JOURNAL OF 
INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE 
QUARTERLY PEER REVIEWED INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON RESEARCH IN AYURVEDA 
January – Ma...
January – March, 2014 Volume 2, Number 1 ISSN - 2320 - 4419 
Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-...
Journal of Indian system of Medicine 
(A Quarterly Peer Reviewed International Journal of 
Research in Ayurveda) is public...
JOURNAL OF INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE 
QUARTERLY Peer reviewed International Journal on research in Ayurveda 
PATRONS 
Hon....
Madhavi Mahajan, MS 
Rao SR, Telangana 
Kishore Kumar R, Karnataka 
Srinivasulu M, Telangana 
Morandi, Italy 
Jaiswal SK, ...
JOURNAL OF INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE 
Official publication of the 
Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved college Hospital & Research Cent...
Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-March, 2014
Editor's Note 
Remodeling the pillars of Ayurveda 
SRP Kethamakka 
Journal of Indian 
System of Medicine 
Head, Panchakarm...
SRP Kethamakka, Editor's Note, Remodeling the pillars of Ayurveda, J-ISM V2-N1, pp 1-2 
efficiency. 
5. Equitability 
—pro...
Guest Editorial 
Concept of Heart Disease in Ayurveda 
O P Gupta 
Journal of Indian 
System of Medicine 
Emeritus Professo...
Gupta O P: Concept of Heart Disease in Ayurveda, pp 3-5 
unknown cause, due to bad deeds of previous lives 
How are affect...
Gupta O P: Concept of Heart Disease in Ayurveda, pp 3-5 
increased Vata 
in the blood vessels, which make them 
hard, thin...
Cover Story 
ReviewArticle 
Jayanti Veda (Tridax procumbens) - 
Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda 
SRP Kethamakka , Me...
SRP Kethamakka , Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda,pp-6-22 1 
plant is na...
SRP Kethamakka , Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda,pp-6-22 1 
produce sus...
SRP Kethamakka , Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda,pp-6-22 1 
medicine is...
SRP Kethamakka , Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda,pp-6-22 1 
115, 116, 1...
SRP Kethamakka , Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda,pp-6-22 1 
cells by fr...
SRP Kethamakka , Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda,pp-6-22 1 
the isolate...
SRP Kethamakka , Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda,pp-6-22 1 
Discussion:...
SRP Kethamakka , Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda,pp-6-22 1 
Pharma Rese...
SRP Kethamakka , Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda,pp-6-22 1 
[34] ibid.3...
SRP Kethamakka , Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda,pp-6-22 1 
HS. Evaluat...
SRP Kethamakka , Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda,pp-6-22 1 
animals. Jo...
SRP Kethamakka , Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda,pp-6-22 1 
[95] R.B. M...
SRP Kethamakka , Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda,pp-6-22 1 
Acalypha wi...
SRP Kethamakka , Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda,pp-6-22 1 
isolates of...
SRP Kethamakka , Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda,pp-6-22 1 
experimenta...
SRP Kethamakka , Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda,pp-6-22 1 
mechanism o...
ReviewArticle 
Management of Geriatric Eye disorders 
with Ayurvedic Measures 
Hande Minal 
Journal of Indian 
System of M...
Hande Minal, Geriatric Eye disorders with Ayurvedic Measures, J-ISM V2-N1, pp 23-28 
(before 40 years), Age related macula...
Hande Minal, Geriatric Eye disorders with Ayurvedic Measures, J-ISM V2-N1, pp 23-28 
Ksheerdhara, Netrasekam, Bidalakam et...
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Journal of Indian System of Medicine Volume 2 Issue 1 January- March 2014 printed by Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College, Hospital & Research Centre through Registrar, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, (DU) Nagpur (editorjism@gmail.com)

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J ism-v2n1-jan-march-14

  1. 1. JOURNAL OF INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE QUARTERLY PEER REVIEWED INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON RESEARCH IN AYURVEDA January – March, 2014 Volume 2, Number 1 ISSN - 2320 - 4419 Official Publication of Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College, Hospital & Research Centre Salod (H),Wardha– 442 004, Maharashtra (India) A CONSTITUENT UNIT OF DATTA MEGHE INSTUTUT E OF MEDICAL SCIENCES (DU) Visit for Article online & Download: http://www.slideshare.net/journal-ism/ Tridax procumbens
  2. 2. January – March, 2014 Volume 2, Number 1 ISSN - 2320 - 4419 Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-March, 2014
