Kantaloha haematinic rs016_gdg


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the preparation, physico-chemical analysis of kantaloha bhasma and evaluation of its haematinic activity- an experimental study - dr. Mahantesh m. Kattimani, Department of rasashastra, Post graduate studies and research center, Shri D. G. Melmalagi Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag

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Kantaloha haematinic rs016_gdg

  1. 1. “THE PREPARATION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF KANTALOHA BHASMA AND EVALUATION OF ITS HAEMATINIC ACTIVITY- AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY” BY DR. MAHANTESH M. KATTIMANIDissertation Submitted to the Rajiv Gandhi University Of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore. In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of AYURVEDA VACHASPATI (DOCTOR OF MEDICINE) IN RASASHASTRA Under the guidance of Dr. M.C. PATIL M.D.(Ayu) Professor & HOD Dept. of Rasashastra and Co-guidance of Dr. GIRISH N. DANAPPAGOUDAR, M.D. (Ayu), Lecturer, P.G.Dept. of Rasashastra POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA D.G M. AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE AND RESEARCH CENTER, GADAG – 582103 2007
  2. 2. Rajiv Gandhi University Of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore. DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE I here by declare that this dissertation / thesis entitled “The Preparation,Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its HaematinicActivity- An Experimental Study” is a bonafide and genuine research work carriedout by me under the guidance of Dr. M.C. Patil, M.D.(Ayu), (Rasashastra), Professor &HOD, Post graduate department of Rasashastra and under the Co-guidance ofDr. Girish N. Danappagoudar, . (Rasashastra). Lecturer, Post graduate department M.Dof Rasashastra.Date:Place: Gadag. Dr. Mahantesh M. Kattimani
  3. 3. SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA. CERTIFICATE BY THE GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “The Preparation,Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its HaematinicActivity- An Experimental Study” is a bonafide research work done byDr. Mahantesh M. Kattimani in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree ofAyurveda Vachaspathi. M.D (Rasashastra).Date:Place: Gadag. Guide Dr. M.C. PATIL M.D.(Ayu) Professor & HOD Dept. of Rasashastra, Post Graduate Studies & Research Center D.G.M.A.M.C. Gadag.
  4. 4. SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA. CERTIFICATE BY THE Co - GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its HaematinicActivity- An Experimental Study” is a bonafide research work done byDr. Mahantesh. M. Kattimani in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degreeof Ayurveda Vachaspathi. M.D (Rasashastra).Date: Co GuidePlace: Gadag. Dr. Girish. N. Danappagoudar, M.D. (Rasashastra). Lecturer, Postgraduate department of Rasashastra.
  5. 5. ENDORSEMENT BY THE H.O.D AND PRINCIPAL OF THE INSTITUTIONThis is to certify that the dissertation entitled “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its HaematinicActivity- An Experimental Study” is a bonafide research work done byDr. Mahantesh M. Kattimani. under the guidance of DR. M.C. Patil M.D.(Rasashastra), Professor & H.O.D, Postgraduate department of Rasashastra and co-guidance of Dr. Girish N. Danappagoudar, M.D. (Rasashastra), lecturer, Postgraduatedepartment of Rasashastra.DR. M.C.Patil, M.D. (Rasashastra) Dr. G. B. Patil.Professor & H.O.D, Principal.Post graduate department of Rasashastra. D.G.M.A.M.C, GADAG.D.G.M.A.M.C, GADAG.Date:Place: Gadag
  6. 6. COPYRIGHT Declaration by the candidate I hereby declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminate thisdissertation / thesis in print or electronic format for academic / researchpurpose.Date: Signature of ScholarPlace: Gadag Dr. Mahantesh M. Kattimani.© Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka.
  7. 7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT My respectful salute to almighty God, by his blessings and grace success inlife comes. My deep sense of gratification is due for my parents, my brothers, mysisters and family members who are the architects of my career. This work carries some sweat memories to express and record about somedistinguished personalities by whom I had been inspired during the course of thisdissertation work. I am extremely happy to express my deepest sense of gratitude to my belovedand respected Guide, H.O.D and Prof. Dr. M.C. Patil M.D (Rasashastra) whose sympathetic,scholarly suggestions and guidance at every step have inspired me, not only toaccomplish this work but also in all respects. I am extremely greatful and obliged to my Associate guide Dr. Girish N.Danappagoudar M.D.(Rasashastra) Lecturer PG Dept of Rasashastra DGMAMC, PGstudies & Research centre, Gadag, for patiently going through the draft of thesis andcorrecting with precious remarks which have been very useful. I express my gratitude to beloved Principal Dr.G.B. Patil, PrincipalDGMAMC, PG Studies & Research centre, Gadag for his encouragement andproviding all necessary facilities for my research work. I express my deep sense of gratification to my beloved to respected sirs,Dr Jagadeesh G. Mitti M.D. (Ayu) Lecturer PG Dept of Rasashastra DGMAMC, Gadagand Shri Shivakumar Inamadar Lecturer K.L.E’s college of Pharmacy Gadag whoseGuidance, inspiration, supervision and valuable suggestions, helped me to completethis Research work. I wish to convey thanks to my teacher Prof. Dr. R.K. Gachchinamath H.O.D.Dept of Rasashastra (UG) DGMAMC, Gadag for kind & affectionate through hisvaluable suggestions & advise. I will not forget to remember Late Dr. Dilipkumar B MD (Ayu) Asst. Prof PGS &RC for his kind advise & encouragement during the earlier study. I express my sincere thanks to Dr. Basavaraj. M. Mulkipatil M.D. (Ayu) LecturerDept. of Kayachikitsa DGMAMC PGS & RC Gadag and Dr. Shashikant NidagundiMD (Ayu) Lecturer PG Dept of Dravyaguna for their friendly support during my PGstudy. I
  8. 8. I wish to convey my sincere thanks to Dr. Vardacharulu MD (Ayu), Dr. G.Purushotamacharulu MD (Ayu), Dr. R.V. Shettar MD (Ayu), Dr. Kuber Sankh MD (Ayu), Dr.K.S. R Prasad MD (Ayu), Dr. Santosh Belavadi MD (Ayu), Dr. G.V. Mulgund MD (Ayu), Dr.Samudri MD (Ayu), and other PG staff for their constant encouragement. I extend my gratitude to shri V.M. Mundimani and Sureban for providing therequired books during the study. With great pleasure, I offer my reorganization to my friends Dr. Jayashree, Dr.Rudrakshi, Dr. Jamkhandi, Dr Amnish for their friendly affection and help during mystudy period without which I would never be complete. I offer my sincere thanks to my beloved friends Dr. V.M. Kataraki, Dr.Shivaleela, Dr. Shalini, Dr. Ashwini, Dr. Muttu Budi, Dr Prasanna, Dr.Payappagoudar, Dr. Sibaprasad, Dr. Kamalaxi, Dr. Veena and Dr Ashok for their kindco-operation and help. I offer my sincere thanks to my senior friends, Dr. Santoji, Dr Jaggal, Dr. V.S.Hiremath. Dr. Pattanshetty, Dr. Koteshwar, Dr. Pradeep, Dr. Ganti, Dr. Shakuntala,Dr. Sharanu, Dr. Anita, Dr. Suvarna, Dr. Teggi, Dr. Sobagin & Dr. Anand.H for theirimmense help and affection. I am also thankful to my junior friends Dr. Ravindra, Dr. Shivakumar, Dr.Anupama, Dr. Sarvamangala, Dr. Kavitha, Dr. Gorpade, Dr. Praveen, Dr. Jadhav, Dr.Mahantaswami, Dr. Deepa for their support and affection. I am thankful to non teaching staff of Dept of Rasashastra for their help andassistance during the course. I am greatful to Mr. Chaitrakumar for his kind co-operation & immense helpto complete this dissertation work. I am also thankful to my friend Mr. Kiran (wisecomputers Gadag). My sincere thanks to my well wishers Dr. A.M. Adi, Principal, RGAMC, Ron,Dr. Tatti, Dr. R.V. Angadi, Dr. Satish Barker, Dr. Ronad, Dr. Kotturshetty, Dr.Kushtagi, Dr. Kanti, Dr. Kataraki, Dr. Desai, & Er. Prahalad raja for their valuablesupport & help during the course. At last I am very much thankful to all the persons who directly and indirectlyhelped me to complete this dissertation work. Dr. Mahantesh. M. Kattimani II
