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the preparation, physico-chemical analysis of kantaloha bhasma and evaluation of its haematinic activity- an experimental study - dr. Mahantesh m. Kattimani, Department of rasashastra, Post graduate …

the preparation, physico-chemical analysis of kantaloha bhasma and evaluation of its haematinic activity- an experimental study - dr. Mahantesh m. Kattimani, Department of rasashastra, Post graduate studies and research center, Shri D. G. Melmalagi Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag


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  • 1. “THE PREPARATION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF KANTALOHA BHASMA AND EVALUATION OF ITS HAEMATINIC ACTIVITY- AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY” BY DR. MAHANTESH M. KATTIMANIDissertation Submitted to the Rajiv Gandhi University Of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore. In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of AYURVEDA VACHASPATI (DOCTOR OF MEDICINE) IN RASASHASTRA Under the guidance of Dr. M.C. PATIL M.D.(Ayu) Professor & HOD Dept. of Rasashastra and Co-guidance of Dr. GIRISH N. DANAPPAGOUDAR, M.D. (Ayu), Lecturer, P.G.Dept. of Rasashastra POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA D.G M. AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE AND RESEARCH CENTER, GADAG – 582103 2007
  • 2. Rajiv Gandhi University Of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore. DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE I here by declare that this dissertation / thesis entitled “The Preparation,Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its HaematinicActivity- An Experimental Study” is a bonafide and genuine research work carriedout by me under the guidance of Dr. M.C. Patil, M.D.(Ayu), (Rasashastra), Professor &HOD, Post graduate department of Rasashastra and under the Co-guidance ofDr. Girish N. Danappagoudar, . (Rasashastra). Lecturer, Post graduate department M.Dof Rasashastra.Date:Place: Gadag. Dr. Mahantesh M. Kattimani
  • 3. SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA. CERTIFICATE BY THE GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “The Preparation,Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its HaematinicActivity- An Experimental Study” is a bonafide research work done byDr. Mahantesh M. Kattimani in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree ofAyurveda Vachaspathi. M.D (Rasashastra).Date:Place: Gadag. Guide Dr. M.C. PATIL M.D.(Ayu) Professor & HOD Dept. of Rasashastra, Post Graduate Studies & Research Center D.G.M.A.M.C. Gadag.
  • 4. SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA. CERTIFICATE BY THE Co - GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its HaematinicActivity- An Experimental Study” is a bonafide research work done byDr. Mahantesh. M. Kattimani in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degreeof Ayurveda Vachaspathi. M.D (Rasashastra).Date: Co GuidePlace: Gadag. Dr. Girish. N. Danappagoudar, M.D. (Rasashastra). Lecturer, Postgraduate department of Rasashastra.
  • 5. ENDORSEMENT BY THE H.O.D AND PRINCIPAL OF THE INSTITUTIONThis is to certify that the dissertation entitled “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its HaematinicActivity- An Experimental Study” is a bonafide research work done byDr. Mahantesh M. Kattimani. under the guidance of DR. M.C. Patil M.D.(Rasashastra), Professor & H.O.D, Postgraduate department of Rasashastra and co-guidance of Dr. Girish N. Danappagoudar, M.D. (Rasashastra), lecturer, Postgraduatedepartment of Rasashastra.DR. M.C.Patil, M.D. (Rasashastra) Dr. G. B. Patil.Professor & H.O.D, Principal.Post graduate department of Rasashastra. D.G.M.A.M.C, GADAG.D.G.M.A.M.C, GADAG.Date:Place: Gadag
  • 6. COPYRIGHT Declaration by the candidate I hereby declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminate thisdissertation / thesis in print or electronic format for academic / researchpurpose.Date: Signature of ScholarPlace: Gadag Dr. Mahantesh M. Kattimani.© Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka.
  • 7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT My respectful salute to almighty God, by his blessings and grace success inlife comes. My deep sense of gratification is due for my parents, my brothers, mysisters and family members who are the architects of my career. This work carries some sweat memories to express and record about somedistinguished personalities by whom I had been inspired during the course of thisdissertation work. I am extremely happy to express my deepest sense of gratitude to my belovedand respected Guide, H.O.D and Prof. Dr. M.C. Patil M.D (Rasashastra) whose sympathetic,scholarly suggestions and guidance at every step have inspired me, not only toaccomplish this work but also in all respects. I am extremely greatful and obliged to my Associate guide Dr. Girish N.Danappagoudar M.D.(Rasashastra) Lecturer PG Dept of Rasashastra DGMAMC, PGstudies & Research centre, Gadag, for patiently going through the draft of thesis andcorrecting with precious remarks which have been very useful. I express my gratitude to beloved Principal Dr.G.B. Patil, PrincipalDGMAMC, PG Studies & Research centre, Gadag for his encouragement andproviding all necessary facilities for my research work. I express my deep sense of gratification to my beloved to respected sirs,Dr Jagadeesh G. Mitti M.D. (Ayu) Lecturer PG Dept of Rasashastra DGMAMC, Gadagand Shri Shivakumar Inamadar Lecturer K.L.E’s college of Pharmacy Gadag whoseGuidance, inspiration, supervision and valuable suggestions, helped me to completethis Research work. I wish to convey thanks to my teacher Prof. Dr. R.K. Gachchinamath H.O.D.Dept of Rasashastra (UG) DGMAMC, Gadag for kind & affectionate through hisvaluable suggestions & advise. I will not forget to remember Late Dr. Dilipkumar B MD (Ayu) Asst. Prof PGS &RC for his kind advise & encouragement during the earlier study. I express my sincere thanks to Dr. Basavaraj. M. Mulkipatil M.D. (Ayu) LecturerDept. of Kayachikitsa DGMAMC PGS & RC Gadag and Dr. Shashikant NidagundiMD (Ayu) Lecturer PG Dept of Dravyaguna for their friendly support during my PGstudy. I
  • 8. I wish to convey my sincere thanks to Dr. Vardacharulu MD (Ayu), Dr. G.Purushotamacharulu MD (Ayu), Dr. R.V. Shettar MD (Ayu), Dr. Kuber Sankh MD (Ayu), Dr.K.S. R Prasad MD (Ayu), Dr. Santosh Belavadi MD (Ayu), Dr. G.V. Mulgund MD (Ayu), Dr.Samudri MD (Ayu), and other PG staff for their constant encouragement. I extend my gratitude to shri V.M. Mundimani and Sureban for providing therequired books during the study. With great pleasure, I offer my reorganization to my friends Dr. Jayashree, Dr.Rudrakshi, Dr. Jamkhandi, Dr Amnish for their friendly affection and help during mystudy period without which I would never be complete. I offer my sincere thanks to my beloved friends Dr. V.M. Kataraki, Dr.Shivaleela, Dr. Shalini, Dr. Ashwini, Dr. Muttu Budi, Dr Prasanna, Dr.Payappagoudar, Dr. Sibaprasad, Dr. Kamalaxi, Dr. Veena and Dr Ashok for their kindco-operation and help. I offer my sincere thanks to my senior friends, Dr. Santoji, Dr Jaggal, Dr. V.S.Hiremath. Dr. Pattanshetty, Dr. Koteshwar, Dr. Pradeep, Dr. Ganti, Dr. Shakuntala,Dr. Sharanu, Dr. Anita, Dr. Suvarna, Dr. Teggi, Dr. Sobagin & Dr. Anand.H for theirimmense help and affection. I am also thankful to my junior friends Dr. Ravindra, Dr. Shivakumar, Dr.Anupama, Dr. Sarvamangala, Dr. Kavitha, Dr. Gorpade, Dr. Praveen, Dr. Jadhav, Dr.Mahantaswami, Dr. Deepa for their support and affection. I am thankful to non teaching staff of Dept of Rasashastra for their help andassistance during the course. I am greatful to Mr. Chaitrakumar for his kind co-operation & immense helpto complete this dissertation work. I am also thankful to my friend Mr. Kiran (wisecomputers Gadag). My sincere thanks to my well wishers Dr. A.M. Adi, Principal, RGAMC, Ron,Dr. Tatti, Dr. R.V. Angadi, Dr. Satish Barker, Dr. Ronad, Dr. Kotturshetty, Dr.Kushtagi, Dr. Kanti, Dr. Kataraki, Dr. Desai, & Er. Prahalad raja for their valuablesupport & help during the course. At last I am very much thankful to all the persons who directly and indirectlyhelped me to complete this dissertation work. Dr. Mahantesh. M. Kattimani II
  • 9. ABSTRACTBackground: Aneamia is a common disease Characterized by Lassitude, Fatigue,Headache, Palpitation, Stomatitis, Bodyache, Insomnia, Anorexia, Nausea, lack ofconcentration, Low grade fever, Pallor in skin, mucous, Palms & Conjuctiva etc.where, there is a reduction of RBC and Haemoglobin concentration. Ayurveda explained in detail about the Laxanas and chikitsa of Panduroga.There are so many formulations to cure the disease Panduroga. Some of them are easyto prepare, some other very difficult to prepare and even costly also. Rasaratnasamuchchaya kara considered Loha bhasma especially Kantaloha bhasma is bestamong all. Which acts as best ranjaka and raktavardhaka. Before evaluating efficacyof any formulation, it is essential to carry out experimental study and to find outpotent therapeutic form from different formulations.Objectives:1. Preparation of Kantaloha bhasma2. Physico-chemical analysis of Kantaloha bhasma.3. Evaluation of its Haematinic activity- an experimental study.Methods:Pharmaceutical study: a) Loha shodhana (Samanya & Vishesha) according to Rasa Ratna Samuchchaya 5th chapter, Sloka 29 and 106-107. b) Loha Marana according to Rasaratna samuchchaya 5th chapter sloka 107,108.Analytical study: Loha Bhasma is subjected to Physico-chemical analysis ie. Assay for Iron,Acid insoluble ash, Loss on ignition, Loss on drying, Acid soluble extractive, Water III
  • 10. insoluble extractive, pH, Solubility and Physical analysis, fineness of particle testincluding organoleptic character.Experimental study: Anaemia was induced in Albino rats and trial drug administered. Later Hb %,RBC count and bone marrow study was carried out after 48 and 96 hrs. Data wererecorded and statistically analysed.Results: Kantaloha bhasma increased the Hb % and RBC ratio significantly with Pvalue < 0.001.Interpretation and Conclusion 1) The dravyas which are mentioned in classical procedure for Loha shodhana and Marana definetly convert Loha into pure Loha bhasma and induces the disease curing property. But the practical procedure are labourous. 2) Ayurvedic bhasma pareeksha and modern physico-chemical analysis are conformation tests for the complete formation of bhasma and its genuinity. 3) Kantaloha bhasma is one of the ideal formulations for treating Panduroga where there is a low levels of Hb% and RBC. It works as a best haematinic, which has been proved experimentally by increasing the Hb% and RBC count.Keywords: Panduroga, Iron deficiency anaemia, Kantaloha shodhana, Marana, Physico-chemical analysis and Haematinic activity. IV
  • 11. CONTENTS Chapter Page No1. Introduction 1-32. Objectives 43. Review of literature A) Drug Review 5-54 B) Disease Review 55-834. Methodology 84-1085. Results 109-1316. Discussion 132-1377. Conclusion 138-1398. Summary 140-1419. Bibliography 142-147 V
  • 12. ABBREVIATIONS1. A.P Ayurveda Prakasha2. B.P. Bhava Prakasha3. B.R Bhaishaja Ratnavali4. R.J.N Rasa Jala Nidhi5. R.K.D. Rasakamadenu6. R.Ni Raja Nighantu7. R.T. Rasa Tarangini8. R.C Rasendra Chudamani9. R.R. Rasa Ratnakara10. R.S.S Rasendra Sara Sangra11. R.H.T. Rasa Hridaya Tantra12. R.Mr. Rasamrutha.13. R.R.S. Rasa Rathna Samuchaya14. B.R.R.S. Brihat Rasa Raja sundara.15. C.S Charaka samhita16. M.M Materia medica17. M.N Madhava Nidana18. S.S. Sushruta Samhita19. Y.R Yoga Ratnakara20. A.H Ashtanga Hridaya21. C Control group22. PC Positive Control group23. T Test group VI
  • 13. LIST OF TABLESTableNo Tables Page N0 01 Showing the different procedures of Loha shodhana 20 02 Showing the Pharmocological properties of Loha 28 03 Showing the Indications of Loha bhasma on various diseases 30-31 04 Showing the comparison of Different varieties of Iron 54 05 Showing the Ahanas as causative factor 57 06 Showing the the Viharas as causative factor 58 07 Showing the the Manasika vikaras as causative factor 58 08 Showing the Sankhya samprpti of Panduroga 61 09 Showing the poorva roopa lakshana 63 10 Showing the Laxanas of Roopa in Panduroga 64-65 11 Showing the Laxanas of Vataja Pandu 67 12 Showing the Laxanas of Pittaja Pandu 68 13 Showing the the Laxanas of Kaphaja pandu 69 14 Showing the Vishishta laxanas of Mridbhakshanajanya 72 pandu 15 Showing the Upadarava according to dosha 73 16 Showing the clinical features of IDA 81-83 17 Showing the details of shodhana practical 97-98 18 Showing the details of Marana Practical 101 19 Showing the RBC ratio at 48 hrs Intermediate calculation 109 20 Showing the Summary of data of RBC ratio 109 21 Showing the comparision with PC & T group in RBC ratio 109 after 48 hrs 22 Showing the RBC ratio after 96 hrs, Intermidate calculation 110 23 Showing the summary of data of RBC ratio after 96 hrs 110 24 Showing Comparision with PC & T group in RBC ratio after 110 96 hrs 25 Showing Data of Hb% of Blood after 48 hrs 111 26 Showing Intermidiate calculation of Hb% after 48 hrs 111 27 Showing summary of data of Hb% after 48 hrs 111 28 Showing comparision with PC & T group in Hb% after 48 112 hrs 29 Showing Data if Hb% of blood after 96 hrs 113 30 Showing Intermediate calculation in Hb% after 96 hrs 113 31 Showing Summary of Data of Hb% after 96 hrs 113 32 Showing Comparision with PC & T in Hb % after 96 hrs 114 33 Showing Myeloid Erthroid cell ratio after 48 hrs 115 34 Showing Summary of Data of myeloid Erythroid cell after 115 48 hrs 35 Showing Comparision with PC & T group in myeloid 115 erythroid cell after 48 hrs 36 Showing Myeloid Erythroid cell ratio after 96 hrs 116 37 Showing summery of Data of myeloid erythroid cell ratio 116 after 96 hrs VII
  • 14. 38 Showing comparision with PC & T of myeloid erythroid cell 116 after 96 hrs39 Showing Data of Pronormoblast after 48 hrs 11740 Shortly Intermediate calculation of Pronormoblast after 48 117 hrs41 Showing Summary of Data of Pronormoblast after 48 hrs 11742 Showing Comparision with PC & T group in Pronormoblast 118 after 48 hrs43 Showing Data of Pronormoblast after 46 hrs 11944 Showing Intermediate calculation of Pronormoblast after 96 119 hrs45 Showing summary of data of pronormoblast after 96 hrs 11946 Showing comparision with PC & T group in pronormoblast 120 after 96 hrs47 Showing Data of Normoblast after 48 hrs 12148 Showing Intermediate calculation of Normoblast after 48 hrs 12149 Showing Summary of Data of Normoblast after 48 hrs 12150 Showing comparision with PC & T group in Normoblast 122 after 48 hrs51 Showing Data of Normoblast after 96 hrs 12352 Showing Intermediate calculation of Normoblast after 96 hrs 12353 Showing Summary of Data of Normoblast after 96 hrs 12354 Showing comparision with PC & T group in Normoblast 124 after 96 hrs55 Showing Data of Recticulocytes count after 48 hrs 12556 Showing summary of data of Reticulocytes after 48 hrs 12557 Showing comparision with PC & T of Recticulocytes after 125 48 hrs58 Showing data of Reticulocytes after 96 hrs 12659 Showing summary of data of Reticulocytes after 96 hrs 12660 Showing comparision with PC & T group in REticulocytes 126 after 96 hrs61 Showing data of Normocytes count after 48 hrs 12762 Showing summary of data of Normocytes after 48 hrs 12763 Showing comparision with PC & T group of Normocytes 127 after 48 hrs64 Showing Data of Normocytes count after 96 hrs 12865 Showing summary of Data of Normocytes after 96 hrs 12866 Showing comparision with PC & T group of Normocytes 128 after 96 hrs. VIII
  • 15. LIST OF GRAPHS: Sl. No Graphs Page No 1 Mean RBC ratio after 48 hrs 109 2 Mean RBC ratio after 96 hrs 110 3 Mean Hb% ratio after 48 hrs 112 4 Mean Hb% ratio after 96 hrs 114 5 Mean myeloid erythroid ratio after 48 hrs 115 6 Mean myeloid erythroid ratio after 96 hrs 116 7 Mean Pronormoblast count after 48 hrs 118 8 Mean Pronormoblast count after 96 hrs 120 9 Mean Normoblast count after 48 hrs 122 10 Mean Normoblast count after 96 hrs 124 11 Mean Reticulocytes count after 48 hrs 125 12 Mean Reticulocytes count after 96 hrs 126 13 Mean Normocytes count after 48 hrs 127 14 Mean Normocytes count after 96 hrs 128LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS: Sl. No Photographs 1 Showing Shodhana, Marana, Bhasma 2 Showing Experimental activity 3 Showing Microscopic study of Bone marrow IX
  • 16. Introduction INTRODUCTION Ayurveda is the most ancient system of medicine. Which is (mostly) based onits own fundamental principle theories or concepts. Which are deeply rooted into theoldest scriptures of Hindu veda i.e “ Atharvanaveda”. It is an encyclopedia ofancient eternal medical wisdom in spite of its antiquity (3,000 years old) it is beingpracticing even today all over the world. Rasashastra, one of the branches of Ayurveda which is well developed byNagarjuna. Hence he is known as pioneer of Rasashastra. He practiced Ayurveda byusing rasa dravya’s i.e. metals, minerals, gems etc, to achieve the aims of Rasashastrai.e Lohasiddhi & Dehasiddhi. Now Rasashastra holds topmost place in Ayurveda dueto its unique preparation’s –Rasabhasma’s,like Kharaliya rasayana, Pottali Rasayana,Parpati rasayana, Kupipakwa rasayana and their utility. Bhasmas are the unique solid dosage form of Ayurvedic preparation.Preparations of bhasma involve number of steps-i.e shodhana, jarana then marana. Inthese steps minerals, metals, gems are processed with herbal/animal origin drugs. Sothat marita bhasma should posses desired pharmacological actions. Standard bhasmashould be nishchandra, varitara, rekhapoorna & apunarbhava etc. Absorption,Assimilation, Excretion of such bhasma is very quick and helps in faster recoverywithin a short period. In the same way all moorchita rasayanas have nearly the samecharacters. .Historical review: History reveals metals and minerals are therapeutically used since Rigvedaperiod. In samhita kala Charaka, Sushruta & Vagbhata practiced metals, minerals,gems as a therapeutic. 1“The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 17. Introduction The ancient acharyas have told that the treatment for curable diseases byvanoushadhis, kshara and Shastra karma etc, where as incurable diseases can also betreated by Lohadi rasoushadhis. Faster relief, lesser dose, and above all mystericefficiency are the specialties of the Rasoushadhis. These qualities of Rasoushadhishave attracted the Ayurvedacharyas and they practiced and praised them as “UttamoRasavaidyaha”. Since the time of Vedas, the Rasoushadhis play an important role in the fieldof medicine. Among the Rasoushadhis, Bhasmas are placed on the top. They arewidely used in medicine as a single therapy and as well as in the from of compounddrug therapy. The most therapeutically efficacious state of a metal is Bhasma, hencethis form is abundantly used in pharmaceutical processing. Preparations of Loha are practiced by our Rasavaidyas since good old days.It is a drug of mineral origin described in Ayurveda. It can be used as a single drug orin combination either with mineral drug or with herbal drugs in certain diseases. Itwas specifically recommended for Panduroga, Dhatukshaya, Prameha andMedovikara. It was prescribed as a best rasayana. Kantaloha is the best among lohas explained. Its bhasma specially cures thepanduroga and works as a best rasayana when therapeutically administered. In the Rasatarangini, while explaining the loha bhasma gunas, author haveclearly mentioned that, after the absorption, loha bhasma enters the blood. Theconstituents of blood (Ranjaka drava) and lohas are having similar characters. Thislohabhasma may enhance the production of Raktanu (Red blood cell) andRanjakadrava (Heamoglobin). Therefore Lohabhasma is best ranjaka andraktavardhaka. 2“The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 18. Introduction Globally 30% of the total world population is anaemic and half of these, some600 million people have iron deficiency and as much as 25% to 50% in developingcountries like India are anaemic. In adults anaemia results in impaired work capacity. Anaemia often leads toirreversible impairment in childs learning ability. The usual Indian diet containsinhibitors of absorption hence Indians were more prone to develop Iron deficiencyAnemia. Kantaloha bhasma shows multidimensional properties i.e dose is very small,economic and best Pandurogahara medicine. Hence, Keeping in view of the abovefacts, it was felt to conduct a study to analyse, the efficiency of Kantaloha bhasma asa haematinic by experimental trails. The Present work THE PREPARATION, PHYSICO-CHEMICALANALYSIS OF KANTALOHA BHASMA AND EVALUATION OF ITSHAEMATINIC ACTIVITY- AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY.This desertation is presented in 09 Chapters i.eChapter Content01 Introduction02 Objectives03 Literary Review a) Drug review 1. Concept of Kantaloha in Ayurveda view 2. Concept of Loha in Modern view b) Disease review04 Methodology 1. Pharmaceutical study 2. Analytical Study 3. Experimental study.05 Results 1. Observation 2. Result06 Discussion.07 Conclusion.08 Summary09 References 3“The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 19. ObjectivesOBJECTIVES The objectives of the study are as follows: 1) Preparation of Kantaloha Bhasma 2) Physico – chemical analysis of Kantaloha bhasma 3) Evaluation of Haematinic activity of Kantaloha bhasma. 