£ÀÄZÀÄÑ UÉÆâü, FgÀĽî,PÉÆvÀÛA§j ¸ÉÆ¥ÀÅöà, PÀj ¨ÉêÀÅ)¸ËvÉ PÁ¬Ä 2 ¦Ã¸ï3. C¥ÀgÁºÀß: 11.30 – 12.00 ¨ÉîzÀ ºÀtÂÚ£À ¥Á£ÀPÀ(¨ÉîzÀ ºÀtÄÚ, K®QÌ, PÀjªÉÄt¸ÀÄ)4. ªÀÄzsÁåºÀß Hl:1.00 - 1.30PMZÀ¥Áw(UÉÆâü+ ¨Á°ð) - 2vÀgÀPÁj+ PÁ½£À ¸ÁgÀÄ, ¸ÉƦà£À ¥À®å1/2 ¨Ë¯ï ºÀ¼Éà CQÌ C£Àß5. ¸ÀAeÉ : 5.00 - 5.30 PM ±ÀÄAp nÃUÉÆâü ©¸ÀÌvÀÄÛ 26. gÁwæ Hl : 8 .00– 8.30PMgÁV ªÀÄÄzÉÝ -1 (¸ÁzsÁgÀt UÁvÀæ)vÀgÀPÁj+ PÁ½£À ¸ÁgÀÄ, ¸ÉƦà£À ¥À®å1/2 ¨Ë¯ï ºÀ¼Éà CQÌ C£À߸ÀÆZÀ£É: gÉÆnÖ, ªÀÄÄzÉÝ, zÉÆÃ¸É ªÀiÁqÀ®Ä KPÀzÀ¼À zsÁ£ÀåUÀ¼ÁzÀ £ÀªÀuÉ, PÀA©£À CQÌ, ¸ÁåªÉÄ CQ̪ÀÄvÀÄÛ gÁV EªÀÅUÀ¼À£ÀÄß ¸ÀªÀÄ¥ÀæªÀiÁtzÀ°è vÉUÀzÀÄPÉÆAqÀÄ MmÁÖgÉ »lÄÖªÀiÁrPÉƼÀÄîªÀÅzÀÄ.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”   Dr.Ramesh Kumar xvªÀÄzsÀĪÉÄúÀ DºÁgÀ PÉʦr¢£À-2ºÉ¸ÀgÀÄ:ªÀAiÀĸÀÄì:PÀæ.¸ÀA ¸ÀªÀÄAiÀÄ DºÁgÀ/ SÁzÀå1. ¨É½UÉÎ: 7.00 -7.30 AM Nmïì ¸ÀÆ¥ï 200 «Ä.°(Nmïì, ºÀ¹gÀÄ PÁ¼ÀÄ,PÀjªÉÄt¸ÀÄ, anPÉ G¥ÀÅöà)2. G¥ÁºÁgÀ: 8 .00- 9.00 AM gÁV gÉÆnÖ – 2(gÁV »lÄÖ, FgÀĽî, PÉÆvÀÛA§j ¸ÉÆ¥ÀÅöà anPÉG¥ÀÅöà)FgÀĽî ZÀnß3. C¥ÀgÁºÀß: 11.30 – 12.00 ªÀÄfÓUÉ (ZÉ£ÁßV PÀqÉzÀÄ ¨ÉuÉÚAiÀÄ£ÀÄߨÉÃ¥Àðr¹gÀĪÀÅzÀÄ)( ªÀÄfÓUÉ, ¨É¼ÀÄî½î, FgÀĽî, PÉÆvÀÛA§j ¸ÉÆ¥ÀÅöà anPÉG¥ÀÅöà4. ªÀÄzsÁåºÀß Hl : 1.00 - 1.30PMgÉÆÃn 2¸ÉƦà£À ¥À®å, vÀgÀPÁj ªÀÄvÀÄÛ PÁ½£À ¸ÁgÀÄ,1/2 ¨Ë¯ï ºÀ¼Éà CQÌ C£Àß5. ¸ÀAeÉ : 5.00 - 5.30 PM ¨ÉÃ¼É ¸ÀÆ¥ï-200 «Ä.° ( ºÉ¸ÀgÀÄ ¨ÉüÉ, ¨É¼ÀÄî½î,FgÀĽî, PÉÆvÀÛA§j ¸ÉÆ¥ÀÅöà anPÉ G¥ÀÅöà)6. gÁwæ Hl : 8 .00– 8.30 PM gÁV ªÀÄÄzÉÝ -1 (¸ÁzsÁgÀt UÁvÀæ)vÀgÀPÁj+ PÁ½£À ¸ÁgÀÄ, ¸ÉƦà£À ¥À®å1/2 ¨Ë¯ï ºÀ¼Éà CQÌ C£À߸ÀÆZÀ£É: gÉÆnÖ, ªÀÄÄzÉÝ, zÉÆÃ¸É ªÀiÁqÀ®Ä KPÀzÀ¼À zsÁ£ÀåUÀ¼ÁzÀ £ÀªÀuÉ, PÀA©£À CQÌ, ¸ÁåªÉÄ CQ̪ÀÄvÀÄÛ gÁV EªÀÅUÀ¼À£ÀÄß ¸ÀªÀÄ¥ÀæªÀiÁtzÀ°è vÉUÀzÀÄPÉÆAqÀÄ MmÁÖgÉ »lÄÖªÀiÁrPÉƼÀÄîªÀÅzÀÄ.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”   Dr.Ramesh Kumar xviªÀÄzsÀĪÉÄúÀ DºÁgÀ PÉʦr¢£À-3ºÉ¸ÀgÀÄ:ªÀAiÀĸÀÄì:PÀæ.¸ÀA ¸ÀªÀÄAiÀÄ DºÁgÀ/ SÁzÀå1. ¨É½UÉÎ: 7.00 -7.30 AM ºÁUÀ®PÁ¬Ä ¸ÀÆ¥ï(ºÁUÀ®PÁ¬Ä, ºÉ¸ÀgÀÄ ¨ÉüÉ,FgÀĽî,PÀjªÉÄt¹£À ¥ÀÅr,anPÉ G¥ÀÅöà)2. G¥ÁºÁgÀ:8.00 -9.00AM¨Á°ð ¥ÉÇAUÀ¯ï(¨Á°ð, ºÉ¸ÀgÀÄ ¨ÉüÉ,±ÀÄAp,PÀjªÉÄt¹£À ¥ÀÅr, anPÉG¥ÀÅöà)K®QÌ ¨Á¼É 13. C¥ÀgÁºÀß: 11.30 – 12.00 ¤A¨É ±ÀgÀ§vÀÄÛ(¤A¨É ºÀtÄÚ, ,±ÀÄAp,PÀjªÉÄt¹£À ¥ÀÅr, anPÉ G¥ÀÅöà)4. ªÀÄzsÁåºÀß Hl : 1 .00-1.30 PMgÁV ªÀÄÄzÉÝ -1 (¸ÁzsÁgÀt UÁvÀæ)vÀgÀPÁj+ PÁ½£À ¸ÁgÀÄ, ¸ÉƦà£À ¥À®å1/2 ¨Ë¯ï ºÀ¼Éà CQÌ C£Àß5. ¸ÀAeÉ : 5 .00- 5.30 PM gÁV CA§°/ UÀAf 200 «Ä.°(gÁV »lÄÖ, FgÀĽî, anPÉ G¥ÀÅöà)6. gÁwæHl:8.00–8.30 PM ZÀ¥Áw(UÉÆâü+ ¨Á°ð)- 2vÀgÀPÁj ¥À®å, ¸ÉÆ¥ÀÅöà + ¨ÉÃ¼É PÁ½£À ¸ÁgÀÄ1/2 ¨Ë¯ï ºÀ¼Éà CQÌ C£À߸ÀÆZÀ£É: gÉÆnÖ, ªÀÄÄzÉÝ, zÉÆÃ¸É ªÀiÁqÀ®Ä KPÀzÀ¼À zsÁ£ÀåUÀ¼ÁzÀ £ÀªÀuÉ, PÀA©£À CQÌ, ¸ÁåªÉÄ CQ̪ÀÄvÀÄÛ gÁV EªÀÅUÀ¼À£ÀÄß ¸ÀªÀÄ¥ÀæªÀiÁtzÀ°è vÉUÀzÀÄPÉÆAqÀÄ MmÁÖgÉ »lÄÖªÀiÁrPÉƼÀÄîªÀÅzÀÄ.