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Katphala usheera-dg04 kop

  1. 1. Department of Post graduate A.L.N.Rao Memorial AyurvedicStudies in DRAVYA GUNA Medical College Koppa – 577126 Dist: Chikmagalur Declaration I here by declare that this dissertation entitled “EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF KATPHALA (Myrica nagi Thumb.) AND USHEERA (Vetiveria Zizanioidis – (Linn.) Nash.) - A COMPARATIVE STUDY” is a bonafide and genuine research work carried out by me under the guidance of Prof. M. Vidyasagar, H.O.D of Post Graduate Studies in Dravya Guna, A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College P. G. Centre, Koppa. Date: Dr. Jyothi. M. Kempannavar P.G.Scholar, Place: Koppa Dept. of Dravya guna, A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa – 577 126
  2. 2. Department of Post graduate A.L.N.Rao Memorial AyurvedicStudies in DRAVYA GUNA Medical College Koppa – 577126 Dist: Chikmagalur Certificate This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF KATPHALA (Myrica nagi Thumb.) AND USHEERA (Vetiveria Zizanioidis – (Linn.) Nash.) - A COMPARATIVE STUDY” is a bonafide research work done by Dr. Jyothi. M. Kempannavar partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspati MD (Ayurveda) in Dravya guna of Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka. Date: Prof. M. Vidyasagar M.D (Ayu) (Pbi. U), Place: Koppa H.O.D. Faculty of Post Graduate Studies in Dravya Guna A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa – 577 126
  3. 3. Department of Post graduate A.L.N.Rao Memorial AyurvedicStudies in DRAVYA GUNA Medical College Koppa – 577126 Dist: Chikmagalur Endorsement This is to certify that the dissertation entitled EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF KATPHALA (Myrica nagi Thumb.) AND USHEERA (Vetiveria Zizanioidis – (Linn.) Nash.) - A COMPARATIVE STUDY” is a bonafide research work done by Dr. Jyothi. M. Kempannavar of under the guidance of Prof. M. Vidyasagar, H.O.D. of Post Graduate Studies in Dravya guna A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College P. G. Centre, Koppa. Date: Dr. Sanjaya. K.S. M.D. (Ay), Place: Koppa Principal, A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa – 577 126, Dist: Chickmagalur.
  4. 4. COPYRIGHT I here by declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminate thisdissertation in print or electronic format for academic/research purpose.Date: Dr. Jyothi. M. Kempannavar P.G. Scholar,Place: Dept. of Dravya guna, A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa – 577 126  Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka
  5. 5. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF KATPHALA (Myrica nagi Thumb.) AND USHEERA (Vetiveria Zizanioidis – (Linn.) Nash.) - A COMPARATIVE STUDY BY Dr. Jyothi. M. Kempannavar B.A.M.S. (R.G.U.H.S, Bangalore) Dissertation submitted to Rajiv Gandhi University of Health sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of “Ayurveda Vachaspati” [M.D.] in DRAVYA GUNA GUIDE Prof. M. Vidyasagar M.D, (Ayu) (Pbi. U) H.O.D., Dept. of Dravya GunaDEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN DRAVYA GUNA A.L.N.RAO MEMORIAL AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, KOPPA, CHIKMAGALUR DISTRICT, KARNATAKA, INDIA - 577126 APRIL - 2009
  6. 6. List of tablesSL. TABLE CONTENTS PAGENO. NO. NO.01 3.1 Gana/varga of katphala in various texts 1302 3.2 Synonyms of katphala in various texts 16,1703 3.3 Guna-karma of katphala 1804 3.4 Doshagnata and karma of katphala mentioned in 19 different texts05 3.5 The prayoga of katphala mentioned in different texts 20,21,2206 3.6 Formulations and Visishtayogas according to “Charaka 24 Samhitha”.07 3.7 Formulations and Visishtayogas according to “Susrutha 25 Samhitha”08 3.8 Formulations and visishtayogas according to “Astanga 25 Hridaya”09 3.9 Gana/Varga of Usheera in various texts 4110 3.10 Synonyms of Usheera in various texts 42,4311 3.11 Guna- Karma of Usheera 4612 3.12 Prayoga of Usheera mentioned in DIFFERENT TEXTS 47,4813 3.13 Formulations according to Charaka 50,5114 3.15 Formulations according to “Susrutha” 53,5415 3.14 Formulations according to “Ashtanga Hrudaya” 5216 3.16 Jwara in Animals 7617 3.17 Types of Jwara 7718 3.18 Purvaroopa;(premonitory symptoms) 8019 3.19 The vishishta Purvaroopa (special premonitory 81 symptoms)20 3.20 Jwara in various diseases 8421 3.21 Dhatu involvement of Jwara 8722 3.22 Classification of Fever 10123 4.01 Hourly mean temperature of albino rats of group i and ii 123 to evaluate the action of yeast on temperature24 4.02 Grouping of equipments 12625 4.03 Showing Behavioural changes of albino Rats 12926 5.01 Mean hourly temperature in different groups 13327 5.02 Statistical Data of Experimental Groups 13428 5.03 Compared‘t’ and respective ‘p’ values between 2 groups 13529 6.01 Statistical analysis of the obtained data 146
  7. 7. List of Charts SL. CHART CONTENTS PAGE NO. NO. NO.01 3.1 Jwara Samprapti 7902 3.2 Types of Jwara 8203 3.3 Stages of treatment of Jwara 9104 3.4 Mechanism of pyrexia 10005 4.1 The effect of Baker’s yeast on body temperature in 123 albino rats06 5.1 Average initial temperatures in the five groups 13007 5.2 Temperature pattern in Control group 13108 5.3 Temperature pattern in Standard group 13109 5.4 Temperature pattern in Katphala Churna group 13210 5.5 Temperature pattern in Usheera choornagroup 13211 5.6 Hourly mean temperature of albino rats of control, 133 standard and trial drugs (temperature in f)12 5.7 Grand average of temperature ( in 0f) of different 134 groups List of PhotographsSl. No. Photo 01 Thin layer chromatographic screening of katphala and usheera 02 Histology of Katphala 03 Histology of Usheera 04 Powder characters of Katphala and Usheera 05 Morphological characters of Katphala and Usheera 06 Photos showing Trial drugs 07 Experimental Photos
  8. 8. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I seek the blessings of Lord Ganesha and Lord Dhanwantari. Like all the othersuccess that I had in my life, this dissertation work is also an outcome of their blessings. I owe my sincere regards and boundless gratitude to Shri Aroor Ramesh Rao,President, A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa for giving me anopportunity to do my Post Graduate studies in this prestigious Institution. I am very indebted and remain grateful forever to my respected guide Prof. M.Vidyasagar, M.D., Ph.D (Ayu) Sir for his valuable guidance, meticulous superevision,timely given advices, motivational inspiration, his never ending support and blessingswithout which my thesis work and P.G. Studies will not be accomplished.I am prayingAlmighty to bestow him good health and all prosperity in coming life. I am evergreatful to Prof. Sanjaya K.S., Principal A.L.N. Rao MemorialAyurvedic Medical College, Koppa, for his kind help, support and valuable guidancefrom the day of my joining in this college, which made me to complete this dissertationwork. I express my sincere gratitude to Dr. H.R. Pradeep, Dept. of Dravya Guna for hisvaluable guidance during my dissertation work. My heartfelt gratitude to respected Prof. D.K. Mishra Sir, H.O.D. of BhaisajyaKalpana Department for his valuable guidance, support throughout my P.G. Studies. Iam also thankful for the paternal care and encouragement he offered me in all the criticalphases of my P.G. Studies. I express my sincere thanks to Prof. P.K. Mishra, HOD of Kaya ChikitsaDepartment for his guidance.