4 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 20. Drug Review DRUG REVIWLITERARY REVIEW OF LOHA (IRON): Iron has been known since ancient time and is as old as vedas. Its use iswidespread in routine life as well as in medicaments since then. In this modern era,man is extensively using , the iron in every step. In all systems of medicine, iron isused for different ailments. Iron is the most useful metal among all the metals, mightbe because of its wide applications. Rudiard Kepiling called “Iron as the master”among all the metals. Many scholars named this modern age as Iron age. In Rasahastra suvarnadi metals have been classified under three groups i.e., (1) Suddha Loha (2) Puti Loha and (3) Mishra Loha Suddha Loha are those, when subjected to heat they do not change their state. Iron is one of them.DEFINITION OF LOHA: The Word Loha is derived from “sÉÑWû AÉMüwÉïhÉå” means which is attracted orextracted. Due to this specific character, it is named as LOHA. According todifferent texts and different people, the meaning of Loha is explained in variousways.1) People are being attracted by the luster of Suvarnadi Lohas. There fore it is called as loha2) According to Chikitsa, when lohas are administered in the body, the loha extracts the imbalanced doshas and brings the body back to homeostasis. Therefore it is called as Loha. 5 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 21. Drug Review3) According to Bhaishajya Kalpana, when the lohas are subjected to different Samskaras, with herbs, iron extracts herbs properties and get involved in it. Therefore it is called as Loha.4) According to Rasahastra, Lohas are extracted from different ores and is called as Loha. According to physiological & pharmacological action, Loha isNamed as “Dhatu” Looking to its nirukti “SÒkÉlÉç kÉÉUhÉmÉÉåwÉhÉrÉÉåÈ” means, one whichperforms Dharana Kriya is called Dhatu . These lohas are being used in routine life and also as medicaments. RaktaDhatu is called as Jeeva Rakta. The every life is depending on Rakta Dhatu. Raktacontains Loha. The synonym of the Rakta is Lohita. This Raktastha Loha performsthe shareera Dharanakriya. Loha cures the diseases and gives Balya and Rasayana effect and performsshareera Dharankriya. That is why it is called as Dhatu. In Ancient time the Classical texts used the word Loha to denote suvarnadimetals. But now a days the word Loha is isolated to Iron only and Dhatu for theirores.HISTORICAL REVIEW OF LOHA (IRON) When we introspect the ancient literatures, numerous illustrations about Lohaare available. Our ancient sages with their devine power have contributed eternalideas to the science.LOHA IN VEDIC PERIOD1 Vedas are not only a classical literature of India, but they are of the universe. 6 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 22. Drug ReviewIN RUGVEDA: which is 5000 years ancient, Loha has been illustrated in thetreatment. One of the example is that rehabilitation of vishpala with the artificiallimb of Loha was made by Bhishak Ashwinkumar, when his limb was cut in the war.IN ATHARVAVEDA: While explaining Anna ghataka dravya, Loha and Trapu are explained. Shareera Poshaka Anna Consists of Mamsala bhaga Lohamaya. Blood alsocontains Loha and haritima Trapu (Vanga) The Dhanya (Anna) is harita varna andhaving good odour. In Atharvaveda- 6-63-3, 6-84-3, 11-3-7, 19-66-,1 references substantiate theknowledge of Lohadi dhatus in the period of Atharvaveda .IN YAJURVEDA: In Yajurveda too the usage of loha has been explained as amedicament and in the Yagna also.IN BRAHMA SAHITYA2:The Uddharan of 5 Dhatus are available viz., Swarna, Rajata, Tamra, Loha andSeesa,LOHA IN THE UPANISHAD: In Chandoga upanishad the use of teekshna loha is available.The instruments made up of teeksha loha are used for the removal of Nakha.LOHA IN PURANA PERIOD3: In Pouranic era, Loha was not used in medicine but was widely used formaking weapons, idols, etc., In Mahabharata, the preparation of an idol of Bheema isavailable which was powdered by Dhratarashtra. These Kinds of several referencesare available regarding the wide use of Loha during this period. 7 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 23. Drug ReviewLOHA IN KOUTILYA ARTHASHASTRA : In the Period of Chandragupta Mourya 300 BC Swarna –Rajata –Tamra- Lohaetc Shodhan process was carried out. Adultration of these dhatus were considered tobe an offence and persons were punished for this. The availability and mines of Swarna, rajatu, trapu loha were explained inKoutilya arthashastra. ( Koutilya Artha Shastra 2-12-14)LOHA IN SAMHITA PERIOD4: Sushruta was considered as vidwan of Lohashastra, as explained in lohaSarvaswa- written by Sureshwaracharya in his Grantha:-According to Acharya Sureshwara – In maintaining the healthy body, loha isconsidered as the best dravya. He opined on the basis of explanation available in“Loha tantras” . in Sushruta, Harita, Vyadi and Nagarjuna samhita . In Sushrut sutra sthan 20/26 and Sushrut sutra sthan 38/62. There is wideexplanation of Krishna loha. In Sushrut Chikista adhyaya 10/11-12. Three types of Ayaskruti wereexplained. Purification of Teekshna loha and making it to churna is explained, thisprocess is called Ayaskruti.IN CHARAKA SAMHITA5: In Charaka samhita Rasayan vaada chapter, wide explanation of lohaRasayana is available. 8 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 24. Drug ReviewLOHA RASAYAN PHALA: In Charka Samhita Chikitsastana wide explanation of loha is available as a medicine together with herbal preparations.When a person consumes yogas of Loha,he attains vaksiddi and becomes intelligent.LOHA IN RASAHASTRA PERIOD: Even though, we are not in a position to predict the period of origin ofRasashastra, chronologically the most ancient references available regardingRasashastra has showed the importance of loha. It is clear from the very aim ofRasashastra i.e., Lohavadha and Dhatuvadha that Rasashastra was developed in sucha period when Lohas ( all the metals) were abundantly used. The most reputed booksof Rasashastra like Rasa Ratnakar, Rasenadra Chudamani, Rasarnava, etc., haveshown not only the purifications and other processing of Loha but also the methods touplift the lower metals to higher one like gold. When the rest of the world was indarkness about the role and utility of loha, in the health condition of man,Rasashastra as well as Ayurvedists were using Loha as a nectar for life. Severalreferences are available in the later books of Rasashastra like Rasaratna Samuchaya,Rasendra Sara Sangraha. Rasakamadhenu, Anandkanda, etc, regarding the use ofLoha in the treatment of Several ailments and that also in several combinations. One of the scientists from France, H.L Bataliyan in his one of the lectures hasillustrated that, Indians were knowing the preparation and properties of Loha. One ofthe evergreen, remembering examples is that, Sir Robert Stephal has said, themetallurgical science is superior in India and Kutub Minar Pillar is made up of pureLoha, which was proved by analysis. In addition to this, metallic things presents tilltoday in Puri and Somanatha are of name and fame to the science of Rasashastra. 9 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 25. Drug Review In later period, when the golden era of Rasashastra has started, each andevery Rasashastragnya have diverted their attention towards the therapeutical aspectsof the metals and minerals, and have suggested Iron as a best haematinic.ORIGIN OF LOHA:RASASHASTRA VIEW: When review of mythology is carried out, the origin of Loha has taken placefrom the corpus of an Asura named as Lomila. As per Rasakamadhenu, Loha isoriginated from the dead body of Yama named “ Kalamurta” It has been described inRasendrapurana, Rasendrabhaskara that, during the samudra manthana the LordVisnhu gave amrita to Suras, the enraged Asuras wages war against suras, at the timethe Loha was originated, from the body of the Asuras.Chronologically to state that lohas are formed by the dropping of Blood of Lomila.When we want to increase the Raktadhatu, we administer the Loha, this indicates thatthere is a close relation between Rakta and Loha. Even though it has been illustratedin exaggerated words in Myth, there is a close relation between Rakta and Loha.This reflects the intelligence of ancient sages. .LOHA PARYAYA (SYNONYMS OF IRON)1) Ayas2) Ayaskanta3) Ashmasara4) Amisam5) Girisara6) Ghana7) Kanta-loha 10 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 26. Drug Review8) Kanta Yasa9) Kalayasa10) Kuttum11) Kudam12) Krishna loha13) Krisiloha14) Kittam15) Lohasara16) Mahaloha17) Mundaloha18) Mundavat19) Parvatam20) Pindam21) Peevara22) Romilasthi23) Shastra24) Samayatmaka25) Suraksana26) Teekshana27) Uttam28) Vrisatsara29) Veera30) Visapasam. 11 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 27. Drug Review(VERNACULAR NAME)NAMES OF LOHA IN DIFFERENT LANGUAGESArabic - HadeedAssamee - LohaloBurmese - ThanBengali - LohaChinese - Tich-TeeDanish - JernDutch - Yzer-JizerEnglish - IronFrench - FerFarsee - Ahan-AhanfourdGerman - EisenGreek - SiderasGujarati - LodhanGothic - AisHindi - LohaItalian - FerroKannada - KabbinaKashmiri - ShasturLatin - FerrumMalaya - Basi/BesiMalyalam - IrumbuMarathi - Lakhand 12 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 28. Drug ReviewOriya - LuhaPersian - ZhahPolish - AlezoPortugese - FerroPunjabi - LohaRusan - SchelesoSanskrit - Loha, Ayas etcSpanish - HierroSwedish - JermSihale - Yakada.Tamil - IrumbuTelgu - Demmu, ChumuTurkish - Timur, Demur,Urdu - Ain, Loha,PRAPTI STHANA6,7: Naturally, Loha is not available in greater amounts in its free form, mostly isavailable in Sayuktavasta. In India, It is available in Bihar, Orissa, Bengal,Madhyapradesh, Uttarpradesh, Punjab, Tamilnadu, and Karnataka also. India exportsLoha (Iron) to foreign countries. It is also available in countries like, England, Germany, Japan, America,Nepal, Bhutan, Afghisthan. Etc.,DESCRIPTION8,9,10 According to Rasatarangini Loha is of 3 types Munda, Teekshana, Kantalohaand Kantaloha is best among three. 13 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 29. Drug Review According to ancient classics the loha means Kantaloha (because of its uttamaguna) and is one among 9 Dhatus (some acharyas said, dhatus are of 7 in number)and Kantaloha belongs to shudh loha. Loha is whitish like Vishudha Rajata and when polished it shines. Whenrubbed against hard surface it leaves Vishishta gandha. It is heavy, good conductorof heat and electricity. Loha Bhasma is best Ranjaka and Raktavardhaka and the efficacy ofKantaloha bhasma in Panduroga, Yakshma, Tridoshadushita roga, Kamala, Kushta,Gulma, Yakrutvikara, Krimi, etc., diseases has been extensively described inAyurvedic classics as,“ MüÉÇiÉÉrÉÈ MüqÉlÉÏrÉMÇüÌiÉeÉlÉlÉÇ mÉÉhQûuÉÉqÉrÉÉålqÉÔsÉlÉqÉç ”----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------“ xÉuÉïurÉÉÍkÉWûUÇ UxÉÉrÉlÉuÉUÇ pÉÉæqÉÉqÉ×iÉ lÉÉmÉUqÉç || R.R.S 5/114“sÉÉåWÇû äÉÇ xÉÑqÉÉkÉÑUqÉsÉÇ mÉÉMüiɶÉérÉ ÌiÉ£üqÉç-----------------------------------------------------“uÉhrÉï qÉåkrÉ ZÉsÉÑ ÌMüqÉÉÍkÉMÇü WûÎliÉlÉÉlÉÉqÉrÉblÉqÉç ” R.T20/83.Bhoutika Gunas of LohaVarna (Colour) BlackSparsha(Touch) KathinaApekshita gurutwa 7.7Dravananka (Melting point) 15000CKwathanaka ( Boiling Point) 29500C 14 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 30. Drug ReviewTYPES OF LOHA11,12: Loha is of 3 types 1) Munda 2) Teekshna 3) Kanta. Out of these,Teekshna loha is better than Munda and Kantaloha is best than rest of the two lohas.According to Rasendra chudamani -Loha is of 3 types 1) Munda loha 2) Teekshna loha 3) Kantaloha.SYNONYMS OF KANTALOHA: Kantaloha, Kanta, Ayaskanta, Kantayasa & mahaloha. These are thesynonyms Kantaloha. (RT ¼)KANTALOHA BEDHA13,14:Kantaloha is of 4 types1) Romaka Kantaloha2) Bhramaka Kantaloha3) Chumbaka Kantaloha4) Dravaka Kantaloha.Uttarottara KantaLoha are best. i.e,., Bhramaka is better than Romaka. Chumbaka isbetter than Bhramaka, Dravaka is best among all.1) ROMAKA KANTALOHA PARIBASHA: In the mines when Kantaloha is extracted Kantapashana surely comes out.With the help of its Roma it attracts the small pieces of loha. The Kantaloha whichpossess these qualities is called Romaka-Kantaloha. 15 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 31. Drug Review2) BHRAMAKA KANTALOHA PARIBASHA: In the mines of some hills, Bramaka Kantaloha, makes other loha pieces toencircle around it. The Kanta-loha which possess these qualities is called as BramakaKantaloha.3) CHUMBAKA KANTALOHA PARIBASHA: The loha pieces are attracted by chumbaka kanta loha, as the beautiful ladiesattract the minds of men, Chumbaka also attracts the loha pieces. It is available in theVindya Parvata only.4) DRAVAKA KANTA LOHA PARIBASHA: Suvarnadi, lohas become liquid when they will come in contact with the kanta-loha The Kantaloha which possess these qualities is called as Dravaka kantaloha. Itis rarely available in himalaya parvata.Another Classification of Kantaloha according to other acharyas as follows-Classification based on the character.Kantaloha is of 5 types1. Bramaka.2. Chumbaka3. Karshakam.4. Dravaka.5. Romakanta.Classification based on the shape.According to the shape Kantaloha is 6 types.1) Ekamukha.2) Dwimukha 16 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 32. Drug Review3) Trimukha.4) Chaturmukha.5) Panchamukha6) Sarvatomukha.Classification Based on the ColourOn the basis of colour Kantaloha is of three types.1) Peeta. ( Yellow) This resembles Lord Brahma.2) Krishna (black) This resembles lord Vishnu.3) Rakta (Red) This resembles lord Shankara. Peeta varna kantaloha is used in vedha samskara. Krishna varnaKanthaloha is used for Rasa-Rasayana Karma. Rakta Varna Kantaloha is used forparad bandha karma.KANTALOHA GRAHYA LAXANA15 An expert Rasacharya should collect the kanthaloha from the mines which isfree from pollution. Polluted loha cannot be utilised for Chikitsa purpose. When the taila bindu is made to drop over the water which is filled in the lohavessel it must not spread. When the hingu is applied to the loha vessel it must looseits odour. And nimbakalka looses its tiktata when applied to vessel made of loha.Milk must not drop out of the vessel when boiled. The Loha which possess thesequalities is called as Kantaloha.CONCEPT OF SHODHANA AND MARANA: Invention of metal brought a great change in the lifestyle of early man. As hewent on investing various metals, he understood their uses and utilized them for 17 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 33. Drug Reviewvarious purposes. When observed medicinal values in metal he started using themas medicine. During Samhita period metals were used in the form of Raja (Churna) butafter 8th century a scientific study of metals was carried out for their therapeuticvalues. Till last century even in western medical science, metals are used fortherapeutic purposes but after observing some of the toxic effects, the usage of somemetals was ceased. Rasavaidyas too had the knowledge of toxic effects of metals and minerals,were made free from adverse effects by virtue of unique procedures ( Shodhana andMarana) adopted by them in detoxifying the metals. These procedures not only makea mineral or metal free from toxic effects but also make them to absorbable andtherapeuticaly effective with a minimum dose, for a maximum and quick result.Hence Rasoushadhis are widely used by Ayurvedic physicians without the fear ofadverse effects. When preparing the medicine, Ayurvedic acharyas were of opinion that,when a medicine administered in a particular disease it should only cure that diseasebut not cause any other diseases or adverse effect. Keeping the above in consideration various shodhana and marana procedureare explained in Rasashastra classics.MERITS :1) These procedures involve physico chemical action in order to activate the inorganic substances ( may be from neerindrya state to Sendriya state)2) These procedures not only remove toxic effect of a drug but also the various herbs used to act on metals, so, as to enhance the pharmacological action of a drug. 18 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 34. Drug ReviewSHODHANA16: Shodhana is a process by which impurities are removed from a substances byimplementing prescribed methods like mardana etc., This indicates by shodhana,impurities and toxic qualities are removed from the drug and to induce certainqualities which are essential for further proceduresClassification : Shodhana has been divided into two 1) Samanya Shodhana. 2) Vishesha shodhana1. SAMANYA SHODHANA OF KANTALOHA17 : The common procedure for eliminating doshas from group of dravyas or metals is called Samanya shodhana. Kanta- loha is heated to Redhot and dipped in medias like, Tilataila (seasme oil), Takra (Butter milk), Gomootra(Cow’s urine) Aranala/kanjika (Weak organic acid) Kulaththa Kwath (Horse gram decoction), for 7 times in each media.2. VISHESHA SHODHANA18 – Generally Samanya Shodhana is planted to remove certain impurties but vishesha shodhana is a plan to induce certain therapeutic values in particular drug. In Rasagranthas various vishesha shodhana procedures are mentioned for alllohas Take one part Triphala, 8 part Gomootra. Sthoola churna of Triphala andGomootra are boiled in the kadai, until the solution reduces to 1/4th this is filtered toget Triphala Kwatha. Later five pala of loha churna and Triphala Kwatha were boiledover agni. While boiling the solution is stirred with metal rod until the Kwatha getevaporated and only loha remains in the vessel. This is how Kantaloha gets Shodhita. 19 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 35. Drug Review Several Vishesha-Shodhana procedures have been explained in the Ayurvedictexts. Among them some important procedures are given below.Table No. 1. Showing different procedures of Loha shodhana in Ayurvedicclassics.Sl.no Procedure Purifying Media/Liquid No of Repetation Ref1 Nirvapa Shasha Rudhira 3 times RRS2 Nirvapa Triphala Kwath 7 times RRS3 Apply Lavana and Samudra lavana & Nil RRS Nirvapa in Kwatha Triphala Kwath4 Pachana Triphala Kwath Prepared 5 times RRS in Gomutra5 Nirvapa Chinchapatra Swarsa 7 times RRS kwath6 Nirvapa Triphala kwath &Gomutra 7 times RT both in equal quantityMARANA:qÉÉUrÉiÉå lÉzrÉiÉå pÉxqÉÏ¢üÏrÉiÉå CÌiÉ | Marana means “ Killing” and converting a metal into non reversible and finalform i.e., bhasma.DEFINITION: The Process by which metal, minerals or any hard substances aresubjected to soaking, drying and ignition to convert into bhasma is known as Marana.This Marana process converts metals into fine state of smaller molecules and makesthem so light as to be highly absorbable and assimilated after oral administration. 20 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 36. Drug Review1) Marana is process by which metal looses its original state (Metallic) still retains its originality (Medicinal value) i.e. Dhatutwa2) By Marana process drug is converted into a biologically acceptable from.This Process consists of two stages.1) Bhavana : Mardana with some drava dravya for a specific period.2) Putapaka: Subjecting the drug for agnikarma at different temperature.MARANA OF KANTALOHA19: As the Kantaloha is a hard metal, By the process of Shodhana in triphalakwath it becomes brittle then it can be easily converted to Churna and then to Bhasmaform by means of Gajaputa. Take 1part of Triphala, 8 part of Goomutra. Then prepare the triphala kwathin gomutra . This prepared kwath is kept in metal vessel and 5 phala of loha has to beadded in this kwath and kept for pachana karma. During pachana the solution has tobe stirred constantly with the help of loha shalaka. This proces is continued till all thekwath evaporates and only the loha pieces remains in the vessel. The process has tobe repeated for 5 times. Each time fresh triphala kwath prepared in gomutra has to beused. Then the loha churna made into chakrika with triphala kwath or Amalakiswarasa. Then it is dried and subjected to Gajaputa for 4 times. By this puta lohabecomes varitara bhasma .Marana mainly consists of following steps1. Pachana and Bhavana.2. Formation of Chakritas ( Pellets)3. Arranging the Chakrikas in Sharava4. Sealing of Sharava (Sandhi bhandhana) . 