  9. 9. ABSTRACTBackground: Aneamia is a common disease Characterized by Lassitude, Fatigue,Headache, Palpitation, Stomatitis, Bodyache, Insomnia, Anorexia, Nausea, lack ofconcentration, Low grade fever, Pallor in skin, mucous, Palms & Conjuctiva etc.where, there is a reduction of RBC and Haemoglobin concentration. Ayurveda explained in detail about the Laxanas and chikitsa of Panduroga.There are so many formulations to cure the disease Panduroga. Some of them are easyto prepare, some other very difficult to prepare and even costly also. Rasaratnasamuchchaya kara considered Loha bhasma especially Kantaloha bhasma is bestamong all. Which acts as best ranjaka and raktavardhaka. Before evaluating efficacyof any formulation, it is essential to carry out experimental study and to find outpotent therapeutic form from different formulations.Objectives:1. Preparation of Kantaloha bhasma2. Physico-chemical analysis of Kantaloha bhasma.3. Evaluation of its Haematinic activity- an experimental study.Methods:Pharmaceutical study: a) Loha shodhana (Samanya & Vishesha) according to Rasa Ratna Samuchchaya 5th chapter, Sloka 29 and 106-107. b) Loha Marana according to Rasaratna samuchchaya 5th chapter sloka 107,108.Analytical study: Loha Bhasma is subjected to Physico-chemical analysis ie. Assay for Iron,Acid insoluble ash, Loss on ignition, Loss on drying, Acid soluble extractive, Water III
  10. 10. insoluble extractive, pH, Solubility and Physical analysis, fineness of particle testincluding organoleptic character.Experimental study: Anaemia was induced in Albino rats and trial drug administered. Later Hb %,RBC count and bone marrow study was carried out after 48 and 96 hrs. Data wererecorded and statistically analysed.Results: Kantaloha bhasma increased the Hb % and RBC ratio significantly with Pvalue < 0.001.Interpretation and Conclusion 1) The dravyas which are mentioned in classical procedure for Loha shodhana and Marana definetly convert Loha into pure Loha bhasma and induces the disease curing property. But the practical procedure are labourous. 2) Ayurvedic bhasma pareeksha and modern physico-chemical analysis are conformation tests for the complete formation of bhasma and its genuinity. 3) Kantaloha bhasma is one of the ideal formulations for treating Panduroga where there is a low levels of Hb% and RBC. It works as a best haematinic, which has been proved experimentally by increasing the Hb% and RBC count.Keywords: Panduroga, Iron deficiency anaemia, Kantaloha shodhana, Marana, Physico-chemical analysis and Haematinic activity. IV
  11. 11. CONTENTS Chapter Page No1. Introduction 1-32. Objectives 43. Review of literature A) Drug Review 5-54 B) Disease Review 55-834. Methodology 84-1085. Results 109-1316. Discussion 132-1377. Conclusion 138-1398. Summary 140-1419. Bibliography 142-147 V
  12. 12. ABBREVIATIONS1. A.P Ayurveda Prakasha2. B.P. Bhava Prakasha3. B.R Bhaishaja Ratnavali4. R.J.N Rasa Jala Nidhi5. R.K.D. Rasakamadenu6. R.Ni Raja Nighantu7. R.T. Rasa Tarangini8. R.C Rasendra Chudamani9. R.R. Rasa Ratnakara10. R.S.S Rasendra Sara Sangra11. R.H.T. Rasa Hridaya Tantra12. R.Mr. Rasamrutha.13. R.R.S. Rasa Rathna Samuchaya14. B.R.R.S. Brihat Rasa Raja sundara.15. C.S Charaka samhita16. M.M Materia medica17. M.N Madhava Nidana18. S.S. Sushruta Samhita19. Y.R Yoga Ratnakara20. A.H Ashtanga Hridaya21. C Control group22. PC Positive Control group23. T Test group VI
  13. 13. LIST OF TABLESTableNo Tables Page N0 01 Showing the different procedures of Loha shodhana 20 02 Showing the Pharmocological properties of Loha 28 03 Showing the Indications of Loha bhasma on various diseases 30-31 04 Showing the comparison of Different varieties of Iron 54 05 Showing the Ahanas as causative factor 57 06 Showing the the Viharas as causative factor 58 07 Showing the the Manasika vikaras as causative factor 58 08 Showing the Sankhya samprpti of Panduroga 61 09 Showing the poorva roopa lakshana 63 10 Showing the Laxanas of Roopa in Panduroga 64-65 11 Showing the Laxanas of Vataja Pandu 67 12 Showing the Laxanas of Pittaja Pandu 68 13 Showing the the Laxanas of Kaphaja pandu 69 14 Showing the Vishishta laxanas of Mridbhakshanajanya 72 pandu 15 Showing the Upadarava according to dosha 73 16 Showing the clinical features of IDA 81-83 17 Showing the details of shodhana practical 97-98 18 Showing the details of Marana Practical 101 19 Showing the RBC ratio at 48 hrs Intermediate calculation 109 20 Showing the Summary of data of RBC ratio 109 21 Showing the comparision with PC & T group in RBC ratio 109 after 48 hrs 22 Showing the RBC ratio after 96 hrs, Intermidate calculation 110 23 Showing the summary of data of RBC ratio after 96 hrs 110 24 Showing Comparision with PC & T group in RBC ratio after 110 96 hrs 25 Showing Data of Hb% of Blood after 48 hrs 111 26 Showing Intermidiate calculation of Hb% after 48 hrs 111 27 Showing summary of data of Hb% after 48 hrs 111 28 Showing comparision with PC & T group in Hb% after 48 112 hrs 29 Showing Data if Hb% of blood after 96 hrs 113 30 Showing Intermediate calculation in Hb% after 96 hrs 113 31 Showing Summary of Data of Hb% after 96 hrs 113 32 Showing Comparision with PC & T in Hb % after 96 hrs 114 33 Showing Myeloid Erthroid cell ratio after 48 hrs 115 34 Showing Summary of Data of myeloid Erythroid cell after 115 48 hrs 35 Showing Comparision with PC & T group in myeloid 115 erythroid cell after 48 hrs 36 Showing Myeloid Erythroid cell ratio after 96 hrs 116 37 Showing summery of Data of myeloid erythroid cell ratio 116 after 96 hrs VII
  14. 14. 38 Showing comparision with PC & T of myeloid erythroid cell 116 after 96 hrs39 Showing Data of Pronormoblast after 48 hrs 11740 Shortly Intermediate calculation of Pronormoblast after 48 117 hrs41 Showing Summary of Data of Pronormoblast after 48 hrs 11742 Showing Comparision with PC & T group in Pronormoblast 118 after 48 hrs43 Showing Data of Pronormoblast after 46 hrs 11944 Showing Intermediate calculation of Pronormoblast after 96 119 hrs45 Showing summary of data of pronormoblast after 96 hrs 11946 Showing comparision with PC & T group in pronormoblast 120 after 96 hrs47 Showing Data of Normoblast after 48 hrs 12148 Showing Intermediate calculation of Normoblast after 48 hrs 12149 Showing Summary of Data of Normoblast after 48 hrs 12150 Showing comparision with PC & T group in Normoblast 122 after 48 hrs51 Showing Data of Normoblast after 96 hrs 12352 Showing Intermediate calculation of Normoblast after 96 hrs 12353 Showing Summary of Data of Normoblast after 96 hrs 12354 Showing comparision with PC & T group in Normoblast 124 after 96 hrs55 Showing Data of Recticulocytes count after 48 hrs 12556 Showing summary of data of Reticulocytes after 48 hrs 12557 Showing comparision with PC & T of Recticulocytes after 125 48 hrs58 Showing data of Reticulocytes after 96 hrs 12659 Showing summary of data of Reticulocytes after 96 hrs 12660 Showing comparision with PC & T group in REticulocytes 126 after 96 hrs61 Showing data of Normocytes count after 48 hrs 12762 Showing summary of data of Normocytes after 48 hrs 12763 Showing comparision with PC & T group of Normocytes 127 after 48 hrs64 Showing Data of Normocytes count after 96 hrs 12865 Showing summary of Data of Normocytes after 96 hrs 12866 Showing comparision with PC & T group of Normocytes 128 after 96 hrs. VIII
  15. 15. LIST OF GRAPHS: Sl. No Graphs Page No 1 Mean RBC ratio after 48 hrs 109 2 Mean RBC ratio after 96 hrs 110 3 Mean Hb% ratio after 48 hrs 112 4 Mean Hb% ratio after 96 hrs 114 5 Mean myeloid erythroid ratio after 48 hrs 115 6 Mean myeloid erythroid ratio after 96 hrs 116 7 Mean Pronormoblast count after 48 hrs 118 8 Mean Pronormoblast count after 96 hrs 120 9 Mean Normoblast count after 48 hrs 122 10 Mean Normoblast count after 96 hrs 124 11 Mean Reticulocytes count after 48 hrs 125 12 Mean Reticulocytes count after 96 hrs 126 13 Mean Normocytes count after 48 hrs 127 14 Mean Normocytes count after 96 hrs 128LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS: Sl. No Photographs 1 Showing Shodhana, Marana, Bhasma 2 Showing Experimental activity 3 Showing Microscopic study of Bone marrow IX
