Kaphaketuras kaphajakasa rs003-gdg

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Preparation and Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kapha ketu rasa and its Clinical efficacy on Kaphaja kasa” - Dr. Pattanashetti. R.B, Department of rasashastra, Post graduate studies and research center, Shri D. G. Melmalagi Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag

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Kaphaketuras kaphajakasa rs003-gdg

  1. 1. PREPARATION AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF KAPHAKETU RASA AND ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON KAPHAJA KASA By Ravikumar B. Pattanashetti. Dissertation Submitted to the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore. In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of AYURVEDA VACHASPATHI M.D. In RASASHASTRA Under the guidance of Dr. Dilipkumar. B.M.D. (Rasashastra) And co-guidance of Dr. Girish N. Danappagoudar.M.D. (Rasashastra) DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA, POST GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH CENTER,SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GADAG – 582103. 2005
  2. 2. Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore. DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE I hereby declare that this dissertation / thesis entitled“Preparation and Physico-Chemical analysis of Kaphaketu rasa andits clinical efficacy on Kaphaja kasa” is a bonafide and genuineresearch work carried out by me under the guidance ofDr. Dilipkumar. B. M.D. (Rasashastra). Asst. Professor, Post graduatedepartment of Rasashastra and Co-guidance of Dr. Girish N.Danappagoudar, M.D. (Rasashastra), Lecturer, Post graduate department ofRasashastra.Date:Place: Gadag Ravikumar B. Pattanshetti.
  3. 3. SHRI D. G. MELMALGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GADAG. POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA CERTIFICATE BY THE CO – GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Preparation andPhysico - Chemical analysis of Kaphaketu rasa and its clinicalefficacy on Kaphaja kasa” is a bonafide research work done byRavikumar B. Pattanshetti in partial fulfillment of the requirement forthe degree of Ayurveda Vachaspathi. M.D. (Rasashastra).Date:Place: Gadag Dr. G. N. DanappagoudarM.D. (Rasashastra). Lecturer, Department of Rasashastra, Post Graduate studies and research center DGM Ayurvedic Medical College. Gadag
  4. 4. ENDORSEMENT BY THE H.O.D, PRINCIPAL OF THE INSTITUTION This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Preparation andPhysico-Chemical analysis of Kaphaketu rasa and its clinicalefficacy on Kaphaja kasa” is a bonafide research work doneby Ravikumar B. Pattanshetti under the guidance ofDr. Dilipkumar. B.M.D. (Rasashastra), Asst. Professor, Post graduatedepartment of Rasashastra and Co-guidance of Dr. Girish N.Danappagoudar. M.D. (Rasashastra), Lecturer, Post graduate department ofRasashastra.Dr. M. C. Patil, M. D. (Ayu.) Dr. G. B. Patil.Professor and H. O. D. Principal,Post graduate Dept. of Rasashastra. DGMAMC,Gadag.DGMAMC, Gadag.Date : Date:Place: Gadag Place: Gadag
  5. 5. COPYRIGHT Declaration by the candidate I herby declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of HealthSciences, Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminatethis dissertation / thesis in print or electronic format for academic /research purpose.Date:Place: Gadag Ravikumar B. Pattanshetti © Rajiv Gandhi University of health Sciences, Karnataka
  6. 6. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa on Kaphaja kasa Acknowledgement First and foremost, I salute almightily God who is omnipresent, omniscient andomnipotent. He is the possessor of the ocean of knowledge and wisdom - to which I would like tocontribute a drop in the form of my dissertation. As it is said, each and every drop goes to make anocean, so this is my humble endeavor towards its goal of wisdom. It gives me inexpressible pleasure to offer my sincere thanks to all those who haverendered their wholehearted support, guidance and Co-operation in completing the thesis work. My deep sense of gratification is due for my parents who are the architects of my career.The culture, discipline and perseverance, which I could imbibe, is solely because of theirpainstaking, upbringing and strong moral support. I am extremely happy to express my deepest sense of gratitude to my beloved and respectedHOD and Prof. Dr. M. C. PatilMD.(Rasashastra) whose sympathetic, scholarly suggestions andguidance at every step have inspired me not only to accomplish this work but in all aspects. I express my deep gratitude to my respected guide Dr. Dilipkumar B. MD.( Rasashastra) for hiscritical suggestions and expert guidance for the completion of thesis. I am extremely grateful to my co-guide Dr. G. N. Danappagowdar,MD. (Rasashastra) underwhose guidance, inspiration, supervision and valuable suggestions, I have been able to completethis research work. Principal, Dr. G. B. Patil, D. G. Melmalgi Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag, who’svaluable suggestions during the course of my academic career has shown me the way of perfectness.I convey my sincere gratitude to our beloved Principal. It is Dr. S. H. Doddamani MD (Ayu) and Dr. Jagadish Mitti, MD (Rasashastra) who helped me inevery step of this thesis work and supplied the information’s wherever necessary. I will remembertheir service with deep sense of gratitude for ever. I take this opportunity to thank HOD’s, of other departments Dr.VaradhacharyuluMD(Ayu), Dr. PurushothamacharyuluMD(Ayu) and Dr. G. V. MulgundMD(Ayu). Fortheir inspiration and valuable suggestions. I am grateful to all the PG, teachers Dr. K. S. R. PrasadMD.(AYU), Dr.ShivaramuduMD.(AYU), Dr. R. Y. ShettarMD.(AYU), Dr. Kuber SankMD.(AYU), Dr. SantoshBelvadiMD.(AYU), Dr. MulkiPatil, Dr. Yasmin, MD.(AYU), Dr. Shashidhar NidagundiMD.(AYU), andDr. D. M. Patil MD.(AYU), for their valuable inputs and suggestions. Acknowledgement - I
  7. 7. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa on Kaphaja kasa I extend my immense gratitude to Dr. R. K. Gacchinmath, Dr. G. S. Hiremath, Dr. S. A.Patil, Dr. U. V. Purad, Dr. B. G. Swami, Dr. Paraddi and other teaching staff who helped duringmy study. I take this opportunity to thank Dr. Chandur, Lecturer J. T. Pharmacy College, Gadag,who extended valuable support by conducting analytical procedures. My sincere thanks are extended to Dr. Basavaraj SaraganachariMD.(AYU), for hisinspiration and valuable suggestions. I would like to express my sincere thanks to Mr. V. M. Mundinamani, Librarian andAsst. Librarian Mr. S. B. Sureban for providing valuable books in time throughout the study. I am thankful to Mr. P. M. Nanadakumar, Statistician, who helped me in StatisticalAnalysis. I extend my sincere thanks to my seniors Dr. Srinivas Reddy, Dr. Hanumanth Gowdaand Dr. Shankar Gowda for their guidelines and timely rendered help. I can not move further before thanking to my beloved friend Dr. Varsha who have sharedall the moments of joy and sorrow with me continuously during my Post Graduate studies. I feel proud in expressing my sincere gratitude to my best friends Dr. Naganur, Dr.Hosalli, Mr. Sanjeev, Mr. Mahantesh,, Smt. Manjula, Dr. Vinod, Dr. Mahadev, Dr. Gurav, Dr.Pampanagowda, Dr. Seema. M. B., who not only helped me but stood by me during hours of stressand dejection. I take this moment to express my thanks to all my Post Graduate colleagues Dr.Santhoji, Dr. Jaggal, Dr. V. S. Hiremath, Dr. Koteshwar, Dr. Joshi, Dr. Chetan and JuniorColleagues Dr. Ganti, Dr. Pradeep, Dr. Sobagin,, Dr. Sasvihalli,, Dr. Teggi,, Dr. Sharanu, Dr.Anand, Dr. Suvarna, Dr. Anitha, Dr. M. S. Hiremath, Dr. Lingareddi,, Dr. Vijay, Dr. Umesh,Dr. Jagadish and Dr. Anand Doddamani. I am very much thankful to my room mates Dr. Kalmath,, Dr. Nagaraj, Dr. Santosh,,Dr. Venkareddi,, Dr. Jayaraj, Dr. Hugar, and Dr. Ramesh for their help and co-operation.. I am very much thankful to Raghu S. K. and Raju S. K., Net Nota Cyber Café, Gadag fortheir timely help in typing and bringing out this computer print. Last but not least, I thank to the patients who are pillars of my research work and to allthose names my memory fails to recollect. Dr. Ravikumar B. Pattanashetti. Acknowledgement - II