21 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 37. Drug Review5. Puta (Heating)A- PACHANA AND BHAVANA: - Shodhita loha is mixed with triphala kwathprepared in gomootra, and is boiled until kwath evaporates. While boilling thesolution is stirred constantly with metal rod. This process is repeated for 5 times.Then the Loha Churna is mixed with triphala or amalaki swararsa and triturated wellin Khalwa yantra till the solution becomes semisolid. So that it can be made intoChakrikas.B- FORMATION OF CHAKRIKAS: When the mass becomes semisolid state, it ismade into chakrikas of uniform size, shape and thickness then dried in shadow.C - ARRANGING CHAKRIKA IN SHARAVA: Dried chakrikas are kept in earthen sharava and another sharava of same sizeis placed in inverted form over the first sharava.D- SEALING THE SHARAVA: The gap between two sharava to be sealed by means of cloth smeared withmud or multanimitti for seven times and dried. This sealing is done to avoid theentry of air and loss of material, now this apparatus is called as sharava sampata.E- PUTAM: The dried sharava samputa is to be kept in a pit filled with layers of cowdungcakes (Vanotphala). More cowdung cakes are placed at the sides, bottom and overthe samputa then it is subjected to heat. The size of the pit and number of cowdungcakes depends upon the substances selected for puta. Generally Gajaputa for 5 timesis advised for Loha. 22 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 38. Drug Review After the first puta chakrikas are removed out and subjected to mardana withtripha kwath prepared in Gomutra. And once again chakrikas are made and dried inshadow. Then chakrikas are sealed in sharava samputa and subjected to puta. Various methods of marana have been explained in classics which are listedbelow.VARIOUS PROCEDURES OF LOHA MARANA VIDHI1) Make triphala kwata in gomootra. Loha patra made bhavana in that triphala kwata for 3 saptaha, then, Mardana for 1 day. Make chakrikas and dry under shadow. Then these chakrikas should be kept in sharava and sandhi bhandhana must be done. Then give puta. This process has to be repeated for 21 times. Every time fresh triphala kwatha has to be prepared in gomootra20.2) Shodhita Kanta-loha and 4 part of Parada Bhasama (rasa sindhura) has to be mixed and limbu adi amla varga dravya’s swaras has to be added and Mardana is done. Take shodhita kantaloha, add swarna makshika, Gandhaka,and Parada bhasama (rasa sindhur). Then bhavana has to be done in nimbu swarasa, later give gaja-puta. After getting the bashma, add sajji kshar, yava kshara,and tankan kshara. Then give bhavana with blood of the rabbit. Again give Gaja puta. By this process Kanta-loha becomes Bhasma21.3) Take Shudha Parada 1 part, Shudha Gandhaka 2 part. Make Kajjali,then add equal quantity of loha patra, and then give mardana in grutkumari swarmasa later make into pinda swaroopa. Keep it in the vessel made up of copper. Heat the vessel and later vessel has to be kept in Dhanya Rashi. After 3 days take out the sthoola churna and make it to powder by pounding in the khalwa yanta, filter to get fine powder of Bhasma22. 23 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 39. Drug Review4) In Rasendra sara sangraha loha marana is done by 3 processesa) Bhanupaka23b) Sthalipaka24c) Putpaka25 a) Bhanupaka - Loha is made into patra, then it is to be washed with water or tirphala kwatha, again and again. Then triphala kwatha must be added to loha churna and kept for drying under sunlight for three days. This method is called as Bhanupaka b) Sthalipaka : After Bhanupaka, Sthanlipaka has to be done. For this triphala kwatha is prepared and loha churna is added. Later kwata is boiled again, until it is evaporated completely leaving loha churna only. Instead of kwatha, swarasa of other drugs also used accoridng to diseases. c) Putpaka Vidhi: The chakrikas of loha churna which are prepared in triphalidi ganoushada kwatha or swarasa, are kept in sharava samputa and puta has to be given for 5, 10, 100 times or else unless the loha bhasma is formed completely. This process is called putapaka vidhi. It has to be done after Sthalipaka. 5) Shodhita loha churna is made to mardana with nimbu swarasa in kalwa. Later chakrikas are made and dried,. Then Chakrikas are kept is sharava samputa. It is subjected for Gajaputa. This porcess is repeated for fifty times. And red lotus colour loha-bhasma. is formed26. 6) Kantaloha churna is subjected to mardana with Amalakiswarasa in Khalwa yantra. Later chakrikas are made and kept in Sharava samputa This should be subjected for gajaputa. This prcess is repeated for 100 times. And Kantaloha Bhasma is formed27. 24 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 40. Drug ReviewTESTS OF BHASMA:In Rasashastra some tests have been specified to confirm the standards of preparedKantalohabhasma. The tests are divided into –1 Test for Physical nature 2. Test for Chemical nature Varitaratwa * Niruttha Unamatwa * Apunarbhava Rekha Poornatwa * Gata Rasatwa Anjana Sadrasha sukshmatwa * Vishesha varnotpatti. Mrudutwa & ShlakshnatwaTEST FOR PHYSICAL NATURE28 :These indicates fineness and other physical properties of bhasma1) Varitara:- Accoridng to this test, a properly prepared Kantalohabhasma when sprinkled over water in a beaker, it floats on the surface and does not sink., it is known as Varitara. By means of puta, the practical of bhasma become light and attain a state of fine consistency and they can not break the surface tension of water as it happens normally.2) Unamatwa:- This test is similar to the test of Varitaratwa with little modification after testing the Varitaratwa of bhasma, small foods grains are directly placed over the layer of bhasma, which is floating over the water. If food grains don’t sink and continue to float, then the bhasma is supposed to the quality of Unmatwa. This is an advanced test of Varitaratwa and denotes more Laghuthwa.3) Rekha Poornatwa: This is an another test which indicates the fineness of bhasma. Here the bhasma when held in between the thumb and index fingers and rubbed, if bhasma enters the furrows of fingers, the test known as 25 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 41. Drug Review Rekhapoornatwa. This indicates that the particles of bhasma have attained fine state that they could be easily absorbed into the system when administered.4) Anjana sadrusha sukshmatwa:- Little amount of bhasma is used in eyes in anjana, if bhasma causes irritation to the eye then bhasma should be further subjected to some more putas. This test shown whether all particles of bhasma have reached the required state of fineness.5) Mrudutwa and Sookshmatwa:- Physical properties of bhasma should be Mrudu & sookshma to touch. This is due to the fineness of bhasma particles and bhasma does not prove positive, this indicates the bhasma needs more putas.TEST FOR CHEMICAL NATURE29: These are some tests for bhasmas in which chemical action & reaction areexpected. Here Niruthathwa and Apunarbhavatwa are important tests. Both thesetests indicates the non-attainment of original form of the metal.1. Apunarbhavata:- If marita bhasma is mixed with mitra panchaka dravyas (Ghrita, Madhu Guggula, Gunja & Tankana) enclosed in sharava samputa and heated at the temperature same as while preparing bhasma. If this process do not yield original metal then bhasma is considered to be Apunarbhavatwa.2. Niruthathwa:- In this test, specified quantity of pure silver and kanta-loha bhasma is placed in a crucible and subjected to agni karma. If bhasma is apakwa. Then free particles get deposited and silver weight increases. If bhasma is pakwa their will be no change in weight of the silver3. Nishandratwa:- Chandrika is the natural luster of a metal, absence of luster indicates conversion of metal into bhasma form. For this test small quantity of Kanta-loha bhasma is taken in between index and thumb finger rubbed vigorously 26 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 42. Drug Review and exposed to sunlight and viewed very carefully for presence of metallic luster, indicates apakwatha of bhasma, so needs more puta.4. Gatarastwa:- After completion of marana process, generally the bhasma will be tasteless. This is to be tested by tounge, if taste is present indicates apakwata of bhasma.5. Vishishta varnotpatti:- Means the attainment of an appropriate colour. In the contest of preparation Kantalohabhasma the attainment of colour is Pakwajambu phala varna.Characteristics of incinerated Loha: Properly incinerated loha should be rooksha, guru and sheeta. Bad effects ofimproperly prepared loha Bhasma- unpurified and not properly incinerated lohabhasma if taken internally causes the following complications and also shortens thelongevity.Jeevahari, shoolaroga, Kushta, Kantihani, Balahani, varnahani etc.,Ashuddha Loha dosha : Consumption of Ashodhita loha causes Napumsakatwa,Kushta, Hridroga, Shoola and even death.Ayurveda prakashkara explained seven doshas of loha viz, Guruta, Drudata, Utkleda,Glani, Daha, Ashmari, Durganda. (AP 3/223-224)Antidote of impurified Bhasma30:1) Agastya patraswarasa mardita vidang churna and Agastyapatra swarasa and later aatapa sevana.2) Virechana karma with Aragwada majja for a loha kitta shantarth.Matra of Loha Bhasma31 - 1/4th –2 ratti (32 mg to 250 mg) 27 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 43. Drug ReviewAnupana32,33 Triphala and Madhu or, Trikatu, Madhu, Gruta.Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka and Prabhava these are the five basic parameters toevaluate the pharmacological action of drug.Table No. 2 Shows the Pharmacological properties of loha according to variousauthorities:Name of Katu Tikta Kashaya Ushna Sheeta Laghu Ruksha SaraClassicsR.T + + +R.R.S + +R.J.N + + +R.K + + +R.P.S + +A.P + + + + +R.A + + +R.Ch + +R.S.S + + +B.R.R.S + + +M.M + +D.N + + +R.N + + + +K.N + + + 28 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 44. Drug ReviewBy observing the above table loha bhasma is having the following properties.Rasa- Tikta, Kashaya Guna- Rooksha, Guru,Veerya- sheeta Vipaka- Madhura.ACTION OF –KANTALOHA BHASMA ON DOSHAS34,35 According to Vaghbhata “ Doshatrayonmoolanam” means Tridoshanaashaka.Rasataranginikara ----- ShleshmapittanashakaAyurveda Prakashakaara ----- Shleshma pitta nashaka, vaatajanakaRasataranginikara ----- Loha Bhasma makes the immediate shamana of Shakha and Koshta ashrita malaroopa vrudda pitta.ACTION OF DHATU AND UPADHATU36,37Rasa Dhatu - Kantikaraka, dahaprashamana, varnya.Rakta dhatu -Ranjaka, Raktavardhaka.Mamsa dhatu -VriddikaraMedha dhatu -MedhaharaAsti dhatu -Balakara.Shukra dhatu -Shukra vardhakaAartava - Aarta Vikaranashaka.ACTIONS ON SROTAS38,39 :1. Pranavaha srotas - Kasa, swasa,2. Annavaha srotas - Deepana, Pachana.3. Raktavaha srotas - Ranjaka, Raktavardhaka.4. Mootravaha srotas - Mootra sangrahakara.5 Prajanana - Vrushya, Aartava Vikara nashaka. 29 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 45. Drug Review6. Manoraha srotus - Medhya.7 Jnyanendriya - Chakshushya8 Swedavaha srotas - Swedahara.Table No. 3 Indications Of Loha Bhasma On Various Diseases.Diseases R. A.P R.S R.P. R. R. R.R. R.J. B.R.B M. T .S S Ch M S N .S NPrameha + + + + + + + +Panduroga + + + + + + + + +Medovikara + + + +Netraroga + + + + +Twakroga + + + +Budhivikara + + +Kshaya roga + + + + + + + +Gulma + + +Pleeharoga + + + + + + +Yakrut vikara + + + + +Kasa + + + +Shwasa + + + + +Hrudayaroga + +Kaamala + + + + +Haleemaka + + +Raktavikara + + + +Peenasa + 30 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 46. Drug ReviewShota + + + + +Krimiroga + + + + + + +Manovikara + + +Vruk shotha + +Bhagandara + + +Shoola roga + + + + + +Arsha + + + + + +Kushtaroga + + + +ANUPANA OF LOHA IN VARIOUS DISEASES40Below said anupana has to be given with loha Bhasma.1) In Raktapitta : Along with Chaturjata & mishri churna.2) In Panchavidha Kasa : AlongwithVasa, Draksha, Pippalichurna.3) In shwasavega : Along with Bhangi, Shunti, maricha churna.4) In Shleshmaroga : Along with Kajjali, Pippali, Madhu.5) In Vaata roga : Along with Shunti churna.6) In Pitta Roga : Along with Rasa sindura and Mishri.7) In Vrushya, varnya prayogartha : Rasasindhura kept in Tambula bida.8) In Vali, Palita : Along with Triphala for 1 year.9) In Shoola roga : Along with Hingu, Trikatu, Gruta..10) In Raktapitta and Amlapitta : Along with Amalaki, Pippali, and Mishrichurna. 31 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 47. Drug Review11) In Daruna Mootrakruchra : Along with Naveena Kusha, Kasha, Shilajitukwath or Gokshura+ Ilaichi churna.12)In Vardhakyajanya krushata : Along with Punaruava churna+ godugdha upto 3 months13)In Savangavata, Ekangavata : Along with Katukikashaya bhavita rasasindhura+ lohabhasma upto 2 months.14) In Chirakalina Pandu, Kamala : Along with Gruta, Madhu or Haridra swarasa or Katuki, Haritaki.15) In Youvanotpaadanartha : Along with Gandhaka, Gogruta, madhu + Triphalakashaya up to 1 year.16) Kustadi twak roga : Along with Khadirasara and vijayasara bhavita lohabhasma17) Vayasthapanartha : Along with Amalaki swarasa marita Kantalohabhasma + Triphala churna up to 1 year.SOME IMPORTANT YOGAS OF LOHA BHASMA41,42:Lohaguggulu Dhatri lohaLohadiguggulu Navayasa LohaSaptamruta loha Mrutyanjaya LohaLohaparpati Loha ParpatiAgnikumara rasa Varunadya lohaKanchanabra rasa Vatakantaka rasaPradarantraka loha Laghwananda rasa 32 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 48. Drug ReviewKshyakesari rasa Chintamani rasaChandraprabha vati Chandramruta rasaDESCRIPTION OF DRUGS USED FOR SHODHANA, MARANA ANDANUPANA DRAVYATila Taila Haritaki ShuntiTakra Bibhitaki MarichaGomootra Amalaki PippaliKanji GodugdahKulattha Gogrutha1. TILA TAILA43 CwÉiMüwÉÉrÉÉå qÉkÉÑUÈ xÉÌiÉ£üÈ xÉÉÇaÉUÉÌWûMü ÌmɨÉMü UxiÉjÉÉåwhÉÈ | ÌiÉsÉÉå ÌuÉmÉÉMåü qÉkÉÑUÉå ÌoÉÍsɹÒÈ ÎxlÉakÉÉå uÉ×hÉÉsÉåmÉlÉLuÉmÉjrÉÈ | SlrÉjÉÉåAÎalÉqÉåbÉÉeÉlÉlÉÉåAsmÉqÉѧÉxiuÉcrÉÉåAjÉMåüzrÉÉåAÌlÉsÉWûÉaÉÑ妃 | FiÉsÉåwÉÑ xÉuÉïwuÉÍxÉiÉÈ mÉëkÉÉlÉÉå qÉkrÉÈ ÍxÉiÉÉåWûÏlÉiÉUxiÉjÉÉlrÉå ||Synonyms: Tila, Sneha.Karma: Snehan, varnya, keshyaPharmacological properties: Rasa : - Madhura, Tikta, Kashaya Guna : - Ushna, Teekshna, Sukshma, Vishada, Vyavayi Vipaka : - Madhura, Veerya : - Ushna Doshakarma: - Kapha vata shamaka Karma : - Vrishya, Amapachaka 33 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 49. Drug ReviewChemical composition: Moisture -- 40.1% to 6.5% Fat -- 43.0% to 56.8% Protein -- 16.6% to 26.4% Fibres -- 2.6% to 8.6% Carbohydrate -- 6.1% to 25.2% Mineral dravya -- 4.1% to 7.4% Calcium -- 1.06% to 1.45% Phosphorus -- 0.47% to 0.64%, it also consist of vitamin A, B and C.Doshangnata: Vata shamana and kapha pitta vardhaka.Therapeutic Use: Pakshaghata, Ardita, Shwasa, Hikka, the oil is used in all vatadiseases.Dose: Taila – 10ml to 20mlVishista Yoga: Tiladi Gudeka, Tiladilepa, Tilastaka.2.TAKRA44 iÉ¢Çü sÉkÉÑ MüwÉÉrÉÇsÉÇ SÏmÉlÉÇ MüTüuÉÉiÉÎeÉiÉ | zÉÉåTüÉåSUzÉæaUWûÍhÉ SÉåwÉ qÉÔ§ÉaUWûÉÂÍcÉ || aÉÑsqÉmsÉÏWû b¾ÒûiÉurÉÉmÉSaÉU mÉÉhQÒûuÉÉqÉrÉÉlÉç eÉrÉåiÉç | Takra is light, astringent, hot, & digestive stimulent, it allevates Kapha vata.It cures shotha, udara, grahini, arsha, mootragraha, aruchi, gulma, pleeha, and ghritavyapat & pandu roga. According to sushruta, Takra has madhura & amla rasa. 34 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 50. Drug Review3. GOMOOTRA45 aÉÉåqÉÔ§ÉÇ sÉkÉÑ iÉϤhÉÉåwhÉÇ xɤÉÉUiuÉÉiÉ uÉÉiÉsÉÇ | sÉkuÉÉÎalÉSÏmÉlÉÇ qÉåkrÉ ÌmɨÉsÉÇ MüÄTüuÉÉiÉÎeÉiÉç || It is laghu, teekshna, ushna & alkaline, therefore it does not aggrevates vata. Itis stimulent, promoter of intellect, aggrevator of pitta & allivator of kapha & vata. Itis also used in purgation therapy & asthapana therapy. According to Indian maetriamedica Gomootra contains ammonia inconcentrated form it is used in both internal & external medication.It also has alaxative & purgative nature so it is used in various medicinal preparations likePunarnava mandoora, Marichyadi taila.It is a good bio-availability enhancing drug.4.KAANJI46,47 Liqour prepared with the manda of half boiled kulmash dhanya is Kaanji. MüÉÎleÉMÇü pÉåÌS iÉÏwhÉÉåwhÉÇ UÉãcÉlÉÇ mÉÉcÉlÉÇ sÉbÉÑ || SÉWûeuÉUWûUÇ xmÉzÉïimÉÉlÉɲiÉ MüTüÉmÉWûqÉç | It is purgative, teekshna, ushna, appetizer, carminative & light.When appliedexternally it cures daha & fever.When taken internally it allivates vata & kapha61.5.KULATHTHA48 EwhÉÈ MÑüsÉirÉÉå UxÉiÉÈ MüwÉÉrÉÈ MüOÒûÌuÉmÉÉMåü MüÄTüqÉÉÂiÉklÉÈ | zÉÑ¢üzqÉËU aÉÑsqÉ ÌlÉzÉSlÉ¶É xÉÇaUÉWûMüÈ mÉÏlÉxÉMüÉxÉWûÉËU || xÉÑ.xÉÑ. 46/97 The decoction prepared out of horse gram is ushna, kashaya in rasa, katuvipaka , it allivates kapha & vata .It cures shukrashmari, gullma, sangrahani, pinasaand kasa. 35 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 51. Drug Review6.GODUGDA49,50Pharmaco dynamics: Rasa – Madhura, Guna – Snigda Veerya – SheetaVipaka - Madhura.Dosha karma – Vata pitta shamakaKarma – Bramhana, Vrishya, Madhya, Balavardhaka, Jeevaniya &AsthisandhanakaraRogaghnata – Pandu, Rakta pitta, Yoni roga, Shukra dosha, Mootra roga, Pradararoga etc & it is pathya in vata pittaja vikara Cows milk promotes long life it is reguvinator good for those emaciated afterinjury, increases intelligence, strength & breast milk. It cures shrama, kasa, thrishna,jeerna jwara, mootra krichra & rakta pitta.7. GOGRUTHA51Synonyms: Grutha, sarpi, ajya,Nomenclature: Sanskruth – grutha, English ghee, Kannada tuppa,Pharmaco dynamics:Rasa – Madhura, Guna – SnigdaVirya – Shita Vipaka - Madhura.Action of cow’s ghee on different body system:Dosha : Vatapitta nashakaNadivaha samsthana : Medhya, InsanityPachana samsthana : snehana, agnideepaka, anahaSwasana samsthana : RajaksmaRaktawaha samsthana: VisarpaMutravaha samsthana: Motral 36 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 52. Drug ReviewPrajanana samsthana : Sukra jananaRogagnata - jwara, Visarpa, Rajakshma.8. HARITAKI52Botanical Name : Terminalia Clebula Retz.Family : CombretaceaeVeranacular NamesHindi : HaradEnglish : Chebulic MyrobalanTelegu : KarrikkayaTamil : KadukkaiSynonyms : Amruta, Abhaya, Kayastha, Vayastha, Pathya,Classical Categorization : Vijaya, sivaCharaka : Jwaraghna, Arshoghna Kasaghna, Kushtagna, PrajasthapanaSusruta : Amalakyadi, Parusakadi, TriphalaVagbhata : ParushyakadiPropertiesRasa : Pancharasa (experct Lavana), Kashaya mainlyGuna : Laghu, RukshaVirya : UshnaVipaka : MadhuraKarma : Tridoshahara, Anulomana, Rasayana, Prajasthapana, Chakhusya, LekhanaMajor chemical constitueints Fruits : Vit C, Tunnic acid, anthraguinole glycoside. 37 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 53. Drug ReviewIndication : Sotha, Prameha, Kushta, Vrana, Chardi, Vatarakta, Mutrakruchra, Netra roga, Hridroga, Klaibya, Kasa, shwas etc.Part used : Fruit rind.9. VIBHITAKI53Botanical Name : Terminalia beltrrica RoxbFamily : CombrataceaeVernacular NamesHindi : BahedEnglish : Belliric myrobalanTelugu : TanikayaTamil : AkkamSynonyms : Aksaphala, Kalidruma, KarshaphalaClassical categorizationCharaka : Javrahara, Kasahara, VirechanopagaSushruta : Mustadi, TriphalaVaghbhata : MustadiMajor Chemical constituentsFruits : Fructose, Galactose, Glucose, Mannitol, Rhamnose, beta Sitosterol.Seed : Edible OilSeed coat : Gallic acidBark and Heart wood : Chebulagic acid, ellagic acid 38 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 54. Drug ReviewPropertiesRasa : KashayaGuna : RukshaVirya : UshnaVipaka : MadhuraKarma : Kapha, Pittahara, Kasya cakshusya, MadakariIndications : Jwara, Kasa, Shwasa, Atisara, Ashmari, ChardiParts used : Fruit rind, Seed, Seed kernal.10. AMALAKI54Botanical Name : Emblica officinalis GaertnFamily : EuphorbiaceaeVernicular NamesHindi : AmlaEnglish : Indian goose berryTelugu : Ushiri kayaTamil : NellikkaiKannada : NeelikaiSynonyms : Abhaya, Amruta, Dhatri, Vayastha, Vrushya etcClassical categorizationCharaka : Jwaragna, Kasagna, Virechanopaga, Kushtagna, Vayasthapana.Vaghbhata : ParushakadiMajor chemical constituentsRoot : Ellagic acid, Lupenol, oelandic aldchyde 39 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 55. Drug ReviewBark : Leuloelphinidin, Procyanidin, Tannic etc.Fruit : Vit-C, Phyllemblin, Linolic acid, Indolea cetic acid ellagic acid, Phyllemblic acid & salts.PropertiesRasa : Amla pradhana, Pacha rasa (Except Lavana)Virya : SheetaVipaka : MadhuraKarma : Tridoshahara, Vayasthapana, Rasayana Chakshushya, Vrushya.Indications : Prameha, Raktapitta, Netra roga, Kushta, Arshya, Shula, Pradara etc.Part used : Fruit Pulp / Fruit rind.11. SHUNTI 55 It is mentioned in all the Brahatrayees for therapeutic usage.Botinical Name: Zingiber officinale.Family : Scitaminae.VERNACULAR NAMES: Hindi : Sonth. Telugu : Sunthi. English : Ginger. Tamil : Chukku.Classical Categorization:Caraka : Trptighna, Arsoghna, Dipaniya, Sulaparasamana, Trsnanigrahana.Sushruta : Pippalyadi, Trikatu.Vagbhata : Pippalyadi. 40 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 56. Drug ReviewBotanical Description : An erect perennial herb with aromatic rhizome.Stem : Erect, leafy, 15-150cm tall.Leaves : Subsessile, Linear, acuminate, glabrous, 10-30 cm long.Flowers : Shoot upto 12cm long,Distribution : Cultivated almost throughout India.Major Chemical constituents: Curcumene, D-curcumene, Bourbornene, d-borneal, citral, d-camphene,citronellol, geraniol, gingerols, paradol, gingerenone A, ginger glycolipid A,B & C,gingerdiol; ginger, one B&C.Properties56 Rasa : Katu. Guna : Snigdha. Virya : Usna. Vipaka : Madhura. Karma : Vata kaphahara, Deepana, Hridya, Rochana, Vrishya.12. PIPPALI57 It is mentioned in all the Brahatrayees for medicinal purpose.Botanical Name : Piper longum linn.Family : Piperaceae.VERNACULAR NAMESHindi : Pipala. Marathi : Pipali.English : Long pepper. Bengali : Pipal.Telugu : Pippallu. Malayalam : Tippali.Tamil : Tippili. Punjabi : Maghaun. 