  16. 16. Introduction INTRODUCTION Ayurveda is the most ancient system of medicine. Which is (mostly) based onits own fundamental principle theories or concepts. Which are deeply rooted into theoldest scriptures of Hindu veda i.e “ Atharvanaveda”. It is an encyclopedia ofancient eternal medical wisdom in spite of its antiquity (3,000 years old) it is beingpracticing even today all over the world. Rasashastra, one of the branches of Ayurveda which is well developed byNagarjuna. Hence he is known as pioneer of Rasashastra. He practiced Ayurveda byusing rasa dravya’s i.e. metals, minerals, gems etc, to achieve the aims of Rasashastrai.e Lohasiddhi & Dehasiddhi. Now Rasashastra holds topmost place in Ayurveda dueto its unique preparation’s –Rasabhasma’s,like Kharaliya rasayana, Pottali Rasayana,Parpati rasayana, Kupipakwa rasayana and their utility. Bhasmas are the unique solid dosage form of Ayurvedic preparation.Preparations of bhasma involve number of steps-i.e shodhana, jarana then marana. Inthese steps minerals, metals, gems are processed with herbal/animal origin drugs. Sothat marita bhasma should posses desired pharmacological actions. Standard bhasmashould be nishchandra, varitara, rekhapoorna & apunarbhava etc. Absorption,Assimilation, Excretion of such bhasma is very quick and helps in faster recoverywithin a short period. In the same way all moorchita rasayanas have nearly the samecharacters. .Historical review: History reveals metals and minerals are therapeutically used since Rigvedaperiod. In samhita kala Charaka, Sushruta & Vagbhata practiced metals, minerals,gems as a therapeutic. 1“The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  17. 17. Introduction The ancient acharyas have told that the treatment for curable diseases byvanoushadhis, kshara and Shastra karma etc, where as incurable diseases can also betreated by Lohadi rasoushadhis. Faster relief, lesser dose, and above all mystericefficiency are the specialties of the Rasoushadhis. These qualities of Rasoushadhishave attracted the Ayurvedacharyas and they practiced and praised them as “UttamoRasavaidyaha”. Since the time of Vedas, the Rasoushadhis play an important role in the fieldof medicine. Among the Rasoushadhis, Bhasmas are placed on the top. They arewidely used in medicine as a single therapy and as well as in the from of compounddrug therapy. The most therapeutically efficacious state of a metal is Bhasma, hencethis form is abundantly used in pharmaceutical processing. Preparations of Loha are practiced by our Rasavaidyas since good old days.It is a drug of mineral origin described in Ayurveda. It can be used as a single drug orin combination either with mineral drug or with herbal drugs in certain diseases. Itwas specifically recommended for Panduroga, Dhatukshaya, Prameha andMedovikara. It was prescribed as a best rasayana. Kantaloha is the best among lohas explained. Its bhasma specially cures thepanduroga and works as a best rasayana when therapeutically administered. In the Rasatarangini, while explaining the loha bhasma gunas, author haveclearly mentioned that, after the absorption, loha bhasma enters the blood. Theconstituents of blood (Ranjaka drava) and lohas are having similar characters. Thislohabhasma may enhance the production of Raktanu (Red blood cell) andRanjakadrava (Heamoglobin). Therefore Lohabhasma is best ranjaka andraktavardhaka. 2“The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  18. 18. Introduction Globally 30% of the total world population is anaemic and half of these, some600 million people have iron deficiency and as much as 25% to 50% in developingcountries like India are anaemic. In adults anaemia results in impaired work capacity. Anaemia often leads toirreversible impairment in childs learning ability. The usual Indian diet containsinhibitors of absorption hence Indians were more prone to develop Iron deficiencyAnemia. Kantaloha bhasma shows multidimensional properties i.e dose is very small,economic and best Pandurogahara medicine. Hence, Keeping in view of the abovefacts, it was felt to conduct a study to analyse, the efficiency of Kantaloha bhasma asa haematinic by experimental trails. The Present work THE PREPARATION, PHYSICO-CHEMICALANALYSIS OF KANTALOHA BHASMA AND EVALUATION OF ITSHAEMATINIC ACTIVITY- AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY.This desertation is presented in 09 Chapters i.eChapter Content01 Introduction02 Objectives03 Literary Review a) Drug review 1. Concept of Kantaloha in Ayurveda view 2. Concept of Loha in Modern view b) Disease review04 Methodology 1. Pharmaceutical study 2. Analytical Study 3. Experimental study.05 Results 1. Observation 2. Result06 Discussion.07 Conclusion.08 Summary09 References 3“The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  19. 19. ObjectivesOBJECTIVES The objectives of the study are as follows: 1) Preparation of Kantaloha Bhasma 2) Physico – chemical analysis of Kantaloha bhasma 3) Evaluation of Haematinic activity of Kantaloha bhasma. 4 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  20. 20. Drug Review DRUG REVIWLITERARY REVIEW OF LOHA (IRON): Iron has been known since ancient time and is as old as vedas. Its use iswidespread in routine life as well as in medicaments since then. In this modern era,man is extensively using , the iron in every step. In all systems of medicine, iron isused for different ailments. Iron is the most useful metal among all the metals, mightbe because of its wide applications. Rudiard Kepiling called “Iron as the master”among all the metals. Many scholars named this modern age as Iron age. In Rasahastra suvarnadi metals have been classified under three groups i.e., (1) Suddha Loha (2) Puti Loha and (3) Mishra Loha Suddha Loha are those, when subjected to heat they do not change their state. Iron is one of them.DEFINITION OF LOHA: The Word Loha is derived from “sÉÑWû AÉMüwÉïhÉå” means which is attracted orextracted. Due to this specific character, it is named as LOHA. According todifferent texts and different people, the meaning of Loha is explained in variousways.1) People are being attracted by the luster of Suvarnadi Lohas. There fore it is called as loha2) According to Chikitsa, when lohas are administered in the body, the loha extracts the imbalanced doshas and brings the body back to homeostasis. Therefore it is called as Loha. 5 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  21. 21. Drug Review3) According to Bhaishajya Kalpana, when the lohas are subjected to different Samskaras, with herbs, iron extracts herbs properties and get involved in it. Therefore it is called as Loha.4) According to Rasahastra, Lohas are extracted from different ores and is called as Loha. According to physiological & pharmacological action, Loha isNamed as “Dhatu” Looking to its nirukti “SÒkÉlÉç kÉÉUhÉmÉÉåwÉhÉrÉÉåÈ” means, one whichperforms Dharana Kriya is called Dhatu . These lohas are being used in routine life and also as medicaments. RaktaDhatu is called as Jeeva Rakta. The every life is depending on Rakta Dhatu. Raktacontains Loha. The synonym of the Rakta is Lohita. This Raktastha Loha performsthe shareera Dharanakriya. Loha cures the diseases and gives Balya and Rasayana effect and performsshareera Dharankriya. That is why it is called as Dhatu. In Ancient time the Classical texts used the word Loha to denote suvarnadimetals. But now a days the word Loha is isolated to Iron only and Dhatu for theirores.HISTORICAL REVIEW OF LOHA (IRON) When we introspect the ancient literatures, numerous illustrations about Lohaare available. Our ancient sages with their devine power have contributed eternalideas to the science.LOHA IN VEDIC PERIOD1 Vedas are not only a classical literature of India, but they are of the universe. 6 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  22. 22. Drug ReviewIN RUGVEDA: which is 5000 years ancient, Loha has been illustrated in thetreatment. One of the example is that rehabilitation of vishpala with the artificiallimb of Loha was made by Bhishak Ashwinkumar, when his limb was cut in the war.IN ATHARVAVEDA: While explaining Anna ghataka dravya, Loha and Trapu are explained. Shareera Poshaka Anna Consists of Mamsala bhaga Lohamaya. Blood alsocontains Loha and haritima Trapu (Vanga) The Dhanya (Anna) is harita varna andhaving good odour. In Atharvaveda- 6-63-3, 6-84-3, 11-3-7, 19-66-,1 references substantiate theknowledge of Lohadi dhatus in the period of Atharvaveda .IN YAJURVEDA: In Yajurveda too the usage of loha has been explained as amedicament and in the Yagna also.IN BRAHMA SAHITYA2:The Uddharan of 5 Dhatus are available viz., Swarna, Rajata, Tamra, Loha andSeesa,LOHA IN THE UPANISHAD: In Chandoga upanishad the use of teekshna loha is available.The instruments made up of teeksha loha are used for the removal of Nakha.LOHA IN PURANA PERIOD3: In Pouranic era, Loha was not used in medicine but was widely used formaking weapons, idols, etc., In Mahabharata, the preparation of an idol of Bheema isavailable which was powdered by Dhratarashtra. These Kinds of several referencesare available regarding the wide use of Loha during this period. 7 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  23. 