  9. 9. I owe my sincere gratitude to Prof. Radha Krishna Rao, MSc., Ph.D, visitingprofessor, Department of Dravya Guna for his valuable guidance in thePharmacognostical aspect of this work. I render my sincere thanks to Dr. Prashant Jha, Incharge of Quality Control Lab,A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa for his kind co-operation andsuggestions throughout my dissertation work. My heartfelt thanks to my lecturers of Dravya Guna Department, Dr.Ilianchezhian R., Dr. Harivenkatesh and Dr. Bhanu for their support and directions theyprovided. I also extend my humble thanks to Prof. T.K. Mohanta Sir, Dr. Rashmi RekhaMishra Madam for the support and valuable guidance during my dissertation work. I am greatful to my beloved parents Shri. M.T. Kampannavar and Smt. GirijaKempannavar for their loving care, encouragement, excellent foundation from which Iam able to build my life. Without whose support it is not possible for me to enter thisprofession. My warm gratitude to my husband Dr. K. Sharan for his immense support,encouragement, sacrifice, inspiration and his understanding attitude without my progressof any sort would have been impossible. My love and appreciation to my brothers Ravi and Guru for their immenseaffection, support, care and understanding attitude which made me to complete thisdissertation work. I am thankful to their back support and encouragement throughout mystudies.
  10. 10. I express my love to my sweet little daughter Mansi for not at all disturbing meduring my thesis work. I heartly extend my great regards to all my seniors. I am greatful to my colleagues Brijesh, Pravin Joshi, Sunil, Dinesh, Yashodha,Jina, Bhagya, Smitha Roopesh, Nagendra, Jayaraj, Ram Vibhu, Sumam and Dhanya. I extend my special thanks to Dayananda and Prashanth for their support duringmy experimental and dissertation work. I am thankful to my Juniors Mahesh Sir, Gotur Sir, Sushrutha, Madhu, Pallavi,Nisha, Priyalatha and Mahantesh. I am greatful to Librarians Mr. Satish, Mr. Bashir, Ms. Manjula and Ms. AmeenaYasmin who helped in my reference work. And last but not least, I am thankful to all my Lecturers, Friends and well wisherswho have directly or indirectly helped in completion of this work.Place : KoppaDate : Dr. Jyothi M. Kempannavar
  11. 11. ABBREVIATIONA.H - Astanga HridayaA.N - Astanga NighantuA.P.I - Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of IndiaA.S - Astanga SangrahaB.A - BangasenaB.N - Bhavaprakasha NighantuB.P - BhavaprakashaB.R - Bhaishajya RatnavaliB.S - Bhela SamhitaC.C.R.A.S - Central Council for Research inC.S. - Charaka SamhitaCD - Chakra DattaChi. - Chikitsa SthanaD.G P.V - Dravyaguna Vingnyan By P.V. SharmaD.G.H - Dravyaguna Hastamala.D.G.Y.T - Dravyaguna Vingnyan By Yadavji TrikamjiD.N - Dhanvantari NighantuG.N - Gada NigrahaH.S - Haritha SamhithaHORT-MALAB - Horthus MalabaricusI.M.M - Indian Materia Medica by K.M.NadkarniI.M.P - Indian Medicinal Plants by Kirtikar & BasuK.N - Kaiyyadeva NighantuK.S - Kashyapa SamhitaKa. - KalpasthanaM.D - Madhava DravyagunaM.k - Madyama KhandaM.N - Madanapala NighantuN.A - Nighantu AdarshaNi - Nidana Sthana
  12. 12. P.N - Priya NighantuR.M - Raja MartandaR.N - Raja NighantuS.B - Sidha Bheshaja ManimalaS.G - Sharangadhara SamhithaS.S - Sushruta SamhitaSh.S - Sharangadhara SamhitaSha - Sharira SthanaSha.N - Shaligrama NighantuSi - SiddhisthanaSl. No. - Serial NumberSo.N - Shodhala NighantuSou.N - Soushrutha NighantuSu - Sutra SthanaU - UttaratantraV.D - Vaidya ManoramaV.M - VrindamadhavaW.O.I - Wealth of IndiaY.R - Yogaratnakara. - Mentioned  - Not Mentioned
  13. 13. ABSTRACTBACKGROUND Ayurveda is a dynamic philosophy of life. Ayurveda has a broad view ofcomplete health. To meet this goal it preaches to follow the natural way. It curesphysical and mental disturbances by using the things which are naturally available andnot harmful to the body. Ayurveda has mentioned manyu drugs for the treatment ofjwara. In our classical and modern rexts we get lot references regarding the drugsKatphala and Usheera. Nighantukara’s also mentioned about Katphala and Usheera.Almost all classical books have mentioned about the Jwaraghna effect of the both drugs.Acharya Charaka says that “Jwara is invariably present during birth and death”. Thisshows the importantance of Jwara during those days of thus a wide description isavailable about Jwara in Ayurvedic texts. In these days also, during our practice, Jwara is a common and chief complaintirrespective of age, sex etc. Already many medicinal plants are used to over come or curejwara. Still there is a need for sufficient potent, safer, cost effective and commonlyavailable drugs, that which can be easily administered and absorbed in the body and doesthe therapeutic action without side effects. So, Katphala and Usheera are undertaken in the present study to evaluate itsJwaraghna property.
  14. 14. OBJECTIVES:The objectives of the present study are; 1. To experimentally evaluate the Jwaraghna (Antipyretic) effect of Katphala choorna and Usheera choorna on albino rats, where in the pyrexia has been introduced by administering Brewer’s yeast. 2. To experimentally evaluate the comparative effect of Katphala choorna and Usheera choorna over Jwara. 3. To find out sufficiently potent, safer and cost effective remedy for Jwara.METHODS: Experimental Study – albino rats were the experimental model. Anti-pyreticeffect of the drugs was conducted experimentally on four groups of albino rats, eachgroup consisting of six rats. For all the 24 rats pyrexia was induced by injecting 20% ofBrewer’s yeast solution subcutaneously at the thigh region. Four groups are assigned as follows, G1 - Control group - Distilled water G2 - Standard group - Paracetamol Suspension G3 - Trial group - Katphala Choorna G4 - Trial group - Usheera ChoornaRESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Four groups were evaluated for its Jwaraghna i.e., Anti-pyretic effect andfollowing results were obtained. Standard group (G2) with Paracetamol suspension was found effective than thetrial groups.
  15. 15. Control group (G1) with distilled water here there was no decrease in temperatureeven at the end of 14th hour. Both the trial drugs showed significant antipyretic effect in G3 and G4 whencompared to control group. Both the trial drugs i.e., Katphala choorna and Usheera choorna showed similarresults on statistical comparison with each other. However, Katphala choorna had bettereffect in controlling the temperature.CONCLUSION: Both the drugs showed Jwaraghna property in comparison to the control group.Oral administration of paracetamol suspenson for Jwara is very beneficial, but its sideeffects cannot be escaped, and its contra-indications cannot neglect. Hence KatphalaChurna, which is a natural and safest, has showed satisfactory action on Jwara bydecreasing the temperature to norma level within stipulated time, and is considered bestamong all the groups. The result of this study through animal experimentation has its own limitations;hence further clinical evaluations must be carried out to study its effect beforeadministering to fever patients.KEY WORDS: Jwaraghna property; Antipyretic; Katphal Choorna; Usheera Choorna; Distilledwater; Paracetamol suspenson; temperature; Brewer’s yeast.