41 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 57. Drug ReviewClassical categorizationCaraka : Dipaniya, kanthya, Asthapanopaga, sirovirecanopaga, sitaprasamana, sulaprasamana, kasahara, Hikkanigrahana, Truptighna, Vamana.Sushruta : Pippalyadi, Urdhvabhagahara, Tryusana, Amalakyadi, Sirovirecana.Vagbhata : Pippalyadi.Botanical Description: An aromatic slender climber.Stems : Creeping, jointed, attached to other plants while climbing.Leaves : 5-9cm 3-5cm. subacute, entire glabrous, cordate at the base.Flowers : In pendulate spikes, straight, male larger and slender.Fruits : Yellowish orange, aboid, sunk in fleshy spike.Major chemical constituentsEssential oil, piperine, piplartine, piperlongumine, piperlonguminine, pipernonaline,piperundicoildine, etc.Properties58Rasa : Katu. Doshaghanta : Kaphavata shamaka.Virya : Usna. Karma : Vrishya.13. MARICHA59 It is mentioned in all the Brahatrayees for medicinal purpose.Botionical Name : Piper nigrum.Family : Piperaceae.VERNACULAR NAMES Hindi :Kali mirchih Tamil : Milagu T English : Black pepper Marathi : Mirin Bengali : Golmarich Gujarathi : Kalamari 42 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 58. Drug Review Malayalam : Nalla Muluku Kannada : KaremenesuClassical Cetegorization :Charaka : Dipaniya, Sula prasamana, Krimighna, Sirovirecanopaga.Sushruta : Pippalyadi, Tryusana.Vagbhata : Pippalyadi.Botonical Description : Branching & climbing perennial shrub branches stout,trailing and rooting at the nodes.Leaves: Entire 12.5 – 17.5cm 5.0 – 12.5 cm glaucous beneath, base acute cordate.Flowers: Minute, borne in spikes, usually, Dioecious but the female often bearsanthers and the male a pistllode.Fruits: Globose or avoid, bright red when ripe.Seeds: Globose.Major chemical constituents Piperene, piperethine, piperoein A&B, feruperine, dihydroferuperine,citronellol, cryptone, di hydrocarbeol, pinene, pipernol, camphene, caryophyllene,alanine, pipecolic acid, carotene, ascorbic acid pipercide etc.Properties Rasa : Katu. Virya : Usna. Guna : Laghu, Tikshna. Vipaka : Katu.Karma60: Vrysha, Rochaka, Deepana, Chedana, Kapha Vatashara. 43 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 59. Drug Review CONCEPT OF IRON IN MODERN VIEWHistory61: Metallic iron was known in pre-dynastic Egypt (before 3400 B.C) but wasexceedingly scarce and used only as beads for jewellery (Flinders Petrie). It mayhave been obtained from meteoric iron since it contains nickel. Iron of this earlyperiod is also known for Mesopotamia, some possibly terrestrial. The metal cameinto general use in Egypt only much later (about 1500 B.C). The use of iron seems tohave spread from the Hittites in Asia Minor. It was much used by the Assyrians about600 B.C. In the Mycenaean (Pre-classical Greek) period described by Hormer, ironwas still a rare metal-a lump of iron is the prize given to Achilles, but the Greeksbrought with them the use of iron. The Etruscans worked the mines of Elba, latertaken over by the Romans who also worked the mines of Spain and Noricum. Ironwas known to Indians since 900 B.C. or earlier, in China from about 500 B.C. ( Castiron from about A.D.200)Occurrence62: Iron does not occur to any great extent in the free state on the earth,although meteorites, which sometimes consist of metallic iron with from 3 to 30 percent of nickel and some occluded hydrogen, indicate that it must be present in thesolar system. Meteorites may also consist partly or principally of silicates (e.g., olivine) andof glassy minerals (moldavite), although grains of metallic iron are usually presenteven in stony varieties. On account of the presence of nickel, meteoric iron does noteasily rust in moist air. Cobalt, graphite (some times small diamonds), ferroussulphide. Schreibersite (Fe, Ni, Co)3 P and cohenite(Fe, Co, Ni)3 C, not known to existon the earth, also occur in meteorites, Meteoric dust consisting chiefly iron is 44 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 60. Drug Reviewconstantly falling on the earth from space, although its presence is noticed only on thesurface of the otherwise unsullied snows of the polar regions. Large masses of native iron, which may be meteoric or have been formed bythe reduction of ores in burning coal- mines, occur in Disko Island, West Greenland,and grains of iron in basalt rocks at Giant’s Causeway and elsewhere. The inner coreof the earth has been supposed to be largely metallic iron. Iron compounds occur inthe soil, in green plants, and in hemoglobin(0-336 per cent Fe) the red colouring matter of blood. Iron ores are plenty but few in number, although iron occur in nearly everymineral. The most important ores are the oxides. Ferrroso ferric Fe3 O4 Occurs as theimportant or magnetic (so-called because certain varieties, Iodestone, are permanentlymagnetic) : this is not found to any extent in the British Isles but occurs in Lapland,Sweden, Siberia (Urals), Germany, India ( Madras) and North America. It contains74.4 percent of Iron and is the richest ore. Ferric oxide Fe2 O3 occurs as haematite,sometime crystalline and red, or if black giving a red streak on unglazed porcelain. Italso occurs in earthy, granular and nodular forms, and is found in England in theFurness district in Lancashire and near Whitehaven, in Belgium, Westphalia, Sweden,the Island of Elba, south of Lake Superior and near St. Louis (Missouri) Hydratedferric oxide, limonite, occurs in kidney-shaped masses in South Wales, the Forest ofDean, France, Germany. Bilbao in Spain, and Canada. The bog iron ores arehydrated ferric oxides, and occur in large quantities in Ireland, Sweden, and NorthGermany. The only remaining important ore is ferrous carbonate FeCO3, occurringalone as siderite, chalybite, or spathic iron ore, in the Alps and in Hungary, or mixedwith clay as clay-ironstone, or with clay and coal as blackband-ironstone. The 45 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 61. Drug Reviewhydrated oxide and the impure forms of the carbonate are the most important Britishores. Pyrites cinders, chiefly ferric oxide, from the manufacture of sulphuric acid aredesulphurised by roasting and smelted for iron. The value of an ore of iron dependson its freedom from impurities (S.P.As, etc., ) which are detrimental to the resultingmetal.THE METALLURGY OF IRON63: The extraction of iron from the ores involves anumber of processes.(1) Preliminary roasting or calcination is carried out by stacking the ore with a little coal in heaps or shallow kilns or shaft-furnaces, and regulating the temperature and supply of air so that most of the moisture, carbon dioxide, sulphur and arsenic are expelled; ferrous oxide (FeO) is also converted into ferric oxide (Fe2 O3 ) to avoid the production of ferrous silicate in the slag during smelting. The ore is also rendered more porous. Powdery ore is agglomerated by sintering or briquetting.(2) Smelting or reducing the ore with carbon in the blast-furnace. The blast-furnace ( introduced in a simple form about 1500) consists of an outer shell of steel plates, lined with refractory bricks. It is 50 to 100 ft. high, the greatest width being up to 24 ft. at the “boshes”.The mouth is closed with a cup-and cone through which the charge of ore, limestoneand fuel is fed intermittently by lowering the cone. (In large modern furnaces adouble cup-and cone is used, which prevents the escape of gas opening the lowercone). The gas passes away through a pipe to a dust-catcher and washer and isutilized by burning in the Cowper stoves for heating the air-blast. The furnace belowthe boshes narrows gradually to a hearth at the base, pierced with holes for a number 46 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 62. Drug Reviewof water –jacketed iron blowing –pipes or tuyeres, through which air is forced from anannular pipe by powerful blowing-engines. The hearth is also pierced with a holestopped with clay from which the molten iron is periodically tapped into sand mouldson the ground, and a slag-notch at a higher level through which the molten slag runscontinuously from above the fused metal. About 3 to 5 tons of air are passed throughthe furnace per ton of iron made, the power for working the blowing-engines beingsupplied by coke-oven gas obtained in producing the coke for the blast –furnace.Coal is used in Scotch furnaces but elsewhere hard oven coke or sometimes charcoalis employed. The use of coke was introduced in 1709 by Darby at Coalbroookdale inShropshire. The Charge for the blast-furnace consists of 1 ton of coke, 8 to 12 cwt, oflimestone to form the slag (consisting of calcium and aluminum silicates ) and somuch ore (say 2 ½ tone) as produces 1 ton of iron. The process is continuous andgoes on day and night without interruption. Each furnace may produce 300 tons ofiron daily. The air for the blast is pre-heated to 7000 to 8000 by passing through Cowperstoves consisting of tall iron cylinders lined with firebricks, packed with chequerbrickwork with a circular gas flue on one side. Part of the gas from the blast-furnacetogether with sufficient air to burn it passes through untill the bricks are red-hot. Thegas is then turned through a second stove, and the air blast to the tuyeres is sentthrough the first one until the brickwork has cooled. The two stoves are thusalternatively used as absorbers and emitters of heat, or as h eat – regenerators. Thiseconomises fuel and the blast-furnace works at a higher temperature. 47 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 63. Drug Review The blast-furnace gas consists of nitrogen and carbon monoxide with carbondioxide; the normal volume composition is N2 60, CO 24. CO2, 12, H2 and CH44. It ismostly used in heating the stoves, although in some works it is partly used to raisesteam for the blowing-engines or as fuel for gas engines. In some cases a dry blast is used, the air being first dried by refrigeration or byadsorbing moisture in silica gel. In this way loss of heat by the re-action: C+H20 =C0+H2 in the blast –furnace is prevented. Chemical reaction in the blast-furnace.—the oxygen of the blast unites withcarbon at a very high temperature in the hearth to produce largely carbon monoxide,which raises through the furnace : 2C+O2 = 2C0.The temperature of the charge passing down the furnace increase continually frommouth to the hearth. Above the boshes at a bull-red heat the ferric oxide is reduced by carbonmonoxide to spongy iron: Fe2+3C0=2Fe+3CO2The reaction is reversible and the escaping gas contains both CO and CO2 in the ratio1:0-5. In this upper zone the limestone is decomposed: CacO3 = CaO+CO2, And some carbon dioxide is reduced to monoxide: CO2 + C = 2C0.The spongy iron absorbs sulphur from the fuel. 48 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 64. Drug Review Near the centre of the furnace, at a bright-red heat, finely-divided carbon isdeposited by the reaction : 2C0 = C02+C. This and the carbon of the charge completethe reduction. Fe2O3+3C=2Fe+3COPhosphorus is produced by reduction of phosphates in the ore :Ca3(PO4)2+3SiO2+5C=3CaSiO3 + 2P + SCO,And the phosphorus is absorbed by the iron. At a higher temperature some silicon isformed by the reduction of silica by carbon in presence of iron and alloys with theiron.The silica and lime now form a fusible slag which usually contains some calciumsulphide. Manganese is also formed by reduction of the manganese compounds in theore, e.g.Mn2 03 +3C=2Min+3CO.At a white heat in the lowest part of the furnace of spongy iron containing carbon,silicon manganese, sulphur and phosphors fuses to molten cast iron which is tappedoff from time to time into sand moulds to from pig iron, or is sent in the fused state tothe steel furnaces.There varieties of commercial iron are: (1) cast iron or pig iron; (2) malleable iron orwrought iron ; (3) steel. The order in which they are prepared from the ore is roughlyas follows:Ore Pig iron Wrought iron Crucible steel Bessemer, or Open hearth steel,Cast iron: Pig iron contains 2.2 to 4.5 per cent of carbon, with silicon, manganese,sulphur and phosphorus, When the cooling is rapid, the silicon content small and the 49 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 65. Drug Reviewmanganese high, while pig iron is formed in which all the carbon is in the from ofiron carbide Fe3 C (cementite) ; it is brittle and coarsely crystalline, and dissolvesnearly completely in dilute hydrochloric acid evolving a mixture of hydrogen andhydrocarbons. If, however, the molten iron containing at least 2.5 per cent of siliconis slowly cooled most of the carbon separates in the from of fine laminae of graphite,the iron at the same time becoming softer and of a finer texture; on solution inhydrochloric acid it evolves chiefly hydrogen and leaves a black residue of graphite.This variety of cast iron is known as grey pig iron. An intermediate variety is calledmottled pig iron. The solubility of carbon in pure iron 4.25 per cent, but much moreis dissolved if manganese is present.Malleable or wrought iron: This is nearly pure iron containing only from 0-12 to025 per cent of carbon, and melts at a higher temperature (14000 - 15000 ) than castiron. Malleable iron contains less than 0-5 per cent of total impurities (carbon,sulphur, phosphorous and silicon). Malleable iron is obtained from cast iron by the puddling process invented byHenry Cort of Lancaster in 1784. The cast iron is fused in a reverberatory furnace thehearth of which is lined with hematite which oxidises the carbon : 3C+Fe2 O3=2Fe+3CO, the carbon monoxide bubbling through the molten iron, sulphur,phosphorus and silicon are oxidises and pass into the slag. When the metal becomespasty it is formed into lumps or “blooms” which are beaten under steam harmmers tosqueeze out the slag. The iron although not fused welds together to a cohercent massat a bright red-heat. Malleable iron is tough and fibrous; its property of welding, whereby twopieces when heated to redness unite on hammering, it exceedingly valuable and is 50 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 66. Drug Reviewapplied in various ways by the blacksmith. Its softness is not appreciably altered byheating to redness and quenching in water, whereas steel then becomes very hard.Wrought iron has now largely been replaced by mild steel. Wrought iron containing combined phosphorus is brittel at the ordinarytemperature and is said to be cold-short; combined, sulphur, probably FeS, renders themetal brittle at a red heat, when is known as red –short.Steel: This is iron which has been fused in the process of manufacture and containsfrom 0-15 ( very soft steel) to 1-5 per cent or more (very hard steel ) or carbon, part atleast combined with iron or in solid solution. It also contains small amounts of otherelements but the impurities of the cast iron viz., silicon, phosphorus , sulphur andmanganese, have mostly been removed.Analyses of cast iron and the steel made from it illustrate this Fe C Si P Mn SCast iron 93.2 `1-0 1-4 2.5 1-8 0-1Steel 99.3 0-18 0-004 –0-02 0-4 0.0424 Steel also differs from iron in acquiring a “ temper” by heating and quenching;it becomes soft when heated and slowly cooled.Steel may be made(i) from pure wrought iron by increasing the amount of combined carbon(ii) from cast iron by removing part of the carbon and taking out the impurities. In modern processes the second method is used and the main process are(1) The Bessemer Process ( Henry Bessemer ; 1855)(2) The Siemens-martin or Open hearth process (1864) 51 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 67. Drug Review When a wrought iron is made from pure oxide ores by reduction with charcoal is converted into steel by the cementation process. Bars of wrought iron surrounded with charcoal are heated for one or two weeks. Absorption of carbon occurs, the carbonization spreading slowly through the mass and converting the iron into steel. The surface of the bar is covered with blisters, and the blister steel is fused in plumbago crucibles to form cast steel or crucible steel. This process has been superseded by the electric furnace for high quality steel for tools, etc., The Properties of Steel:- The Properties of steel depend largely on the contentof carbon and the heat-treatment: low-carbon steels are soft like wrought iron and areknown as mild steel; with more carbon the ductility falls, whilst the tensile strengthincreases up to the limiting percentage of 1.5 of carbon. Wrought iron and steel aremalleable and may be welded. The melting point of steel is lower lower than that ofwrought iorn. The Properties of steel depend on the heat-treatment to which the metal hasbeen subjected. If steel is heated to redness and quenched in cold water it becomes ashard and brittle as glass. If it is now heated to various temperatures the resultingmetal posscesses properties depending temperature is judged by the colour of the thinfilm of oxide produced on a bright surface of the metal. 2300 : light –straw colour : used for razor blades. 2550 : brownish-yellow :used for penknives and axes. 2770 : purple : used for cutlery. 2880 :bright-blue: used for watch-springs and swords. 2900 -3160 : dark –blue: used for chisels and large saws. 52 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 68. Drug Review Wrought iron is case-harended by heating in quantity with carbon or potassiumferrocyanide,etc. when a surface layer or steel is formed. armer plate is made by case-hardening a shet of soft steel on one side and spraying with cold water when red hot.Nickle chromium steel from very tough armour plate and after heat-treatment are used forprojectiles. A very hard surface used for cylinder bores, etc., is formed by nitriding, i.e,heating still containing about 1 percent aluminium at 4500 to 5000 in an atmosphere ofammonia. Iron nitrides (Fe2 N, etc.,) are fromed in the interstices of the iron crystals andprevent gliding of the latter under stress. The main ores of iron are Haematite (Fe2O3) Limonite (2Fe2O3 .3H2O), magnetite(Fe3O4) and siderite (spathic iron ore –FeCO3). Iron Pyrites (fool’s gold – FeS2) , copperpyrites CuFeS2, and arsenical pyrites (FeAsS) are not important as sources of Iron. Atomic number-26 Electronic configuration-2.8.14.2 Density – 7.86 Atomic volume-7.1 Melting point- 1539OC Boiling Point – 2450 OCAnalytical –Dry Tests64(1) When an iron compound is heated with sodium carbonate of charcoal in the reducing flame, grey metalic particles of iron are produced and these particles are attracted by a magnet.(2) An iron compound gives a yellow borax bead in the oxidising flame and green bead in the reducing flame. 53 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 69. Drug Review Table No. 4 Showing the Comparison of Different Varieties of Iron65SL.No Properties Cast Iron Steel Wrought Iron1) Amount of 2-3% 0.25-2% 0.1-0.25% carbon2) Melting Poing 11500-12500 C 13000 -14000C 14000-15000C3) Hardness Hard Hard and soft soft4) Brittlenes& Brittle Malleable and Malleable Malleability brittle5) Structure Crystalline Crystalline Fibrous6) Tempering Cannot be Can be Cannot be tempered tempered tempered7) Welding Cannot be Can be Can be welded welded welded8) Magnetisation Cannot be Can be Cannot be per- permanently permanently manently magnetised magnetised magnetised 54“The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 70. Disease Review DISEASE REVIEW PANDUROGA NIRUKTI AND PARIBHASHA In Ayurveda, different diseases are named on the basis of signs and symptoms,the origin of the diseases, location of exhibiting its symptoms etc. Here the disease Panduis named on the basis of Varna. Pandu is a mixture of shweta and peeta Varna in equal proportions, whichresembles the colour of pollengrains of Ketaki flower. In Shabdha kalpa Druma, it is stated that the Pandu Varna can be taken ascombination of Shweta and Peeta. By above-mentioned references it is very clear that the word Pandu is mainly thecombination of Shweta and Peeta varna. Our Acharyas have defined Pandu roga in different ways in their classics. But allthe definition carries nearly the same meaning. The different definitions stated bydifferent authors are as follows: 1. The disease in which Pandubhava is more intermed as Panduroga66. 2. The disease in which Pandutwa is more is called Panduroga67. 3. The disease is named after Panduvarna which one among the Haritadi varnas explained in Panduroga68. 4. Vijayarakshita and Sharangadhara stated that the disease, which is named after Panduvarna, is called Panduroga69. 55 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 71. Disease Review NIDANA The different authors have explained many nidanas for the menifestation of thedisease Pandu.For the sake of convenience it is catagorised under three different groups 1.Ahara as causative factor. 2.Vihara as causative factor. 3.Nidanarthakara rogas as causative factor. Ahara as causative factor: In case of Pandu definite ahara dravyas have been mentioned as the causativefactors in different classics. Excessive consumption of amla and lavana rasa dravyas aswell as teekshna and ushna guna dravyas for a long period leads to Pitta vridhi inturnleads to Panduroga70,71. By the consumption of excessive madya the qualities like laghu, ushna, teekshna,sukshma, amla, vyavayi, ashukari, ruksha, vikasi, vishada get increased in the body, thusleads to dhatu kshaya and then leads to Panduroga. Certain foodstuffs like Masha, Tilataila, Penyaka, Nishpava are said to be thecausative factors of Pandu roga. According to modern view also food plays a major rolein causing pandu roga. Usually malnutrition, particularly the food deficient in folic acid,vitamin B12 and Iron are the causes of Anaemia of different varieties. By consumption of mrut (mud) the Tridoshas gets provoked, the mrut of Kashayarasa provokes Vata dosha, that of Ushna (Kshareeya) rasa provokes Pitta dosha andMadhura rasa provokes Kapha dosha. Excessive consumption of mrut leads toagnimandya by affecting pachakagni and then leads to srotorodha, which results indhatukshaya, and finally it leads to Pandu roga72. 