23. Drug ReviewLOHA IN KOUTILYA ARTHASHASTRA : In the Period of Chandragupta Mourya 300 BC Swarna –Rajata –Tamra- Lohaetc Shodhan process was carried out. Adultration of these dhatus were considered tobe an offence and persons were punished for this. The availability and mines of Swarna, rajatu, trapu loha were explained inKoutilya arthashastra. ( Koutilya Artha Shastra 2-12-14)LOHA IN SAMHITA PERIOD4: Sushruta was considered as vidwan of Lohashastra, as explained in lohaSarvaswa- written by Sureshwaracharya in his Grantha:-According to Acharya Sureshwara – In maintaining the healthy body, loha isconsidered as the best dravya. He opined on the basis of explanation available in“Loha tantras” . in Sushruta, Harita, Vyadi and Nagarjuna samhita . In Sushrut sutra sthan 20/26 and Sushrut sutra sthan 38/62. There is wideexplanation of Krishna loha. In Sushrut Chikista adhyaya 10/11-12. Three types of Ayaskruti wereexplained. Purification of Teekshna loha and making it to churna is explained, thisprocess is called Ayaskruti.IN CHARAKA SAMHITA5: In Charaka samhita Rasayan vaada chapter, wide explanation of lohaRasayana is available. 8 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  24. 24. Drug ReviewLOHA RASAYAN PHALA: In Charka Samhita Chikitsastana wide explanation of loha is available as a medicine together with herbal preparations.When a person consumes yogas of Loha,he attains vaksiddi and becomes intelligent.LOHA IN RASAHASTRA PERIOD: Even though, we are not in a position to predict the period of origin ofRasashastra, chronologically the most ancient references available regardingRasashastra has showed the importance of loha. It is clear from the very aim ofRasashastra i.e., Lohavadha and Dhatuvadha that Rasashastra was developed in sucha period when Lohas ( all the metals) were abundantly used. The most reputed booksof Rasashastra like Rasa Ratnakar, Rasenadra Chudamani, Rasarnava, etc., haveshown not only the purifications and other processing of Loha but also the methods touplift the lower metals to higher one like gold. When the rest of the world was indarkness about the role and utility of loha, in the health condition of man,Rasashastra as well as Ayurvedists were using Loha as a nectar for life. Severalreferences are available in the later books of Rasashastra like Rasaratna Samuchaya,Rasendra Sara Sangraha. Rasakamadhenu, Anandkanda, etc, regarding the use ofLoha in the treatment of Several ailments and that also in several combinations. One of the scientists from France, H.L Bataliyan in his one of the lectures hasillustrated that, Indians were knowing the preparation and properties of Loha. One ofthe evergreen, remembering examples is that, Sir Robert Stephal has said, themetallurgical science is superior in India and Kutub Minar Pillar is made up of pureLoha, which was proved by analysis. In addition to this, metallic things presents tilltoday in Puri and Somanatha are of name and fame to the science of Rasashastra. 9 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  25. 25. Drug Review In later period, when the golden era of Rasashastra has started, each andevery Rasashastragnya have diverted their attention towards the therapeutical aspectsof the metals and minerals, and have suggested Iron as a best haematinic.ORIGIN OF LOHA:RASASHASTRA VIEW: When review of mythology is carried out, the origin of Loha has taken placefrom the corpus of an Asura named as Lomila. As per Rasakamadhenu, Loha isoriginated from the dead body of Yama named “ Kalamurta” It has been described inRasendrapurana, Rasendrabhaskara that, during the samudra manthana the LordVisnhu gave amrita to Suras, the enraged Asuras wages war against suras, at the timethe Loha was originated, from the body of the Asuras.Chronologically to state that lohas are formed by the dropping of Blood of Lomila.When we want to increase the Raktadhatu, we administer the Loha, this indicates thatthere is a close relation between Rakta and Loha. Even though it has been illustratedin exaggerated words in Myth, there is a close relation between Rakta and Loha.This reflects the intelligence of ancient sages. .LOHA PARYAYA (SYNONYMS OF IRON)1) Ayas2) Ayaskanta3) Ashmasara4) Amisam5) Girisara6) Ghana7) Kanta-loha 10 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  26. 26. Drug Review8) Kanta Yasa9) Kalayasa10) Kuttum11) Kudam12) Krishna loha13) Krisiloha14) Kittam15) Lohasara16) Mahaloha17) Mundaloha18) Mundavat19) Parvatam20) Pindam21) Peevara22) Romilasthi23) Shastra24) Samayatmaka25) Suraksana26) Teekshana27) Uttam28) Vrisatsara29) Veera30) Visapasam. 11 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  27. 27. Drug Review(VERNACULAR NAME)NAMES OF LOHA IN DIFFERENT LANGUAGESArabic - HadeedAssamee - LohaloBurmese - ThanBengali - LohaChinese - Tich-TeeDanish - JernDutch - Yzer-JizerEnglish - IronFrench - FerFarsee - Ahan-AhanfourdGerman - EisenGreek - SiderasGujarati - LodhanGothic - AisHindi - LohaItalian - FerroKannada - KabbinaKashmiri - ShasturLatin - FerrumMalaya - Basi/BesiMalyalam - IrumbuMarathi - Lakhand 12 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  28. 28. Drug ReviewOriya - LuhaPersian - ZhahPolish - AlezoPortugese - FerroPunjabi - LohaRusan - SchelesoSanskrit - Loha, Ayas etcSpanish - HierroSwedish - JermSihale - Yakada.Tamil - IrumbuTelgu - Demmu, ChumuTurkish - Timur, Demur,Urdu - Ain, Loha,PRAPTI STHANA6,7: Naturally, Loha is not available in greater amounts in its free form, mostly isavailable in Sayuktavasta. In India, It is available in Bihar, Orissa, Bengal,Madhyapradesh, Uttarpradesh, Punjab, Tamilnadu, and Karnataka also. India exportsLoha (Iron) to foreign countries. It is also available in countries like, England, Germany, Japan, America,Nepal, Bhutan, Afghisthan. Etc.,DESCRIPTION8,9,10 According to Rasatarangini Loha is of 3 types Munda, Teekshana, Kantalohaand Kantaloha is best among three. 13 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  29. 29. Drug Review According to ancient classics the loha means Kantaloha (because of its uttamaguna) and is one among 9 Dhatus (some acharyas said, dhatus are of 7 in number)and Kantaloha belongs to shudh loha. Loha is whitish like Vishudha Rajata and when polished it shines. Whenrubbed against hard surface it leaves Vishishta gandha. It is heavy, good conductorof heat and electricity. Loha Bhasma is best Ranjaka and Raktavardhaka and the efficacy ofKantaloha bhasma in Panduroga, Yakshma, Tridoshadushita roga, Kamala, Kushta,Gulma, Yakrutvikara, Krimi, etc., diseases has been extensively described inAyurvedic classics as,“ MüÉÇiÉÉrÉÈ MüqÉlÉÏrÉMÇüÌiÉeÉlÉlÉÇ mÉÉhQûuÉÉqÉrÉÉålqÉÔsÉlÉqÉç ”----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------“ xÉuÉïurÉÉÍkÉWûUÇ UxÉÉrÉlÉuÉUÇ pÉÉæqÉÉqÉ×iÉ lÉÉmÉUqÉç || R.R.S 5/114“sÉÉåWÇû äÉÇ xÉÑqÉÉkÉÑUqÉsÉÇ mÉÉMüiɶÉérÉ ÌiÉ£üqÉç-----------------------------------------------------“uÉhrÉï qÉåkrÉ ZÉsÉÑ ÌMüqÉÉÍkÉMÇü WûÎliÉlÉÉlÉÉqÉrÉblÉqÉç ” R.T20/83.Bhoutika Gunas of LohaVarna (Colour) BlackSparsha(Touch) KathinaApekshita gurutwa 7.7Dravananka (Melting point) 15000CKwathanaka ( Boiling Point) 29500C 14 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  30. 30. Drug ReviewTYPES OF LOHA11,12: Loha is of 3 types 1) Munda 2) Teekshna 3) Kanta. Out of these,Teekshna loha is better than Munda and Kantaloha is best than rest of the two lohas.According to Rasendra chudamani -Loha is of 3 types 1) Munda loha 2) Teekshna loha 3) Kantaloha.SYNONYMS OF KANTALOHA: Kantaloha, Kanta, Ayaskanta, Kantayasa & mahaloha. These are thesynonyms Kantaloha. (RT ¼)KANTALOHA BEDHA13,14:Kantaloha is of 4 types1) Romaka Kantaloha2) Bhramaka Kantaloha3) Chumbaka Kantaloha4) Dravaka Kantaloha.Uttarottara KantaLoha are best. i.e,., Bhramaka is better than Romaka. Chumbaka isbetter than Bhramaka, Dravaka is best among all.1) ROMAKA KANTALOHA PARIBASHA: In the mines when Kantaloha is extracted Kantapashana surely comes out.With the help of its Roma it attracts the small pieces of loha. The Kantaloha whichpossess these qualities is called Romaka-Kantaloha. 15 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  31. 31. Drug Review2) BHRAMAKA KANTALOHA PARIBASHA: In the mines of some hills, Bramaka Kantaloha, makes other loha pieces toencircle around it. The Kanta-loha which possess these qualities is called as BramakaKantaloha.3) CHUMBAKA KANTALOHA PARIBASHA: The loha pieces are attracted by chumbaka kanta loha, as the beautiful ladiesattract the minds of men, Chumbaka also attracts the loha pieces. It is available in theVindya Parvata only.4) DRAVAKA KANTA LOHA PARIBASHA: Suvarnadi, lohas become liquid when they will come in contact with the kanta-loha The Kantaloha which possess these qualities is called as Dravaka kantaloha. Itis rarely available in himalaya parvata.Another Classification of Kantaloha according to other acharyas as follows-Classification based on the character.Kantaloha is of 5 types1. Bramaka.2. Chumbaka3. Karshakam.4. Dravaka.5. Romakanta.Classification based on the shape.According to the shape Kantaloha is 6 types.1) Ekamukha.2) Dwimukha 16 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  32. 