  8. 8. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa on Kaphaja kasa ABSTRACTBackground: In Ayurvedic literature, the classification of the disease Kasa has been donemainly on the basis of the nature of sputum. In Kaphaja Kasa patient expectoratesBahula (copious), Snigdha (unctuous), Sandra (viscid) and Swetha (white) colouredsputum. The reason for which is the hyper secretion of mucous in Pranavaha Srotas(Respiratory system). Kaphaja Kasa is one among Pranavaha Srotodusti vyadhi.Kaphaketu Rasa is a formulation which combats the Pranavaha Srotodusti vyadhis(Respiratory disorders) especially Kaphaja Kasa. Hence this study has beenundertaken.Objectives: Preparation of Kaphaketu rasa Physico – chemical analysis of Kaphaketu rasa. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in the selected cases of Kaphaja kasa patients.METHODS: Pharmaceutical Study: Tankana Shodhana. Shankha Shodhana and Marana According to Rasatarangini Vatsanabha ShodhanaAnalytical study : Kaphaketu rasa is subjected for Physico-chemical analysis likeAssay for Boron and Calcium, Acid insoluble ash, Loss on drying at 110oC, Loss onignition at 450oC, Organoleptic characters, Friability test, Disintegration time,Weight variation, Size variation, pH study, Solubility t, Test for alkaloids etc., Acknowledgement - III
  9. 9. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa on Kaphaja kasaClinical study : 30 patients of Kaphaja Kasa with confirmed diagnosis were selectedby Simple random technique. Subjective and Objective parameters were consideredfor assessment.Results : Kaphaketu rasa reducing signs and symptoms of Kaphaja Kasa which isconfirmed by the value of Subjective and Objective parameters has the statistical “p”value < 0.001. At the completion of study data was scrutinized and results were obtained bystatistically analyzing the data given to subjective and objective finding before andafter treatment. In this study it was observed and analyzed that, the effect of“Kaphaketu rasa” was statistically significant and it is suggested that this formulationhas significant role in the management of Kaphaja Kasa.Interpretation and Conclusion: The dravyas which are mentioned in Shodhana ofVatsanabha and Shankha, neutralizes the toxic properties and converts them intotherapeutically effective form. Shankha Marana: Ayurvedic Bhasama Pareeksha and modern physico- chemical analysis are the confirmative tests for the complete formation of bhasma and its genuinety. The Bhavana dravya Ardraka helps in subsiding the disease and also enhance the property of Kaphaketu rasa. Anupana also takes role in subsiding the disease by helping quick absorption of drugs. Kaphaketu rasa is one of the best formulation for Kaphaja Kasa.Key words: Kaphaketu rasa, Kaphaja kasa, Pranavaha srotas, Lungs, Chronicbronchitis, Vati Kalpana, Tankana, Shankha, Vatsanabha, Pippali. Acknowledgement - IV
  10. 10. Effect of Arohana Snehapana on Samedarakta ABBREVIATIONSR. T. Rasa TaranginiA. P. Ayurveda PrakashaR. S. S. Rasendra Sara SangrahaR. A. RasamritaR. J. N. Rasa Jala NidhiY. R YogaratnakarB. P. Bhava PrakashaR. N. Raja NighantuD. N. Dhanvantari NighantuK. N. Kaideva NighantuMa. Ni. Madanapala NighantuN. A. Nighantu AdarshaS. N Shodala NighantuC.S. Charaka SamhitaS.S Sushruta SamhitaA.S. Astanga SangrahaA.H. Astanga HridayaM. N Madhava NidanaG. N. Gadha NigrahaI.M.M Indian Materia Medica Abbreviations- VII
  11. 11. Physico - Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketurasa in Kaphajakasa LIST OF TABLESSl. No. Tables Pages 1 Showing the contents of kaphaketu rasa 5 2 Showing synonyms of Tankana 6 3 Showing the Tankana Shodhana according to different authors 9 4 Showing the Karma of Shudda Tankana according to different 9 authors 5 Showing the Rogaghnata of Shudda Tankana according to different 10 authors 6 Showing synonyms of Shankha 14 7 Showing of Rogaghnata of Shankha 16 8 Showing synonyms of Pippali 19 9 Showing actions of Pippali 21 10 Showing Indications of Pippali 21 11 Showing Synonyms of Vatsanabha 23 12 Showing types of Vatsanabha 25 13 Vatsanabha shodhana according to different authors 26 14 Showing Pharamacological Properties of Ingredients of 30 Kaphaketurasa 15 Showing the Samanya nidana of Kasa 42 16 Showing the Poorvaroopa of kasa 43 17 Showing roopa of Kaphaja kasa according to different Acharyas 44 18 Showing interrelation between Lakshanas and Dosha, Vikalpa, 47 Dushya, Srotas and Sthana in Kaphaja Kasa 19 Showing quantity of Tankana before and after Shodhana 67 20 Showing quantity of Shankha before and after Shodhana 69 21 Showing quantity of Shankha Before and After Marana 71 22 Showing Qty of Vatsanabha Before and After Shodhana 73 23 Showing Qty of Pippali Before and After Churnikarana 74 24 Showing Qty of Vatsanabha Before and After Churnikarana 75 25 Showing the Age Incidence 91 26 Showing the sex incidence 92 27 Showing the Religion 92 28 Showing Occupational Incidence 92 29 Showing socio – economical status of patients 93 30 Showing incidence of Habitat 93 31 Showing the chief complaints of the patients 94 32 Showing the incident of Chronic respiratory disorders in the family 94 33 Showing the condition of work place 95 34 Showing the incident of history of recurrent URTI 95 35 Showing the mode of on set of disease 96 36 Showing the course of the disease 96 37 Showing the periodicity of cough 96 38 Showing various types of sputum in cough 97 39 Showing the incidence of Aggravating factors 97 40 Showing incidence of smoking 98 List of Tables - VIII
  12. 12. Physico - Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketurasa in Kaphajakasa41 Showing food habits in patients 9842 Showing consuming dominant rasa in food 9943 Showing the incidence of Vyasana 9944 Showing the incidence of Nidra 9945 Showing the type of Agni of Kaphaja kasa patients 10046 Showing type of Khosta 10047 Showing exposure to any aggravating factors during working hours 10048 Showing whether symptoms produced during working hours 10149 Showing whether the symptoms reduce by change of place 10150 Showing Prakruti of patients 10151 Showing the Vyayam shakti of kaphaja kasa patients 10152 Showing Aharashakti of Kaphaja kasa patients 10253 Showing the Satmya of the Kaphaja kasa patients 10254 Showing Satwa of Kaphaja kasa patients 10255 Showing Sara of patients 10256 Showing pramana of Kaphaja kasa patients 10357 Showing the incidence by Samahana 10358 Showing the effect of the disease over routine activities 10359 Showing the observed symptoms of Pranavaha Srotas symptoms 10360 Showing the observed symptoms of Rasavaha srotas symptoms 10461 Showing the observed nidanas in Kaphaja kasa 10462 Showing the observed purva roopas in Kaphaja kasa 10463 Showing the number of patients with Kasa 10564 Showing the number of patients with Nishteevana 10565 Showing the number of patients with Uraha Vankshana 106 Sampoornmiva66 Showing the number of patients with Quantity of Sputum (morning 106 bout)67 Showing the ESR before and after treatment 10768 Showing the AEC, TC, DC values before and after treatment 10869 Showing statistical analysis of subjective parameters 10970 Showing statistical analysis of objective parameters 10971 Showing the overall result 110 List of Tables - IX
  13. 13. Physico - Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketurasa in Kaphajakasa LIST OF MASTER CHARTSSl. No. Master chart Pages 1 Showing over all assessment of the response to “kaphaketu rasa” 111 based on assessment criteria. 2 Showing the Assessment of grading of parameters of “Clinical 112 efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasa LIST OF FLOW CHARTSSl. No. Flow Charts Pages 1 Illustrating the classification of Kasa according to different factors 40 2 Showing the samprapti of kaphajakasa 45 3 Showing Pathogenesis of Chronic Bronchitis 59 LIST OF GRAPHSSl. No. Graphs Pages 1 Showing the sex incidence 92 2 Showing socio – economical status of patients 93 3 Showing the condition of work place 95 4 Showing the incident of history of recurrent URTI 95 5 Showing the periodicity of cough 96 6 Showing the incidence of Aggravating factors 97 7 Showing incidence of smoking 98 8 Showing the overall result 110 LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS Sl. No. Photographs 1 Showing Tankana, Shankha Shodhana and Marana 2 Showing Vatsanabha, Pippali Churnikarana and final product List of Tables - X