56 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 72. Disease Review Table-No. 5 Showing Ahara as Causative Factors Charaka Sushruta Vagbhata Hareeta 1. Amlarasa sevana + + + 2. Lavanarasa sevana + + + 3. Kshara sevana + + 4. Atyushna Bhojana + 5. Viruddha sevana + 6. Nishpava sevana + 7. Masha sevana + + 8. Tilataila sevana + + 9. Madya sevana + 10. Mrut bhakshana + + 11. Teekshnahara sevana + + 12. Atikatu sevana + + 13. Atikashaya sevana + Vihara as a causative factor73: Ratri jagarana, divaswapna especially during annavidaha kala, malamutradivegadharana, physical activities beyond individual capacity, excessive sexual indulgencewere the causes of prakopa of Vatadi Doshas, which results in vitiation of Rakta dhatuand then leads to panduta of twacha. 57 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 73. Disease Review Table No. 6 . Showing the Viharas as Causative Factors Charaka Sushruta Vagbhata Hareeta 1. Ratrijagarana + + 2. Divaswapna + + + 3. Malamutradi + + Vegadharana 4. Atyadvagamana + + 5. Ativyayama + + + 6. Ati vyavaya + + Manasika Vikaras as Causative Factors: Consumption of food while mind is afflicted with Chinta, Bhaya, Shoka, Kamaand Krodha contributes to the formation of Pandu roga. Table No. 7. Showing the Manasika Vikaras as Causative factors Charaka Sushruta Vagbhata Hareeta 1. Chinta + 2. Bhaya + 3. Shoka + 4. Kama + + 5. Krodha + + 58 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 74. Disease Review Nidanarthakara Rogas as Causative Factors : Panduroga can manifest as secondary to some other diseases like Raktarbuda,Rakta Pradara, Yakrit Pleeharoga, Punaravartaka Jwara, Jeerna Jwara, Grahani, Arsha,Krimi, Raktapitta, Asrugdhara and leads to either Rakta kshaya due to bleeding orvirulence of doshas which results in Pandu roga. In Krimi roga raktakshaya is especiallydue to Purishaja Krimis. Sushruta has told that Yakrit and Pleeha roga leads to Panduroga, as both the organs are the sthanas of Ranjaka pitta. In Ayurveda Garbhadharana also has been stated to cause Pandu roga, only whenthe pregnant women are not properly nourished. After taking a bird view of the nidana of Pandu roga and their effect of causationof the disease, we can understand the role of Ahara, Vihara and Nidanarthakara rogasresulted in Pandu roga. Other than these factors Rutu vyshamya, Pratikarma vyshamya like Sneha-vibhrama, Grahi oushadha prayoga in Amatisara, Snehatiyoga, Chardhi nigraha,Dustaraktasrava, stambhana were also the causative factors of Pandu roga. 59 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 75. Disease Review SAMPRAPTI The causes that explained earlier under the heading of Nidana leads to vitiation ofall the Tridoshas .It is uphold by Charaka that all Tridoshas are involved in Pandu roga,however pitta is the dominant that greately involved irrespective of type of Pandu. Thevitiated pitta along with other doshas results in dhatu pradushana mainly of rasa andrakta. Thus invariably resulting in rakta kshaya. It is very well established in Samhitasthat when there is rakta kshaya is the consecutive dhatu generally manifests kshayalakshanas. Infact the dhatu poshana and sthirata basically depends upon prakrita raktacirculating all over the body. The rakta kshaya apparently leads to nissara. Nissara refers to the lack of essence from the dhatus in other words the essencethat could give rise to the formation of Ojas. Thus, rakta kshaya means Ojokshaya. Theancient authors, have commented that the Pitta vriddhi and Rakta kshaya are theprominent entities that give rise to dhatu kshaya, which is refered as kshaya in the dhatusis prominent out come of Pandu Samprapti. The Pitta so, vitiated and Rakta that hasunder gone kshaya along with the other doshas when circulated all over the body, normalcomplex of the skin is notably altered. This condition is explained in Samhitas asHataprabha or loss of normal complexion associated with Vivarnata, that is whitishyellow colouration of twak, netra, jihwa and nakha etc. Thus Pandu roga is characterised by dosha prakopa, predominantly Pitta dosha,followed with Rakta kshaya ultimately resulting in Alpamedaska, Nissara and Ojakshayalakshanas, manifested through the skin all over the body in the form of whitish yellowcolouration. 60 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 76. Disease Review Table No-8 Sankhya Samprapti of Panduroga : Varieties Panduroga Charaka Sushruta Vagbhata Hareeta 1. Vataja Pandu + + + + 2. Pittaja Pandu + + + + 3. Kaphaja Pandu + + + + 4. Tridoshaja Pandu + + + + 5. Mrutbhakshanjanya + - + + Pandu 6. Kamala - - - + 7. Kumbha Kamala - - - + 8. Haleemaka - - - + 61“The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 77. Disease Review POORVA ROOPA AND ROOPA OF PANDUROGA Poorva roopa: The Poorva roopa are those that manifest as prodromal signs and symptomsexplained by different Acharyas are summerised in Table no.9. Roopa of Panduroga: The term Roopa implies to both the signs and symptoms through which a diseaseis identified. In addition to the cordinal articular signs and symptoms, a number ofconstitutional symptoms also manifest in Panduroga. Few of the symptoms aid indistinguishing the types on the basis of doshanubandha. In the advanced stage withdeterioration of the general conditions a number of other symptoms will develop.Accordingly the signs and symptoms can be classified as follows: 1. Pratyatma Lakshanas (cordinal signs & symptoms) 2. Samanya Lakshanas (general signs& symptoms) 3. Vishishta Lakshanas (distinguishing features of doshanubandha) 62 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 78. Disease Review Table No. 9. Showing the Poorva Roopa Lakshana Sl. Poorva roopa Charaka Sushruta Astanga No. Lakshanas Hridaya 1. Hridaya + - + Spandanadhikya 2. Roukshya + - - 3. Swedabhava + - - 4. Shrama + - - 5. Twacha Sputana - + - 6. Steevana - + - 7. Gatrasada - + - 8. Mrutbhakshanachcha - + - 9. Prekshanakoota - + - Shotha 10. Avipaka - + - 11. Vitpeetata - + - 12. Mutrapeetata - + - 13. Aruchi - - + 14 Alpavahnita - - + 15. Sada - - + 63“The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 79. Disease Review Table No 10. Showing the Lakshanas of Roopa in PandurogaSl. Lakshanas Charaka Sushruta Vagbhata Kashyapa MadhavaNo. Of Roopa1. Karnakshweda + - + - -2. Hatanala + - + - -3. Dourbalya + - + - -4. Sadana + - - - -5. Annadwesha + - + - -6. Shrama + - + - -7. Bhrama + - + - -8. Gatrashoola + - - - -9. Jwara + - + - -10. Swasa + - - - -11. Gourava + - + - -12. Aruchi + - + - -13. Gatramardata + - + - -14. Gatrapeeda + - - - -15. Gtraonmatana + - - - -16. Shoonakshikoota + - + - -17. Hareetavarna + - Pandu - - Varna18. Sheernalomata + - + - - 64“The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 80. Disease Review19. Hataprabha + - - - -20. Kopanatwa + - + - -21. Shishiradwesha + - + - -22. Nidralutwa + - - - -23. Pindiko Dwestana + - - - -24. Katirukh + - - - -25. Padarukh + - - - -26. Padasada + - - - -27. Ururukh + - - - -28. Katisadha + - - - -29. Urusada + - - - -30. Dhatushithilya + - + - -31. Ojogunakshaya + - + - -32. Alparaktata - RaktaDusrti + - -33. Alpamedaskata + - + - -34. Nissarata + - + - -35. Hridrava + - + - -36. Shithilendreyata + - + - -37. Twachapanduta + + + - -38. Shwetakshitwa - - - + -39. Shwetanakhatwa - - - + -40. Shwetavaktrata - - - + - 65“The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 81. Disease Review Pratyatma Lakshana: The invariable feature, Panduvarna of twacha is considered as the PratyatmaLakshana of Panduroga. This is an abnormal colour imparted to the skin due to Rasa andRakta kshaya in the body. This colour is almost like the pollens of Ketaki flower. In addition to the above features in Vataja Pandu Krishna or Aruna varna isassociated with Panduroga. In Pittaja Pandu, the colour is of peeta, harita, and haridra andin Kaphaja pandu; Shweta Varna is associated with pandu Varna and changes to normalcolour of skin like Krishna, Shyamavadata to Krishna panduta, Haridra panduta andSweta panduta. Samanya lakshana: A number of constitutional symptoms manifests in varying degree, which areconsidered as general symptoms. They are as follows; Alparakta, Daurbalya, Hridrava,Shwasa, Bhrama, Kati-Uru-Parshwa ruk, Karnakshweda, Mandagni, Sadana, Gaurava,Shoonakshikoota, Shotha, Hataprabha, Shwetakshitwa, Shwetanakha and Satwahani. Vishista Roopa: The lakshanas specified to virulence of dosha is also an important part of ourstudy for the early diagnosis and for the purpose of prognosis. The differentclassifications of Panduroga are mentioned with reference to Samanya samprapti. 66 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 82. Disease Review Table No 11. Showing the Laksanas of Vataja Pandu Sl. Lakshanas Charaka Sushruta Vagbhata Hareeta No. 1. Krishna Panduta + - - - 2. Krishna nakhatwa - + - - 3. Aruna nakhatwa - + - - 4. Krushanekshanatwa - + - - 5. Krishna siratwa - + - - 6. Shrama + - + - 7. Rookshnangata + - - - 8. Arunangata + - - - 9. Rukshanetra - + - - 10. Angatoda + - + - 11. Angamarda + - - - 12. Kampa + - + - 13. Parshwaruk + - + - 14. Shiroruk + - + - 15. Asyavairasya + - + - 16. Shopha + - + - 17. Balakshaya + - + - 67“The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 83. Disease Review Table 12. Showing the Lakshanas of Pittaja Pandu Sl. Lakshanas Charaka Sushruta Vagbhata Hareeta No. 1. Gatrapeetata + - + + 2. Harita + - + - 3. Peeta siravanadhata - + + - 4. Jwara + + + + 5. Daha + - + - 6. Trishna + - + - 7. Chardi + - - - 8. Sweda + - + - 9. Amlodgara + - 10. Dourbalya + - 11. Peetamutrata + + 12. Shosha + - 13. Peeta vitkata + + 14. Binna varchastva + - - 15. Shopha - - 68“The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 84. Disease Review Table: 13. Showing the Lakshanas of Kaphaja Pandu Sl. Lakshanas Charaka Sushruta Vagbhata Hareeta No. 1. Shwetavabasata + 2. Shuklakshita + + 3. Shuklanakhata + + 4. Shuklananatva + + 5. Gourava + + + + 6. Sada 7. Moorcha + - - - 8. Bhrama + 9. Shwasa + - - + 10. Alasya + - - + 11. Shwayathu + - - + 12. Shuklamutratva + + - - 13. Shuklavarchaskata + + - - Tridoshaja Panduroga Lakshanas: Vitiation of all the doshas causes severe degree of Dhatushaithilyata andDhatugourava from which deterioration of dhatu and ojas occurs rapidly. Then thefeatures of sannipataja Panduroga results as it is explained only in Hareeta Samhita. Allother authors have stated that it manifests due to the higher degree of variations in thebalance of doshas and considered to be Asadhya type of Panduroga. 69 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 85. Disease Review Tridoshaja Panduroga Lakshanas as stated by Hareeta: 1. Tandra 2. Alasya 3. Shotha 4. Vamana 5. Kasa 6. Hrullasa 7. Shosha 8. Vitbhedha 9. Parusha nayana 10. Jwara 11. Kshudartata 12. Moha 13. Trishna 14. Klama Other than these, Arochaka, Ksheenata, Hatindriya are the three more lakshanasmentioned by Acharya Madhava. As per Charaka, Sushruta and Vagbhata the lakshanas of vataja, pittaja andkaphaja Panduroga were seen severely in Tridoshaja Panduroga, depending on theirdegree of vitiation. 70 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 86. Disease Review Mrudbhakshanajanya Pandu: Regarding this a separate or a unique explanation of this condition is seen inCharaka Samhita. Sushruta has included this condition in Sannipataja Panduroga. Hereconsuming soil is considered as Vyadhi Karana (Madhava Nidana).as it vitiates all thethree doshas in the body resulting Panduroga. UPADRAVA After complete formation of the disease, some other lakshanas if occurred withthe same causative factors is called as Upadrava. And usually treating the main diseasecures them. The discription of Upadrvas of Panduroga are not seen in Charaka Samhitawhereas Vagbhata considers Shopha as the only upadrava. In Sushruta samhita, total oftwenty upadravas are mentioned. 71 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 87. Disease Review TableNo.14. Showing Vishista Lakshanas of Mridbhakshanajanya Panduroga Sl. Lakshanas Charaka Videha No. 1. Shoona gandhatwa + + 2. Shoonakshi kootatwa + + 3. Shoonabhroo + + 4. Shoona padata + + 5. Shoona nabhitwa + 6. Shoona mehanatwa + 7. Krimi kostatwa + 8. Atisara + 9. Sasrik mala nissarana + 10. Kaphanwita nissarana + 11. Jataragni nasha + + 12. Tandra - + 13. Alasya - + 14. Shawsa + 15. Kasa - + 16. Shosha - + 17. Arsha - + 18. Sada - + 19. Krishangata - + 20. Shoona karatwa - + 21. Aruchi - + 22. Balanasha + - 23. Varna nasha + - 24 Mruttika varna mala nissarana 72“The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 88. Disease Review TableNo. 15. Showing Upadrva according to dosha Sl. Vata dosha Pitta dosha Kapha dosha No. 1. Hridaya peedanam Pipasa Aruchi 2. Shwasa Jwara Agnisada 3. Atisara Moorcha Shopha 4. Kasa Abalatwa Chardi 5. Shoola Daha Klama 6. Swarabhedha Avipaka 7. Swarasada 8. Moorcha 73“The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 89. Disease Review TREATMENT OF PANDUROGA Treatment advised for Pandu are divided in to two and viz 1. Shodhana 2. Shamana 1.Shodhana: a) Snehana is done • To increase the quality of sneha which is generally reduced in Panduroga • To reduce the rukshata which is predominant because of Alparaktata, Alpamedaska and Ojokshaya. • To bring back the Shakashrita dosha to Kosta. b) Swedana is contraindicated in Pandu; but Mridu swedana may be performed. c) Shodhana is done for, • Koshta shuddhi. • To combat dosha bahulyata. Authors of Brihatrayees, accepts both urdva and adho shodhana in accordancewith the condition of rogi. Shamana oushada and Pathya follow Shodhana. 2. Shamana: In Shamana various single and compound preparations were told; which includesherbal, mineral and herbo-mineral preparations like Vyoshadya ghrita, Shuddha KantaLoha bhasma74 and Vidangadi Loha75 etc. In Shamana most of the mineral preparations contains Loha. 74 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 90. Disease Review Mrudbhakshanajanya Pandu Chikitsa: The balabala of the patient is assessed before the treatment. 1.Shodhana: Teekshna Shodhana is done in order to remove the ingested Mruttika. 2. Shamana: (a) Medicated ghrita for baladana. (b) Treatment according to the Prakupita Dosha. (c) Krimihara chikitsa in Udara Krimi. 3. Nidana parivarjana: Mruttika given Bhavana with Vidanga, Ela, Ativisha, Nimbhapatra, Pata andKatukarohini. This drug produces aversion towards Mridbhakshana and it has theproperties like Mrudbhakshanajanya doshanashaka. 75 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 91. Disease Review PATHYAPATHYA (A) Ahara: 1. Suka dhanya varga - Purana Shali Purana Yava Godhuma 2. Shami dhanya varga - Mudga, Masha. 3. Mamsa varga - Jangala Mamsa, Matsya. 4. Shaka varga - Patala, Kushmanda, Jeevanti, Bimbi, Punarnava, Nagakesara, Gudochi, Dronapushpi. 5. Phala varga - Kadali phala , Abhaya ,Dhatri. 6. Ikshu varga - Ikshu Rasa 7. Gorasa varga - Takra , Ghrita , Navaneeta. 8. Mootra varga - Gomutra 9. Madya varga- Souviraka, Tushodaka. 10. Kritanna Varga- Yusha. 11. Annya dravya- Haridra, Chandana, Yavakshara, Loha bhasma. B.Karma: i. Vamana. ii. Virechana. iii. Abhyanga. 76“The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 92. Disease Review Apathya: A. Ahara: 1. Rasa- Kshara, Amla, Katu, Lavana. 2.Anna- Viruddha bhojana, Asatmya bhojana. 3. Jala- Adhikambupana, Dushita jalapana. 4.Kritanna varga- Pinyaka. 5. Shamidhanya varga- Masha, Tila, Kulatha, Nishpava. 6. Sneha varga - Tila taila. 7. Gorasa varga- Dadhi masthu. 8. Madya varga- Saktu. 9. Ahara varga- Hingu, Tambula, Teekshnapadartha like Maricha, Vidahi padartha, Atyushna padartha. 10. Anya dravya- Mruttika. B. Vihara: Agni, Atapa atisevana, Adhika vyayama. Adhika vyavaya. Krodha. Adhika marga gamana. C.Karma: 1. Rakta sruti. 2. Dhoomapana. 3. Swedana. 4. Vamana vega dharana. 77“The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 93. Disease Review IRON DEFECIENCY ANAEMIA Anaemia is generally defined as reduction of Haemoglobin concentration, red cellcount or packed cell volume to below normal levels. The Anaemia resulted by deficiencyof Iron is called Iron difecieny Anaemia. Anaemia is the most common nutritional deficient disease. About 30% of Worldpopulation was found Anaemic and all over India it is about 70%76. In adults anaemia results in impaired work capacity. Anaemia often leads toirreversible impairment in childs learnig ability. The usual Indian diet contains inhibitorsof absorption hence Indians were more prone to develop Iron deficiency Anaemia. Causes of Iron Dificiency Anaemia78,79: 1) Hookworm infection: - This is the may be the most important cause, especially in rural areas, where sanitation is very poor. 2) Nutritional deficiency of iron: - Poor intake of food rich in Iron because of poverty, caloric restriction and lack of dentures. 3) Repeated Pregnancy: -About 1gm. of iron is lost by the mother after each delivery. 4) Chronic blood loss: - The blood loss due to bleeding Haemorrhoids, Peptic Ulcer, and Uterine haemorrhage. 5) In nephrosis, the glomerular function is inefficient and results in Protineuria. The hepatoglobin, hemopexin and transferrin are lost in urine with consequent loss of iron. 6) Lack of Absorption: - eg. Subtotal Gastrectomy and Achlorhydria. 78 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 94. Disease Review 7) The lead and iron oppose each other, in lead toxicity iron absorption and Hb synthesis is reduced in other way iron deficiency causes more lead absorption. Thus a vitious cycle is formed. Anaemia is resulted when haemoglobin level drops to less than 12gm./dl. Whenthe Hb level drops lower than 10gm./dl, the body cells lack oxygen and the patient loosesinterest in his surroundings. Since iron is an important constituent of cytochromes, theirdeficiency leads to derangement in internal respiration and all the metabolic processesbecomes sluggish. The prolonged iron deficiency leads to atrophy of of gastric epithiliumleading to achlorhydria, which in turn causes lesser absorption of Iron, consequentlyaggravates the Anaemia. Similar atrophy of epithilium of oral cavity and oesophaguscauses dysphagia, termed as Plummer- Wilson Syndrome. Very chronic Iron deficiencyAnaemia may lead to impaired attention, irritability, lowered memory and poor scholasticperformance. The clinical features of Iron deficiency Anaemia mentioned by different authorsare compiled and shown in table no.16. Treatmennt of Iron deficiency Anaemia: It consists of two principles. 1) Correction of the disorder causing Anaemia. 2) Correction of Iron deficiency. 1.Correction of the disorder causing Anaemia: After a thorough checkup and investigation, evaluation is done and accordinglysurgical or medical measures are taken. 79 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 95. Disease Review 2.Correction of Iron deficiency80: i) Oral therapy: Iron therapy responds very effectively to oral iron salts like ferrous sulphate in thedosage of 60mg. thrice daily. The response to oral medication usually appears with in twoweeks. It should be continued atleast for six months after the haemoglobin level returnsto normal and in some patients for a year in order to replenish iron stores .In patient withmalabsoption continous oral therapy may be required. ii) Parental Therapy: It is indicated in the Patients with intolerance to oral iron therapy, G.I.T.disorderslike malabsorption or when rapid replenishment of iron store is desired like in womenbefore the expected date of delivery. 