  17. 17. Introduction CHAPTER - I INTRODUCTION Ayurveda is a system of medicine handed down to us by our ancient acharyasCharaka and Dhanvantari. Its scope is wide enough to cover bodily ailments as well asmental illness. Ayurveda is intimately connected with Vedas. Acharyas describedAyurveda as Upaveda of Rig Veda and as Upa anga of Atharva Veda. Brahma VaivartaPurana considers Ayurveda as fifth Veda. Origin of Ayurveda lies in Atharvavedacontaining chapters on medicines, charms, attributes of herbs and plants with therapeuticproperties. The Vedas in general contain invocation to Brahma and the other gods for asoul, body and mind for life span as long as hundred years. The four primary objectives of human life, according to Indian tradition areDharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha. The main object of Ayurveda is maintenance of themetabolic equilibrium of human psychosomatic machine and the restoration of the sameto normalcy, if the homoeostesis is upset or disturbed by the aetiopathological factors. The main aim and object of Ayurveda is, xuÉxrÉxjÉ xuÉÉxjrÉ U¤ÉhÉÇ AÉiÉÑUxrÉ ÌuÉMüÉUmÉëzÉqÉlÉÇ cÉ || (cÉUMü xÉÇÌWûiÉÉ xÉÔ§ÉxjÉÉlÉ 30/26). This means, it prolongs life span, maintains positive health and cure the diseases. Ayurveda, the science of life, is undoubtedly worlds oldest system of treatment.With the help of various indigenous methods a systematic treatment of the patient is donein this pathy. 1
  18. 18. Introduction Ayurvedic treatment is quite common in India particularly in rural areas as well asin large section of urban populace and now it has been accepted throughout the world. Living in good health has been the dream of man right from the day of hisexistence on earth. In the same way diseases had become the part of his life causing indeath some times. To conquer the same, man has developed the science of healing itsfirst gleaning is gathered. To conquer the over spreading deadly diseases, the weapon offered by Ayurvedais Bheshaja. This Bheshaja lies as a part of Ayurveda as it is one among chikitsaChatushpada, without which extirpation of disease is not possible. The drug i.e., Bheshaja or aushadha plays the prime role along with adhara andvihara of rogi i.e., diseased in effective treatment based an similar and opposite qualities.This represents that the drug possessed of required quality will curre the diseasesuccessfully based on the Samanya and Vishesha Siddhanta. The importance of single drug therapy is increasing day to day, more and moreare being screened to understand their pharmacological action and to know theadvantages of single drug over compound preparations. It is very convenient from the point of processing, economical, there will beminimum of side effects, it will be the quite reliable thechnique to determine a specificaction of drug. Thus it is convenient, simple and easy method for the patient andphysicians to attain the equilibrium of doshas, hence in this study it is decided to berelevant to administer trial drugs Katphala and Usheera as single drugs. 2
  19. 19. Introduction Ayurvedic scholars in the medival period had given importance to systematicstudy of plants, to understand their pharmaceutical properties. From 19th century manyplants are screened thoroughly through modern scientific parameters for proving theirtherapeutic efficacy, namely Antipyretics, analgesics and anti inflammatory etc. thishelps in proving the efficacy of Ayurvedic herbs by modern means and methods. Jwara is very common complaint met by every practitioner. It is a commondisease in the population and irrespective of age and time. Any one can be victim ofJwara where in, Santapa, Sweda varodha and Sarva graha are considered as the mainsymptom. Jwara can be correlated with fever. Regulated elevation in body temperatureabove the customary set point of the hypothalamic thermostat, which means a bodytemperature above the usual range of normal. Acharya Charaka has given prime importance to Jwara because according to him,Jwara is suppose to be present both during the time of birth and death, it is a symptom ofall somatic diseases and recognized it as most important cause for death. Ama is themain root cause for Jwara. Various drugs are also already there in use for the treatment of Jwara. But mostof them are costly or else have untoward side effects or adverse, effects by itsadministration or sometimes the availability of the drug will bne scasre. Hence, anattempt has been made in the present experimental study to evaluate the effect ofKatphala and Usheera as Jwaraghna, which is easily available and Jwara is rightly beingcoined as “Rogaraja”. 3
  20. 20. Introduction Katphala in Choorna form and Usheera also in Churna form is administered in theindicated dosage.Katphala (Myrica nagi) Katphala is found in sub-tropical or outer Himalaya from Ravi (Punjab) eastwardsto Assam, Arunachala Pradesh etc. Naga and Lushai hills at an altitudes to 900-2100metres. Native of China and Japan, also occurs in Malay Islands, West Pakistan andSingapore. Due to the acrid, bitter, pungent properties of bark it is useful in Vata-KaphaJwara, Asthma, urinary discharges, piles, bronchitis, throat complaints, tumours, anaemiaetc. a good snuff in head ache, usefull in collyrium for opthalmia and other eye diseases.Usheera (Vetiveria Zizanioides) It is cultivated in the whole of India and eastwards to Burma. Throughout theMalay region, Lower Guinea, West Indies, Brazil. The root is cooling, bitter, alexitericstomachic, astringent, useful in burning sensation, bilious fevers, sweats, foul bnreath,thirst, stranguary, ulcers and diseases of the blood. Being a cooling medicine it is in theform of infusion a grateful refreshing drink in fevers, inflammations and irritability of thestomach. Externally a paste of root is rubbed on the skin to remove oppressive heat orburning of the body. Here a comparative study is conducted to evaluate the efficacy of these drugs.The study is undertaken on Wister strain Albino rats on which temperature is inducedartificially by injecting Brewer’s yeast. 4
  21. 21. Introduction As most of the population suffers from fevers at least once in a year and forgetting relief they has to take medicines like paracetamol etc, whose side effects can notbe ignored. Hence here an attempt is made to arrive at a herbal alternative for modernantipyretics, as they are devoid of side effects, can be collected easily and making it costeffective. After considering above factors, these drugs are taken up for research study inexperimental trials. Hence in this study, an attempt is made to determine and establishthe Jwaraghna property of the trial drugs and its efficacy as a single drug. 5
  22. 22. Objectives CHAPTER II OBJECTIVESThe objectives of the present study are; 1. To experimentally evaluate the Jwaraghna (Antipyretic) effect of Katphala choorna and Usheera choorna on albino rats, where in the pyrexia has been introduced by administering Brewer’s yeast. 2. To experimentally evaluate the comparative effect of Katphala choorna and Usheera choorna over Jwara. 3. To find out sufficiently potent, safer and cost effective remedy for Jwara. 6
  23. 23. Review of Literature – Drug Review CHAPTER III A DRUG REVIEW Ayurveda has mentioned many drugs for the treatment of Jwara. Drug is asubstance which is used as diet and also as a medicine. And the drug which is used asmedicine will be Veerya Pradhana and is used as diet or Ahara will be Rasa Pradhana.Thus the division of Ayurveda dealing with this aspect becomes the most important one. The reference regarding the drugs Katphala and Usheera are widely available inmost of the Ayurvedic classical texts. These drugs are commonly available and used inthe form of both single drugs and compound formulations. The references of these drugsare available in Vedas, Samhitas and detailed description is available in Nighantus also. The literature regarding the drugs Katphala and Usheera obtained from differenttexts are compiled under following headings.  Nomenclature  Gana – Varga  Nirukti and Paryayas  Vernacular Names  Morphology  Varieties  Parts used  Matra  Pharmacognosy  Guna  Karma 7