  14. 14. CONTENTSINTRODUCTION 1- 3OBJECTIVES 4REVIEW OF LITERATURE 5 - 92 DRUG RIVIEW 5 - 34 HISTORICAL RIVIEW 8 - 32 NIRUKTI AND PARIBHASHA OF SNEHA 8-9 MAHA SNEHAS 11 CLASSIFICATION OF SNEHA AND SNEHANA 12 -18 SNEHANA YOGYAYOGYA 18 - 22 SNEHA PRAKARSHA KALA 22 - 23 SHODHANANGA SNEHANA VIDHI 23 - 32 KARMUKATA OF SHODHANANGA SNEHANA 33 - 38 MEDA 39 - 42 CONCEPT OF LIPIDS 43 - 68 SAMEDARAKTA AND HYPERLIPIDAEMIA 69 - 84 DRUG REVIEW 85 - 92 Contents - V
  15. 15. Methodology 64 - 90 Pharmaceutical Study 64 - 76 Analytical Study 77 - 84 Clinical Study 85 - 90Results 91 - 112 Observations 91 - 104 Results 105 - 112Discussion 113 -128Conclusion 129 -130Summary 131 -133Bibliographic References 134 -150Annexure Contents - VI
  16. 16. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa on Kaphaja kasa Ayurvedic is a system of indigenous medicine which systematizes and appliesthe knowledge about health and disease. Health is the supreme foundation of virtue,wealth, enjoyment and salvation. Diseases are the destroyers of health, goodness andeven life itself. In Ayurveda, Acharyas have explained different charyas in order to maintainthe health. The diseases are manifested mostly because of neglecting the laws ofnature. In this modern era, urbanization have paved way for many developments, butthe hazards caused by the same can not be ignored. Quality of life on earth isdeteriorating day by day due to pollution and urbanization. Toxic substances liberated from the industries, inhalation of polluted air, in theform of smoke etc is responsible for the disease of Pranavaha srotas (Respiratorysystem). In Ayurveda the fundamental unit of living activity is said to be breathing,one of basic activity of Pranavahasrotas is exchange of gases, 16 times per minutemaking it one of the most vulnerable site for disease. The lungs with their greatersurface area (500 m2) are directly open to the external environment. Thus, structural,functional or microbiological changes within the lungs can be closely related toepidemiological, environmental, occupational, personal and social factors. Thus theprimary respiratory diseases are responsible for a major burden of morbidity andultimately death. As a result of dhuma & raja the main cause of Pranavaha srotodusthi have become unavoidable making Kasa the most common disease to the extentof 60% of total disease being recorded. Kaphaja kasa is one of the most common ailment afflicting Pranavaha srotas(Respiratory system). This condition has been considered to be the cutting edge ofthe doshic type of kasa, which if neglected or mismanaged, may result in poorprognostic conditions such as Kshataja, Kshayaja Kasa and Tamaka swasa etc., which Introduction - 1
  17. 17. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa on Kaphaja kasaare very difficult to manage. This shows the importance of early intervention of thistype of Kasa, is of paramount importance in the field of medicine. Till today it hasbeen a challenging pathological condition of the Respiratory system. Modern medical science is using Bronchodilators, Expectorants andCorticosteroids to manage Respiratory disorders which are causing many adverseeffects and suppressing the immunity. In the meanwhile Ayurvedic treatment regimens have gained muchimportance due to less adverse effects, but they are very time consuming. Thesignificance of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana becomes evident in such asituation. The branch deals with techniques for developing new formularies, whichare more potent and at the same time cost effective and also suitable to themodernized life style. Several Herbo-mineral preparations have been described in Rasashasta. Thesecombinations are mutually complimenting. The ingredients can enhance one or eachothers absorption, assimilation, bio-availability, therapeutic activity etc. They mayalso reduce one or each others adverse reactions, toxicities. To conclude the exactPharmacokinetics and Pharmacodyanamics of herbo-mineral complexes is verylaborious. To arrive at a particular conclusion, the facilities and the sophistication atthis level of research are inadequate. Kaphaketu rasa is one among such a Herbo-mineral Khalvirasayana which ishaving commonly available drugs in it and is cost effective too. Different varieties ofKaphaketu rasa are explained in several Rasa texts with slight difference in theiringredients. But in this present study which has been mentioned in the 24th chapterVishopavishadi Vijnaniya of Rasatarangini has been under taken. Introduction - 2
  18. 18. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa on Kaphaja kasa There are so many yogas recommended for Kaphaja Kasa by looking itphysicians may get confused in which particular Avastha of the disease, these are tobe prescribed, so this present study is undertaken to confirm in what stage Kaphaketurasa is effective and its overall efficacy on Kaphaja Kasa. The study also presents the observation of the incidents of factors associatedwith a disease such as sex, age and social class of patient, occupation, past history ofrecurrent upper respiratory tract infection, severity, chronicity of disease, course ofthe disease and relation with smoking etc.PLAN OF STUDY:Introduction: Introducing the subjects putting emphasis on its importance and necessity in the present time.Review of Literature: The detailed classical Ayurvedic literature and relevant modern literature about the drugs Tankana, Shankha, Vastanabha, Pippali, and about the disease Kaphaja Kasa were reviewed.Pharmaceutical Study: In this, the method of preparation of Kaphaketu rasa and various Pharmaceutical processing of ingredients of Kaphaketu rasa was incorporated.Analytical Study: This includes Physico-chemical analysis of Kaphaketu rasa.Clinical Study: This includes Clinical evaluation of Kaphaja Kasa patients.Discussion: In this, it has been tried to found out possible explanations for its effects over observations, findings and results of various studies.Conclusion and Summary: In this part summary of whole study along with certain conclusions drawn was presented. Introduction - 3
  19. 19. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa on Kaphaja kasaThe objectives of the study were as follows :Preparation of Kaphaketu rasa.Physico-chemical analysis of Kaphaketu rasa.To evaluate the clinical efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in the selected cases ofKaphaja kasa patients. Objectives - 4
  20. 20. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasaDRUG REVIEW: Rasa shastra is a branch of Ayurveda deals with drugs and efficaciousformulations, mode of preparation of different formulations under Khalvi rasayana,Kupipakwa rasayana, Pottali rasayana and Parpati rasayana. The Kaphaketu rasacomes under Khalvi rasayana. Kaphaketu rasa is a Khalvirasayana with a unique Herbo-mineralcombinations of drugs to treat Kaphaja kasa. Even though the name suggests that it isa ras preparation, it does not contain Rasa (Parada) as an ingredient. It was foundmentioned in various rasa shastra classics. We get more than one preparation in thename of Kaphaketurasa. The author of Bhaishajya ratnavali also explained Kaphaketu rasa with similaringredient but three bhavana of Ardraka swarasa, Vatis of gunja matra, Ardrakaswarasa as anupana1 and one more preparation in the name of Brihat Kaphaketu rasa2was explained. In Rasendra Sara Sangraha Kaphaketu rasa is explained under KapharogaChikitsa3 and it has same ingredients as explained in Rasatarangini. The Kaphaketurasa mentioned under Karanaroga Chikista4 have ingreadients like Trikatu, Hijjalabeeja, Shankha Bhasma, Vatsanabha and it is found recommended in Karna puya,Karna nada, Karna antaha shotha. For the present work, that which has beenmentioned in the 24th Chapter of Rasatarangini has been selected5.CONTENTS OF KAPHAKETU RASATable No.1 showing the contents of kaphaketu rasa Drug Botanical / Scientific Name Quantity Shoditha Tankana Borax 1 part Shankha Bhasma Calyx of Conch shell 1 part Shoditha Vatsanaha Aconitum ferox Wall 1 part Pippali Piper longum Linn 1 part Ardraka (Swarasa) (For Bhavana ) Zingiber officinale Rosc Q. S. Drug Review - 5