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”   Dr.Ramesh Kumar xviiªÀÄzsÀĪÉÄúÀ DºÁgÀ PÉʦr¢£À-4ºÉ¸ÀgÀÄ:ªÀAiÀĸÀÄì:PÀæ.¸ÀA ¸ÀªÀÄAiÀÄ DºÁgÀ/ SÁzÀå1. ¨É½UÉÎ: 7.00 -7.30 AM ¨Á°ð ¸ÀÆ¥ï(£ÀÄZÀÄÑ ¨Á°ð ,±ÀÄAp,PÀjªÉÄt¹£À ¥ÀÅr, anPÉ G¥ÀÅöà)2. G¥ÁºÁgÀ: 8 .00 - 9.00 AM zÉÆÃ¸É 2 ¸ÀAºÀÄgÀĽ PÁ¼ÀÄ ZÀn߸ÉƦà£À ¥À®å3. C¥ÀgÁºÀß: 11.30 – 12.00 PÀ®èAUÀr ºÀtÂÚ£À ¥Á£ÀPÀ(PÀ®èAUÀr ºÀtÄÚ,K®QÌ, ,±ÀÄAp,PÀjªÉÄt¹£À ¥ÀÅr)4. ªÀÄzsÁåºÀß Hl : 1.00 - 1.30PMgÉÆÃn 2 ¸ÀA, PÉÆøÀA§j ¥À®å¸ÉƦà£À ¥À®å, vÀgÀPÁj ªÀÄvÀÄÛ PÁ½£À ¸ÁgÀÄ,1/2 ¨Ë¯ï ºÀ¼Éà CQÌ C£Àß5. ¸ÀAeÉ : 5.00 - 5.30 PM vÀgÀPÁj ¸ÀÆ¥ï(vÀgÀPÁj, ,±ÀÄAp,PÀjªÉÄt¹£À ¥ÀÅr, anPÉ G¥ÀÅöà)6. gÁwæ Hl : 8.00 – 8.30 PM gÁV ªÀÄÄzÉÝ -1 (¸ÁzsÁgÀt UÁvÀæ)vÀgÀPÁj+ PÁ½£À ¸ÁgÀÄ, ¸ÉƦà£À ¥À®å1/2 ¨Ë¯ï ºÀ¼Éà CQÌ C£À߸ÀÆZÀ£É: gÉÆnÖ, ªÀÄÄzÉÝ, zÉÆÃ¸É ªÀiÁqÀ®Ä KPÀzÀ¼À zsÁ£ÀåUÀ¼ÁzÀ £ÀªÀuÉ, PÀA©£À CQÌ, ¸ÁåªÉÄ CQ̪ÀÄvÀÄÛ gÁV EªÀÅUÀ¼À£ÀÄß ¸ÀªÀÄ¥ÀæªÀiÁtzÀ°è vÉUÀzÀÄPÉÆAqÀÄ MmÁÖgÉ »lÄÖªÀiÁrPÉƼÀÄîªÀÅzÀÄ.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”   Dr.Ramesh Kumar xviiiªÀÄzsÀĪÉÄúÀ DºÁgÀ PÉʦr¢£À-5ºÉ¸ÀgÀÄ:ªÀAiÀĸÀÄì:PÀæ.¸ÀA ¸ÀªÀÄAiÀÄ DºÁgÀ/ SÁzÀå1. ¨É½UÉÎ: 7.00 -7.30 AM vÀgÀPÁj ¸ÀÆ¥ï(vÀgÀPÁj, ,±ÀÄAp,PÀjªÉÄt¹£À ¥ÀÅr, anPÉ G¥ÀÅöà)2. G¥ÁºÁgÀ:8.00 - 9.00 AM ¨Á°ð G¦àlÄÖ(¨Á°ð £ÀÄZÀÄÑ ,FgÀĽî, PÉÆvÀÛA§j ¸ÉÆ¥ÀÅöà,PÀj ¨ÉêÀÅ)3. C¥ÀgÁºÀß: 11.30 – 12.00 PÉÆøÀA§j ¥À®å 1PÀ¥ï4. ªÀÄzsÁåºÀß Hl : 1.00 -1.30 PMZÀ¥Áw (¨Á°ð+ UÉÆâü) 2 ¸ÀAvÀgÀPÁj ¥À®å, ¸ÉÆ¥ÀÅöà + ¨ÉÃ¼É PÁ½£À ¸ÁgÀÄ1/2 ¨Ë¯ï ºÀ¼Éà CQÌ C£Àß5. ¸ÀAeÉ : 5.00 - 5.30 PM ºÉ¸ÀgÀÄ ¨ÉÃ¼É ¸ÀÆ¥ï(ºÉ¸ÀgÀÄ ¨ÉüÉ, ,±ÀÄAp,PÀjªÉÄt¹£À ¥ÀÅr, anPÉ G¥ÀÅöà)6. gÁwæ Hl:8.00–8.30 PM gÁV ªÀÄÄzÉÝ -1 (¸ÁzsÁgÀt UÁvÀæ)vÀgÀPÁj+ PÁ½£À ¸ÁgÀÄ, ¸ÉƦà£À ¥À®å1/2 ¨Ë¯ï ºÀ¼Éà CQÌ C£À߸ÀÆZÀ£É: gÉÆnÖ, ªÀÄÄzÉÝ, zÉÆÃ¸É ªÀiÁqÀ®Ä KPÀzÀ¼À zsÁ£ÀåUÀ¼ÁzÀ £ÀªÀuÉ, PÀA©£À CQÌ, ¸ÁåªÉÄ CQ̪ÀÄvÀÄÛ gÁV EªÀÅUÀ¼À£ÀÄß ¸ÀªÀÄ¥ÀæªÀiÁtzÀ°è vÉUÀzÀÄPÉÆAqÀÄ MmÁÖgÉ »lÄÖªÀiÁrPÉƼÀÄîªÀÅzÀÄ.Exercises adopted in the study: Patients were advised to do one hour physicalexercise or 6 km walking daily.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”   Dr. Ramesh Kumar. K.L 1 BIBLIOGRAPHY1. Lolimbaraja, ‘Sudha’ hindi teekayukta, Vaidya jeevanam, 3rdEdition, Varanasi, Thechoukamba Sanskrit Series office, 1965, PP: 42. Pandit hemaraja Sharma, Kashyapa samhita of Vriddha jeeveka with vidhyotini hinditeeka, Varanasi, Choukamba Sanskrit samsthan, 2006, PP:249.3. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi, ChaukhambhaPrakashan, 2007, PP: 129.4. Raja Radha Kantha Deva, Shabda Kalpa Druma, part three, 3rdEdition,Varanasi,TheChoukhamba Sanskrit Series Office,1967,PP:29.5. Shree Taranath Bhattacharya, Shabdha stoma Mahanidhi, Samskrita shabdha kosha,Varanasi, The Choukamba prakashana, 1967, PP: 2586. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi, ChaukhambhaPrakashan, 2007, PP: 133.7. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi, ChaukhambhaPrakashan, 2007, PP: 29.8. Taranath Tarkavachaspathy Bhattacharya, Vachaspathyam, part five, Varanasi,Chowkambha Sanskria Series Office, 1969, PP: 4223.9. Chakravarthy Shreenivasa gopalachar, Shabdhartha khoustuba-Sanskrit-KannadaDictionary, Varanasi, Choukamba Sanskrit series office, 1978.10. Brahma Avadhoota Shree Sukhananda nathena, Shabdhartha Chintamani, Triteeyabhaga, ‘Pa’vargadi, Udaypur, Shree Ramaprasad mudranalay, 1921, PP: 37.11. Vanimadhava Shastri Joshi, Ayurveda Shabdha kosha, Prathama khanda, Mumbai,Maharashtra rajya sahitya and Samskrita mandal, 1968, PP:472.12. Shree Taranath Bhattacharya, Shabdha stoma Mahanidhi, Samskrita shabdha kosha,Varanasi, The Choukamba prakashana, 1967, PP: 25813. Williams M.M, Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Varanasi, Motilal Banarsidass,Reprinted 1990, PP: 122.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”   Dr. Ramesh Kumar. K.L 2 14. Shree.Y.B. Nandana, Bouddha nityacharana’s, Buddha vachana trust, Bangalore,Printed at The corporate Body of the Buddha Educational Foundation, Tai pei,Taiwan, 2004, PP: 35.15. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi, ChaukhambhaPrakashan, 2007, PP: 235.16. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi, ChaukhambhaPrakashan, 2007, PP: 279.17. Acharya Y.T, Acharya NR, Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta, Varanasi, ChaukhambaSurabharati Prakashan, Reprinted 2008, PP: 156.18. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi, ChaukhambhaPrakashan, 2007, PP: 195.19. Shivprasad Sharma, Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhata, 1stedition, Varanasi,Choukhamba Sanskrit Series Office, 2006, PP:20. Vaidhya Harishatri Paradakara, Ashtanga Hrudaya of Vagbhata, 9thEdition, Varanasi,Chaukhambha Orientalia, 2009, PP: 442.21. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi, ChaukhambhaPrakashan, 2007, PP: 129.22. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi, ChaukhambhaPrakashan, 2007, PP: 129.23. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi, ChaukhambhaPrakashan, 2007, PP: 129.24. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi, ChaukhambhaPrakashan, 2007, PP: 181.25. Acharya Y.T, Acharya NR, Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta, Varanasi, ChaukhambaSurabharati Prakashan, Reprinted 2008, PP: 9426. Acharya Y.T, Acharya NR, Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta, Varanasi, ChaukhambaSurabharati Prakashan, Reprinted 2008, PP: 248.27. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi, ChaukhambhaPrakashan, 2007, PP: 133.28. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi, ChaukhambhaPrakashan, 2007, PP: 133.
    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”   Dr. Ramesh Kumar. K.L 3 29. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi, ChaukhambhaPrakashan, 2007, PP: 133.30. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi, ChaukhambhaPrakashan, 2007, PP: 133.31. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi, ChaukhambhaPrakashan, 2007, PP: 376.32. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, Jalpa kalpataru, Gangadhara teeka, 5thEdition, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Prakashan, 2007.33. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi, ChaukhambhaPrakashan, 2007, PP: 130.34. Acharya Y.T, Acharya NR, Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta, Varanasi, ChaukhambaSurabharati Prakashan, Reprinted 2008, PP: 94.35. Pandit hemaraja Sharma, Kashyapa samhita of Vriddha jeeveka with vidhyotini hinditeeka, Varanasi, Choukamba Sanskrit samsthan, 2006, PP: 250.36. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi, ChaukhambhaPrakashan, 2007, PP: 133.37. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi, ChaukhambhaPrakashan, 2007, PP: 235.38. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi, ChaukhambhaPrakashan, 2007, PP: 181.39. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi, ChaukhambhaPrakashan, 2007, PP: 236.40. Acharya Y.T, Acharya NR, Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta, Varanasi, ChaukhambaSurabharati Prakashan, Reprinted 2008, PP: 892.41. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi, ChaukhambhaPrakashan, 2007, PP: 38.42. Vaidhya Harishatri Paradakara, Ashtanga Hrudaya of Vagbhata, 9thEdition, Varanasi,Chaukhambha Orientalia, 2009, PP: 157.43. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi, ChaukhambhaPrakashan, 2007, PP: 131.