  24. 24. Review of Literature – Drug Review  Indications  Therapeutics  Uses in other system of medicine  Cultivation and Propagation  Research works  ReferencesKATPHALA – Myrica nagiHISTORICAL REVIEW1,2,,3,4,16 The medicinal property of the plant Katphala had been known for thousands ofyears. It can be traced back to puranas, Samhita period, meadival period and also inmodern period.PURANA KALA In agni purana katphala was mentioned under the name of kaitaryya ( 363/24 ). Ingaruda purana katphala was known with the name somavriksha, agnigandha andsugandhika.(202.24,53).SAMHITA PERIODCharaka Samhita Charaka has mentioned regarding Katphala at several contexts, also it wasmentioned as an ingredient of many formulations in the treatment of many diseases. 8
  25. 25. Review of Literature – Drug Review In Charaka Samhita references regarding the drug Katphala are available inSutrasthana, Vimanasthana, Chikitsasthana and Siddhisthana also. And also hementioned as an ingredient of many formulations in the treatment of Jwara, Raktapitta,Prameha, Kushta, Arshas, Kasa, Atisara, Vishachikitsa, Vrana, Hridroga, Dantaroga,Kantharoga, Shiroroga, Vatavyadhi, Yonivyapath etc.Sushrutha Samhitha Sushrutha has mentioned about Katphala in Sutrasthana, Chikitsasthana,Kalpasthana and also mentioned in Uttara tantra. He has classified or grouped Katphalain several Ganas. It can also be found as a single and ingredient of many formulations inthe treatment of mahavatavyadhi, vidradhi, sarpadashta chikitsa, abhishyanda, drushtigataroga, nasa roga, pratishyaya, shiroroga, jwara, kasa etc.Ashtanga Hrudaya Vagbhatha has mentioned about Katphala in Sutrasthana, Chikitsasthana,Kalpasthana, and also in Uttarasthana. He also classified Katphala into several groups.Along with other drugs he has highlighted it for the treatment of Jwara, Kasa,Rajayakshama, Chardi, Arshas, Atisara, Prameha, Vatmaroga, Mukharoga, Vrana, Guhyaroga etc.NIGHANTUSSoushrutha Nighantu: Paryayas of Katphala along with its Guna Karma has been mentioned in thisbook. 9
  26. 26. Review of Literature – Drug ReviewAshtang Nighantu: Paryayas of Katphala has been mentioned in this Nighantu.Dhanvantari Nighantu: Paryayas of Katphala along with its Guna, Karma, Prayojya anga and its uses alsomentioned in this Nighantu.Madana Pala Nighantu: Katphala has been mention ed in this book along with its Paryayas, Rasa, Gunaand Karma.Kaiyyadeva Nighantu: Katphala has been explained in this book. Along with its Paryayas, Guna Karmaalso has been mentioned in this book.Bhavaprakash Nighantu: Paryayas of Katphala along with its Rasa, Guna, Karma and Prayojya anga hasbeen mentioned in this book.Raja Nighantu: Katphala has been explained in this book along with its Paryayas, Guna andKarma.Shaligram Nighantu: Katphala has been mentioned in this book along with its paryayas, Rasa GunaKarma.Nighantu Adarsha: Paryays of Katphala along with its Guna Karma has been mentioned in this book. 10
  27. 27. Review of Literature – Drug ReviewPriya Nighantu: Katphala has been mentioned in this Nighantu along with Guna and Karma.Mahoushadhi Nighantu: Paryayas of Katphala along with its Guna and Karma has been mentioned in thisbook.Hridaya Deepika Nighantu: Synonyms of Katphala has been mentioned in this Nighantu.MODERN PERIOD Modern books like Dravya Guna Vijnana by Prof. P.V. Sharma, Vaidya YadavajiTrikamji, Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Database on medicinal plants used inAyurveda, Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants and other recent books has coveredthe drug Katphala in detail including their chemical constituents.GANA – VARGA1,2,3,4 In our Ayurvedic Samhithas and in Nighantus, drugs has been grouped orclassified into either Vargas or Ganas. There are countless number of drugs are there inthe universe, and to study them separately and to use those drugs in practice individuallyand in compound formulations our acharyas have been classified the drugs in their bookson the basis of similar morphological actions of pharmacological action. To study a drugmore scientifically, these drugs should be put into proper order; such principle is knownas classification. This grouping or classification is based up on their morphology, properdies and actions. Charaka enlisted 50 Maha Kashayas each of which has been assigned a particularpharmacological action and contains 10 drugs of each with a similar therapeutic action. 11
  28. 28. Review of Literature – Drug Review Acharya Sushrutha arranged many drugs into 37 Ganas and named them by thedrug first mentioned in the group. Acharya Vagbhatha has followed both styles of Acharya Charaka and Sushruthaand enlisted drugs in different groups either based on the actions or known by the firstdrug in the Gana. Nighantukaras classified the drugs on the basis of their morphological similaritiesinto different Vargas.SAMHITHAS Charaka - 1. Sandhaneeya 2. Shukrashodhana 3. Vedanasthapana Sushrutha - 1. Rodhradi 2. Surasadi 3. Parushakadi 4. Lakshadi Vagbhatha - 1. Parushakadi 2. Rodhradi 3. SurasadiNighantus 1. Ashtanga Nighantu - Sarivadi gana 2. Sousrutha Nighantu - Surasadi gana, Parushakadi gana 3. Dhanvantari Nighantu - Guduchyadi varga 4. Madanapala Nighantu - Haritakyadi Varga 5. Kaiyyadeva Nighantu - Oushadhi Varga 12
  29. 29. Review of Literature – Drug Review 6. Bhavaprakasha Nighantu - Haritakyadi Varga 7. Raja Nighantu - Prabhadradi Varga 8. Shaligram Nighantu - Ashta Varga 9. Nighantu Adarsha - Katphaladi Varga 10. Priya Nighantu - Haritakyadi Varga 11. Mahoushadhi Nighantu - Mahoushaddihi Varga 12. Hridaya deepika Nighantu - Ekapada Varga GANA/VARGA1235TABLE. NO.3.1 SHOWING GANA/VARGA OF KATPHALA IN VARIOUS TEXTS So M B H C S A A D K R S N P MGANA/VARGA u P P D S S H N N N N N A N N N N N NSandhaneeya √Shukrashodhana √Vedana sthapana √Rodhradi √ √Surasadi √ √ √Parushakadi √ √ √Lakshadi √Sarivadi √Guduchyadi √Haritakyadi √ √ √Oushadhi √Prabhadradi √Ashtavarga √Katphaladi √Mahoushadhi √Ekapada √ 13
  30. 30. Review of Literature – Drug ReviewParyayas4,10,11,21,23,24 Many drugs were found to be used effectively in olden days, but the identity ofthese drugs became a history due to lack of follow up by succeeding generation.Nighantus made the identifying very easy in which they made the physician to identifythe drugs with least efforts. These synonyms were named on the basis of themorphological characters or the actions and properties. Also some commentators andnighantukaras have played a significant role in controversy by creating confusion inidentifying the plant through the synonyms named by them.Synonyms with etymology Aranya – which grows in forest Kaidaryya – ehich as katu rasa Kumbhika – the fruits of tree are rounded Mahakaccha – which has a great bark Mahaphala – which has a great fruit Ranjaka – which gives colour Ranjanaka – which stains red Somavalka – which has moon like white bark Twakphala – the bark of the plant being useful Ugragandha – one which has a strong pungent odourCLASSIFICATION OF SYNONYMSOn the basis of out look Laghukashmarya, Ramasenaka, Somavriksha, Somavalkala, Shriparni, Shriparnika,Kumuda, Kumudika 14