  21. 21. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasa TANKANA Tankana is mentioned in all the Brahatrayees. It is one among ksharatraya andKsharapanchaka. In Rasendrasarasangraha6, Anandakanda7, Ayurveda prakasha8,Tankana is included under uparasa varga. After 8th century A. D. it has been used asan antidote of Vatsanabha in Rasashastra and used in Paradajaranakarma9.Vernacular Name:10Sanskrit : Tankana, Rasashodhana Telagu : VeligaramuHindi : Suhaga Tamil : VenkaramEnglish : Borax Marathi : Tankana KharaKannada : Biligara Gujarathi : Tankana KharaSynonyms : Table No. 2 Showing synonyms of Tankana 11, 12, 13 Synonyms R.T A.P R.S.S Tankana + Tanka + Tanga + Tangana + Dravaka + Tankana kshara + + Tanka kshara + Ranga kshara + Ranga + Rangada + Loha shodhana + Soubhagya + Sita kshara + Shweta kshara + Tankaka + Kshara raja + Dhatu dravaka + Karamana + Pachana + Dravi + Louha vishuddhi + Drug Review - 6
  22. 22. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasaOccurrence: It occurs as natural deposit.Crude Borax is found in masses by evaporation ofwater, on shores of dried lakes in India and Tibet. It is also obtained from the mud oflakes surrounded by hills in Nepal and from Searle’s Lake in California14. In Nepal, Iran, Puga etc., Tankana occurs as crystals and as crystalline cementbetween sand grains around salt lakes. It occurs also as bedded deposits, inter layeredwith sedimentary rock15.Varieties: Varieties of Tankana on the basis of appearance:16 Tankana Sphatikabha Gudaprabha Pandura (Alam like) (Jaggery like) (Pale coloured) Varities of Tankana on the basis of occurance:17 Tankana Khanija Kritrima Varities of Tankana on the basis of availability:18 Tankana Sonari Choukiya Rasajalanidhi mentioned two types of Tankana:19 Tankana Pinda Shadama (Pale white Colour) (Pure White Colour) Drug Review - 7
  23. 23. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasaEvil effects of Ashuddha Tankana :20 The therapeutic use of Ashuddha Tankana causes vomiting and delusionsGrahayagrahyata :21 The Tankana which is clear, transparent, crystalline with bluish tinge is thebest.Nirmalikarana :22 If Tankana is mixed with dust, sand etc, impurities, then it is subjected toNirmalikarana. Take 1 part of Tankana choorna, 24 parts of water(1:24), mix welland fitter it. After some time, decant supernant water and subject it to teevragni tillwater evaporates. Take down the patra when it is little bit wet in the bottom and dryit. In this way Nirmalikarana is done. It is used in the place of Boric acid but after aShodhana only internal use can be done.Necessity of Shodhana :23 • The impure Tankana causes complications like vomiting & delusions. • If it is mixed with dust, sand etc., impurities,.Shodhana : Actually, grahya variety of Tankana does not contain any impurity except forthe water content of it, which can cause heaviness in the body after its intake.Therefore, practically Tankana is merely fried over the stove and evaporating thewater content which is termed as Shodhana. Drug Review - 8
  24. 24. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasa Table No. 3 Showing the Tankana Shodhana according to different authors.24,25, 26,27,28,29,30, 31Sl. Shodhana Process R. T. A. P. R. A R. J. N. R. S. S. Y. R. B. R. R. S. I. M. M.No.1 Fried in a pan till it becomes flower like. + + - - - + - -2 Fried on a iron pan. - - + - - - - -3 Mixed with water, next day decanted, filtered - - + + - - - - and heated on fire.4 Mixed with 24 parts of water filtered through cloth and boiled on intense fire when it + - - - - - - - becomes paste like removed from fire and dried.5 Purifies by being steeped for a night in Kanjika - - - - + - - + and dried in sun6 i. Purified by being steeped for over night in Jambhiraswarasa - - - - - - + - ii. By keeping it inside Gomaya Pharmacological properties:32 Rasa : katu Guna : Rooksha, Teekshna, Usna, Sara Veerya : Ushna Vipaka : Amla Doshagnata : Vatakaphashamaka Table No. 4 Showing the Karma of Shudda Tankana according to different authors 33, 34, 35, 36 , 37, 38, 39 Sl. Karma R. T. A. P. R. A R J. N. R S. S. B.R.R. S. Y. R. No. 1 Hridya + + + - + - + 2 Vishagna + + + + + + + 3 Deepaka + + + + + - + 4 Balya + - + - + - - 5 Rojahpravarthaka / Streepushpa janana + - + - + - - 6 Moodagarbhapravarthaka + - + - + - - 7 Shoolaghna - - - - - + - 8 Vatapittakara - - - + - - - 9 Dravani - - - - - + - 10 Bhedi - - - - - + - Drug Review - 9
  25. 25. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasaTable No. 5 Showing the Rogaghnata of Shudda Tankana according to differentauthors : 40 Sl.No. Rogaghnata R. T. A. P. R. A R. J. N. R. N. B. R. R. S. Y. R.1 Kasa + - + + + - -2 Swasa + - + + + - -3 Adhmana + - + - - - -4 Vrana + - + - - - -5 Gulma - - - - - + -6 Shoola - - - - - + -7 Jwara - - - - - + -8 Visha - + - + - + +9 Rajorodha - - - + - - -10 Kshaya - - - - + - -Matra : 1-2 rattiAnupana : Madhu, Ghrita or according to diseaseYoga : Anand Bhairava rasa Mruitunjaya rasa Sarvangasundara rasa Ardhanarishwara rasaMODERN VIEWBorax: Tankana is identified as Borax and it is composed of Boric Acid and Soda.41 Ithas a reputation as a germicide. It is primarily a bacteriostatic, not only used by themedical profession in the form of ointments and irrigating solutions, but also thecompound become a common item in house hold cabinets and nurseries.42Physical properties:43Chemical composition - Na2B4O710H20.Crystal structure - Monoclinic prisms, often dull on the surface or Crystalline tough masses or in the form of translucent irregular masses, on exposer to air it becomes opaque. Drug Review - 10
  26. 26. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasaColour - White sometimes with blue or gray tingeStreak - WhiteSolubility - Sparingly soluble in cold water more soluble in hot water.Hardness - 2 – 2.5Sp – gravity - 1.71 It’s aqueous solutions show an alkaline reaction. When heated it graduallylooses its water of crystallization, swells up and finally becomes a fused glassy mass. Keeping it in sun, looses its transparency because of evaporation of water. Itis odourless, saline in taste efflorescent in dry air. Soluble in 25 parts of water andinsoluble in 90% Alcohol. It is soluble in 1% glycerin.44Standard:45 Borax contains not less than 99% and not more than the equivalent of 103% ofNa2B4O710H20. Arsenic limit 5 parts per million, Led limit 5 parts per million,complies also with limit tests for Chloride, Sulphate and Iron.Preparation of Borax:46 Most of the Borax is prepared from the natural Borax of lake Borax or fromminerals like Colemanite (Ca2B60115H20), Boracite (2Mg3B8O15Mgcl2) etc. In the preparation of Borax, minerals such as Colemaite are ground to a finepowder and boiled with Sodium carbonate solution for three hours. 15 parts of minerals + 10 parts of Na2Co3 +60 parts of water. 2(2Cao,3B2O3)+3Na2Co3 = 3Caco3 +CaO +3Na2 B4O7 The solution is filtered and allowed to crystalline for 3 days in vats. Thus theBorax is drained, broken up and packed in Kgs. Drug Review - 11
  27. 27. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasaToxic effects:47 Acute poisoning of Borax poisoning begins with nausea, vomiting anddiarrhoea, regardless of the route of administration. The body temperature falls, andan erythematous rash similar to that of scarlet fever develops. This is followed bydesquamation, not only in the areas of the rash but also of mucous membranes.Absorption, Distribution and Excretion: It is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, serous cavities andinflammed skin. It does not penetrate the intact skin. Excretion is primarily by thekidney; approximately 50% of a given dose is excreted within 24 hours. Relativelylarge amounts are localized in the brain, liver and kidney.Action:48 Diuretic, Emmengogue, Astringent, Antacid, Local sedative and Antiseptic.Uses:49 1. It is used as germicide and primarly as a bacteriostatic 2. It is used in few commercial dermatological preparations, and also used as ophthalmic ointment 3. Fiberglass for insulation and textiles. 4. Flame retardant for fabric and wood. 5. It is used as a flux in bronzing and in silvering. 6. It is also used in making enamel and in leather tanning. Drug Review - 12