80 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 96. Disease Review Table No 16. Showing the Clinical Features of IDASl. Symptoms Davidson`s Harrison’s Robin’s API OxfordNo. P.of Internal Pathologic Textbook Textbook Medicine Medicine Basis of Of Of Diseases Medicine Medicine1. Lassitude + + + +2. Fatigue + + + +3. Breathlessnes + + + + + On exertion4. Headache + + + + +5. Palpitation + + + +6. Dizziness + + + +7. Angina + + + +8. Angular + + + + stomotitis9. Glossitis + + + +10. Pika + + + +11. Tinnitus + + +12. Dimness of + + + vision13. Insomnia + +14. Paresthesia in + fingers& toes15. Hypersensitivity + + 81 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 97. Disease Review To cold16. Anorexia + +17. Nausea + +18. Bowel + + Irregularity19. Abnormal menstruation + Amenorrhoea and Menorrhagea20. Loss of Libido + +21. Dysphagea + +22. Low grade fever + +23. Alopaecia +24. Lack of + concentration25. Night cramps +26. Aches &Pains in Various parts of + body27. Throbbing in + heart And ears28. Indigestion +29. Impotence + 82 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 98. Disease Review30. Pallor in skin, mucous, palms + + + + + and Conjunctiva31. Koiloneychia + + + + +32. Brittle fingers + + + +33. Cardiac + + + dilatation34. Oedema + + +35. Splenomegaly + + +36. Nail cracking + +37. Venous hum of + + neck vessels wide pulse38. Tachycardia + +39. Systolic flow + + murmer40. Hyper dynamic + + Pricordium 83 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 99. Methodology METHODOLOGYMethodology was studied mainly under three headings. • Pharmaceutical study • Analytical study • Experimental studyPHARMACEUTICAL STUDYCollection of Drugs in the preparation of Kantaloha bhasma: All the raw drugs needed for the preparation for the compound are collectedfrom local market and some drugs are collected from college garden as well aspharmacy section of DGMAMC Gadag. Every drug was identified according toAyurvedic standards and sample of loha was certified by Geologist.Practical study: The things which are mentioned in Ayurveda are better understood by gettingthe knowledge in two ways i.e Theoretical study and Practicals. Because as saying, asdoing is very difficult task. This theory is especially applicable to Rasashastra,because the drugs which are mentioned in Rasashastra are considered as visha or theyhave visha guna, but after processing i,e shodhana & marana etc, those drugs becomeAmruta. So this denotes the importance of practicle knowledge of the processes whichare mentioned in the Rasagranthas seems to be very easy, but they will prove difficultduring the practical. The Rasashastra mainly deals with drugs like mineral, animal, & herbalorigion drugs including their identity, processing and formulations. The process whichare mentioned in Rasashastra, helps in converting the inorganic drug into organic i,e 84 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 100. MethodologyVijatiya into Sajatiya and enhances the optimum potency of the drug, make the drugpalatable & increase the shelf life. A detailed description of the steps taken to prepare the trial drug Kantalohabhasma are explained under various headings. Preparation of trial drug includesdifferent processes like samanya shodhana, vishesha shodhana and marana.PREPARATION OF KANTA-LOHA BHASMAMethod of Preparation.• Samanya shodhana of Loha.• Vishesh shodhana of Loha.• Marana of Loha.Samanya Shodhana of Loha811) Reference: RRS 5/292) Process: Nirvapa3) Shodhaneeya dravya : Kantaloha4) Shodhana Dravya : Tila Taila : Takra : Gomutra :Kanji :Kulatha kwath.5) Duration : 05 days6) Equipments : Iron Mesh, steel vessels, cloth, burner etc. 85 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 101. MethodologyPractical No:011. Name of the preparation- Samanya Shodhana of kantaloha in Tila taila for 7 times. Date of Commencement 03-01-2007 Date of Completion 03-01-2007 Reference RRS 5/292. Equipments : Iron mesh, steel chimty, Burner, cloth, steel vessels3. Drugs : Ashodita Loha–1000 gms : Tila-Taila-10 Ltrs.4. Procedure a) The Loha kept over iron mesh and was heated over agni. b) It was heated till the loha attains red-hot c) This red hot loha was immersed into Tila Taila which was kept in the steel vessel. d) After this, the loha pieces were taken out from the taila and again placed over the iron mesh which was placed over the burner. e) Like this the whole procedure was repeated for 7 times f) Every time fresh Tila Taila was taken for shodhana process5 Observations: a) In the first process the Loha pieces were taken 30 mins to become red hot. b) After immersion or pouring the red hot loha into the taila, fire was observed with hissing sound. c) This fire was seen upto 5 minutes and was ended with white fumes. 86 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 102. Methodology d) The first process has taken one-hour to complete. In later processes time has been reduced. e) In the second process, when loha placed over agni, the thick white fumes were observed and this was ended with fire. f) The whole shodhana process in Tila taila was completed in 5 hours g) At the end of the each process the colour of taila turned to as of coal tar (blackish) h) The colour of the Loha changed to deep blackish sticky and shining.Precautions: 1) Medium flame should be maintained. 2) Care should be taken while immersing into taila to avoid wastage.7. Result : Initial Wt of the Metal : 1000 gms Final Wt of the Metal : 990 gms Weight loss : 10 gms 87 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 103. MethodologyPractical No :21. Name of the Preparation : Samanya Shodhana of Kanta-loha in Takra for 7 times. Date of Commencement : 04-01-2007 Date of Completion : 04-01-2007 Reference : RRS 5/292. Equipment: Iron mesh, Steel chimty, Burner, cloth, steel vessel3. Drugs: Taila Shodhita Loha : 990 gms Takra : 10 Ltrs4 Procedure: a) Sufficient quantity of Takra was taken in the steel vessel b) Taila shodhita loha was heated over the mesh till it became red hot. c) The red hot loha poured into the takra which was kept in the steel vessel. d) This process was repeated for 7 times.5 Observations: a) In the first process time taken by the loha to become red hot was 30 mins b) The first process was completed in 45 mins c) A hissing sound was heard while immersing the red hot loha into Takra. d) The entire shodhan process in Takra was completed in 5 hours e) The Colour of the Takra changed to blackish every time. f) After Shodhana in Takra, loha lost its previous sticky shining state g) The colour of the loha was blackish yellow. 88 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 104. Methodology6. Precaution: a) Medium flame should be maintained. b) Care should be taken while pouring into takra to avoid wastages.7. Result : Initial wt of Metal : 990 gms Final Wt of the Metal : 980 gms Wt of loss : 10 gms 89 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 105. MethodologyPractical No :31. Name of the Preparation: Samanya shodhana of Kantaloha in Gomutra for 7 times Date of commencement : 05-01-2007 Date of Completion : 05-01-2007 Reference : RRS 5/292. Equipment’s : Steel mesh, Bruner, Cloth, Steel vessels steel chimity3. Drugs : Takra shodhita Kantaloha 980 gms Gomutra 12 ltrs.4. Procedure: a) Sufficient quantity of Gomutra was taken in the steel vessel b) Takra Shodita loha was heated over the burner until it becomes red hot c) The red hot loha poured into the Gomutra which was kept in the Vessel. d) After this loha churna was taken out from Gomootra, again the same procedure was repeated for 7 times e) Fresh Gomutra was taken for each process5 Observations: a) The loha became red hot in 15 mins b) The first process was completed in 20 mins c) A hissing sound heard while immersing the red hot loha into Gomutra d) The entire process was taken 3 hours to complete e) Every time after immersion, the colour of the Gomutra turned to blackish. f) The colour of the loha after Shodhana in Gomutra has turned to blackish red. 90 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 106. MethodologyPrecautions: (a) Medium flame Should be maintained (b) While pouring the heated metal care should be taken to avoid wastageResult: Initial weight of the metal : 980 gms Final Weight of the metal : 965 gms Weight loss : 15 gms. 91 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 107. MethodologyPractical No 041. Name of the Preparation : Samanya shodhana of kanta-loha in Kanji for 7 times. Date of Commencement : 06-01-2007 Date of Completion : 06-01-2007 Reference : RRS 5/292. Equipment: Iron-mesh, Steel Chimity, Burner, cloth, steel vessel3. Drugs: Gomutra Shodhita Kanta loha : 965 gms Kanji : 06 Ltrs4. Preparatory Procedure: Kanji Preparation First Shali paka should be done with water. Later this Pakwashali along with manda is to be taken in on earthen vessel. To this mixture 3 parts of water is to be added and the mouth of the vessel should be covered with cloth and allowed for sandhana, after fermentation when amlatwa develops this kanji is to be filtered and stored.5. Procedure: a) Sufficient quantity of Kanji was taken in the Steel vessel. b) The gomutra shodhit loha was heated over the burner to red hot. c) Then this red hot loha was immersed in the Kanji. d) After this the same procedure is repeated for 7 times6. Observations: a) In the first process the loha has taken 15 mins time to become to red hot b) The first process was completed in 20 minutes. c) A hissing sound heard while putting the red hot loha into kanji. d) The whole process was completed in 3 hours. e) The colour of the Kanji turned to blackish every time. 92 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 108. Methodology f) The colour of loha was blackish red.7. Precautions : Medium flame should be maintained.8 Result: Initial wt of the metal: : 965 gms Final wt of the metal : 915 gms Wt loss : 50 gms 93 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 109. MethodologyPractical No : 051) Name of the Preparation. : Samanya Shodhana of Kantaloha in Kulatha kwath for 7 times. Date of Commencement : 07-01-2007 Date of Completion : 07-01-2007 Reference : RRS 5/292) Equipments : Burner, Iron mesh, steel vessel, chimty, cloth etc.3) Drugs: Kanji Shodhita Kantaloha : 915 gms Kulattha kwath : 8 ltrs.4) Preparatory procedure: Preparation of Kulatha kwatha One part of the yavakuta chaurna of kulatha was boiled with 16 parts of the water in earthen pot over a mrudu agni till liquid is reduced ¼ of the original quantity. Later kwath is filtered and collected.5) Procedure: a) Sufficient quantity of kulatha kwath was taken in the steel vessel. b) The Kanji Shodhita loha was heated over the burner until it turns to red hot. c) This red hot metal was immersed in the kulatha kwath and again taken out. d) This procedure was repeated for 7 times.6. Observations: a) The metal has become red hot in 15 mins b) The first process was completed in 20 mins c) Entire process was completed in 3 hours. d) The Colour of kwath before shodhana process – reddish black The Colour of kwath after shodhana process –balck 94 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 110. Methodology e) The metal became blackish and brittle after shodhana.7. Result: Initial wt of metal : 915 gms Final wt of the metal : 865 gms Wt loss : 50 gms 95 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 111. MethodologyPractical No: 6 a) Name of the Preparation: Vishesh Shodhana of Kantaloha in Triphala Khwatha82. Date of Commencement : 10-01-2007 Date of Completion. : 11-01-2007 Reference : RRS 5/106-108 b) Equipments : Steel vessel, stove, cloth, Metal stirrer etc.,3) Drugs: Samanya Shodhita Loha : 850 gms Triphala Kwatha prepared in Gomootra : 2 Ltrs.4) Prepatory procedure: one part of Triphala (sthoola churna) and 8 part of Gomutrahas taken. Then both were boiled till the liquid is reduced to one fourth of the originalquantity. Later Khwath was filtered through cloth and collected.5) Procedure: a) Samanya shodhita Loha was taken into the steel vessel. b) Triphala kwatha was added to the vessel and kept over the agni for boiling. (Pachana karma) c) While heating it was stirred constantly until all the triphala kwatha get evoparated and only loha remains. d) This process was repeated for 5 times.6. Observations:a) At first Loha choorna became thick and sticky, later it was very difficult to stir the solution because it became very hard.b) The whole process was completed in 15 hours (for 5 process)c) The colour of the Loha choorna was black. 96 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 112. Methodologyd) There was a weight gain after the five processes of Loha pachana in triphala kwatha. May be because of the residuals of triphala in the Loha.7. Result:Initial wt of the metal : 865 gmsFinal wt of the metal : 885 gms.Wt gain : 20 gms. Table No. 17 Showing the Details of Shodhana PracticalsSl. Kantaloha Initial wt Final Colour Touch Smell TimeNo Churna (gms) wt required (gms)01 Ashodhita 1000 - Brownish Rough Loha - Kantaloha Smell churna02 Taila shodhita 1000 990 Brownish Rough Taila 5 hours Kantaloha black Smell churna03 Takra shodhita 990 980 Blackish Rough Noth ing 5 hours Kantaloha yellow particular churna04 Gomootra 980 965 Black Rough Gomootr 5 hours shodhita brittle a smell Kantaloha churna05 Kanji shodhita 965 915 Black Rough Noting 3 hours 97 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 113. Methodology kantaloha particular churna06 Kulatha kwata 915 865 Black Rough Nothing 3 hours shodhita brittle partiuclar kantaloha churna07 Gomootra 865 885 Black Rough Nothing 15 hours siddha Triphala brittle partiuclar Kwath shodhita kantaloha churna 98 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 114. MethodologyPractical No : 071) Name of the preparation : Marana of Shodhita Kanta loha83 Date of Commencement : 15-01-2007 Date of Completion : 18-01-2007 Reference : RRS 5/106-1082) Equipments : Steel vessels, Burner, Steel plate, Khalwa, Sharava Samputa, Cloth, Multanimitti, vanopala for Gajaputa.3) Drugs: Vishesha Shodhita Kantaloha : 885 gms Triphala Kwatha prepared in Gomootra : 1 ltr for each puta4) Prepatory procedure: 1 Pala Triphala Churna, 8 part of Gomootra was taken & bothwere boiled to reduce to ¼ of its initial quantity. Later Kwath was filtered &collected.5) Procedure: a) Equal quantity of Triphala Kwath was added to Shodhita loha churna in the steel vessel and heated over agni. b) While heating, the solution was triturated till it forms thick paste. c) With this paste, chakrikas were prepared and dried. d) These dried chakrikas were placed in sharava samputa and properly sealed by cloth and multani mitti. This sandhi bandhita samputa was dried. e) This sealed samputa was subjected to Gajaputa. f) After attaining self cool, samputa was taken out from Gajaputa. g) Chakrikas were separated from the samputa and powdered. h) Like this, again the same process was repeated for 10 times. 99 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 115. Methodology i) After completion of 10 Gajaputa, Bhasma was subjected to Bhasma pareeksha and later stored in the bottle.6) Observations:a) After first puta, chakrikas were mixed togather and was light and soft.b) Colour of the chakrikas were red, after trituration turned to blackish red.c) On repetation of puta the black colour changed to Blackish red.d) The details of the puta has been shown in the below table.7) Result Initial weight : 885 gms Final weight : 825 gms Wt loss : 60 gms 100 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 116. MethodologyPractical No. 8-16 The same procedure of Practical No. 7 was adopted to further practicals. Theobservations in the weight and physical properties after each puta are explained in thefollowing table. Date of commencement : 18-01-07 Date of completion : 18-02-07 Table No. 18 Showing the details of Marana PracticalSL.no of No of Wt of Wt of Change Change Change in SmellPracticals Gajaputa Loha Loha in wt in colour luster and bhasma bhasma (in touch before after gms) puta (in puta (in gms) gms) 08 II 825 745 80 Dark More Loha Grey lusterous gandha course powder 09 III 745 675 70 Dark Less Loha Grey lusterous gandha course powder 10 IV 675 615 60 Dark Less Mild Loha Grey lusterous gandha course powder 11 V 615 565 50 Dark Less Mild Loha Grey lusterous gandha course powder 12 VI 565 520 45 Dark Less Nirgandha Grey lusterous course powder 13 VII 520 490 30 Dark No Nirgandha Grey lusterous fine powder 14 VIII 419 465 25 Light No Nirgandha Grey lusterous fine powder 15 IX 465 450 15 Reddish No Nirgandha Grey lusterous fine powder 16 X 450 440 10 Reddish Very fine Nirgandha Grey powder 101 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 117. MethodologyANALYTICAL STUDY To know the physico chemical properties and to identify the composition ofproducts, the analysis of the drug according to the modern parameters is necessary.Though, Ayurveda is having its unique analytical approach towards drugs. But inpresent era there is a necessity of understanding a drug based on modern methodologyof analysis also. In this section of the study, we have tried to give the inferences forthe analysis. The study was undertaken at Bangalore test house, Bangalore,The study has been divided into two parts.1) Physical Analysis 2) Chemical Analysis.1. PHYSICAL ANALYSIS :a) Organoleptic characters: Colour : Reddish Brown Smell : No smell Touch : Fine Taste : Tastelessb) AnalysisDetermination of pH Value:Procedure: The pH value of the sample was determined by a Digital pH meter.One gram of Shankhadi choorna was weighed accurately and dissolved in 100ml ofwater and pH was noted in the Digital pH meter. Results : pH = 8.10Loss on drying at 1100CProcedure: Two grams of Shankhadi choorna was weighed in a silica crucible anddried in a hot air oven at 1100C till a constant weight is obtained. The difference in the 102 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 118. Methodologytwo weighing gives the loss on drying & then the percentage of loss on drying wascalculated. Results : Loss on drying at 1100C : 0.39%Determination of Total Ash:Procedure : Take about 2 gms accurately weighed, ground drug in a previously tracedsilica dish, previously ignited and weighed. Scatter the ground dry in a fine even layeron the bottom of the dish. Incinerate by gradually increasing the heat not exceedingdull red heat (4500C) until free from carbon. Cool and weighed. Then the percentageof ash with reference to the air dried drug was calculated. Results: Total ash: 99.7%Determination of Acid insoluble Ash:Procedure : Boil the ash obtained in the process described under determination of totalash for 5 minutes with 25ml of dilute hydrochloric acid, collect the insoluble matteron an ashless filter paper. Wash with hot water and ignite. Weigh it and calculate thepercentage of acid insoluble ash with reference to the air dried drug. Results: Acid insoluble ash: 0.23%Determination of water insoluble extractive :Procedure: Macerate about 5 grams of air dried drug with 100ml of chloroform waterin a closed flask for twenty four hours, shaking frequently during six hours andallowing to stand for nineteen hours. Filter this and pipette 25ml of this liquid andevaporate to dryness in a tared flat bottomed dish and dry at 1050C, to constantweight. Calculate the percentage of water insoluble extractive with reference to airdried drug. Result: water insoluble extractive : 0.74%. 103 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 119. MethodologyDetermination of Fineness of particles :Procedure : The degree of coarseness or fineness of a powder is differentiated andexpressed by the size of the mesh of the sieve through which the particle is able topass. A suitable quantity of the sample is weighed and transferred to the set ofsieves shaken in a sieve shaken for about 30minutes and the residue on each sieve isweighed separately. Results: Fineness of particles Passes through sieve No. 852. CHEMICAL ANALYSISEstimation of Iron84Procedure: Take 0.200gms of 100 mesh sample in 250 ml beaker and add 10ml conc.HCl, keep over a hot plate and digest slowly (the liquid should not boil) till no blackparticles remain. To the hot solution add stannous chloride drop by drop till theyellow colour disappears add a drop more (avoid excess of stannous chloride) coolsolution rapidly in a cold water bath. When cool and 10 ml of mercuric chloridesolution. A silky white precipitate should appear. Add 20 ml of sulphuric acid mixtureand make up the volume approximately to 200ml. add a few drops of Bariumdiphenylamine indicator and titrate with 0.1 N Potassium dichromate solution tointensive violet colour, end point is sharp silky violet colour. Calculate the Fepercentage from the following factor. 