  31. 31. Review of Literature – Drug ReviewOn the basis of fruit Katphala, Kayaphala, Kaphala, Kumbhi, Kumbhika, Kumbhipaki.On the basis of leaf Shriparni, Shriparnika.On the basis of bark Twakaphala, Somavalkala, mahavalkala, Krishnagarbha.On the basis of taste Kaitarya, Mahakashaya.On the basis of smell Ugragandha, Tikshna, Putigandha, Nasalu, Kshavakarka.On the basis of properties & actions Bhadra, Bhadranjanaka, Bhadravati, Nasalu, Prachetasi, Rohini, Ugragandha, Ranjanaka,Kshipra, Kandula, Kshavakarka, Shiva, Tikshna.On the basis of simile Laghukashmarya, Ramasenaka, Kumbhi, Kumbhika.On the basis of habitat Aranya, Ramasenaka. 15
  32. 32. Review of Literature – Drug Review TABLE NO 3.2 SHOWING SYNONYMS OF KATPHALA IN VARIOUS TEXTS M B S H D C S A A S D K R N P M P YPARYAYA P P h D G S S H N N N N N A N N V T N N N N HAranya √Bhadra √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √Bhadravathi √ √ √ √ √ √ √Bhadranjanaka √Chitritapatrika √Dolaphala √Katphala √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √Kapithapatra √Kashmaryabheeru √Kayaphala √Krushnagarbha √ √Kandula √Kaidarya √ √ √ √ √Kumuda √ √ √ √ √Kumbhi √ √ √Kumbheeka √ √ √ √ √ √Kumbha √Kumudika √ √ √ √Kulaja √Kaphala √Kumbhipaki √Kumudi √Laghu kashmarya √ √Lomapadapa √Maha kumbhi √ 16
  33. 33. Review of Literature – Drug ReviewMaha kumbha √ √Mahavalka √ √ √Maha kaccha √Mritsna phala √Mukhapriya √Nasanu √Prachetasi √ √Palaasi √Purusha √Ramasenaka √ √Ranjanaka √Rohini √ √ √Rajadana √Somavalka √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √Shreeparni √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √Somapada √Shiva √Surasi √Shakhamriga √Somavriksha √Tupa patrika √Twakphala √Ugragandha √ √Virupa √Vanijya √Teekshna sara √ 17
  34. 34. Review of Literature – Drug ReviewGUNA KARMA1,2,3,4,5,9 Guna Karma of the drug varies according to Panchabhoutika configuration. GunaVijnana in Ayurveda deals with the properties of the drugs. Rasa, Guna, Veerya andVipaka are called as pharmacological properties of the drug which are responsible for theaction of the drug. Rasa, Guna, Veerya and Vipaka are considered as the base for thepharmacology in Ayurveda. Guna and Rasa are physical and physiochemical properties.Veerya, Vipaka and Prabhava are physiological properties known from the reactions ofliving matter to the drug content. Karma causes Samyoga and Vibhaga irrespective of any other factor and islocated in dravya. This relates to action on organs, doshas, dhatus and malas which isrequired for homeostasis of the person. The pharmacological action of Katphala is mentioned widely in differentSamhithas and Nighantus. There is no much difference of opinion about Rasa, Guna,Veerya and vipaka of Katphala. Stem bark of the drug Katphala being therapeutically useful part, its properties arementioned in following table. TABLE NO.3.3 SHOWING GUNA – KARMA OF KATPHALA D D M B S H D C S A A S D K R N P M G G Guna Karma P P h D G S S H N N N N N A N N P Y N N N N H V TRasa Katu √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Tikta √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Kashaya √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √Guna Teekshna √ √ Laghu √ √Veerya Ushna √ √ √ √vipaka Katu √ √ 18
  35. 35. Review of Literature – Drug Review Table No. 3.4 SHOWING DOSHAGNATA AND KARMA OF KATAPHALA D D M B S H D Doshagnata C S A A S D K R N P M G G P P h D G and Karma S S H N N N N N A N N P Y N N N N H V T Vatashamaka √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Doshagnata Pittashamaka √ Kaphashamaka √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Vedanasthapana √ √ √ Shirovirechana √ √ √ Sanjnasthapana √ Grahi √ √ √ Deepana √ √ Vranashodhaka √Karma Vranaropana √ Kotha √ prashamaka Dahahara √ √ Ruchikara √ √ √ √ √ √ Hrudya √ Shothaghna √ √ 19
  36. 36. Review of Literature – Drug ReviewTherpeutic Indications1,2,3,4,5,9 TABLE NO.3.5 SHOWING THE PRAYOGA OF KATPHALA MENTIONED IN DIFFERENT TEXTS D D M B S H D G Doshagnata C S A A S D K R N P M G G P P h D G R and Karma S S H N N N N N A N N P Y N N N N H M V TAgnimandya √ √ √ √ √Anaha √ √Apasmara √ √Arsha √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √Aruchi √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √Ashmari √Atisara √ √ √Chardi √Daha √ √Dantaroga √Danta shoola √ √Danta soushira √Dhatu kshaya √Guda bhramsha √Gulma √ √ √ √ √ √Grahani √ √ √ √Hikka √Hridroga √ √ √ √Kaphaja roga √Kasa √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ 20
  37. 37. Review of Literature – Drug ReviewKukoonaka √Kushta √ √Mandagni √Mudhavata √Mukharoga √ √ √ √MukhashoolaMutra graham √ √ √Pandu √ √Peenasa √ √Pipaasa √Pishtika √Krimi √Nasa roga √Abhishyanda √Pleeha √ √Pothaki √Prameha √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √Pravahika √Pratishyaya √ √ √ √ √Rajayakshama √Raktapitta √Shiroroga √ √ √Shoola √ √Shwasa √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √Shosha √ √ 21
  38. 38. Review of Literature – Drug ReviewSwarakshayaShuktika √Trushna √Udavarta √Urahakshata √Vatarakta √Vartmaroga √Vatavyadhi √ √ √Visha √ √Vidradhi √Vrana √ √ √ √ √Yoni roga √ √Jwara √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √Kantharoga √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √Parts Used5,9,15Prayojya Anga – Mainly Stem bark And Rarely Flowers and Fruit.POSOLOGY4,5,9,15 The word “Posology” is derived from the Greek word, “POSOS” means – how much “LOGOS” means – Science 22
  39. 39. Review of Literature – Drug Review It is a branch of medical science, which deals with doses or quantity of drugs,which can be administered to produce the required pharmacological actions. The dose of the drug can be fined only after considering so many factors likeDosha, Dushya, Desha, Bala, Kala etc. And also condition of the patient, severity ofdisease etc.Dosage of Katphala17 In Ayurvedic Pharmacopea of India Part , Vol. the dosel of this drug 3-5 gramsof Stem bark churna is given. 23
  40. 40. Review of Literature – Drug Review FORMULATIONS AND VISISHTA YOGA1,2,3,20,26 TABLE. NO 3.6. SHOWING FORMULATIONS AND VISISHTA YOGAS ACCORIDING TO “CHARAKA SAMHITHA”Sl. YOGA Indication ReferenceNo. 1 Sandhaneeya Mahakashaya Bhagna Su 4/52 Shukra Shodhana Shukra Vikara Su 4/20 Mahakashaya3 Vedanasthapana Su 4/47 mahakashaya4 Usheeradi churna Raktapitta, Tamaka Shwasa, Chi 4/73 Pipaasa Daha5 Kushtadhya Taila Kushta Chi 7/1026 Sunishannaka Changeri Arshas, Atisara, Raktasrava Chi 14/236 Ghrita Pravahika, Guda bramsha, Mutra graha, Mudhavata, Mandagni, Auchi7 Katphaladi Ghrita Kantha Roga, Kasa, Mukha Roga, Chi 18/112 Shotha Roga, Shwasa, Hikka, Jwara8 Kasamardadi Ghrita Kasa, Shosha, Jwara, Pleeha roga Chi 18/1639 Priyangwadi Avachurnan Vrana Ropana Chi 25/6610 Twak Sanjanana Yoga Chi 25/11311 Katphaladi Kwatha Kaphajanya Hridaya Roga Chi 26/9712 Khadiradi Gutika Danta roga, Mukh roga, Aruchi, Chi 26/209 Swarabheda, Kantha roga, Mukhaa Shosha13 Bala Taila Vatavyadhi, Shwasa, Kasa, Jwara, Chi 28/152 Hikka, Chardi, Gulma, Kshata, Dhatukshaya, Pleeha Vriddhi, Shosha, Apasmara.14 Dhatakyadi Taila Yoni roga, Vipluta, Antarmukhi, Chi 30/79 Suchimukhi, Yonisrava, yonishula.15 Pushanuga Churna Arsha, Atisara, Raktasrava, Yoni Chi 30/92 dosha, Rajodosha.16 Sainchavadi Anuvasana Kaphaja roga, Bradhna, Udavarta, Si 4/13 Taila Gulma, Arsha, Pleeha, Prameha, Urustambha, Anaha, Ashmari. 24