32. Drug Review3) Trimukha.4) Chaturmukha.5) Panchamukha6) Sarvatomukha.Classification Based on the ColourOn the basis of colour Kantaloha is of three types.1) Peeta. ( Yellow) This resembles Lord Brahma.2) Krishna (black) This resembles lord Vishnu.3) Rakta (Red) This resembles lord Shankara. Peeta varna kantaloha is used in vedha samskara. Krishna varnaKanthaloha is used for Rasa-Rasayana Karma. Rakta Varna Kantaloha is used forparad bandha karma.KANTALOHA GRAHYA LAXANA15 An expert Rasacharya should collect the kanthaloha from the mines which isfree from pollution. Polluted loha cannot be utilised for Chikitsa purpose. When the taila bindu is made to drop over the water which is filled in the lohavessel it must not spread. When the hingu is applied to the loha vessel it must looseits odour. And nimbakalka looses its tiktata when applied to vessel made of loha.Milk must not drop out of the vessel when boiled. The Loha which possess thesequalities is called as Kantaloha.CONCEPT OF SHODHANA AND MARANA: Invention of metal brought a great change in the lifestyle of early man. As hewent on investing various metals, he understood their uses and utilized them for 17 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  33. 33. Drug Reviewvarious purposes. When observed medicinal values in metal he started using themas medicine. During Samhita period metals were used in the form of Raja (Churna) butafter 8th century a scientific study of metals was carried out for their therapeuticvalues. Till last century even in western medical science, metals are used fortherapeutic purposes but after observing some of the toxic effects, the usage of somemetals was ceased. Rasavaidyas too had the knowledge of toxic effects of metals and minerals,were made free from adverse effects by virtue of unique procedures ( Shodhana andMarana) adopted by them in detoxifying the metals. These procedures not only makea mineral or metal free from toxic effects but also make them to absorbable andtherapeuticaly effective with a minimum dose, for a maximum and quick result.Hence Rasoushadhis are widely used by Ayurvedic physicians without the fear ofadverse effects. When preparing the medicine, Ayurvedic acharyas were of opinion that,when a medicine administered in a particular disease it should only cure that diseasebut not cause any other diseases or adverse effect. Keeping the above in consideration various shodhana and marana procedureare explained in Rasashastra classics.MERITS :1) These procedures involve physico chemical action in order to activate the inorganic substances ( may be from neerindrya state to Sendriya state)2) These procedures not only remove toxic effect of a drug but also the various herbs used to act on metals, so, as to enhance the pharmacological action of a drug. 18 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  34. 34. Drug ReviewSHODHANA16: Shodhana is a process by which impurities are removed from a substances byimplementing prescribed methods like mardana etc., This indicates by shodhana,impurities and toxic qualities are removed from the drug and to induce certainqualities which are essential for further proceduresClassification : Shodhana has been divided into two 1) Samanya Shodhana. 2) Vishesha shodhana1. SAMANYA SHODHANA OF KANTALOHA17 : The common procedure for eliminating doshas from group of dravyas or metals is called Samanya shodhana. Kanta- loha is heated to Redhot and dipped in medias like, Tilataila (seasme oil), Takra (Butter milk), Gomootra(Cow’s urine) Aranala/kanjika (Weak organic acid) Kulaththa Kwath (Horse gram decoction), for 7 times in each media.2. VISHESHA SHODHANA18 – Generally Samanya Shodhana is planted to remove certain impurties but vishesha shodhana is a plan to induce certain therapeutic values in particular drug. In Rasagranthas various vishesha shodhana procedures are mentioned for alllohas Take one part Triphala, 8 part Gomootra. Sthoola churna of Triphala andGomootra are boiled in the kadai, until the solution reduces to 1/4th this is filtered toget Triphala Kwatha. Later five pala of loha churna and Triphala Kwatha were boiledover agni. While boiling the solution is stirred with metal rod until the Kwatha getevaporated and only loha remains in the vessel. This is how Kantaloha gets Shodhita. 19 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  35. 35. Drug Review Several Vishesha-Shodhana procedures have been explained in the Ayurvedictexts. Among them some important procedures are given below.Table No. 1. Showing different procedures of Loha shodhana in Ayurvedicclassics.Sl.no Procedure Purifying Media/Liquid No of Repetation Ref1 Nirvapa Shasha Rudhira 3 times RRS2 Nirvapa Triphala Kwath 7 times RRS3 Apply Lavana and Samudra lavana & Nil RRS Nirvapa in Kwatha Triphala Kwath4 Pachana Triphala Kwath Prepared 5 times RRS in Gomutra5 Nirvapa Chinchapatra Swarsa 7 times RRS kwath6 Nirvapa Triphala kwath &Gomutra 7 times RT both in equal quantityMARANA:qÉÉUrÉiÉå lÉzrÉiÉå pÉxqÉÏ¢üÏrÉiÉå CÌiÉ | Marana means “ Killing” and converting a metal into non reversible and finalform i.e., bhasma.DEFINITION: The Process by which metal, minerals or any hard substances aresubjected to soaking, drying and ignition to convert into bhasma is known as Marana.This Marana process converts metals into fine state of smaller molecules and makesthem so light as to be highly absorbable and assimilated after oral administration. 20 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  36. 36. Drug Review1) Marana is process by which metal looses its original state (Metallic) still retains its originality (Medicinal value) i.e. Dhatutwa2) By Marana process drug is converted into a biologically acceptable from.This Process consists of two stages.1) Bhavana : Mardana with some drava dravya for a specific period.2) Putapaka: Subjecting the drug for agnikarma at different temperature.MARANA OF KANTALOHA19: As the Kantaloha is a hard metal, By the process of Shodhana in triphalakwath it becomes brittle then it can be easily converted to Churna and then to Bhasmaform by means of Gajaputa. Take 1part of Triphala, 8 part of Goomutra. Then prepare the triphala kwathin gomutra . This prepared kwath is kept in metal vessel and 5 phala of loha has to beadded in this kwath and kept for pachana karma. During pachana the solution has tobe stirred constantly with the help of loha shalaka. This proces is continued till all thekwath evaporates and only the loha pieces remains in the vessel. The process has tobe repeated for 5 times. Each time fresh triphala kwath prepared in gomutra has to beused. Then the loha churna made into chakrika with triphala kwath or Amalakiswarasa. Then it is dried and subjected to Gajaputa for 4 times. By this puta lohabecomes varitara bhasma .Marana mainly consists of following steps1. Pachana and Bhavana.2. Formation of Chakritas ( Pellets)3. Arranging the Chakrikas in Sharava4. Sealing of Sharava (Sandhi bhandhana) . 21 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  37. 37. Drug Review5. Puta (Heating)A- PACHANA AND BHAVANA: - Shodhita loha is mixed with triphala kwathprepared in gomootra, and is boiled until kwath evaporates. While boilling thesolution is stirred constantly with metal rod. This process is repeated for 5 times.Then the Loha Churna is mixed with triphala or amalaki swararsa and triturated wellin Khalwa yantra till the solution becomes semisolid. So that it can be made intoChakrikas.B- FORMATION OF CHAKRIKAS: When the mass becomes semisolid state, it ismade into chakrikas of uniform size, shape and thickness then dried in shadow.C - ARRANGING CHAKRIKA IN SHARAVA: Dried chakrikas are kept in earthen sharava and another sharava of same sizeis placed in inverted form over the first sharava.D- SEALING THE SHARAVA: The gap between two sharava to be sealed by means of cloth smeared withmud or multanimitti for seven times and dried. This sealing is done to avoid theentry of air and loss of material, now this apparatus is called as sharava sampata.E- PUTAM: The dried sharava samputa is to be kept in a pit filled with layers of cowdungcakes (Vanotphala). More cowdung cakes are placed at the sides, bottom and overthe samputa then it is subjected to heat. The size of the pit and number of cowdungcakes depends upon the substances selected for puta. Generally Gajaputa for 5 timesis advised for Loha. 22 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  38. 