1ml. 1N K2Cr2O7 = 0.05585 gm FeResults: Estiamtion of Iron (w/w) – 66.2% 104 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 120. MethodologyEXPERIMENTAL STUDYEvaluation of Haematinic activity in Albino rats.Date of commencement: 03-04-2007 to 06-04-2007Principle: Iron deficiency anaemia is a most frequent disease in the developingcountries like India.The common clinical features of iron deficiency anaemia aremalaise, bodyache,loss of appetite,physical and mental stress etc. Acute anaemia can be induced in laboratory animals by usingPhenylhydrazine dissolved in Dimethylsulphoxide.Later Test sample will be given tocorrect the Anaemia by proper procedure. Male albino rats weighing between 175-200gms wee taken from KLE’s Pharmacy college animal house and whole study was carried out in the experimental laboratory attached with the Institute Requirements: Animals: Albino rats (175-200gms,Overnight fasted) Drugs: Phenyl hydrazine dissolved in Dimethylsulphoxide Trial drug Kantaloha bhasma Equipment: For the estimation of Haemoglobin: Haemometer including haemometer pipette and tube, stirrer etc. For the estimation of RBC: Microscope, Haemocytometer set. a) Red blood cells diluting pipette b) Neubers slide with counting chamber For the Bone marrow study : Infant bone marrow needle, microscope with oil immersion lens. 105 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 121. MethodologyDrugs: Phenyl hydrazine dissolved in Dimethyl sulphoxide (To induce anaemia) 5% carboxy methyl cellulose. (To make the suspension of bhasma) Trial drug Kantaloha bhasma 0.1N Hydrochloric acid, Distilled water, 70% alcohol (For estimation of Haemoglobin)Animal selection: 36 healthy male rats(175-200gms) of Albino strain were selected for thepresent study. The animals were grouped in 3 groups (12 rats in each group) andplaced accordingly in different cages as 6 animals in each cage. The animals wereprovided with food and water ad libitum.Fixation of Rat dose: To calculate the Rat dose from Human dose, the formula isRat dose = Human dose x surface area factor 0.018Procedure: The rats were divided into 3 groups. The rats of group I were not given any treatment and served as normal. The rats of group I & group III were given 25mg phenyl hydrazine/kg body wt which was dissolved in Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) (250 mg/ml) Group II animals served as Positive control group (PC) were not given any treatment. Kantaloha bhasma is mixed with 5% carboxymethyl cellulose and made a suspension. This suspension was administered to animals of Group III immediately after administration of Phenylhydrazine orally. The doses were calculated according to body weight of 200 gms weighing albino rats. 106 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 122. Methodology 6 rats from each groups were sacrificed ( by ether anaesthasia) after 48 hours. The remaining 6 rats from each groups were sacrificed after 96 hours. The various haemotological and biochemical parameters were estimated and also the study of bone marrow was carried out.Haemotological Parameters85: Blood samples were aspirated from all the animals by cardiac puncture, fromrat hearts before sacrificing.The Haematological parameter estimated were 1) Red blood cell count 2) Haemoglobin contentBiochemical Parameters: 1) Pronormoblast count 2) Normoblast count 3) Reticulocyte count 4) Normocyte count These parameters were analyzed at KLE’s college of Pharmacy Gadag. In order to the difference between the Positive control group and treated groupanimals, the results were subjected to ANOVA test.Procedure of Bone Marrow Study86: The femur bones of the rats were dissected out immediately after they weresacrificed. The femur bones were cleaned, their heads were cut and bone marrow wasflushed out with the help of infant bone marrow needle. The flushed bone marrowwas transferred to a clean slide and thin film was prepared. The slide was air dried 107 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 123. Methodologyand then fixed with methanol. The bone marrow slides were stained by wrights stainand observed under the microscope using oil immersion lens.The various parameters observed on the slides were: • Myeloid : Erythroid cell ratio • Pronormoblast count • Normoblast count • Reticulocytes count • Normocytes cont 108 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 124. Results Table No. 19 showing : RBC ratio – 48 hours Intermediate calculation ANOVA Source of Degrees of Sum of Mean Squares Variation freedom Squares Treatment 2 30.90 15.45 Residuals 15 5.124 0.34 Total 17 36.028F Value =45.232 Table No. 20 showing Summary of Data Group No. of Mean S.D S.E.M Animals C 6 8.260 0.298 0.122 PC 6 5.130 0.391 0.160 T 6 7.310 0.884 0.361 Table No. 21 showing comparison with Positive control and test group in Haematinic activity Comparison Mean difference T value P valueC Vs PC 3.130 13.118 ***P<0.001C Vs T 0.950 3.981 *P<0.05PC Vs T -2.180 9.136 ***P<0.001Note: C- Control group, PC- Positive control group, T- Test group. Graph No. 1 RBC ratio-after 48 hours 10 8.26 8 7.31 6 6 6 6 No of Animals 5.13 C 4 PC 2 T 0 Group Mean 109 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 125. Results Table No. 22 showing RBC ratio – 96 hours Intermediate calculation ANOVA Source of Degrees of Sum of Mean square Variation freedom Squares Treatment 2 28.392 14.19 Residuals 15 2.188 0.14 Total 17 30.580F Value = 97.334 Table No. 23 showing Summary of Data Group No.of Animals Mean S.D S.E.M C 6 8.260 0.298 0.122 PC 6 5.260 0.587 0.240 T 6 7.350 0.051 0.021 Table No. 24 showing comparison with Positive control and test group in Haematinic activity Comparison Mean difference T value P valueC Vs PC 3.2008 19.242 ***P<0.001C Vs T 0.9100 5.83 **P<0.01PC Vs T -2.09 13.40 ***P<0.001 Graph. No. 2 RBC cell Ratio-After 96 hours 10 8.26 8 7.35 6 6 6 No of 6 5.26 C Animals 4 PC T 2 0 Group Mean 110 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 126. Results Table No. 25 showing Data of Hb % of Blood (gm/dl) After 48 hours Control Positive Control Test 14.13 10.4 13.4 14.30 10.5 13.2 14.40 10.6 13.6 14.30 10.4 13.0 14.00 10.6 13.6 14.20 10.4 13.0 Table No. 26 Intermediate calculation ANOVA Source of Degrees of Sum of Mean Squares Variation freedom Squares Treatment 2 45.51 22.75 Residuals 15 0.53 0.03 Total 17 46.04F Value =643.59 Table No. 27 showing Summary of Data Group No. of Animals Mean S.D S.E.M Median C 6 14.2 0.14 0.056 14.25 PC 6 10.4 0.09 0.040 10.45 T 6 13.30 0.27 0.11 13.30 111 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 127. Results Table No. 28 showing comparison with Positive control and test group in Haematinic activity Comparison Mean difference T value P valueC Vs PC 3.73 48.69 ***P<0.001C Vs T 0.92 12.00 ***P<0.001PC Vs T -2.90 38.45 ***P<0.001 Graph No. 3 Hb% of Blood(gm/dl)-After 48 hours 15 14.2 13.3 C 10.4 10 PC No of animals 6 6 6 T 5 0 Group Mean 112 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 128. Results Table No. 29 showing Data of Hb % of Blood (gm/dl) after 96 hours Control Positive Control Test 14.20 11.1 13.6 14.40 11.0 13.5 14.40 11.0 13.4 14.60 11.3 13.5 14.40 10.6 13.6 14.40 11.2 13.5 Table No. 30 Intermediate calculation ANOVA Source of Degrees of Sum of Squares Mean Squares Variation freedom Treatment 2 36.56 18.28 Residuals 15 0.401 0.026 Total 17 36.96F Value =682.72 Table No. 31 showing Summary of Data Group No. of Animals Mean S.D S.E.M Median C 6 14.40 0.12 0.051 14.40 PC 6 11.03 0.24 0.098 11.05 T 6 13.51 0.07 0.030 13.50 113 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 129. Results Table No. 32 showing comparison with Positive control and test group in Haematinic activity Comparison Mean difference T value P valueC Vs PC 3.367 50.39 ***P<0.001C Vs T 0.883 13.22 ***P<0.001PC Vs T -2.48 37.52 ***P<0.001 Graph No. 4 Hb% of blood(gm/dl)-After 96 hours 15 14.4 13.51 11.03 C 10 No of PC animals 6 6 6 T 5 0 Group Mean 114 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 130. Results Table No. 33 showing Myeloid: Erythroid cell Ratio – After 48 hours Intermediate calculation ANOVA Source of Degrees of Sum of Squares Mean Squares Variation freedom Treatment 2 39.572 19.786 Residuals 15 13.539 0.9026 Total 17 53.111F Value = 21.922 Table No. 34 showing Summary of Data Group No. of Mean S.D S.E.M Animals C 6 4.80 1.029 0.420 PC 6 1.30 0.164 0.067 T 6 3.89 0.274 0.52 Table No. 35 showing comparison with Positive control and test group in Haematinic activityComparison Mean difference T value P valueC Vs PC 3.50 9.024 ***P<0.001C Vs T 0.91 2.34 *P>0.05PC Vs T -2.59 6.67 ***P<0.001 Graph No. 5 Myeloid:Erythroid cell ratio after 48 hrs C 6 6 6 6 PC 5 4.8 3.89 T 4 No of 3 Animals 2 1.3 1 0 Mean Group 115 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 131. Results Table No. 36 showing Myeloid : Erythroid cell ratio- after 96 hours Intermediate calculation ANOVA Source of Degrees of Sum of Squares Mean Squares Variation freedom Treatment 2 33.344 16.672 Residuals 15 6.462 0.430 Total 17 39.807F= 38.70 Table No. 37 showing Summary of Data Group No.of Animals Mean S.D S.E.M C 6 4.180 1.029 0.420 PC 6 1.60 0.132 0.053 T 6 4.010 0.465 0.190 Table No. 38 showing comparison with control group in Haematinic activity Comparison Mean difference T value P valueC Vs PC 3.200 11.94 ***P<0.001C Vs T 0.790 2.94 *P>0.05PC Vs T -2.41 8.99 ***P<0.001 Graph No. 6 Myeloid:Erythroid cell ratio-96 hours 6 6 6 6 5 4.18 4.01 C No of 4 3 PC Animals 2 1.6 1 T 0 Group Mean 116 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 132. Results Table No. 39 showing Data of Pronormoblast After 48 hours Control Positive Control Test 30.6 7.8 26.4 32.4 7.6 25.6 34.8 7.9 26.8 30.6 8.4 26.8 28.9 7.9 26.8 23.6 6.9 25.8 Table No. 40 Intermediate calculation ANOVA Source of Degrees of Sum of Mean Squares Variation freedom SquaresTreatment 2 1842.5 921.23Residuals 15 25.62 1.709Total 17 1868.1F Value = 539.18 Table No. 41 showing Summary of DataGroup No. of Animals Mean S.D S.E.M MedianC 6 31.15 2.14 0.874 30.60PC 6 7.70 0.48 0.200 7.70T 6 26.36 0.54 0.221 26.60 117 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 133. Results Table No. 42 showing comparison with positive control and test group in Haematinic activityComparison Mean difference T value P valueC Vs PC 23.450 43.944 ***P<0.001C Vs T 4.783 8.96 ***P<0.001PC Vs T -18.660 35.153 ***P<0.001 Graph No. 7 Pronormoblast count-after 48 hours 35 31.15 30 26.36 25 20 C 15 PC 10 7.7 T 6 6 6 5 0 Group Mean 118 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 134. Results Table No. 43 showing Data of Pronormoblast After 96 hours Control Positive Control Test 32.4 17.3 24.8 32.4 18.1 23.7 34.8 17.4 24.6 30.6 17.4 23.8 30.1 18.3 24.5 31.2 17.6 24.0 Table No. 44 Intermediate calculation ANOVA Source of Degrees of Sum of Mean Squares Variation freedom Squares Treatment 2 609.05 304.52 Residuals 15 16.250 1.08 Total 17 625.30F Value = 281.10 Table No. 45 showing Summary of DataGroup No. of Animals Mean S.D S.E.M MedianC 6 31.91 1.69 0.691 31.80PC 6 17.68 0.41 0.170 17.50T 6 24.23 0.45 0.187 24.25 119 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 135. Results Table No. 46 showing comparison with positive control and test group in Haematinic activityComparison Mean difference T value P valueC Vs PC 14.23 33.49 ***P<0.001C Vs T 7.68 18.08 ***P<0.001PC Vs T -6.550 15.47 ***P<0.001 Graph No. 8 Pronormoblast count-After 96 hours 35 31.91 30 25 24.23 C 20 17.68 PC 15 T 10 6 6 6 5 0 Group Mean 120 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 136. Results Table No. 47 showing Data of Normoblast After 48 hours Control Positive Control Test 57.8 74.6 64.8 56.8 74.3 64.8 57.3 73.8 64.8 57.8 74.0 65.8 57.8 74.9 65.7 57.4 73.6 65.4 Table No. 48 Intermediate calculation ANOVA Source of Degrees of Sum of Mean Squares Variation freedom Squares Treatment 2 839.9 419.95 Residuals 15 3.157 0.210 Total 17 843.06F Value = 1995.5 Table No. 49 showing Summary of DataGroup No. of Animals Mean S.D S.E.M MedianC 6 57.48 0.40 0.164 57.60PC 6 74.20 0.49 0.201 74.15T 6 65.21 0.47 0.193 65.10 121 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 137. Results Table No. 50 showing comparison with positive control and test group in Haematinic activityComparison Mean difference T value P valueC Vs PC -16.717 89.260 ***P<0.001C Vs T -7.733 41.29 ***P<0.001PC Vs T 8.990 29.005 ***P<0.001 Graph No. 9 Normoblast count-After 48 hours 80 74.2 65.21 60 57.48 C PC 40 T 20 6 6 6 0 Group Mean 122 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 138. Results Table No. 51 showing Data of Normoblast After 96 hours Control Positive Control Test 57.0 67.5 59.8 56.8 67.3 60.0 56.4 68.0 60.0 56.8 67.1 59.5 57.1 67.8 59.3 56.7 67.4 60.0 Table No. 52 Intermediate calculation ANOVA Source of Degrees of Sum of Mean Squares Variation freedom Squares Treatment 2 355.07 77.53 Residuals 15 90.634 6.042 Total 17 445.70F Value = 294.0 Table No. 53 showing Summary of DataGroup No. of Animals Mean S.D S.E.M MedianC 6 56.80 0.244 0.100 56.80PC 6 67.51 0.331 0.135 67.450T 6 60.50 4.238 1.730 25.550 123 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 139. Results Table No. 54 showing comparison with positive control and test group in Haematinic activityComparison Mean difference T value P valueC Vs PC -10.717 84.674 ***P<0.001C Vs T 31.33 247.57 ***P<0.001PC Vs T 7.010 6.985 ***P<0.001 Graph No. 10 Normoblast count-After 96 hours 70 67.51 60.5 60 56.8 50 40 C 30 PC 20 T 10 6 6 6 0 Group Mean 124 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 140. Results Table No. 55 showing Data of Reticulocytes counts After 48 hours Intermediate calculation ANOVA Source of Degrees of Sum of Mean Squares Variation freedom Squares Treatment 2 154.40 77.199 Residuals 15 20.643 1.376 Total 17 175.04F Value = 56.095 Table No. 56 showing Summary of DataGroup No. of Animals Mean S.D S.E.MC 6 6.80 0.098 0.0401PC 6 4.66 0.080 0.330T 6 7.84 1.86 0.760 Table No. 57 showing comparison with positive control and test group in Haematinic activityComparison Mean difference T value P valueC Vs PC 2.140 4.468 *P<0.05C Vs T -4.860 10.148 ***P<0.001PC Vs T -7.000 14.616 ***P<0.001 Graph No. 11 Reticulocytes count-After 48 hours 8 7.84 6.8 C 6 6 6 6 4.66 PC 4 T 2 0 Group Mean 125 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 141. Results Table No. 58 showing Data of Reticulocytes counts After 96 hours Intermediate calculation ANOVA Source of Degrees of Sum of Mean Squares Variation freedom Squares Treatment 2 34.24 17.126 Residuals 15 24.59 1.640 Total 17 58.83F Value = 10.441 Table No. 59 showing Summary of DataGroup No. of Animals Mean S.D S.E.MC 6 6.94 1.38 0.567PC 6 4.57 1.651 0.674T 6 11.66 0.514 0.210 Table No. 60 showing comparison with positive control and test group in Haematinic activityComparison Mean difference T value P valueC Vs PC 2.370 4.53 *P<0.05C Vs T 0.900 1.72 P>0.05PC Vs T -3.27 6.25 **P<0.01 Graph No. 12 Reticulocytes count-After 96 hours 12 11.66 10 8 6.94 6 6 6 C 6 4.57 PC 4 T 2 0 Group Mean 126 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 142. Results Table No. 61 showing Data of Normocytes counts After 48 hours Intermediate calculation ANOVA Source of Degrees of Sum of Mean Squares Variation freedom Squares Treatment 2 56.24 28.124 Residuals 15 17.09 1.140 Total 17 73.33F Value = 13.455 Table No. 62 showing Summary of DataGroup No.of Animals Mean S.D S.E.MC 6 5.66 1.04 0.428PC 6 9.67 0.80 0.330T 6 6.79 1.29 0.527 Table No. 63 showing comparison with positive control and test group in Haematinic activityComparison Mean difference T value P valueC Vs PC -4.010 2.29 ***P<0.001C Vs T -0.590 7.18 P>0.05PC Vs T 3.420 7.84 ***P<0.001 Graph No. 13 Normocyte count-After 48 hours 10 9.67 8 6.79 6 6 6 6 5.66 C 4 PC 2 T 0 Group Mean 127 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 143. Results Table No. 64 showing Data of Normocyte counts After 96 hours Intermediate calculation ANOVA Source of Degrees of Sum of Mean Squares Variation freedom SquaresTreatment 2 133.37 66.68Residuals 15 34.32 2.28Total 17 167.69F Value = 29.13 Table No. 65 showing Summary of DataGroup No. of Animals Mean S.D S.E.MC 6 5.15 1.76 0.720PC 6 11.23 1.44 0.590T 6 10.56 1.29 0.525 Table No. 66 showing comparison with positive control and test group in Haematinic activityComparison Mean difference T value P valueC Vs PC -6.080 9.84 ***P<0.001C Vs T -5.410 8.76 ***P<0.001PC Vs T 0.6700 1.08 * P<0.05 Graph No. 14 Normocytes count-After 96 hours 15 11.2310.56 10 C 6 6 6 5.15 5 PC T 0 Group Mean*** Highly significance = P< 0.001 ** Moderate significance = P<0.01* Less significance = P< 0.05 128 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 144. ResultsResults of the RBC’s and Hb Study:1) Sample No 1 shows Normal number of RBC’s and Haemoglobin content (i.e 8.26, 8.26 and 14.20,14.40) Normal values 6.2 – 9.6 mill/cmm and 12-17.5 Hbg/100ml.2) Sample No 2 shows: At 48 and 96 hrs The results indicated decrease in the RBC count (i.e 5.13 and 5.26) and in theHaemoglobin (i.e 10.41 and 11.03) at 48th and 96th hrs.3) Sample No 3 shows: At 48 and 96 hrs The results indicate increase in the RBC count (i.e 7.31 and 7.35) and in theHaemoglobin (i.e 13.30 and 13.51) at 48th and 96 hrs. The test sample 1 (Control group) shows normal RBC’s and Haemoblohbincontent, Sample-2 (Phenylhydrazine treated) shows decrease in the number of RBC’sand Haemoglobin content cells and Sample-3 (Kantaloha bhasma) shows increase inthe RBC’s and Haemoglobin content.Results of the Bone marrow study1) Sample No 1 shows Normal cell ratio from myeloid to erythroid cells and also found normalPronormoblast, Normoblast, reticulocytes and Normocytes, exhibit normal activity.2) Sample No 2 shows: At 48 & 96 hrs. 1) Decrease in myeloid to erythroid cell ratio below normal value observed in the bone marrow. 2) Decrease Pronormoblast and Reticulocytes count in the bone marrow. 3) Increase Normoblast and Normocytes count in bone marrow. 129 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 145. Results3) Sample No 3 shows : At 48 & 96 hrs 1) Increased in myeloid to erythroid cell observed in the bone marrow. 2) Increase in Pronormoblasts and Reticulocytes count in the bone marrow. 3) Decrease in Normoblast and Normocytes count but increased in Normocytes count at 96 hrs was observed in bone marrow. The test sample 1 (control group) shows normal celles, Sample 2(Phenythydrazine treated) shows abnormal cells and Sample 3 (Kantaloha bhasma)shows stimulate Erthropoiesis as there is an increased in the Reticulocytes countabove normal values.Myeloid to erythroid cell ratio: 1) The results obtained indicated that treatment of Phenythydrazine has resulted in sharp decreased in the myeloid to erythroid ratio i.e 1.3 and 1.60 at 48 and 96 hrs. 2) The animals treated with Kantaloha bhasma showed a significant increase in the myeloid to erythroid ratio i.e 3.89 and 4.01 at 48 and 96 hrs of treatment respectively, when compared to positive control group.Pronormoblast: 1) The results obtained indicated that treatment of phenythydrazine has resulted in sharp decrease in the Pronormoblast i.e 7.70 and 17.68 at 48 and 96 hrs. 2) The animals treated with Kantaloha bhasma showed significant increase in the Pronormoblast i.e 26.36 and 24.23 at 48 and 96 hours of treatment respectively, when compared to positive control group.Normoblast: 1) The results obtained indicated that treatment of phenythydrazine has resulted in sharp increase in the Normoblast i.e 74.20 and 67.51 at 48 and 96 hrs. 130 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 146. Results 2) The animals treated with Kantaloha bhasma showed a significant increase in the Normoblast i.e 65.21 and 60.50 at 48 and 96 hrs of treatment respectively, when compared to positive control group.Reticulocytes count: 1) The results obtained indicated that treatment of phenythydrazine has resulted in sharp decrease in the Reticulocytes i.e 4.66 and 4.57 at 48 and 96 hrs. 2) The animals treated with Kantaloha bhasma showed a significant increase in the Reticulocytes i.e 7.84 and 11.66 at 48 and 96 hrs of treatment respectively, when compared to positive control group.Normocytes: 1) The results obtained indicated that treatment of Phynylhydrazine has resulted in sharp increase in the Normocytes i.e 9.67 and 11.23 at 48 and 96 hrs. 2) The animals treated with Kantaloha bhasma showed a significant decrease in normocytes i.e 6.79 at 48 hrs of the treatment while no significant decrease in normocyte count i.e 10.56 at 96 hrs of treatment respectively. It is clear from the results and ANOVA test that Kantaloha bhasma is significant in increasing the Hb%, RBC ratio & correcting the bone marrow cells. 131 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 147. Discussion DISCUSSION The study entitled “The Preparation, “Physico-chemical analysis of Kantalohabhasma and evaluation of its haematinic activity” an experimental study is presentedin 4 parts. 1) Literary study 2) Pharmaceutical study 3) Analytical study 4) Experimental study1) Literary study: Literary study explained under two headings i.e Drug review and diseasereview. In drug review Loha giving special stress to Kantaloha is discussed accordingto ayurvedic as well as modern concept. Loha known to Indians since vedic period. In ancient time the classical textsused the word loha to denote suvarnadi metals, but now a days the word loha isisolated to Iron only and dhatu for their ores. In vedic period there was wideutilization of Loha, which was used for making weapons, instruments and also formaking artificial limb. One of the example is that, rehabilization of vishpala with theartifical limb of Loha was made by Bhishak Ashwinikumar when his limb was cut inthe war. Apart from this Loha was used as a medicince. But, its wide scope seen in theRasashastra period. Internal therapeutical uses started more in the samhita period self. Among lohas kantaloha is considered best among rest of the varieties becauseof its efficacy and the characters present within. As it increases the complexion of theskin and mainly used for Raktavikaras it is called as “Kantayasa”. Kantaloha bhasmamainly used for panduroga, Yakrut pleeharoga, and it is said to be best Ranjaka andRaktavardhaka. 