  41. 41. Review of Literature – Drug Review TABLE NO 3.7 SHOWING FORMULATIONS AND VISISHTAYOGAS ACCORDING TO SUSRUTHA SAMHITHASl. YOGA Indication ReferenceNo. 1 Radhradi Gana Meda-Kapha hara, Yoni dosha, Su 38/14 Atisara vrana, Visha2 Surasadi Gana Kapha roga, Krimi, Pratishya, Su 38/18 Swhasa, Kasa3 Parushakadi Gana Vatahara, Mutra dosha, Hridya, Su 38/43 Pipasa, Aruchi4 Lakshadi Gana Kapha-pitta roga, Dushta Krimi, Su 38/64 Kushta, Vrana5 Pathadi Tailam All Kaphaja roga Chi 37/37 (Anuvasanartha)6 Vidangadi Tailam Pleeha, Udavartha, Vatarakta, Chi 37-39 (Anuvasanartha) Gulma, Anaha, Kapha roga, Prameha, Arsha, Sharkara7 Gomutradi Rasa Kriya Night blindness, U. 17/208 Mustadi Kavala Pratishyaya, Shjirovirechana U. 24/369 Katphala Churna Nasya Kapha janya mukhroga U. 26/2110 Nagaradi Kwatha Kapha vata jwara, Shwasa, Kasa, U. 39/193 Kapha vriddhi gala graham, Hikka, Kantha shotha, Shula TABLE NO 3.8 SHOWING FORMULATIONS AND VISISHTAYOGAS ACCORDING TO ASTANGA HRIDAYASl. YOGA Indication ReferenceNo. 1 Parushakadi Gana Trishna, Mutra roga, Vata roga Su 15/132 Rodhradi Gana Kaphaja vikara, Meda vikara, Su 15/26 Yoni dosha, Varnya, Visha, Sthambhana3 Surasadi Gana Kapha meda vikara, Krimi, Su 15/30 Pratishyaya, Aruchi, Shwasa, Kasa, Vrana.4 Kasamardadi Ghrita Shosha, Kasa, Jwara, Pleeha Chi. 3/1625 Katphala Churna Dantashula U. 22/216 Pushyanuga Churna Arsha, Atisara, Raktatisara, U. 34/47 Krimi,Yoni dosha, Yoni srava, Rajodosha.7 Dhatakyadi Taila Yoniroga, Suchi mukhi, U. 34/51 Antarmukhi, Vipluta, Upaplutha, Yonishula 25
  42. 42. Review of Literature – Drug ReviewTHERAPEUTIC USES (Amayika Prayoga)18Fever In fever caused by Kapha, the formulation consisting of Katphala, Pushkaramula,Karkatashringi and pippali mixed with honey is efficacious. It alleviates Kapha and itsassociated symptoms like – dyspnoea, cough and fever (V.M. 1-112).Diarrhea One becomes free from abdominal disorders (diarrhea) after taking Kapittha (fruitpulp) mixed with trikatu, honey and sugar or only Katphala with honey (CS.Ci. 19-112).Head Disease In head disease caused by Kapha, katphala powder should be taken as snuff orgargles alleviating kapha (SS. U. 26-21).Conjunctivitis In conjunctivitis caused by pitta, aqueous solution of katphala should be used aseye drops (SS. V. 10-12).CLASSIFICATION22 Kingdom - Plantae Division - Embryophyta – Siphonogama Sub-division - Angiospermae Class - Dicotyledonae Order - Myricacae Genus - Myrica Spices - Nagi 26
  43. 43. Review of Literature – Drug ReviewVERNACULAR NAMES8 1. Arab - Azuri, Udulbarka, Quantol udulisk, Kandul, Audul. 2. Assam - Naga-tenga 3. Bengali - Kaiphal, Satsarila. 4. English - Box Myrtle, Bay-berry, Morootham bark. 5. Gujarati - Kaiphal, Kayaphul, Kaphar. 6. Kannada - Kirishivani, Katphala, Kattala. 7. Khasia - Ding Solir, Soh-phi. 8. Kumaon - Kaphal. 9. Lushai - Keifang. 10. Malayalam - Maruta, Maru tamtoli. 11. Marathi - Kayaphala. 12. Nepali - Kobusi. 13. Persia - Kandula, Darshishaan, Dareshisham Kandul. 14. Punjabi - Kaphal, Kaiphal, Kahela, Kahi. 15. Tamil - Marudam-Pattai, Murudam. 16. Telugu - KaidaryamuFAMILY CHARACTERS OF MYRICACAE25Habit: An evergreen dioecious tree, 3-15 metre high, bark rough with deep verticalwrinkles, grey or brownish grey, young shoots, petiole and inflorescence tementose. 27
  44. 44. Review of Literature – Drug ReviewLeaves: Simple, crowded towards the ends of branches, 7.5-12.5 X 2.5-5 cm, lanceolate ornarrowly oblong-ovate, entire, acute or obtuse, the lower surface pale or rust colour,minutely gland dotted, aromatic.Flowers: Minute, unisexual, glandular, male flowers in catkins up to 2.5 cm long, solitaryin the leaf axils or sessile on a common drooping axillary stalk. Female flowers in axillary, erect, 1.3-2.5 cm long.Spikes: Male spikes 7.5 mm long arranged racemosely on a common axillary stalk 2.5-7.5cm long, bracts orbicular, often with 2-3 smaller lateral ones; stamens 3-6. Female spikes axillary, erect 1.3-2.5 cm.Fruit: Drupes 10 mm long, ellipsoid, sessile, globose or ovoid, scaly flesh red,composed of spindle-shaped fleshy fibres radiating from the rugose stone, stone wrinkledand pitted.Flowering: August – DecemberFruiting: April – May. 28
  45. 45. Review of Literature – Drug ReviewDISTRIBUTION8,25 Found in sub-tropical or outer Himalaya from Ravi (Punjab) east words to Assam,Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, in Khasia, Sylnet,Himachal Pradesh, Jaintia, Simla, Bengal, Naga and Lushai hills at an attitudes to 900-2100 metres. Native of China and Japan, also occurs in Malaya Islands, West Pakistan andSingapore. PHARMACOGNOSY17Macro and Microscopic Characters of Roota) Macroscopic: Fruit – A drupe, ellipsoid or ovoid, 0.7-1.0 cm long, 0.5-0.7 cm wide, dark brown, surface tubercled, very hard; taste, sourish sweet.b) Microscopic: Fruit – Shows epicarp cells isodia metric in surface view, mass of reddish – brown, thin walled, Parenchymatous cells with smooth walls; endocarp hard and stony consisting of sclerenchymatous cells. Seed – Seed coat shows single layered, thick, brown coloured cells; cotyledons composed of single layered, thin-walled epidermal cells containing oil and aleurone grains; mesophyll cells think walled, isodiametric, fully packed with oil globules and aleurone grains. Powder – Yellowish-brown’ shows rectangal to hexagonal, thin-walled seed coat and polygonal epidermal cells in surface view tubercled parenchymatous cells, oil globules and aleurone grains. 29
  46. 46. Review of Literature – Drug ReviewStem Barka) Macroscopic: Drug occurs in pieces of variable length, 1-2.5 cm thick, slightly quilled, fissuredlongitudinally and transversely, outer surface rough, grey to brownish grey, inner surfacedark brown and smooth; fracture, hard; taste, bitter.b) Microscopic: Mature stem bark shows multi layered cork, composed of rectangular, tangentiallyelongated, think-walled cells, some filled with red contents; secondary cortex a widezone, composed of thin-walled, rectangular to polygonal, parenchymatous cells, a numberof cells filled with red colouring matter and simple, round to oval starch grains measuring6-11 mt in diameter; a number of stone cells, in single or in groups, circular polygonal oroval, thick-walled, lignified with simple pits and radiating canals, found scatteredthroughout secondary cortex; secondary phloem consists of sieve elements, phloemfibres, crystal fibres, stone cells and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays;numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary phloem; phloemfibres with blunt or pointed end and highly thick-walled, with very narrow lumen presentin groups; stone cells similar to those found in secondary cortex, mostly in singles or ingroups of 2-3, sometimes associated with fibre groups in phloem parenchyma; in isolatedpreparation and tangential sections crystal fibres show more than twenty chambershaving single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber; a number of phloemparenchyma cells containing red colouring matter; phloem rays 1-4 seriate, containing redcolouring matter. 30
  47. 47. Review of Literature – Drug ReviewPowder Rusty red; shows a number of stone cells, phloem fibres, crystal fibres andprismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple, round to oval, starch grains measuring6-11  in diameterPHYTOCHEMISTRY10 From stem bark Myricanol, mp. 114°, is isolated and characterized (Curr. Sci.1963, 32, 16);  - sitosterol, taraxerol, myricadion, mp.268° were isolated from bark (Indian J.Chem. 1963, 1, 28). From Stem and Bark new meta-bridged biphenyls-myricanol and myricanone areisolated and their structures elucidated. (Chem. Commum. 1970, 1206). From Stem bark Myricanol glucoside mp. 220° is isolated together withmyricanol and myricanone. (Yakugaku Zasshi 1984, 100, 37; Chem. Abstr. 1984, 100,1976-89 u); From root bark 13-oxomyricanol is isolated from root bark (Phytochemistry 1980,19. 705). From bark a new triterpene is isolated and characterized as 28-hydroxy-D-friedoolean-14-cn-2-one; myricadiol, sitosterol, taraxerone and taraxerol also isolated(Phytochemistry 1987, 26, 217); tannin isolated from bark identified as partially 3-0-gallated prodelphinidin (Linchan Huaxue, Yu Gongye 1987, 7, 20; Chem. Abstr. 1988, 31