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    • “A Conceptual study on Pathya in Madhumeha with special reference to Type-2 DM”   Dr. Ramesh Kumar. K.L 5 59. Shree mad Atreya maharshi harita muni samvada rupa,hareeta samhita, bhasha teekasameta, Mumbai, Shree Venkateshwara Mudranalaya, 1984, PP:389-390.60. Acharya Y.T, Acharya NR, Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta, Varanasi, ChaukhambaSurabharati Prakashan, Reprinted 2008, PP: 285.61. Raja Radha Kantha Deva, Shabda Kalpa Druma, part two, 3rdEdition,Varanasi,TheChoukhamba Sanskrit Series Office,1967,PP:372.62. Chakravarthy Shreenivasa gopalachar, Shabdhartha khoustuba-Sanskrit-KannadaDictionary, Varanasi, Choukamba Sanskrit series office, 1978.63. Yadunandana Upadhyaya, Madava Nidana Vol 1, Varanasi, Chaukhambha SanskritSansthan, 2003, 33/26. PP: 46064. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi, ChaukhambhaPrakashan, 2007, PP: 216.65. Vaidhya Harishatri Paradakara, Ashtanga Hrudaya of Vagbhata, Nidana sthana 10/18,9thEdition, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Orientalia, 2009.PP: 50466. Shivprasad Sharma, Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhata, Nidana sthana, 10/71stedition,Varanasi, Choukhamba Sanskrit Series Office, 2006.67. Acharya Y.T, Acharya NR, Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta, Varanasi, ChaukhambaSurabharati Prakashan, Reprinted 2008, PP: 290.68. Acharya Y.T, Acharya NR, Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta, Varanasi, ChaukhambaSurabharati Prakashan, Reprinted 2008, PP: 291.69. Brahmananda Tripathi, Sharangadhara samhita, Deepika hindi vyakhya, Varanasi,Choukamba orientalia, 2007, PP: 453.70. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi, ChaukhambhaPrakashan, 2007, PP: 215.71. Acharya Y.T, Acharya NR, Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta, Varanasi, ChaukhambaSurabharati Prakashan, Reprinted 2008, PP: 291.72. Acharya Y.T, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5thEdition, Varanasi, ChaukhambhaPrakashan, 2007, PP: 446.73. Acharya Y.T, Acharya NR, Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta, Varanasi, ChaukhambaSurabharati Prakashan, Reprinted 2008, PP: 451.
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