  28. 28. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasa SHANKHA Shankha is known to Indians since many days. Charaka explained shankha in27th Chapter of Sutrasthana under Varishiya varga.50 Sushruta also explained it invarious places as a medicinal use. Rasarnavakar is the person who explained orconsidered it under Shukla varga. It is a molluscan species and it is also identified as sacred chank or conch. It islarge massive elegant shell with a fine pear shaped spire and a wide opening of mouthwhich is prolonged into a narrow spout. It has an external lustrous yellowish brown horny layer and beneath it has athick layer, chiefly formed of Calcium carbonate.51Vernacular name: 52Sans : Shankha Tamil : SankaEnglish : Conch shell Telugu : SehkhamHindi : Shankh Kannada : ShankhaBengali : SankhChemical composition: Calcium carbonate (CaC03)Source:53 Indian Ocean coasts. It is the outer covering of “Molluska group” of aquaticanimal which are seen in sea. It is collected from the sea, and put in boiling water.The animal which is present inside dies and the outer portion is shanka, it is sold inmarket. Chanks are gregarious and exclusively marine animals occurring in largenumbers on muddy sand bottom Thirteen meters in depth in Tamil Nadu shores andAndaman waters. Drug Review - 13
  29. 29. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasaSwaroopa : 54 The Shankha having Vrinta, Snigdha, Sukshma Mukha, Sundara, Nirmala andGuru in nature is considered to be the best.Characters:55 It is a porcelaneous shell of an oblang or conical form. The oblong form isbulged in the middle and tapering at each end the conical variety is peculiar. Theupper portion is like corkscrew, twisted and tapering at the end. The base is broad,the interior is hallow. The surface is hard & dull white colour. The upper surface ishighly tuberuleted, the under surface shining, very brittle and translucent.Synonyms : Table No. 6 Showing synonyms of Shankha 56, 57, 58, 59 Sl. No. Synonyms R. T. A. P. B. R. R. S. R. S. S. 1 Shankaka + - - - 2 Kambu + + + + 3 Trirekha + - - - 4 Samudraja + + + - 5 Sunada + - - - 6 Deerganada + - - - 7 Kamboja + - - - 8 Kshudra - + + - 9 Shankanaka - + + - 10 Pavana dhwani - - - + 11 Mahanada - - - + 12 Haripriya - - - +Varieties:60 Two varieties of Shankha are mentioned in Ayurveda prakash. One isDakshinavartha and another Vamavartha. Dakshinavartha is said to be more sacred,uttama and is widely used for medicinal purposes. Vamavartha is madhyama can alsobe used for medicinal purposes. Fig. 5 Showing the types of Shankha Shankha Dakshinavartha Vamavartha Drug Review - 14
  30. 30. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasaShodhana :61, 62, 63 The Shankha is made into pieces and these are tied into pottali and boiled inJambira Swarasa for 4 yamas ie., 12 hours approximately. After that pottali shouldbe removed and pieces should wash with hot water. SwedanaJayanthi Swarasa Dolayantra Δ 3 hours 3 hoursTanduliya drava Dolayantra Δ swedana 3 hoursKanji Dolayantra Pachana ½ YamaNimbukamla Dolayantra PachanaAmla dravya + Dolayantra Kanji Δ SwedanaMarana of Shankha:64, 65, 66 Pieces of shuddha Shankha are dried well, then these are placed in sharavasamputa, after that sandibhandhana should be done. After complete drying it issubjected to gajaputa. After obtaining from puta the backed pieces are powdered. Itis then given the Bhavana of Kumari Swarasa and once again subjected to gajaputa.Such 2-3 putas yield good white bhasma of Shankha. The pieces of Shodhita Shankha are put into the fire and subjected forsamyaga laghu puta till the they becomes bloomed. One pala of Shankha, killed by being heated in a blind crucible is to be rubbedby means of a rod with half a masha of Tankana and used in medicines. Drug Review - 15
  31. 31. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasaPharmacological properties:67Rasa : Katu rasa (Kshara)Guna : Laghu, HimaVeerya : SheetaKarma : Grahi, Balya, Vilekhana, Agnideepana, Vishagna, Varnya, Hridya.Rogaghnata Table No. 7 Showing of Rogaghnata of Shankha 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73 Rogaghnata R. T. A. P. R. S. S B. R. R. S R. N. Y. R.Amlapitta + - + - + -Grahani + + - + + +Parinama shoola + - - - - -Tarunya pidika + + - + - +Netrapushpahara - + - - + +Gulma - - + - - -Kapha Swasa - - + - - -Meha - - + - + -Udara shoola - - + - + -MODERN VIEWCalcium carbonate : Calcium carbonate occurs in large quantities in nature as chalk, marble andlime stone. However enough CaCO3 is absorbed to cause systemic and renal effectsbut it has mainly considered to be the non systemic antacid.74Absorption & Excretion:75CaCO3 Ca+2 + CO3-2 H3O+ H2CO3 H20 + CO2 The calcium cations formed in reaction and present as the water solublecalcium chloride salt can be either absorbed or precipitated as the insoluble calciumphosphate salt in the intestine or as insoluble calcium soaps from the hydrolyzedglycerides resulting from digested food. Calcium excretion varies directly with thecreatinine clearance. Drug Review - 16
  32. 32. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasaPreparation:76 It is obtained in the laboratory by the action of soluble carbonate on a calciumsalt or by passing CO2 through lime water. CaCl2 + Na2CO3 CaCO3 + 2NaCl Ca(OH)2 + CO2 CaCO3 + H2OUntoward effects: 77 The constipating effects and chalky taste of Calcium carbonate are clinicallydisadvantages, Belching occurs in same individuals the liberation of CO2. Nausea isan occasional complaint, mere seriously infrequent instances of hyper calcimia withalkalosis, caleinosis and azotemia occur during chronic Calcium carbonate usage.Contraindications : Patients with renal disease, history of calculi, gastrointestinal haemorrhage,hypretension or dehydration and electrolyte imbalance due to excessive vomiting.Properties :78 1. It is soluble in water containing Carbon dioxide forming calcium bicarbonate. CaCO3 + H2O + CO2 Ca(HCO3)2 2. It is fine, white, odorless, tasteless, fluffy, microcrystalline powder which is stable in air. 3. It is insoluble in alcohol, water and dissolves with effervescence in diluted acetic, diluted hydrochloric and diluted nitric acids.Uses : 1. It is used an Diuretic, Emmenogogue, Astringent, Antacid and Local sedative and Antiseptic. 2. For the manufacture of lime. 3. As a flux in the smelting of ores. 4. In the preparation of tooth pastes and face powder. Drug Review - 17
  33. 33. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasa PIPPALI Charaka and Shushruta have quoted pippali among the Dashemaniya gana. Itis quite interesting to know that Vagbhata did not mention it in any of his Vargas.However he used it in therapeutics extensively. Pippali should not be administered continuously for a long time without therestrictions mentioned in Rasayana vidhi.79Family : PiperaceaeBotanical name : Piper longum Linn.Vernacular Names :80Hindi : Pipala, Pimpli Malayalam : TippaliEnglish : Long pepper Punjab : PipalTelugu : Pippaller Nepal : PipalmolTamil : Pipli Kannada : HippaliMarathi : PipaliGujathi : PiparaGana:Charaka : Deepaniya81, Kanthya82, Asthapanopaga83, Shirovirechanopaga84, sheetaprashamana85, Shula prashamana86, Kasahara87, Hikkanigrahana88, Triptighna89.Sushruta : Pippalyadi90, Amalakyadi91. Astanga sangrahakara also quoted Pippali in Pippalyadi gana and Nyagrodhadi gana92.Distribution and Habitat:93 This plant is indigenous to hotter parts of India like north-eastern and southernIndia and Ceylon. It is found growing wild in the west coast and as undergrowth inthe evergreen forests of the Western Ghats from Konkan to Kerala. Drug Review - 18