  48. 48. Review of Literature – Drug Review109, 3767 K); isolation of epigallocatechin-3-0-gallon epigallo catechin-3-0-gallate, gallicaci myricanol and myricanone from bark (Phytochemistry 1988, 27, 579); From Stem bark two new diarylheptanoid glucosides isolated and characterized asmyricanol-5-0--D (6-0-galloyl) glucopyranoside and myricanol-5-0--D-glucopyranosyl(1-6)--D-glucopyranoside; Alphitolic, arjunolic, maslinic and oleanolic acids, acetyl oleanolic acid andmyricol also isolated. (Chem. Pharm. Bul. 1988, 36, 14, 19). Structure of isomyricanone, obtained by isomerisation of myricanone, re-examined and revised (Phytochemistry 1991, 30, 3077); two new flavonol glycosidesisolated from bark and their structures elucidated as myricetin-3-0-(3”-0-galoyl)--L-rhamnoside and myricetin-3-0-(2”-0-galloyl)--L-galactoside; in addition myricetin, its3-0-(2”-0-galloyl)--L-rhamnoside and myricitrin isolated (Linchan Huanne Yu Gongye1991, 11 251; Chem. Abstr. 1992, 117, 128155 f).TRADITIONAL USES8,25 1. A decoction of the bark mixed with ginger and cinnamon is valuable in asthma, diarrhea, fevers, lung infections, chronic bronchitis, typhoid, dysentery and diuresis. 2. The powdered bark is occasionally used as a snuff in catarrh with headache. 3. It is also used by Hindus at the present day, mixed with ginger a rubefacient application in cholera. 32
  49. 49. Review of Literature – Drug Review 4. as the bark is aromatic, astringent, heating and stimulant hence the bark is used as resolvent, astringent, carminative and tonic. 5. An oil prepared with bark is dropped into the ears in earache. 6. A poultice made by brushing the bark and simmering it in water and stirring in Indian meal till it obtains the proper consistence cures scrofulous ulcers. 7. Powder of the bark combined with ginger as a stimulant application in cholera. 8. With cinnamon it is prescribed for chronic cough, asthma, fever, piles etc. 9. With vinegar it is applied to strengthen the gums. 10. Bark is chewed to relieve toothache. 11. Powder or the lotion of bark is applied to putrid sores. 12. Pessaries made of the bark are used to promote themenses. 13. A paste of the seeds with stimulant balsams is mixed with ginger and externally used as a rubefacient application to the fore arms, calves and extremities during the collapse stage of cholera. 14. With catechu, asafetida and camphor a paste of it is applied over piles with benefit.IDENTITY PURITY AND STRENGTH17 Foreign matter - Not more than 2% Total ash - Not more than 4% Acid-insoluble ash - Not more than 1% Alcohol – Soluble extractive - No less than 13% Water soluble extractive - Not less than 12% 33
  50. 50. Review of Literature – Drug ReviewCULTIVATION AND PROPAGATION6 Ornamental tree propagated by seeds, suckers and layering. Ripe fruits arecollected in May for edible purpose (Chauhan, 1999).SUBSTITUTES AND ADULTRANTS6 Careya arborea Roxb. has been found to be used in place of Katphala in someparts of India (Singh and Chunekar, 1972).USES IN DIFFERENT SYSTEM OF MEDICINE25 Action and uses in Yunani. The bark has a sharp, bitter, astringent taste; tonic, carminative; useful ininflammations, head ache, nasal, catarrh, piles, gleet, liver complaints ozoena, sores,chronic bronchitis, asthma; a uterine stimulant. The oil from the flowers is tonic; useful in earache, diarrhea, inflammation,paralysis. 34
  51. 51. Review of Literature – Drug Review RESEARCH WORKS10,151. Ethanolic extract (50%) of stem bark showed antiprotozoal activity against Ent. Hystolytica. The extract had a hypotensive effect in dog/cat. It showed antispasmodic activity on the isolated guinea pig ileum. (Dhar. et.al, 1968).2. The aqueous extract of the stem bark showed a hypotensive as well as direct myocardial depresent and vasodilator action (Nayak. et.al, 1980).3. The dried water extract of stem bark in a dose of 250 mg/kg I.P. showed analgesic action in rats by tail flickering method and was less active than Novalgin, the standard drug used (Gupta et.al, 1982).4. Myricanol less toxic to fish than rotenone (Curr. Sci. 1963, 32, 16). 35
  52. 52. Review of Literature – Drug ReviewUSHEERA – Vetiveria Zizanioides (Linn) Nash1,2,3,4,16 Usheera is widely described in the Ayurvedic classical texts. It plays significantrole in the treatment of different diseases. It has both curative and cosmetic values. It isused as single drug and in compound formulations. The references regarding Usheera areavailable in Samhitha period and Nighantu period also. The literature regarding Usheera obtained from different texts has been compiledas follows.SAMHITHA PERIODCharaka Samhitha: In Charaka Samhitha references regarding Usheera are available in Sutrasthana,Vimanasthana, Chikitsa sthana, and also in Siddhistahan. He mentioned about thecompound and single formulations of Usheera in treatments of many diseases like Jwara,Raktapitta, Prameha, Kushta, Rajayakshama, Apasmara, Kshataksheena, Arshas,Grahani, Atisara, Chardi, Visarpa, Trishna, Visha, Mukharoga, Dantaroga, Vatavyadhi,Vatarakta, Yonivyapath etc.Sushrutha Samhitha In Sushrutha Samhitha references regarding Usheera are mentioned widely inSutrasthana, Chikitsasthana, Kalpasthana, Shareerasthana and also in Uttara tantra.While classifying drugs according to their properties Acharya Sushrutha has classifiedUsheera under several Mahakashayas. He mentioned about the drug in the treatment ofmany diseases like Vrana, Vidradhi, Upadamsha, Shleepada, Abhishyanda, Drushtigataroga, Jwara, Atisara, Raktapitta, Trushna etc. 36
  53. 53. Review of Literature – Drug ReviewAshtanga Hrudaya. In Ashtanga Hrudaya Usheera has been mentioned in Sutrasthana,Shareerasthana, Chikitsasthana, Kalpasthana and also in Uttarasthana. Its compound andsingle formulations are mentioned in the treatment of Jwara, Raktapitta, Kasa,Rajayakshama, Chardi, Madatyaya, Grahani, Mutraghata, Prameha, Vatarakta, Vrana,Visha, Timira, Karna roga, Mukharoga, and also mentioned in Garbhavakranti shareeraand Garbhavyapath shareera.NIGHANTUSSoushrutha Nighantu: Paryayas of Usheera has been mentioned in this Nighantu.Ashtanga Nighantu: Paryayas of Usheera has been mentioned in this Nighantu.Dhanvantari Nighantu: Synonyms and indications of Usheera has been mentioned along with its Gunaand Karma.Madana Pala Nighantu: Usheera is mentioned in this Nighantu along with its paryayas, Guna Karma andindications.Kaiyyadeva Nighantu: Indications, synonyms and Guna karma of Usheera has been mentioned in thisNighantu. 37
  54. 54. Review of Literature – Drug ReviewBhava Prakash Nighantu: Paryayas of Usheera along with its Rasa, Guna, Karma and Prayojya anga andalso its indications are mentioned in this Nighantu.Raja Nighantu: Paryays of Usheera has been mentioned in this Nighantu along with Guna Karmaand indications.Shaligram Nighantu: Synonyms of Usheera has been mentioned in this book.Nighantu Adarsha: Mentioning of Usheera along with its Guna Karma, Paryaya and also we can seethe nirukti’s of Paryays in this book.Priya Nighanty: Paryayas, Guna karma and indication of the drug Usheera has been mentioned inthis book.Mahoushadha Nighantu: Indications along with its synonyms, Guna and Karma of Usheera has beenmentioned in this Nighantu.Hridaya Deepika Nighantu: Synonyms of Usheera has been mentioned in this book. 38