38. Drug Review After the first puta chakrikas are removed out and subjected to mardana withtripha kwath prepared in Gomutra. And once again chakrikas are made and dried inshadow. Then chakrikas are sealed in sharava samputa and subjected to puta. Various methods of marana have been explained in classics which are listedbelow.VARIOUS PROCEDURES OF LOHA MARANA VIDHI1) Make triphala kwata in gomootra. Loha patra made bhavana in that triphala kwata for 3 saptaha, then, Mardana for 1 day. Make chakrikas and dry under shadow. Then these chakrikas should be kept in sharava and sandhi bhandhana must be done. Then give puta. This process has to be repeated for 21 times. Every time fresh triphala kwatha has to be prepared in gomootra20.2) Shodhita Kanta-loha and 4 part of Parada Bhasama (rasa sindhura) has to be mixed and limbu adi amla varga dravya’s swaras has to be added and Mardana is done. Take shodhita kantaloha, add swarna makshika, Gandhaka,and Parada bhasama (rasa sindhur). Then bhavana has to be done in nimbu swarasa, later give gaja-puta. After getting the bashma, add sajji kshar, yava kshara,and tankan kshara. Then give bhavana with blood of the rabbit. Again give Gaja puta. By this process Kanta-loha becomes Bhasma21.3) Take Shudha Parada 1 part, Shudha Gandhaka 2 part. Make Kajjali,then add equal quantity of loha patra, and then give mardana in grutkumari swarmasa later make into pinda swaroopa. Keep it in the vessel made up of copper. Heat the vessel and later vessel has to be kept in Dhanya Rashi. After 3 days take out the sthoola churna and make it to powder by pounding in the khalwa yanta, filter to get fine powder of Bhasma22. 23 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  39. 39. Drug Review4) In Rasendra sara sangraha loha marana is done by 3 processesa) Bhanupaka23b) Sthalipaka24c) Putpaka25 a) Bhanupaka - Loha is made into patra, then it is to be washed with water or tirphala kwatha, again and again. Then triphala kwatha must be added to loha churna and kept for drying under sunlight for three days. This method is called as Bhanupaka b) Sthalipaka : After Bhanupaka, Sthanlipaka has to be done. For this triphala kwatha is prepared and loha churna is added. Later kwata is boiled again, until it is evaporated completely leaving loha churna only. Instead of kwatha, swarasa of other drugs also used accoridng to diseases. c) Putpaka Vidhi: The chakrikas of loha churna which are prepared in triphalidi ganoushada kwatha or swarasa, are kept in sharava samputa and puta has to be given for 5, 10, 100 times or else unless the loha bhasma is formed completely. This process is called putapaka vidhi. It has to be done after Sthalipaka. 5) Shodhita loha churna is made to mardana with nimbu swarasa in kalwa. Later chakrikas are made and dried,. Then Chakrikas are kept is sharava samputa. It is subjected for Gajaputa. This porcess is repeated for fifty times. And red lotus colour loha-bhasma. is formed26. 6) Kantaloha churna is subjected to mardana with Amalakiswarasa in Khalwa yantra. Later chakrikas are made and kept in Sharava samputa This should be subjected for gajaputa. This prcess is repeated for 100 times. And Kantaloha Bhasma is formed27. 24 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  40. 40. Drug ReviewTESTS OF BHASMA:In Rasashastra some tests have been specified to confirm the standards of preparedKantalohabhasma. The tests are divided into –1 Test for Physical nature 2. Test for Chemical nature Varitaratwa * Niruttha Unamatwa * Apunarbhava Rekha Poornatwa * Gata Rasatwa Anjana Sadrasha sukshmatwa * Vishesha varnotpatti. Mrudutwa & ShlakshnatwaTEST FOR PHYSICAL NATURE28 :These indicates fineness and other physical properties of bhasma1) Varitara:- Accoridng to this test, a properly prepared Kantalohabhasma when sprinkled over water in a beaker, it floats on the surface and does not sink., it is known as Varitara. By means of puta, the practical of bhasma become light and attain a state of fine consistency and they can not break the surface tension of water as it happens normally.2) Unamatwa:- This test is similar to the test of Varitaratwa with little modification after testing the Varitaratwa of bhasma, small foods grains are directly placed over the layer of bhasma, which is floating over the water. If food grains don’t sink and continue to float, then the bhasma is supposed to the quality of Unmatwa. This is an advanced test of Varitaratwa and denotes more Laghuthwa.3) Rekha Poornatwa: This is an another test which indicates the fineness of bhasma. Here the bhasma when held in between the thumb and index fingers and rubbed, if bhasma enters the furrows of fingers, the test known as 25 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  41. 41. Drug Review Rekhapoornatwa. This indicates that the particles of bhasma have attained fine state that they could be easily absorbed into the system when administered.4) Anjana sadrusha sukshmatwa:- Little amount of bhasma is used in eyes in anjana, if bhasma causes irritation to the eye then bhasma should be further subjected to some more putas. This test shown whether all particles of bhasma have reached the required state of fineness.5) Mrudutwa and Sookshmatwa:- Physical properties of bhasma should be Mrudu & sookshma to touch. This is due to the fineness of bhasma particles and bhasma does not prove positive, this indicates the bhasma needs more putas.TEST FOR CHEMICAL NATURE29: These are some tests for bhasmas in which chemical action & reaction areexpected. Here Niruthathwa and Apunarbhavatwa are important tests. Both thesetests indicates the non-attainment of original form of the metal.1. Apunarbhavata:- If marita bhasma is mixed with mitra panchaka dravyas (Ghrita, Madhu Guggula, Gunja & Tankana) enclosed in sharava samputa and heated at the temperature same as while preparing bhasma. If this process do not yield original metal then bhasma is considered to be Apunarbhavatwa.2. Niruthathwa:- In this test, specified quantity of pure silver and kanta-loha bhasma is placed in a crucible and subjected to agni karma. If bhasma is apakwa. Then free particles get deposited and silver weight increases. If bhasma is pakwa their will be no change in weight of the silver3. Nishandratwa:- Chandrika is the natural luster of a metal, absence of luster indicates conversion of metal into bhasma form. For this test small quantity of Kanta-loha bhasma is taken in between index and thumb finger rubbed vigorously 26 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  42. 42. Drug Review and exposed to sunlight and viewed very carefully for presence of metallic luster, indicates apakwatha of bhasma, so needs more puta.4. Gatarastwa:- After completion of marana process, generally the bhasma will be tasteless. This is to be tested by tounge, if taste is present indicates apakwata of bhasma.5. Vishishta varnotpatti:- Means the attainment of an appropriate colour. In the contest of preparation Kantalohabhasma the attainment of colour is Pakwajambu phala varna.Characteristics of incinerated Loha: Properly incinerated loha should be rooksha, guru and sheeta. Bad effects ofimproperly prepared loha Bhasma- unpurified and not properly incinerated lohabhasma if taken internally causes the following complications and also shortens thelongevity.Jeevahari, shoolaroga, Kushta, Kantihani, Balahani, varnahani etc.,Ashuddha Loha dosha : Consumption of Ashodhita loha causes Napumsakatwa,Kushta, Hridroga, Shoola and even death.Ayurveda prakashkara explained seven doshas of loha viz, Guruta, Drudata, Utkleda,Glani, Daha, Ashmari, Durganda. (AP 3/223-224)Antidote of impurified Bhasma30:1) Agastya patraswarasa mardita vidang churna and Agastyapatra swarasa and later aatapa sevana.2) Virechana karma with Aragwada majja for a loha kitta shantarth.Matra of Loha Bhasma31 - 1/4th –2 ratti (32 mg to 250 mg) 27 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  43. 43. Drug ReviewAnupana32,33 Triphala and Madhu or, Trikatu, Madhu, Gruta.Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka and Prabhava these are the five basic parameters toevaluate the pharmacological action of drug.Table No. 2 Shows the Pharmacological properties of loha according to variousauthorities:Name of Katu Tikta Kashaya Ushna Sheeta Laghu Ruksha SaraClassicsR.T + + +R.R.S + +R.J.N + + +R.K + + +R.P.S + +A.P + + + + +R.A + + +R.Ch + +R.S.S + + +B.R.R.S + + +M.M + +D.N + + +R.N + + + +K.N + + + 28 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  44. 