  34. 34. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasaSynonyms: Table No. 8 showing synonyms of Pippali 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99 Synonyms B. P. K. N. N. A. R. N. D. N. Ma. Ni. Magadhi + + + + + + Shoundi + + - + + + Vaidehi + + + + - + Chapala + + + + + + Kana + + + + + - Krishna + + + + + - Upakulya + + - + + + Teekshna tandula + + + + + Magadha - - - - - + Vishwa - - - - - + Kola + - - + + - Kukara - - - + - - Katu beeja - - - + - - Korangi - - - + - - Tikta tandula - - - + - - Magadodbhava - - - + - - Ushana - - - + + -Botanical Description:100, 101. Piper longum is an aromatic glabrous under shrub, with erect or subscandentnodose stem and slender branches.Leaves: Simple, alternate, entire, glabrous, 5.9 cm x 3.5 cm, subaerte, cordate at the base, seven veined that vary in shape and mode of attachment even in the same plant.Flowers: In pendulant spikes, straight, unisexual, spikes of small or minute chamydeous densely or closely packed.Male: Larger and slender,Female: 1.3 – 2.5 cm x 4-5 mm diam. Flowering nearly throughout the year.Fruits: Very close clusters of small grayish green or darker grey beries, when ripe yellowish orange in colour. Drug Review - 19
  35. 35. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasaExternal morphologyof fruits: Fruits are small about 2-5 mm in diameter grayish green or nearly blackish when ripe and are partially sunk in the fleshy axis of the spike. The fruiting spikes are 2.5 to 3 cm long and 2.5 to 3.5 mm thick.Chemical composition:102 It contains Essential oil, piperine, piplartine, piperlongurminie,piperlonguminine, pipernonaline, pipercide, sesamin, - sitosterol, four aristolactams,starch, fatty oil, gum caryophiline, mono and sequiterpenses etc.Verities Showing varities of Pippali Sushruta & Charaka – Two types 103,104 Pippali Gajapippali Classification of pippali on the basis of availability105 Pippali Gajapippali Simhali Vanapippali Classification on the basis of availability in market 106 Choti BadiParts used : Fruit & root or the dried unripe fruits as well as root are used.Dosage : Phala churna: ½ - 1 gm.Pharmcologoical properties 107,108 Dried fruit Fresh fruit Rasa Katu Rasa Katu Guna Laghu, Snigdha Guna Guru, Snigdha Veerya Anushna Veerya Sheeta Vipaka Madhura Vipaka Madhura Doshagnata VataKaphahara Drug Review - 20
  36. 36. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasaActions ;Table No. 9 showing actions of Pippali Actions D. N R. N N. A B. P. Ma. Ni K. N Ruchya - - - - - + Sara - - - - - + Vrishya - + + + + + Rasauana + + + + + Deepani - + + + + + Pachani - - - - - + Hridhya - - - - - + Pittala - - - - - + Amadosha hara + - - - - - Rechani - - - + + + Sara - - - - - + Infusion is stimulant carminative and alternative tonic more powerful thanblack pepper, also aphrodisiac, diuretic, vormifuge and emenogogue. Externallyrubeficient root is stimulant109.Indications: 110,111,112,113,114,115 Table No. 10 showing Indications of Pippali Indications D. N R. N N. A B. P. Ma. Ni K. N Kasa - + + + + + Swasa - + + + + + Udara + - + + + + Jwara + + + + + + Kusta - - + + - - Meha - - + + - + Gulma - - + + + Arsha - - + + + Pliha - - + + + Trishna + - - - - - Krimi + - - - - - Kshaya - + - - - - Pipper longum or piperine shows to posses bio aviablity enhancing activitywith various structurally and therapcutically diverse drugs. It may hypothesize thatpiperine bioavaibility enhancing property may be attributed to increased absorption,which may be due to alteration in membrane lipid dynamics and change inconfirmation of enzymes in the intestine.116 Drug Review - 21
  37. 37. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasa VATSANABHA Vatsanabha is known to Ayurvedic pharmacopoiea since very early times.Among the Bhrihatrayees Charakra mentioned under “Sthavara vishas”.117 It isdescribed under 13 varieties of “Kanda vishas” by Sushruta.118 Vagbhata preferredthe name ‘Visha’ to denote Vatnsanabha and used in the treatment of Gandamala,Kustha, Timira etc.119, Sharangadhara and Bhavamishra delinated Vatsanabha in their texts whilealmost all Nighantus mentioned it. Rajanighantu included it in the pancha mahavisha.The utility of Vatsanabha definitely increased after the development of Rasa Shastra. Aconite is one of the oldest known drugs and aconite is a Greek word meaningarrow. The arrows were coated with this poison and used. It is of two different kindsviz., poisonous and non – poisonous. Among the poisonous varieties both Aconitumferox and Aconitum chasmanthum are used as Vatsanabha in India.Family : RanunculaceaeBotanical Name : Aconitum feroxGana:Charaka Samhita - Sthavara vishasSushruta samhita - Kanda vishasDhanvantari Nighantu - Mishraka vargaBhavaprakash Nighantu - Dhatvadi vargaRaja Nigahantu - Pippalyadi vargaKaidev Nighantu - Visha vargaShodala Nighantu - Chandanadi varga Drug Review - 22
  38. 38. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasaVernacular names:120Hindi - Bachanag, mitha vishaEnglish - Monks hood, aconite.Kannada - BachanagMarathi - BachanagTelagu - NabhiGujarathi - BasnagMalayalam - VatsanabhiPunjabi - MohariBengali - KathvishAssami - Vish.Synonyms: Table No. 11 showing Synonyms of Vatsanabha 121, 122, 123, 124, 125 Synonyms D. N. R. N. B. P. N. A. B.R.R.SAmruta + +Visha + + + + +Ugra + +Mahoushada + +Garala + + + + +Marana + +Naga + +Stokaka + +Pranaharaka + +Kshweda + + +Distribution and Habitat:126 It grows in Eastern temperate and sub alpine regions of the Himalayas,Eastward of Kumaon, Nepal, Kashmir & Sikkim. Drug Review - 23
  39. 39. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasaBotanical Description :127 It is a erect perennial herb, stem erect with or without a slender hypogenousbase.Leaves : Scattered, distant, excepting the lowest 2-3 which are usually decayed at the time of flowering up to seven glabrous or the upper most very sparingly hairy.Petioles : Slender, the lower are upto 25 cm long and much dialted at the base, upper most very short.Inflorescence : A loose raceme, 10-25 cm long often with slender, erect, few flowered additional branches from the leafy base.Seeds : Obovoid to obopyramidal, 2.6-3 mm long, winged along the rhaphe, transversely lamellae undulate on the faces, lamellae undulate.Chemical constituents:128 Roots contain toxic alkaloids, pseudoaconitine along with bikhaconitine,chasma conitine, indaconitrine, verotroyl pseudaconitine and diacetylpseudoaconitine. Four lipoalkaloids viz liposeudo aconitine, lipoyanaconitine, lipoindaconitineand lipbikhaconitine and four acorine viz. vertroylpseudaconine, anisoylyunaconine,benzyolindaconine and veratroylbikhaconine are also reported.Varities:I. Sushruta quoted about four varieties of Vatsanabha. Rasa vagbhata and Yogaratnakara have elaborated four varieties, the colour and properties of each varieties are given129 Drug Review - 24
  40. 40. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasa Table No. 12 Showing types of Vatsanabha Sl. No. Bheda Varna Guna 1 Brahmana Pandu Rasayana 2 Kshatriya Rakta Dehapushtikara 3 Vaishya Peeta Kushtaghna 4 Shudra Krishna Dhatu karmaII. In Rasatarangini only three varities are described on the basic of colour.130 1. Krishna (Blakish) 2. Kapisha (Browinsh yellow) 3. Pandu varna (yellowish grey) They are considered as superior to each other in the same order.III. According to Ayurveda prakasha two varities 131 1. Shukla 2. Krishna Among these two Krishna variety is having property of Laghu and Ashukari.It is used Roganashanartha, Parada jaranartha and as Rasayana.Identification:132 Rasavagbhata mentioned certain characteristics for identification. Vatsanabhahaving pandura Varna (yellowish grey colour). Its roots are similar to navel of calfand is not more than five angulis in length and circumference is 1-2.5 angulis they areSthula (bulky tuber), Snigdha (smooth), Guru (heavy in weight), Nava (newlyharvested), Phala pakanta grahya (collected after fruits have dried up), Kitadiabhakshita (not affected by insects). In Bhavapraksha133 it is mentioned that its leavesand root resemble the leaves of sindhuvara and navel of the calf respectively.Shodhana: The impure form of Vatsanabha may produce Daha, Moha, Hridgati Rodhanaand Marana eventually.134 Therefore purification is essential135. Drug Review - 25