  55. 55. Review of Literature – Drug ReviewMODERN PERIOD The book of modern periods such as Dravyaguna vignana by P.V. Sharma,Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, wealth of India, Ayurvedic material medica,Database on Indian Medicinal Plants used in Ayurveda, Compendium of IndianMedicinal Plants, Indian Materia Medica, Indian Medicinal Plants and other bookswritten by recent scholar’s also a lot of information regarding gives the habit, habitat,morphology and chemical constituents etc of Usheera.GANA AND VARGA1,2,34 In ancient Ayurvedic treatises, drugs have been grouped or classified either intovargas or gunas. There are countless number of drugs are there in the universe, to studythem separately and practice them individually becomes easy by this grouping. The drugs may have similarity of action but they may have some difference. Etymologically, the Vargas and Ganas will not provide same meaning. Charakaused the term Kashaya or Skanda, Sushrutha used the term gana and Nighantukaras usedthe term varga.Samhithas Charaka Samhitha - Varnya - Shukrashodhana - Chardi Nigrahana - Daha Prashamana - Angamarda Prashamana 39
  56. 56. Review of Literature – Drug Review Sushrutha Samhitha - Eladi Gana - Sarivadi Gana - Pittasamshamana Ashtanga Hrudaya - Tikta Gana - Sarivadi GanaIn Nighantus 1. Soushrutha Nighantu - Sarivadi Gana 2. Dhanvantaru Nighantu - Chandanadi Varga 3. Madanapala Nighantu - Karpooradi Varga 4. Kaiyyadeva Nighantu - Oushadhi Varga 5. Bhavaprakash Nighantu - Karpooradi Varga 6. Raja Nighantu - Chandanadi Varga 7. Shaligram Nighantu - Karpooradi Varga 8. Nighantu Adarsha - Trinadi Varga 9. Priya Nighantu - Shatapushapadi Varga 10. Mahoushadhi Nighantu - Chandanadi Varga 11. Hridaya Deepika Nighantu- Dwipada Varga, Doshaghna Varga 40
  57. 57. Review of Literature – Drug Review GANA/VARGATABLE NO. 3.9 SHOWING GANA/VARGA OF USHEERA IN VARIOUS TEXTS So M B H C S A A D K R S N P MGANA/VARGA u P P D S S H N N N N N A N N N N N NVarnya √Shukrashodhana √Chardi Nigrahan √Daha Prashamana √Angamarda √PrashamanaEladdi gana √Sarivadi gana √ √ √Pittasamshamana √Tikta √Chandanadi varga √ √ √Karpooradi varga √ √ √Oushadhi varga √Trinadi varga √Shatapushpadi √vargaDwipada varga √Doshaghna varga √PARYAYAS4,10,11,21,23,24 Naming the plants was done according to morphologica charactersin nighantus,Which was helpful in identification in those ages. 41
  58. 58. Review of Literature – Drug Review TABLE NO. 3.10 SHOWING SYNONYMS OF USHEERA IN VARIOUS TEXTS M B S H D C S A A S D K R N P M P YPARYAYA P P h D G S S H N N N N N A N N V T N N N N HAbhaya √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √Amrunaala √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √AvadahaAvadata √Bahumula √ √ √Chaityaparni √DahaharaGandhadhya √Haripriya √IndraguptaIshtakapathIshtakapatraJalamoda √Jalashaya √Jalavasa √KataganaKumbhaLaghulayaLaghubhayaLamajjaka √ √Mrunaala √ √ √MrunalakaNalada √ √ √ √Ranapriya √ √ √ √Samagandhika √ √ √ √ √ √ √ 42
  59. 59. Review of Literature – Drug ReviewSevya √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √Sheetamulaka √ √SheethamulamShishira √Sugandhiraja √Sugandhika √ √Sugandhikota √Sugandhimulaka √Usheera √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √Vaana √Veera √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √Veeramulaka √ √Veerataru √ √Veerana √ √ √ √ √ √ √Veeranamulika √ √ √VeerabhadraVeeranamulaVeeranajata √VeeranyaVitaanamulakaVeerataraVaritara √Venigamulaka √Shubra √Baalaka √ 43
  60. 60. Review of Literature – Drug ReviewSYNONYMS WITH ETYMOLOGY1. ApÉrÉÉ – lÉÉÎxiÉ pÉrÉÇ rÉxrÉÉ: xÉÉ |  It removes all the fears about Jwara, Daha, Trishna etc., by effectively curing them.2. EzÉÏUqÉç – EwrÉiÉå CwrÉiÉå xÉuÉåï: qÉÉkÉÑrÉÉïÌS aÉÑhÉMüiuÉÉiÉç CÌiÉ | (ÌlÉ AÉ)  Many people like it because of its sweet taste, cooling effect etc.3. eÉsÉuÉÉxÉ – eÉsÉå uÉxÉiÉÏÌiÉ |  It grows near the water sources.4. lÉsÉSÇ – lÉsÉÇ aÉlkÉÇ SSÉÌiÉ CÌiÉ | (ÌlÉ. AÉ)  It provides aroma.5. qÉ×hÉÉsÉÇ – qÉ×hÉÉsÉqÉç CuÉ CÌiÉ |  Its appearance is similar to stem of lotus.6. xÉåurÉqÉç – xÉåÌuÉiÉÑÇ rÉÉãarÉÇ euÉUÌSlÉÉzÉMüiuÉÉiÉç CÌiÉ | (ÌlÉ.AÉ)  It is administered internally to treat Jwara etc. 44
  61. 61. Review of Literature – Drug ReviewGUNA1,2,3,4,5,9 Guna vijanana deals with the properties of the drugs. Rasa and Guna of the drugare considered as the physical and physio chemical properties. Veerya, vipaka and Prabhava of the drug are considered as the physiologicalproperties and these properties are know from the reactions of living matter to the drugcontent. Thus Rasa, Guna, Veerya and Vipaka and Prabhava which are simplestparameters to assess the actions of the drugs and diets, and these are considered as thebase of the pharmacology in Ayurveda.KARMA1,2,3,4,5,9 Karma is the action of the drug that which depends on the panchabhoutikata ofDrug. Karma causes samyoga and Vibhaga irrespective of any other factor, this will belocated in Dravya. In the context of Pharmacology karma relates to action on organs,doshas, dhatus, and malas which is required for homestasis of the person. 45
  62. 62. Review of Literature – Drug Review TABLE NO 3.11. SHOWING GUNA KARMA OF USHEERA D D M B S H D C S A S D K R P M G G Guna Karma P P h D G S S H N N N N N N P Y N N N N H V TRasa Madhura √ √ √ √ √ Tikta √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √Guna Laghu √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Snigdha √ Ruksha √ √ √ √Veerya Sheeta √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √Vipaka Katu √ √Dosha Vata √Karma Pitta √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Kapha √ √ √Karma Chardinigrahana √ √ √ √ Daha prashamana √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Grahi √ Mutrajanana √ √ Raktashodhaka √ √ Swedapanayana √ √ Varnya √ √ Tvagdoshahara √ Deepana √ Pachana √ √ √ √ √ √ Stambhana √ √ √ √ √ √ Rakta prasadana √ √ Svedajanana √ Kushtaghna √ 46
  63. 63. Review of Literature – Drug Review Vishaghna √ √THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS1,2,3,4,5,9 Wide references regarding Usheera are available in many Samhitas, and otherclassical books proved its medicinal value. Usheera is used widely in the treatment ofmany diseases both as a single drug and along with other drugs in compoundformulations TABLE NO.3.12 SHOWING THE PRAYOGA OF USHEERA MENTIONED IN DIFFERENT TEXTS. D D M B S H D C S A A S D K R P M G G ROGA P P h D G S S H N N N N N N N P Y N N N N H V TAbhishyanda √Agnimandya √ √Amlapitta √Amstapa √ √AnahaApasmara √Arsha √ √ √Aruchi √ √ √Ashmari √ √Atisara √ √Chardi √ √ √ √Daha √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √Gulma √ √ √Grahani √ √ √Haleemaka √ √Hridroga √ √Jwara √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √Kamala √Kasa √ √ √ √KshudrarogaKushta √ √ √ √ 47
  64. 64. Review of Literature – Drug ReviewMadatyaya √ D D M B S H D C S A A S D K R P M G G ROGA P P h D G S S H N N N N N N N P Y N N N N H V TMukharoga √ √Mutra kricchra √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √Mutraghata √Pama √Pandu √ √ √Parshwashoola √Peenasa √Prameha √ √ √Praseka √Rajayakshma √ √ √Raktapitta √ √ √ √ √ √Shiroroga √Shoola √ √Shwasa √ √ √Shosha √Shotha √ √TrushnaUpadamsha √Urahakshata √Unmada √Vatarakta √ √ √Visha √ √ √ √ √Vidradhi √ √Visarpa √ √ √ √ √ √ √Visphota √Vrana √ √ √ √ √ √ √Dantaroga √Swarabheda √Murcha √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ 48
  65. 65. Review of Literature – Drug ReviewTrushna √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √PARTS USED5,9,15 According to references available from Samhitas and Nighantus the parts used isRoots.POSOLOGY4,5,9,15 The branch of science deals with doses or quantity of drug, which is to beadministered to produce required pharmacological action. In Greek, “Posos” means“How much” and “Logos” means Science. Dose of the drug is fixed in Ayurveda only after considering the factors likedosha, dushya, desha, bala, kala etc and it differs person to person.Dosage of Usheera17 Churna - 3-6 grms. Arka and Hima - 25-50 ml. Phanta - 50-100 ml. 49