44. Drug ReviewBy observing the above table loha bhasma is having the following properties.Rasa- Tikta, Kashaya Guna- Rooksha, Guru,Veerya- sheeta Vipaka- Madhura.ACTION OF –KANTALOHA BHASMA ON DOSHAS34,35 According to Vaghbhata “ Doshatrayonmoolanam” means Tridoshanaashaka.Rasataranginikara ----- ShleshmapittanashakaAyurveda Prakashakaara ----- Shleshma pitta nashaka, vaatajanakaRasataranginikara ----- Loha Bhasma makes the immediate shamana of Shakha and Koshta ashrita malaroopa vrudda pitta.ACTION OF DHATU AND UPADHATU36,37Rasa Dhatu - Kantikaraka, dahaprashamana, varnya.Rakta dhatu -Ranjaka, Raktavardhaka.Mamsa dhatu -VriddikaraMedha dhatu -MedhaharaAsti dhatu -Balakara.Shukra dhatu -Shukra vardhakaAartava - Aarta Vikaranashaka.ACTIONS ON SROTAS38,39 :1. Pranavaha srotas - Kasa, swasa,2. Annavaha srotas - Deepana, Pachana.3. Raktavaha srotas - Ranjaka, Raktavardhaka.4. Mootravaha srotas - Mootra sangrahakara.5 Prajanana - Vrushya, Aartava Vikara nashaka. 29 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  45. 45. Drug Review6. Manoraha srotus - Medhya.7 Jnyanendriya - Chakshushya8 Swedavaha srotas - Swedahara.Table No. 3 Indications Of Loha Bhasma On Various Diseases.Diseases R. A.P R.S R.P. R. R. R.R. R.J. B.R.B M. T .S S Ch M S N .S NPrameha + + + + + + + +Panduroga + + + + + + + + +Medovikara + + + +Netraroga + + + + +Twakroga + + + +Budhivikara + + +Kshaya roga + + + + + + + +Gulma + + +Pleeharoga + + + + + + +Yakrut vikara + + + + +Kasa + + + +Shwasa + + + + +Hrudayaroga + +Kaamala + + + + +Haleemaka + + +Raktavikara + + + +Peenasa + 30 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  46. 46. Drug ReviewShota + + + + +Krimiroga + + + + + + +Manovikara + + +Vruk shotha + +Bhagandara + + +Shoola roga + + + + + +Arsha + + + + + +Kushtaroga + + + +ANUPANA OF LOHA IN VARIOUS DISEASES40Below said anupana has to be given with loha Bhasma.1) In Raktapitta : Along with Chaturjata & mishri churna.2) In Panchavidha Kasa : AlongwithVasa, Draksha, Pippalichurna.3) In shwasavega : Along with Bhangi, Shunti, maricha churna.4) In Shleshmaroga : Along with Kajjali, Pippali, Madhu.5) In Vaata roga : Along with Shunti churna.6) In Pitta Roga : Along with Rasa sindura and Mishri.7) In Vrushya, varnya prayogartha : Rasasindhura kept in Tambula bida.8) In Vali, Palita : Along with Triphala for 1 year.9) In Shoola roga : Along with Hingu, Trikatu, Gruta..10) In Raktapitta and Amlapitta : Along with Amalaki, Pippali, and Mishrichurna. 31 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  47. 47. Drug Review11) In Daruna Mootrakruchra : Along with Naveena Kusha, Kasha, Shilajitukwath or Gokshura+ Ilaichi churna.12)In Vardhakyajanya krushata : Along with Punaruava churna+ godugdha upto 3 months13)In Savangavata, Ekangavata : Along with Katukikashaya bhavita rasasindhura+ lohabhasma upto 2 months.14) In Chirakalina Pandu, Kamala : Along with Gruta, Madhu or Haridra swarasa or Katuki, Haritaki.15) In Youvanotpaadanartha : Along with Gandhaka, Gogruta, madhu + Triphalakashaya up to 1 year.16) Kustadi twak roga : Along with Khadirasara and vijayasara bhavita lohabhasma17) Vayasthapanartha : Along with Amalaki swarasa marita Kantalohabhasma + Triphala churna up to 1 year.SOME IMPORTANT YOGAS OF LOHA BHASMA41,42:Lohaguggulu Dhatri lohaLohadiguggulu Navayasa LohaSaptamruta loha Mrutyanjaya LohaLohaparpati Loha ParpatiAgnikumara rasa Varunadya lohaKanchanabra rasa Vatakantaka rasaPradarantraka loha Laghwananda rasa 32 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  48. 48. Drug ReviewKshyakesari rasa Chintamani rasaChandraprabha vati Chandramruta rasaDESCRIPTION OF DRUGS USED FOR SHODHANA, MARANA ANDANUPANA DRAVYATila Taila Haritaki ShuntiTakra Bibhitaki MarichaGomootra Amalaki PippaliKanji GodugdahKulattha Gogrutha1. TILA TAILA43 CwÉiMüwÉÉrÉÉå qÉkÉÑUÈ xÉÌiÉ£üÈ xÉÉÇaÉUÉÌWûMü ÌmɨÉMü UxiÉjÉÉåwhÉÈ | ÌiÉsÉÉå ÌuÉmÉÉMåü qÉkÉÑUÉå ÌoÉÍsɹÒÈ ÎxlÉakÉÉå uÉ×hÉÉsÉåmÉlÉLuÉmÉjrÉÈ | SlrÉjÉÉåAÎalÉqÉåbÉÉeÉlÉlÉÉåAsmÉqÉѧÉxiuÉcrÉÉåAjÉMåüzrÉÉåAÌlÉsÉWûÉaÉÑ妃 | FiÉsÉåwÉÑ xÉuÉïwuÉÍxÉiÉÈ mÉëkÉÉlÉÉå qÉkrÉÈ ÍxÉiÉÉåWûÏlÉiÉUxiÉjÉÉlrÉå ||Synonyms: Tila, Sneha.Karma: Snehan, varnya, keshyaPharmacological properties: Rasa : - Madhura, Tikta, Kashaya Guna : - Ushna, Teekshna, Sukshma, Vishada, Vyavayi Vipaka : - Madhura, Veerya : - Ushna Doshakarma: - Kapha vata shamaka Karma : - Vrishya, Amapachaka 33 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  49. 49. Drug ReviewChemical composition: Moisture -- 40.1% to 6.5% Fat -- 43.0% to 56.8% Protein -- 16.6% to 26.4% Fibres -- 2.6% to 8.6% Carbohydrate -- 6.1% to 25.2% Mineral dravya -- 4.1% to 7.4% Calcium -- 1.06% to 1.45% Phosphorus -- 0.47% to 0.64%, it also consist of vitamin A, B and C.Doshangnata: Vata shamana and kapha pitta vardhaka.Therapeutic Use: Pakshaghata, Ardita, Shwasa, Hikka, the oil is used in all vatadiseases.Dose: Taila – 10ml to 20mlVishista Yoga: Tiladi Gudeka, Tiladilepa, Tilastaka.2.TAKRA44 iÉ¢Çü sÉkÉÑ MüwÉÉrÉÇsÉÇ SÏmÉlÉÇ MüTüuÉÉiÉÎeÉiÉ | zÉÉåTüÉåSUzÉæaUWûÍhÉ SÉåwÉ qÉÔ§ÉaUWûÉÂÍcÉ || aÉÑsqÉmsÉÏWû b¾ÒûiÉurÉÉmÉSaÉU mÉÉhQÒûuÉÉqÉrÉÉlÉç eÉrÉåiÉç | Takra is light, astringent, hot, & digestive stimulent, it allevates Kapha vata.It cures shotha, udara, grahini, arsha, mootragraha, aruchi, gulma, pleeha, and ghritavyapat & pandu roga. According to sushruta, Takra has madhura & amla rasa. 34 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  50. 50. Drug Review3. GOMOOTRA45 aÉÉåqÉÔ§ÉÇ sÉkÉÑ iÉϤhÉÉåwhÉÇ xɤÉÉUiuÉÉiÉ uÉÉiÉsÉÇ | sÉkuÉÉÎalÉSÏmÉlÉÇ qÉåkrÉ ÌmɨÉsÉÇ MüÄTüuÉÉiÉÎeÉiÉç || It is laghu, teekshna, ushna & alkaline, therefore it does not aggrevates vata. Itis stimulent, promoter of intellect, aggrevator of pitta & allivator of kapha & vata. Itis also used in purgation therapy & asthapana therapy. According to Indian maetriamedica Gomootra contains ammonia inconcentrated form it is used in both internal & external medication.It also has alaxative & purgative nature so it is used in various medicinal preparations likePunarnava mandoora, Marichyadi taila.It is a good bio-availability enhancing drug.4.KAANJI46,47 Liqour prepared with the manda of half boiled kulmash dhanya is Kaanji. MüÉÎleÉMÇü pÉåÌS iÉÏwhÉÉåwhÉÇ UÉãcÉlÉÇ mÉÉcÉlÉÇ sÉbÉÑ || SÉWûeuÉUWûUÇ xmÉzÉïimÉÉlÉɲiÉ MüTüÉmÉWûqÉç | It is purgative, teekshna, ushna, appetizer, carminative & light.When appliedexternally it cures daha & fever.When taken internally it allivates vata & kapha61.5.KULATHTHA48 EwhÉÈ MÑüsÉirÉÉå UxÉiÉÈ MüwÉÉrÉÈ MüOÒûÌuÉmÉÉMåü MüÄTüqÉÉÂiÉklÉÈ | zÉÑ¢üzqÉËU aÉÑsqÉ ÌlÉzÉSlÉ¶É xÉÇaUÉWûMüÈ mÉÏlÉxÉMüÉxÉWûÉËU || xÉÑ.xÉÑ. 46/97 The decoction prepared out of horse gram is ushna, kashaya in rasa, katuvipaka , it allivates kapha & vata .It cures shukrashmari, gullma, sangrahani, pinasaand kasa. 35 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  51. 51. Drug Review6.GODUGDA49,50Pharmaco dynamics: Rasa – Madhura, Guna – Snigda Veerya – SheetaVipaka - Madhura.Dosha karma – Vata pitta shamakaKarma – Bramhana, Vrishya, Madhya, Balavardhaka, Jeevaniya &AsthisandhanakaraRogaghnata – Pandu, Rakta pitta, Yoni roga, Shukra dosha, Mootra roga, Pradararoga etc & it is pathya in vata pittaja vikara Cows milk promotes long life it is reguvinator good for those emaciated afterinjury, increases intelligence, strength & breast milk. It cures shrama, kasa, thrishna,jeerna jwara, mootra krichra & rakta pitta.7. GOGRUTHA51Synonyms: Grutha, sarpi, ajya,Nomenclature: Sanskruth – grutha, English ghee, Kannada tuppa,Pharmaco dynamics:Rasa – Madhura, Guna – SnigdaVirya – Shita Vipaka - Madhura.Action of cow’s ghee on different body system:Dosha : Vatapitta nashakaNadivaha samsthana : Medhya, InsanityPachana samsthana : snehana, agnideepaka, anahaSwasana samsthana : RajaksmaRaktawaha samsthana: VisarpaMutravaha samsthana: Motral 36 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  52. 52. Drug ReviewPrajanana samsthana : Sukra jananaRogagnata - jwara, Visarpa, Rajakshma.8. HARITAKI52Botanical Name : Terminalia Clebula Retz.Family : CombretaceaeVeranacular NamesHindi : HaradEnglish : Chebulic MyrobalanTelegu : KarrikkayaTamil : KadukkaiSynonyms : Amruta, Abhaya, Kayastha, Vayastha, Pathya,Classical Categorization : Vijaya, sivaCharaka : Jwaraghna, Arshoghna Kasaghna, Kushtagna, PrajasthapanaSusruta : Amalakyadi, Parusakadi, TriphalaVagbhata : ParushyakadiPropertiesRasa : Pancharasa (experct Lavana), Kashaya mainlyGuna : Laghu, RukshaVirya : UshnaVipaka : MadhuraKarma : Tridoshahara, Anulomana, Rasayana, Prajasthapana, Chakhusya, LekhanaMajor chemical constitueints Fruits : Vit C, Tunnic acid, anthraguinole glycoside. 37 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  53. 53. Drug ReviewIndication : Sotha, Prameha, Kushta, Vrana, Chardi, Vatarakta, Mutrakruchra, Netra roga, Hridroga, Klaibya, Kasa, shwas etc.Part used : Fruit rind.9. VIBHITAKI53Botanical Name : Terminalia beltrrica RoxbFamily : CombrataceaeVernacular NamesHindi : BahedEnglish : Belliric myrobalanTelugu : TanikayaTamil : AkkamSynonyms : Aksaphala, Kalidruma, KarshaphalaClassical categorizationCharaka : Javrahara, Kasahara, VirechanopagaSushruta : Mustadi, TriphalaVaghbhata : MustadiMajor Chemical constituentsFruits : Fructose, Galactose, Glucose, Mannitol, Rhamnose, beta Sitosterol.Seed : Edible OilSeed coat : Gallic acidBark and Heart wood : Chebulagic acid, ellagic acid 38 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  54. 