  41. 41. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasaTable No. 13 Vatsanabha shodhana according to different authors.136-137-138-139-140 Sl. Shodhana process R. T. R. A. D.G.V Y. R. R. J. N No. 1 Kept in cow’s urine in + + - - + strong sunlight for 3 days 2 Swedana in Ajadugdha + + - - - for 1 yama 3 Swedana in Surabhi + + - + - payas (cows milk) for 1 or 2 yama 4 Kept in cow’s urine for 3 - - + + - days then Swedana in a cow’s milk or goat’s milk for 3 hrs 5 Swedana in dolayantra - - - - + containing Triphala kashaya and Aja ksheera 6 Swedana in dolayantra - - - - + containing cow’s urine.Contraindications: 141 • Vatsanabha should not be used in rainy season and on the cloudy days. • It is contraindicated in Krodhi, Pitta predominant, Klibya, Kings, when feeling hungry or thirsty, Bhrama, Sun stroke, after walking for long distance, pregnant women, children, old age, emaciated individuals, marma rogas etc., • Sleep during day time, exposure to fire and heat are also forbidden. • Diet restricted rich in pungent, sour and salt tastes.Toxic effects: 142 The toxic effects of Vatsanabha viz, Greevasthambha, peeta vin mutra netratva(deep yellowish discolouration of stools, urine and conjunctiva). The other toxiceffects are Twak vikara, Vepathu, Daha, Phenodgama, Jadata and Marana. Drug Review - 26
  42. 42. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasaAnti-dotes: 143 Over dosage with Vatsanabha may produce the above symptoms. Differentanti-dotes have been mentioned for the management. • Tankana (Borax) is considered to be the main antidote. Usually equal quantity of Vatsanabha and Tankana are recommended to nullify toxic effects of it144. If Tankana is not available maricha may be used in a double the quantity of Vasthanabha. • Cow’s ghee is considered as one of the best anti-dotes for Vasthanabha. 145Modern View: 146 Most of the aconite varities are found to be poisnous. The main activeprincipal resulting in toxic effects is aconitine. The symptoms of poisoning occurimmediately or within a few minutes after consumption of root. First, buringsensation is experienced from moth to stomach followed by tingling and numbnessoin the mouth, tongue and pharynx. This is followed by salivation, nausea, vomitingand diarrhea. Later, dryness of mouth and the patients will be unable to swallow. Other symptoms include head ache, giddiness, pallor, profused sweating, sub-normal temperature, weakness of limbs, inability to stand or walk, cramps andconvulasions may also occur. The pupils contract and dilate alternately, but remain dialted at the later stage.Dimness of vision and diplopia may cusue. The pluse becomes slow, feeble andirregular. Blood pressure will be low and the patients complain of breathlessness.Finally death may occur due to paralysis of heart or respiratory centres or even both.Treatment: • Gastric lavage with warm water and weak solution of potassium permanaganate. Drug Review - 27
  43. 43. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasa • Powerderd charcoal to diminish solubility. • Atropine 0.5-1 mg. • Artificial respiration may also be usefulCollection : The collection of root is preferred during winter.Part used : RootDosage : 1/8th ratti i.e, 15mg approximately or 60 – 125 mg.Fatal dose : 1-2 gm of root.Fatal period : 3-6 hours.Pharmacological properties: 147Rasa : MadhuraGuna : Laghu, ruksha, teekshana, vyavayi, vikashiVirya : UshnaVipaka : MadhuraDoshagnata : Tridosha shamaka, especially Vatakapha shamakaAction : Yogavahi, Shoola prashamaka, Mootrala, Balya, Rasayana, Madakari. 148 Vatsanabha has Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Antidiabetic, Antiphlogistic and Antipyretic action. 149Uses : Jwara, Swasa, Kasa, Bhagandhara, Aganimandya, Gulma, Pandu, Vrana, Arsha and Vatarakta. 150 Drug Review - 28
  44. 44. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasa ARDRAKAFamily : ZingiberaceaeKula : Ardraka KulaSynonyms: 151 Sringaver Gulma moola Katubhadra Moolajam Ardrika Kandalam AnupajamChemical composition : 152 Volatile oil, starch, fat, protein, fibre, inorganic, material, residualmoisture, an acrid resinous matter phenolic kentones of oleoresins.Parts used : RhizomeDosage : Ardraka Swarasa 5-10 mlPharmacological Properties: 153Rasa : KatuGuna : Guru, Rooksha, TeekshnaVeerya : UshnaVipaka : KatuDoshagnata : Kaphavata ShamakaAction : Agnideepaka, Ruchya, Jihwa kantha vishodhaka, Kasa SwasaharaUses : It is useful in Agnimandya, Swasa, Kasa, Jalodara, Sheeta pitta etc., Drug Review - 29
  45. 45. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasa Table No. 14 showing Pharamacological Properties of Ingredients of KaphaketurasaIngredient Rasa Guna Veerya Vipaka Doshaghnata KarmaTankana Katu Rooksha, Ushna Katu Vatakaphahara Jwarahara, Teekshna Depana, Stavaravishnapaha, RuchyaShankha Katu Laghu, Anushna Pittahara Vilekhana, Grahi, Hima Depana, BalyaPippali Katu Laghu, Ushna Madhura Vatakaphahara Deepana, Snigdha, Rasayana, Vrishya TeekshnaVatsanabha Madhura Laghu, Ushna Madhura Vatakaphahara Rasayana, Rooksha, Madakari, Teekshna, Swedajanana, Vyavayi, Grahi, Balya. VikashiArdraka Katu Rooksha, Ushna Madhura Vatakapahara Deepana, Pachana, Guru Anulomana, Amadoshahara Drug Review - 30
  46. 46. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasa JAMBEERAFamily : RutaceaeLatin : Citrus limonSynonyms : Danta Shata, Jambala, Jamba.Habit : Northern India, cultivated in countries like Inida, spain, Italy, Australia California etc.,Macroscopic character: 154Colour : Fresh outer surface, bright green yellow, internally white.Dried : Outer surface is yellow and inner surface pithy white.Odour : Strong, fragnant, aromatic and Characteristic.Taste : Aromatic, bitter.Chemical constituents : Volatile oil, hesperiden, pectin, calcium oxalate and bitter substances,Limonene, citral, geranyl acetate and terpineol.Pharmacological Properties: 155Rasa : AmlaGuna : Guru, TeekshnaVeerya : UshnaVipaka : AmlaDoshagnata : Vatashlesma ShamakaUses : Kasa, Hritpida, Shoola, Chardi, Trishna, Ashyavairashya, Agnimandya, Krimgna, Swasa. It is a carminative and stimulant and oil is used as perfuming and flavouring agent. Drug Review - 31
  47. 47. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasa KUMARIFamily : LilliaceaeLatin : Aloe veraSynonyms : Picha sambhruta Kshara boodesh Bala VishalaHabit : North Africa, India, China.Chemical constituents: 156 Crystals of Aloin glueosides present in Aloe vera are the active principles.Other than this it contains volatile oil and resin.Pharmacological Properties: 157Rasa : KatuGuna : Guru, Snigdha, PicchilaVeerya : SheetaVipaka : TiktaDoshagnata : KaphapittaharaUses : Gulma, Pliha, Kaphajwara, Visphota, Vishahara, Kustagna, Swasa, Pittaja kasa. Aloe is used as a purgative effect is mainly on colon. Drug Review - 32
  48. 48. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasa GOMUTRA Gomutra is used as medicine since good old days. Acharyas have prescribedthe treatment for various diseases, by the use of cow’s urine. Charaka has prescribedGomutra in Katuskanda in Charaka chikitsasthana158 and sustruta shirovireechanaadhyaya. 159 Urine of animals like, Sheep, Goat, Cow, Buffalow, Elephant, Camel, Horse,Ass, Ox, and Human are used as medicine. In these cows urine contains ammonia inconcentrated form, is frequently used for purification of drugs and minerals.Sanskrit : MutraHindi : PesabEnglish : Urine.Synonyms : Gomutra, Gojala, Goambu, Godrava160.Pharmacological Properties:Rasa : Katu, Tikta, Kashaya, Madhura, Lavana.Guna : Teekshna, Ushna, LaghuVeerya : UshnaVipaka : KatuDoshagnata : Kaphavata shamaka, pitta prakopaUses : Internally as laxative, diuretic, and used in the preparations of various medicines like Punarnava mandura, Marichadi tail etc., it is also recommended by Chakradatta as a vechicle for castor oil given as purgative. 161 Drug Review - 33
  49. 49. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasa MADHUSynonyms : Madhu Makshika vanta Maakshika Varativanta Kshaudra Bhringavanta Saaraga PushparasodhbhavaVarieties : 162 Maakshika Chaatra Bhramara Ardya Kshaudra Aouddhalaka Pautika DaalaHabitat : Some dwell in forests and build their home (hive) attached to the branches oftall trees, some build them inside the crevices of the trees.Composition : 163 Dextrose, Levulose, Wax, volatile oils, proteids, mucilage, colouring matter,formic acid, some other substances contained are pollen dust, ethesealoil, variousphosphates, lime, Iron etc.,Pharmacological Properties: 164Rasa : Madhura, KashayaGuna : Laghu, Rooksha, SookshmaVeerya : SheetaVipaka : Katu, MadhuraDoshaghnata : Kaphapitta ShamakaAction : Yogavahi, Chakshushya, Deepaka, Swarya, Krimighna, Vranashodhaka, Vranaropaka and Vatakara.Uses : It is useful in Raktapitta, Kasa, Swasa, Prameha, Krimi, Kusta, Arsha, Atisara, and also as anupana in many diseases. Drug Review - 34