132 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 148. Discussion According to modern chemistry, the ancient Indians, Egyptians and Chinesehave used Iron implements and utensils. The symbol for iron, Fe, comes from theLatin word for iron, Ferum. Iron belongs to group VIII a elements and,Atomic Number : 26Electron configuration : 2.8.14.2Density : 7.86Atomic volume : 7.1Melting point : 15390CBoiling point : 24500C Iron is first obtained from iron ores in the form of pig iron. This is nextconverted into cast iron, wrought iron or steel as required. Iron is a good conductor ofheat and electricity. Iron is present in the red corpuscles of the blood and in planttissues. There is close relation between blood and iron may be this reason, it has widetherapeutical values in treating the blood born diseases. Under Disease review Ayurvedic concept of panduroga and modern conceptof Anemia giving special reference to iron deficiency anemia is discussed. Panduroga is a disease where the colour of the skin is changed to white someacharyas also explained peeta, Krishna, harita and it is a combination of shweta andpeeta varna. A healthy person’s colour and complexion is because of blood i.e itscontents. Any vikruti in the blood that shows the changes in the skin. The commonsymptoms of panduroga are dourbalya, hridrava, shwasa, brama, kati-uru-parshwashoola, gourava, shoonakshikoota etc. The treatment of panduroga is divided into shodhana and shamana karma. Inshodhana therapy koshta shudhi can be done to combat dosha bahulyata. In shamana 133 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 149. Discussionchikitsa various single and compound preparations like Kantaloha bhasma, vyoshadyagruta and vidangadi loha etc were explained in ayurvedic classics. According to modern science Anaemia is generally defined as reduction ofHaemoglobin concentration, red cell count or packed cell volume to below normallevels. The Anemia resulted by deficiency of Iron is called Iron deficiency Anaemia.2) Pharmaceutical study: Most of the metals and minerals found in yogika avastha, i.e mixed with someother drugs / admixtures. So some of them may be unwanted and some of them maybe toxic in nature. Shodhana not only intended to remove the impurities or toxicmaterial, but also makes the metal suitable for further procedure and enhances itspotency. The present study Samanya shodhana was carried out by doing nirvapa in Tilataila, Takra, Gomutra, Kanji, Kulaththa for 7 times in each and vishesha shodhana i.ePachana with Triphala kwatha prepared in Gomutra for 5 times. In the visheshashodhana there was a wt gain upto 20 gms, may be because of residuals of Triphala inthe loha. In the above said medias, Tila taila is neutral where as other medias containseveral acidic compounds, hence some of them are acidic in nature. During processingwith these drugs the organic acids act slowly on metal and help in attainment ofbrittleness. This helps to make bhasma easily.Marana: Number of drugs are prescribed as a bhavana dravyas for Loha bhasma. In thisstudy triphala was selected as a Pachana and bhavana dravya because Haritaki,Bibutikai both are Ushna virya and madhura vipaka while Amalaki is sheeta veeryaand madhura vipaka and triphala works as rechaka, this helps in removing lohakitta 134 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 150. Discussionafter consumption of kantaloha bhasma. Panduroga is mainly caused by vitation ofpitta and rakta so, Triphala was selected for the Marana. Classically 4 Gajaputas are mentioned for marana of loha after pachana &bhavana in Tripahla kwath. But after 4 Gajaputas Kantaloha bhasma didn’t pass thebhasma pareeksha, so after 10 Gajaputas fine powder turned to very fine powder ofreddish grey in colour. Loss of lustureness might be due to conversion of inorganic into organic nonmetallic nature of Loha i.e. vijatiya is completely converted into sajatiya.3) Analytical study: Ayurvedic organoleptic tests of bhasma proved the total conversion of Lohainto bhasma. The bhasma pariksha like, Varitaratwa, rekhapurnatwa, slakshnatwa,confirmes the microfine nature of bhasma and gatasaratwa test indicates complete lossof ‘metalic taste, kanthaloha bhasma was subjected to the test “ Loss on drying 1100C.If was evident that weight loss is very minimum i.e 0.39% which indicate bhasma iscompletely free from the moisture. The pH of the loha bhasma is 8.10 this shows the alkalinity of the sample.Total ash value of the sample is 99.7%. This shows the amount of Inorganic materialpresent in it. The alcohol soluble extractive of the sample is 0.27% and waterinsoluble extractive is 0.74% which is less than the total ash value and Acid insolubleash is 0.23%. This shows the absorption of Loha bhasma in the gut. When the sample is subjected to test assay for Iron, the value obtainedindicates this sample contains 66.2% organic Iron. To confirm the Rekhapurnatwa, Sookshmatwa of bhasma, it was subjected tofineness test, and all the particles passed through the seve no. 85. 135 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 151. Discussion4) Experimental study: A healthy male rats weighing 175-200 g of Albino strain were selected for thestudy male rats are having more Hb% than the female one. So the selection of malerats was made. The animals were grouped in 3 groups (12 rats in each group) andplaced according in different stages as 6 animals in each cage.Group I (Control group), Group II (Phenylhydrazine treated to induce anemia ) GroupIII (Kantaloha bhasma in anemia induced animals as trial) was made. 6 animals of each groups were sacrificed (by either anaesthasia) after 48 hrs.the remaining 6 rats from each groups were sacrificied after 96 hrs. varioushaematological and biochemical parameters were estimated and also the study of bonemarrow was carried out.Group I showed normal RBC’s and Haemoglobin content (i.e 8.26, 8.26 and 14.20,14.40) respectively.Group II showed decrease in the number of RBC’s and Haemoglobin content cells (i.e9.13 and 5.26) respectively.Group III showed increase in the RBC’s and Haemoglobin content (i.e 7.31 and 7.35) Bone marrow study reveals that, in Group II (Positive control) the values ofMyeoloid to erythroid cell ratio, Pronormoblast count, Reticulocytes were decreasedand values of Normoblast count, Normocytes count were increased, as compared toNormal values. But after giving the trial drug (Kantaloha bhasma) Myeloid toerythroid cell ratio, Pronormoblast count, Reticulocytes count were increased andvalues of Normoblast count, Normocyte count were decreased as compared to GroupII (Positive control or phenythydrazone treated group) 136 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 152. DiscussionMode of action of Phenylhydrazine: Phynyihydrazie is used for the treatment of polycythemia. It is also used forthe induction of experimental anaemia in animals. Phenylhydrazine treatmentdecreases the total blood volume, haemoglobin content and red blood cell count. Itincreases the fragility of RBC’s. Oxyhaemoglobin and myoglobin react with phenylhydrazone to yield aderivative of haemoglobin containing N-phenylprotoprophrin in which thehaemogroup is modified. Free radicals generated after treatment of phenylhydrazenelead to RBC’s haemolyses. 137 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 153. Conclusion CONCLUSION 1) Metals hold the precious place in the Rasashastra and they are having definite therapeutic value in bhasma form, as the bhasma is the end product of the metal, which is obtained after the several processes like, shodhana and marana. 2) During Pharmaceutical procedure i.e shadhana, the medias used for shoahdna certainly have a role in detoxifying the metal, making the metal suitable for the next process and may induce the special disease curing property. 3) Preparation of Triphala kwath in Gomootra helps in making the loha to brittle, which can be easily powdered in gajaputas. The properties of Triphala make the anulomana, and tridoshahara karma so Loha kitta may be easily removed out of the body. 4) By Physico-chemical analysis it is evident that the prepared Loha bhasma is genuine one and they are within permissible limits given by Analytical laboratories. 5) The statistical results evidence proved that, Kantaloha bhasma is highly significant for all parameters with P value < 0.001 so it is good for panduroga where the haemoglobin and RBC levels are reduced. 6) Kantaloha bhasma can be better absorbed from the gastro intestinal tract and has quick action. It is best ranjaka and raktavardhaka. 7) As Kantaloha bhasma and anupana dravyas have the properties to reduce dooshita pitta and rakta, it works as a best haematinic. 8) Anaemia caused as a primary or secondary to any disease, Kantaloha bhasma is used as a single medicament or the yogas prepared including loha bhasma. 138“The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 154. ConclusionScope for further study: A Comparative study of Kantaloha bhasma and Folic acid which is widely used in modern medicine in treating the iron deficiency anaemia can be made. A clinical trial of Kantaloha bhasma can be carried out. For better understanding about the Physical, Chemical variations of Kantaloha bhasma, during and after the Pharmaceutical procedures, respective samples at various stages are to be analyzed using modern instruments. 139 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 155. Summary SUMMARY The present study is entitled “Preparation, Physico-chemical analysis ofKantaloha Bhasma and evaluation of its Haematinic Activity An Experimental Study” In this study, here an attempt was made to prepare Kantaloha bhasma as perthe classical procedures, its Physico-chemical analysis and assessed its Haematinicactivity experimentally. This study includes the following chapter viz Introduction, Objectives, Reviewof Literature and Methodology which contains Pharmaceutical study, Analyticalstudy, and Experimental study. The next chapter Discussion and conclusion. 1) In the introduction part, importance of Shastra, necessity for experiments, subject related to panduroga, iron deficiency anaemia, Kantaloha bhasma is presented. 2) Aims and Objectives of the present study were mentioned in the objective chapter. 3) Review of Literature was dealt in two main headings i.e Drug and Disease Review. a) The chapter Drug review deals about the Loha, giving special reference to Kantaloha and modern concept of Iron. It also contains synonyms, vernaculars names, character, pharmacological properties, shodhan, marana, therapeutical usage of Kantaloha. Description of drugs used for shodhana, marana and anupana has been told. b) Disease Review deals with panduroga definition, types, laxanas, samprapti, chikitsa and modern aspect of Iron deficiency Anaemia. 4) Methodology: It deals about Pharmaceutical, Analytical and Experimental study. 140 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 156. Summary a) In Pharmaceutical study practical ascept of Kantaloha shodhana, marana is explained. b) The Analytical study deals about Physico-chemical analysis of Kantaloha bhasma like pH value, total ash, Acid insoluble ash, loss on ignition, loss on drying, Alcohol soluble extractive, water insoluble extractive, fineness of particles, solubility and estimation of Iron. c) In experimental study: Trial drug was evaluated for the haematinic activity. It includes selection of albino rats, fixation of dose, induction of Anaemia again treating with trial drug. Estimation of Haematological and Bio chemical parameters were made.5) The next chapter contains “Results” where data related to haematinic activity and statistical analysis which were proving the results of the present study.6) Discussion: This chapter deals with elaborated discussion regarding the trial drug, process and observations of Pharmaceutical study, observations and results of analytical and experimental study. Finally the essence of this dissertation has explained in conclusion. 141 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 157. BibilographyBIBILIOGRAPHY 1) Bhaarateeya Rasashastra (Kriyatmaka Oushadhi nirmana sarhitra sahita) Acharya Vishwanath Dwivedi, Published by Shri Sharma Ayurveda Mandir, Datiya MP 1987 PP 22-23. 2) Ibid PP 23. 3) Ibid PP 23-25. 4) Ibid PP 26-27 5) Ibid PP 28-29 6) Vaidya Santosh kumar sharma “Khandal”, Rasa bhaishajya Kalpana vignana, 6th chapter, 6th edition, published by publication scheme Jaipur, 2005, PP 248- 249 7) Gehani, Parekh, Bhagwat, Inorganic chemistry chapter 9th (part III), 6th edition, published by A.R. Sheth & Co, Bombay 1972 PP 458 8) Acharya Srisadananda sharma, Rasatarangini, 20th taranga, Sloka 1, edited by Pandit Kashinath shastri, 11th edition published by Motilal banarasidas, Varanasi 1994, PP 486. 9) Vaidya Santosh kumar sharma “Khandal”, Rasa bhaishajya Kalpana vignana, 6th chapter, 6th edition, published by publication scheme Jaipur, 2005, PP 249 10) Acharya Srisadananda sharma, Rasatarangini, 20th taranga, Sloka 1, edited by Pandit Kashinath shastri, 11th edition published by Motilal banarasidas, Varanasi 1994, PP 503 11) Acharya Somadatta Rasendra chudamani, 24th chapter, Sloka 1, II edition Pub by Choukhamba orientalia Varanasi, 1999, PP 248,249 12) Acharya Srisadananda sharma, Rasatarangini, 20th taranga, Sloka 1, edited by Pandit Kashinath shastri, 11th edition published by Motilal banarasidas, Varanasi 1994, PP 487 13) Acharya Somadatta Rasendra chudamani, 24th chapter, Sloka 1, II edition Pub by Choukhamba orientalia Varanasi, 1999, PP 249,252,253. 14) Vaghbhata Rasaratna Samuchchaya 5th chapter, Sloka 83,84, edited by Indradev tripathi, 2nd edition, published by Choukhambha Sanskrit sansthana 2003, PP 61. 142 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 158. Bibilography15) Vaghbhata Rasaratna Samuchchaya 5th chapter, Sloka 83,84, edited by Indradev tripathi, 2nd edition, published by Choukhambha Sanskrit sansthana 2003, PP 6216) Acharya Sadananda sharma, Rasatrangini 2nd taranga, Sloka 52, edited by Pandit Kashinath shastri, 11th edition Pub by Motilal banarasidas, Varanasi, 1994, PP 22.17) Vaghbhata Rasaratna Samuchchaya 5th chapter, Sloka 83,84, edited by Indradev tripathi, 2nd edition, published by Choukhambha Sanskrit sansthana 2003, PP 5518) Ibid PP 6319) Ibid PP 63-6420) Ibid PP 6521) Ibid PP 65-6622) Ibid PP 6623) Rasendrasara sangraha, 1st chapter, Sloka 309-313, edited by Indradev tripathi, 3rd edition, Pub by Choukhambha Orientalia Varanasi, PP 81-82.24) Ibid, Sloka 309,313, PP 82,8325) Ibid Sloka 321-328, PP 83,8426) Acharya Sadananda sharma, Rasatrangini 2nd taranga, Sloka 61-63, edited by Pandit Kashinath shastri, 11th edition Pub by Motilal banarasidas, Varanasi, 1994, PP 50427) Ibid Sloka 78-79, PP 50628) Budadeva Mukharji Rasajala nidhi Vol 3, Chapter 2, edited by Siddinandan Mishra, II edition, Choukhambha Sanskarit Bhavana Varanasi 1998, PP- 112.29) Acharya Sadananda sharma, Rasatrangini 18th taranga, Sloka 53-57, edited by Pandit Kashinath shastri, 11th edition Pub by Motilal banarasidas, Varanasi, 2000, PP 22-23.30) Acharya Madhava Ayurveda prakasha, Chapter 3, Sloka 230, edited by Sri Gulraj Sharma Mishra, Pub by Choukhambha bharati Academy Varanasi 1999, PP 394.31) Acharya Sadananda Sharma Rasatarangini, 20th chapter, Sloka 98, edited by Pandit Kashinath Shastri, 11th edition Pub by Mothilal banarasidas Varanasi 1994, PP-511 143 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 159. Bibilography32) Sri Madhava, Ayurveda prakash Chapter 3, Sloka 228, edited by Sri Gulraj sharma Mishra, Published by Choukhambha Bharati Academy Varanasi 1999, PP 36333) Vaghbhata Rasaratna Samuchchaya 5th chapter, Sloka 137, edited by Indradev tripathi, 2nd edition, published by Choukhambha Sanskrit sansthana 2003.34) Sri Madhava, Ayurveda prakash Chapter 3, Sloka 218-220, edited by Sri Gulraj sharma Mishra, Published by Choukhambha Bharati Academy Varanasi 1999, PP 39235) Acharya Sadananda Sharma Rasatarangini, 20th chapter, Sloka 80, edited by Pandit Kashinath Shastri, 11th edition Pub by Mothilal banarasidas Varanasi 1994.36) Vaghbhata Rasaratna Samuchchaya 5th chapter, Sloka 114, edited by Indradev tripathi, 2nd edition, published by Choukhambha Sanskrit sansthana 2003, PP 6437) Acharya Sadananda Sharma Rasatarangini, 20th chapter, Sloka 83-96, edited by Pandit Kashinath Shastri, 11th edition Pub by Mothilal banarasidas Varanasi 1994, PP 507-51138) Ibid PP 507-50939) Vaghbhata Rasaratna Samuchchaya 5th chapter, Sloka 114, edited by Indradev tripathi, 2nd edition, published by Choukhambha Sanskrit sansthana 2003, PP 64-6540) Acharya Sadananda Sharma Rasatarangini, 20th chapter, Sloka 99-117, edited by Pandit Kashinath Shastri, 11th edition Pub by Mothilal banarasidas Varanasi 1994, PP 512-513.41) Bharat Bhaishajya Ratanavali, Vol-4, II edition, edited by Sri Nagindas Chaganlal shah, Pub by B. Jain Publishers Pvt. Ltd, New-Delhi 1999, PP 481- 48242) Ayurvedeeya Rasashastra, Chapter 2, Siddinandan Mishra, 5th edition, Pub by Choukhambha Orientalia Varanasi, PP 46043) Sushruta Acharya Sushruta samhita suthra 46th shloka 39 to 40, Abikadatta shastri 12th edn, Varanasi; Chawkahmbha samskrita bhavana; 2001 P-178. 144 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 160. Bibilography44) Vagabhatacharya Astanga sangraha chapter 6th shloka 69 to 70, Dr Ravidatta tripati 3rd edn, New delhi; Chawkhambha samskrit pratisthana; 2001 pp- 101 to 102.45) Sushruta Acharya Sushruta samhita suthra 46th shloka 128, Abikadatta shastri 12th edition, Varanasi; Chawkahmbha samskrita bhavana; 2001.p-186.46) Sharangadhara samhita chapter 10th shloka 12, Shri Radhakrishna Parashara 4th edition, Calkatta; Baidhyanath ayurveda bhavan; 1994 pp-367.47) Bhavamishra Bhavaprakash chapter 21 shloka 2 , Shri Bhramha shankara shastri 5th edition, Varanasi; Chawkhambha samskrit series; 1969 pp-783.48) Sushruta Acharya Sushruta samhita suthra 46th shloka 37, Abikadatta shastri 12th edn, Varanasi; Chawkahmbha samskrita bhavana; 2001 pp-191.49) Agnivasha Charaka samhita chapter 9th shloka 108 to 113, Kashinath shastri 17th edition, Varanasi; Chawkhambha Bharati academy; 1991 pp-46.50) Acharyas Vagabhata Ashtanga hridaya volume 1 chapter 5th shloka 21, Shrikantha murthi 3rd edn, Varanasi; Shrikrishnadas Academy; 1996 PP-58.51) Acharya Vagbhata Astanga Hridaya, Vol-I, Chapter 5th, Sloka 21, Srikanta Murty, 3rd edition, Varanasi, Shrikrishnadas Academy 1996, PP 60.52) Dravyaguina vignana Dr. J.L.N. Shastri, 2nd edition Published by Choukhambha Orientalia Varanasi, 2005, PP 209-211.53) Ibid PP 216-218.54) Ibid PP 220-222.55) J.L.N.Shastri, Dravyaguna Vignana, Vol-II 1st ed. Varanasi: Choukamba orientalia: 2002. P. 871-872.56) Agnivesha, Charaka samhita sutrasthana chapter 27, Shloka 296, Kashinath shastri and Gorakanath chaturvedi, 18th ed. Varanasi: Chaukambha Bharati Academy: 1992. P. 560.57) JLN Shastri, Dravyaguna vignana, Vol II, I edition, Varanasi, Choukhambha Orientalia 2002, PP 452-454.58) Agnivesha, Charaka samhita sutrasthana chapter 27, Shloka 297, Kashinath shastri and Gorakanath chaturvedi, 18th ed. Varanasi: Chaukambha Bharati Academy: 1992. P. 560.59) J.L.N.Shastri, Dravyaguna Vignana, Vol-II 1st ed. Varanasi: Choukamba orientalia: 2002. P. 448-449. 145 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  • 161. Bibilography60) Agnivesha Charaka samhita sutra sthana, Chapter 27, Sloka 298, Kashinath shastri and Goraknath chaturvedi, 18th edition, Varanasi Chouahambha Bharati Academy 1992 PP 560.61) J.R. PARTINGTON, M.B.E. D.Sc, A Text book of Inorganic chemistry 6th edition, Chapter 9, Part (III), Pub by the English Language book society & Macmillan & Co ltd London, PP 913.62) Ibid PP 914.63) Ibid PP 91564) Inorganic chemistry by H.D. Gehani, S.M. Parekh, Dr. R.V. Bhagwat, 6th edition, Chapter 9 (Part III) Pub by A.R. Sheth & Co, Bombay, 6th edition 1972, PP 473.65) Ibid PP 48966) Sushruta samhita Ayurveda Tatwa sandeepika by Kaviraj Ambikadatta shastri, Chapter 44, Sloka 7-15, Choukhambha Sanskrit samsthana 199767) Vagbhata Ashtanga Hridaya, Chapter 13, Sloka 3-4, edited by Pandit Acharya, Hari shastri Paradakar, Akola, 8th edition Choukhambha orientalia, Varanasi 2000.68) Agnivesha Charaka samhita, Chapter 16, Sloka 3, by Dr. Ram karan sharma, & Vaidya Bhagwan das, Choukhambha Sanskrit series, Varanasi.69) Madhavakara Madhava nidana, Madhukosha commentator by Vijaya rakshita & Srikantadatta, 8th chapter choukhambha surabharati parakashana, Varanasi.70) Madhavakara Madhava Nidana, Chapter 8, Sloka 2, edited by Acharya yadunandanaopadya 23rd edition Varanasi, Choukhambha Sanskrit samsthana, 1994, PP 220-22171) Sushruta Acharya Sushruta samhita suthra 43rd Chapter, Abikadatta shastri 12th edn, Varanasi; Chawkahmbha samskrita bhavana; 200172) Madhavakara Madhava Nidana, Chapter 8, Sloka 8-9, edited by Acharya yadunandanaopadya 23rd edition Varanasi, Choukhambha Sanskrit samsthana, 1994, PP 225-226.73) Sushruta Acharya Sushruta samhita suthra 43rd Chapter, Abikadatta shastri 12th edn, Varanasi; Chawkahmbha samskrita bhavana; 2001 PP 220-221. 146 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
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  • 163. SLOKAS“ xÉkrÉÉå eÉÉÇbÉqÉÉrÉxÉÉæ xÉiÉïrÉå mÉëirÉkɨÉÇ ” (RUGVEDA –1-56-3)“UjÉ AÉrÉÉåoÉÑMüqÉç (RUGVEDA 6-75-05)“ zrÉÉ qÉÉrÉÉåzrÉ qÉÉÇqÉxÉÌlÉ sÉÉåÌWûiÉ qÉxrÉ sÉÉåÌWûiÉÇ | §ÉmÉÑ pÉxqÉ WûËUiÉÇÇ uÉhÉïqÉç mÉÑwÉMüU aÉÇkÉqÉç ” (ATHARVAVEDA 11-3-4)AwqÉÇ cÉqÉå qÉ×̨ÉMüÉ cÉqÉå ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------- sÉÉåWÇû cÉqÉå §ÉmÉÑ cÉqÉå | (YAJURVEDA 18-3)“ ArÉxÉçqÉrÉålÉ cÉÂhÉ uÉ×ÌiÉrÉÉqÉWÒûiÉ eÉÑWûÉåÌiÉ ” (SHATAPATA-13-3-4-5)“rÉjÉÉ xÉÉæqrÉåålÉæMåülÉ lÉZuÉÌlÉuÉëÔliÉiÉålÉ xÉuÉ M×üwrÉÉrÉxÉÇ ÌuÉ¥ÉlÉÇ xrÉÉiÉ” (CHA-6-1-5)“iÉϤhÉ sÉÉåWû mɧÉÉÍhÉ ..................... xÉuÉïsÉÉåWûxuÉrÉxÉ×MüiÉÉå’ (SU.CHI.A. 11-11)qÉÑhÉQÇû iÉϤhÉ iÉjÉÉ MüÉliÉÇ sÉÉæWÇû ̧ÉÌuÉkÉqÉÑcrÉiÉå |qÉÑhQûɨÉϤhÉÉÇ iÉiÉÈ MüÉliÉÇ mÉëzÉxiÉÇ mÉËUMüÐÌiÉïiÉqÉç || RT 20/1MüÉliÉsÉÉåWÇû iÉjÉÉ MüÉliÉÇ iuÉrÉxMüÉliÉgcÉ iÉlqÉiÉqÉç |MüÉliÉÉrÉxÉÇ qÉWûÉsÉÉåWÇû iÉSåuÉ ÌuÉÌlÉaɱiÉå || RT 20/4iÉæsÉå iÉ¢åü aÉuÉÇ qÉÔ§Éå ycÉÉUlÉÉsÉå MÑüsÉijÉeÉå |MüqÉÉͳÉwÉåcÉrÉå¨ÉmiÉÇ SìÉuÉå SìÉuÉå iÉÑ xmiÉkÉ ||xuÉhÉÉïÌSsÉÉåWûmɧÉÉhÉÇ zÉÑΰUåwÉÉ mÉëÉzÉxrÉiÉå || RRS 5/29¤Éå§ÉÇ zÉÉiuÉÉaÉëWûÏiÉurÉÇ iÉimÉërɦÉålÉ kÉÏqÉiÉÉ |qÉÉÂiÉÉÅÅiÉmÉÌuÉͤÉmiÉÇ kÉeÉïrÉå³ÉÉ§É xÉÇzÉrÉÈ ||mÉɧÉå rÉxrÉ mÉëxÉUÌiÉ eÉsÉå iÉæsÉÌoÉuSÒlÉï ÍsÉmiÉåaÉlkÉçÇ ÌWû…ûxirÉeÉÌiÉ cÉ iÉjÉÉ ÌiÉ£üiÉÉÇ ÌuÉqoÉMüsMüÈ | 148
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