54. Drug ReviewPropertiesRasa : KashayaGuna : RukshaVirya : UshnaVipaka : MadhuraKarma : Kapha, Pittahara, Kasya cakshusya, MadakariIndications : Jwara, Kasa, Shwasa, Atisara, Ashmari, ChardiParts used : Fruit rind, Seed, Seed kernal.10. AMALAKI54Botanical Name : Emblica officinalis GaertnFamily : EuphorbiaceaeVernicular NamesHindi : AmlaEnglish : Indian goose berryTelugu : Ushiri kayaTamil : NellikkaiKannada : NeelikaiSynonyms : Abhaya, Amruta, Dhatri, Vayastha, Vrushya etcClassical categorizationCharaka : Jwaragna, Kasagna, Virechanopaga, Kushtagna, Vayasthapana.Vaghbhata : ParushakadiMajor chemical constituentsRoot : Ellagic acid, Lupenol, oelandic aldchyde 39 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  55. 55. Drug ReviewBark : Leuloelphinidin, Procyanidin, Tannic etc.Fruit : Vit-C, Phyllemblin, Linolic acid, Indolea cetic acid ellagic acid, Phyllemblic acid & salts.PropertiesRasa : Amla pradhana, Pacha rasa (Except Lavana)Virya : SheetaVipaka : MadhuraKarma : Tridoshahara, Vayasthapana, Rasayana Chakshushya, Vrushya.Indications : Prameha, Raktapitta, Netra roga, Kushta, Arshya, Shula, Pradara etc.Part used : Fruit Pulp / Fruit rind.11. SHUNTI 55 It is mentioned in all the Brahatrayees for therapeutic usage.Botinical Name: Zingiber officinale.Family : Scitaminae.VERNACULAR NAMES: Hindi : Sonth. Telugu : Sunthi. English : Ginger. Tamil : Chukku.Classical Categorization:Caraka : Trptighna, Arsoghna, Dipaniya, Sulaparasamana, Trsnanigrahana.Sushruta : Pippalyadi, Trikatu.Vagbhata : Pippalyadi. 40 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  56. 56. Drug ReviewBotanical Description : An erect perennial herb with aromatic rhizome.Stem : Erect, leafy, 15-150cm tall.Leaves : Subsessile, Linear, acuminate, glabrous, 10-30 cm long.Flowers : Shoot upto 12cm long,Distribution : Cultivated almost throughout India.Major Chemical constituents: Curcumene, D-curcumene, Bourbornene, d-borneal, citral, d-camphene,citronellol, geraniol, gingerols, paradol, gingerenone A, ginger glycolipid A,B & C,gingerdiol; ginger, one B&C.Properties56 Rasa : Katu. Guna : Snigdha. Virya : Usna. Vipaka : Madhura. Karma : Vata kaphahara, Deepana, Hridya, Rochana, Vrishya.12. PIPPALI57 It is mentioned in all the Brahatrayees for medicinal purpose.Botanical Name : Piper longum linn.Family : Piperaceae.VERNACULAR NAMESHindi : Pipala. Marathi : Pipali.English : Long pepper. Bengali : Pipal.Telugu : Pippallu. Malayalam : Tippali.Tamil : Tippili. Punjabi : Maghaun. 41 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  57. 57. Drug ReviewClassical categorizationCaraka : Dipaniya, kanthya, Asthapanopaga, sirovirecanopaga, sitaprasamana, sulaprasamana, kasahara, Hikkanigrahana, Truptighna, Vamana.Sushruta : Pippalyadi, Urdhvabhagahara, Tryusana, Amalakyadi, Sirovirecana.Vagbhata : Pippalyadi.Botanical Description: An aromatic slender climber.Stems : Creeping, jointed, attached to other plants while climbing.Leaves : 5-9cm 3-5cm. subacute, entire glabrous, cordate at the base.Flowers : In pendulate spikes, straight, male larger and slender.Fruits : Yellowish orange, aboid, sunk in fleshy spike.Major chemical constituentsEssential oil, piperine, piplartine, piperlongumine, piperlonguminine, pipernonaline,piperundicoildine, etc.Properties58Rasa : Katu. Doshaghanta : Kaphavata shamaka.Virya : Usna. Karma : Vrishya.13. MARICHA59 It is mentioned in all the Brahatrayees for medicinal purpose.Botionical Name : Piper nigrum.Family : Piperaceae.VERNACULAR NAMES Hindi :Kali mirchih Tamil : Milagu T English : Black pepper Marathi : Mirin Bengali : Golmarich Gujarathi : Kalamari 42 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  58. 58. Drug Review Malayalam : Nalla Muluku Kannada : KaremenesuClassical Cetegorization :Charaka : Dipaniya, Sula prasamana, Krimighna, Sirovirecanopaga.Sushruta : Pippalyadi, Tryusana.Vagbhata : Pippalyadi.Botonical Description : Branching & climbing perennial shrub branches stout,trailing and rooting at the nodes.Leaves: Entire 12.5 – 17.5cm 5.0 – 12.5 cm glaucous beneath, base acute cordate.Flowers: Minute, borne in spikes, usually, Dioecious but the female often bearsanthers and the male a pistllode.Fruits: Globose or avoid, bright red when ripe.Seeds: Globose.Major chemical constituents Piperene, piperethine, piperoein A&B, feruperine, dihydroferuperine,citronellol, cryptone, di hydrocarbeol, pinene, pipernol, camphene, caryophyllene,alanine, pipecolic acid, carotene, ascorbic acid pipercide etc.Properties Rasa : Katu. Virya : Usna. Guna : Laghu, Tikshna. Vipaka : Katu.Karma60: Vrysha, Rochaka, Deepana, Chedana, Kapha Vatashara. 43 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  59. 59. Drug Review CONCEPT OF IRON IN MODERN VIEWHistory61: Metallic iron was known in pre-dynastic Egypt (before 3400 B.C) but wasexceedingly scarce and used only as beads for jewellery (Flinders Petrie). It mayhave been obtained from meteoric iron since it contains nickel. Iron of this earlyperiod is also known for Mesopotamia, some possibly terrestrial. The metal cameinto general use in Egypt only much later (about 1500 B.C). The use of iron seems tohave spread from the Hittites in Asia Minor. It was much used by the Assyrians about600 B.C. In the Mycenaean (Pre-classical Greek) period described by Hormer, ironwas still a rare metal-a lump of iron is the prize given to Achilles, but the Greeksbrought with them the use of iron. The Etruscans worked the mines of Elba, latertaken over by the Romans who also worked the mines of Spain and Noricum. Ironwas known to Indians since 900 B.C. or earlier, in China from about 500 B.C. ( Castiron from about A.D.200)Occurrence62: Iron does not occur to any great extent in the free state on the earth,although meteorites, which sometimes consist of metallic iron with from 3 to 30 percent of nickel and some occluded hydrogen, indicate that it must be present in thesolar system. Meteorites may also consist partly or principally of silicates (e.g., olivine) andof glassy minerals (moldavite), although grains of metallic iron are usually presenteven in stony varieties. On account of the presence of nickel, meteoric iron does noteasily rust in moist air. Cobalt, graphite (some times small diamonds), ferroussulphide. Schreibersite (Fe, Ni, Co)3 P and cohenite(Fe, Co, Ni)3 C, not known to existon the earth, also occur in meteorites, Meteoric dust consisting chiefly iron is 44 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”
  60. 60. Drug Reviewconstantly falling on the earth from space, although its presence is noticed only on thesurface of the otherwise unsullied snows of the polar regions. Large masses of native iron, which may be meteoric or have been formed bythe reduction of ores in burning coal- mines, occur in Disko Island, West Greenland,and grains of iron in basalt rocks at Giant’s Causeway and elsewhere. The inner coreof the earth has been supposed to be largely metallic iron. Iron compounds occur inthe soil, in green plants, and in hemoglobin(0-336 per cent Fe) the red colouring matter of blood. Iron ores are plenty but few in number, although iron occur in nearly everymineral. The most important ores are the oxides. Ferrroso ferric Fe3 O4 Occurs as theimportant or magnetic (so-called because certain varieties, Iodestone, are permanentlymagnetic) : this is not found to any extent in the British Isles but occurs in Lapland,Sweden, Siberia (Urals), Germany, India ( Madras) and North America. It contains74.4 percent of Iron and is the richest ore. Ferric oxide Fe2 O3 occurs as haematite,sometime crystalline and red, or if black giving a red streak on unglazed porcelain. Italso occurs in earthy, granular and nodular forms, and is found in England in theFurness district in Lancashire and near Whitehaven, in Belgium, Westphalia, Sweden,the Island of Elba, south of Lake Superior and near St. Louis (Missouri) Hydratedferric oxide, limonite, occurs in kidney-shaped masses in South Wales, the Forest ofDean, France, Germany. Bilbao in Spain, and Canada. The bog iron ores arehydrated ferric oxides, and occur in large quantities in Ireland, Sweden, and NorthGermany. The only remaining important ore is ferrous carbonate FeCO3, occurringalone as siderite, chalybite, or spathic iron ore, in the Alps and in Hungary, or mixedwith clay as clay-ironstone, or with clay and coal as blackband-ironstone. The 45 “The Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Kantaloha Bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity- An Experimental Study”