  50. 50. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasa PRANAVAHA SROTAS Kaphaja kasa is a disease of Pranava srotas. Therefore detailed anatomy andphysiology of Pranavha srotas is essential to know the disease in detail. The word‘prana is derived from Sanskrit root ‘An’ with a prefix ‘pran’ means to breath, to live.Chakrapani had clearly stated that this srotas is related to a special “Vayu” calledprana”. The word ‘Prana’ of Pranavata srotas should not be misunderstood aspranavata one of the five subdivisions of vata. The act of respiration is one of thefunction of Pranavata but the function of pranvaha srotas is only respiration. According to Charaka the moola of Pranvaha srotas is hridaya and mahasrotas165. Based on the explaination of Chakarapani the Pranavaha srotas is concernedwith the visishta vayu known as prana, the puppusa have to be accepted as the moolaof this srotas. The Mahasrotas associated with puppusa is the trachea, its twobranches, bronchi further branching to bronchioles. All these structures participate inthe act of respiration. The reference from Charaka samhita seen to indicated only theexternal respiration comprising of inspiration & expiration with the absorbtion ofvisishta pranavayu and removal of the carbon dioxide from the body as whole. Due todhatukshaya, vegasandharana, raukshya, vyayaama, kshudita causes the dushti ofpranavaha srotas.Pranavaha srotodusthi lakshanas:- The Pranavaha srotodusthi lakshanas indicatesthe changes in the respiration. They are Atisrishtam, Atibaddam, Kupitam, Alpalpam,Abhikshanam, Sashabdam, Sashoola166. Injury to Pranavaha Srotas produces thesymptoms like Akroshana, Vinamana, Mohana, Bhramana, Vepana and Maranam.Kasa is a symptom in almost all diseases caused by the vitiation of Pranavaha srotas.Kasaroga, Swasaroga, Hikkaroga & Rajayakshma are the diseases caused by thevitiation of the Pranavaha srotas. Disease Review - 35
  51. 51. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasaHISTORICAL REVIEWDescription of Kasa in different eras: It would be quite judicious to review the reference of Kasa which is availablefrom vedic period to modern period167.VEDA KALA: Kasa has been mentioned as a disease in Atharvana veda where in, thesynonyms and management have been described. There are some Mantras (Hymns)to be recited to get rid of the disease Kasa. Earlier to this, in Rigveda there are fewreferences are available for Kasa and its management.PURANA KALA: Garuda purana - contains detailed reference of Abhrata Kasa, Vatasa Kasaand Sumna Kasa & its management.SAMHITA KALA: We get an elaborate description of the disease, symptoms, its etiology,pathogenesis, complications and its treatment in different samhitas. The detailed description of Kasa is seen in Charaka samhita, where in itsbhedas, description of individual nidana of five varieties of Kasa, Samprapti,Lakshanas, Sadhyasadhyata and Chikitsa have been mentioned. Chakrapani datta, arenowned commentator of Charaka Samhita has commented on the description ofkasa169. Sushruta mentioned Kasa not only as a disease entity, but also as symptom.Healso explained its Bhedas, individual Lakshanas, Samprapti and Chikitsa169. The Kasa has been classified into eight varieties along with detaileddescription of the disease & treatment aspect by Hareeta170. Reference of Kasa is also Disease Review - 36
  52. 52. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasafound in Kashyapa samhita in the context of Urhogata roga as one of itscomplication171.MADYAMA KALA Vriddha vagbhata in 400 AD, given detailed description of Kasa its Nidana,Bheda, Samprapti, Lakshana, Sadhyasadhyata and Chikitsa172 Arunadatta and Indu the commentators of Ashtanga Hridaya and AshtangaSangraha has commented on Kasa173. In 800AD Madhavakara has described the nidana aspect of Kasa in his treatiseMadhavanidana. Vijayarakshita and Shri Kanthadatta have commented on it174. Description of Kasa is also found in Gadanigraha175, Rajanighantu176,.Sharangadhara (14th Century A. D.)177 Bhava mishra (15th Century A. D.)178 has alsodescribed Kasa and its management. Numerous references can be seen inYogaratnakar 179 , Rasaratna samucchaya180 etc.ADHUNIKA KALA Description of Kasa, its line of treatment with therapeutic measures to controlKasa, important yogas for Kaphaja Kasa are explained in Yogaratnakar, BhaishajyaRatnawali 181 in 19th century. Almost all the 20th century authors like vaidya YadavajiTrikamji, Acharya Vidhyadhara shukla, Shivacharana Dhyani, Kaviraja RamarakshaPathak have described the disease kasa under the heading of Pranavaha srotodhustivikara.UTPATTI, PARIBHASHA & PARYAYA In ayurveda Kasa is explained as a separate disease entity with the explanationof specific nidana panchaka and treatment. The Kasa which is produced bypredominantly vitiated Kapha is called as Kaphaja Kasa. Disease Review - 37
  53. 53. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasaUTPATTI: Kaphaja Kasa consists of two words “Kapha” and “Kasa”. The word Kapha isderived from the root Ke, meaning Shirasi Kena Jalena va palathi, that which isproduced in the Shiras and nourished by jala182. The Synonym Shleshma which is used frequently, as the term Kapha, isderived from the root “Shlish alingane” meaning of Shlish being to embrace or tokeep together183. Three derivations are available for the word Kasa in “Shabda anushasana ofPanini”. 1. One more derivation of the term Kasa is from the root Kasi, which means gati and shasanayoti. The meaning of two words being movement and punishment184. 2. Second derivation is from the root Kas, the meaning of Kas is gatou, movement. Commentator Chakrapani derived the word Kasa from the root kas and meaning of Kas is gati Shatanayoti, means falling movement185. 3. The word Kasa is masculine gender and taken from the root Kasri, meaning “Shabda Katsanyam” i.e., “unpleasant sound”. Commentator Gangadhara used Kasri dhatu for derivation of Kasa. Meaningof it is kushabda, bhinna swara, broken sound186.NIRUKTI: The term kapha has been defined as “Kena jalena phalathi ithi kapha”. That isto say Kapha is the product of water187. Charaka has defined kasa as “Shushka va sa kapho va kasanath kasaha” meansrelease of obstructed vayu resulting in the production of abnormal sound in theprocess which may be productive or dry188. Disease Review - 38
  54. 54. Preparation, Physico – Chemical Analysis & Efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa in Kaphaja kasa Sushruta defines kasa as “it is the disease associated with a typical sound thatof sound obtained from broken bronze vessel” 189. Dalhana commented over this aswhile expelling of dusta prana vayu it makes sound ‘saghosha’ called as kasa190. In Madhukosa commentary kasa is defined as “Kasati shirokanthat urdhvagachati vyariti” means in which upward movement of vayu even above kantha andshira pradesha191.Definition of Cough: • A sudden explosive forcing of air through the glottis by an effect to expel mucous or the forigen matter from the bronchial tubes or larynx. • To free air through the glottis by series of expiratory efforts.PARYAYAS : Paryaya of kasa mentioned in Atharnava veda are Kasaha,Kasa & Kasika Kasika - means it is a roga vishesha, which produces a peculiar sound i.e. kas shabda192.BHEDAS : Starting from “Garuda purana”, all Acharyas of Brihatrayees,Laghutrayees,Yogaratnakara, Gadanigraha & Bhelasamhita opined that there are only five types ofkasa as1. Vataja Kasa 2. Pittaja Kasa 3. Kaphaja Kasa4. Kshataja Kasa 5. Kshayaja Kasa Depending upon the nature of kasa it can be classified into two importantvarieties193 1. Ardra kasa (Kaphaja Kasa). 2. Shushka kasa (Vataja kasa) Disease Review - 39

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