  3. 3. Journal of Indian system of Medicine (A Quarterly Peer Reviewed International Journal of Research in Ayurveda) is publication of Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College, Hospital & Research Centre, DMIMS (DU) ,Wardha ©All rights are reserved Publication date : March 10 th , 2014 ISSN No. (Print) : ISSN-2320-4419 Printed at : Swami Art & Computers,Wardha Contact Address : The Chief Editor, Editorial Office-J-ISM, MGACH&RC, A constituent college under Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (DU), Wardha 442 004, Maharashtra (India) Phone: 07152202632 Note: The institute / Editorial Board assume no responsibility for the statements expressed by the contributors. The editorial staff in their work of examining papers received for publication is assisted in an honorary capacity by distinguished scholors working in various field and parts of India as adjudicators. Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-March, 2014
  4. 4. JOURNAL OF INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE QUARTERLY Peer reviewed International Journal on research in Ayurveda PATRONS Hon. Shri Datta Meghe Dilip Gode Vice-Chancellor DMIMS-DU Sagar Meghe Treasurer, DMIMS Rajiv Borle Registrar, DMIMS-DU Ravi Meghe, Personnel & Planning, DMIMS Prakash Behere Director, R & D, DMIMS-DU LalitWaghmare Dean Interdiscliplinary Sciences, DMIMS-DU Vedprakash Mishra Chief Advisor, DMIMS-DU Sameer Meghe Secretary, DMIMS S.S.Patel Chief Coordinator, DMIMS Abhuday Meghe O.S.D, DMIMS Shyam Bhutada Dean, MGACHRC Arvind Bhake Chief Editor, JDMIMS ADVISORY BOARD Chief Editor KSR Prasad (technoayurveda) Associate Editors Bharat Chouragade, Srihari S Editorial Advisory Board Kuldeepraj Kohli Chandola H.M. Ram Harsh Singh Ramesh Babu Devalla Nisteshwar K Joshi V.K. Vanita Murlikumar Amitabh Pande Ashutosh Kulkarni Prasanna Rao N Nath S.K. Abhay Gaidhane Zaheer Quazi Date of Release: 10-03-2014 QR Code: Kaywa QR code Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-March, 2014
  5. 5. Madhavi Mahajan, MS Rao SR, Telangana Kishore Kumar R, Karnataka Srinivasulu M, Telangana Morandi, Italy Jaiswal SK, MS Prakhya Sivaramudu , Karnataka Eswara Sarma, M.P, Kerala Manjari Dwivedi, UP Priyanka Gupta, MS Sreedhar Rao, Karnataka Chapadgaonkar S, MS Ila Tanna, MS REVIEWER'S BOARD Giridhar Kanthi, Karnataka Sudhir Kandekar, MS Pradnya Dandekar, MS Priti Desai, MS Khedikar SG Sreedhar Tirunagiri, AP Vidyanath R, AP PHC Murthy, AP Gopi Krishna M., Karnataka Bharat Rathi, MS Prajapati P, Gujarat Venkata N Joshi, London, UK Sastry JLN, New Delhi Paramkusha Rao M, AP Chandrashekhar K, UP P.V.V. Prasad, Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-March, 2014 Kayachikitsa Panchakarma Prasuthi & Streeroga Shalya & Salakya Swamy G.K., AP Saranagpani S, AP Varshney S.C, MS Dhiman KS, Gujarat Kaumarabhrutya V.L.N.Sastry, AP Palekar PP, MS Roga Nidana Pharmacology Manish Deshmukh, MS Rajasekharan. S, Kerala Shaeera Basic Principles Rasashastra & Bhaishajya Dravyaguna & Agadtantra Swasthavritha AP Abhay Patkar, MS Venkateshwarlu G., Karnataka
  6. 6. JOURNAL OF INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE Official publication of the Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved college Hospital & Research Centre A Constituent College of Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (DU) Cover Page : Tridax procumbens flower Editor's Note: Remodeling the pillars of Ayurveda Guest Editorial: Contents 1-2 Concept of Heart Disease in Ayurveda 3-5 Cover story: ( ) -Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda 6-22 Review Article Management of Geriatric Eye disorders with Ayurvedic Measures 23-28 Original Article Preliminary standardization of - prepared by two different methods of extraction 29-34 Pharmaceutical and Analytical Study on 35-38 Applied with special reference to Health Problems of BPO employees 39-42 SRP Kethamakka O P Gupta Jayanti Veda Tridax procumbens SRP Kethamakka, Meena SD Minal Hande Vasavalehya Venkateshwarlu G, ShanthaTR, Kishore KR, Shubhashree MN, R.G.Reddy, Sridhar B.N Panaviraladi Kshara Bharat Rathi Swasthavritta Archana R. Belge Pharmaceutical study of Journal of Indian System of Medicine 43-45 Case Reports Bilateral variation of divisions of the sciatic nerve - a case study Akhil H S, Jithesh C, Pradeep G Akki, Archana Radhakrishnan, Jisha R John 46-49 Short Communications Practical application of 50-52 A unique and holistic concept of Ayurveda to understand human body: “ 53-55 Ashutosh kumar Pathak, Awasthi H.H. Conceptual Study of Chronic Poisoning with Special Reference to 56-58 Book Review Practical Handbook of and by Bharat J. Rathi 59-59 60-60 Rasasindoora Vanmala Bapurao Wakode Giridhar M Kanthi, Ksheeradhuma Belavadi S.N, Prashanth A.S purushoeyam loka samitam” Dooshivisha Laxmikant S. Paymalle Rasashastra Bhaishajya Kalpana Anil Kumar A Announcements Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-March, 2014 I
  7. 7. Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-March, 2014
  8. 8. Editor's Note Remodeling the pillars of Ayurveda SRP Kethamakka Journal of Indian System of Medicine Head, Panchakarma,MGACH&RC,Salod (H),Wardha, (MS), technoayurveda@gmail.com How to cite the article: SRP Kethamakka, Remodeling the pillars of Ayurveda, J-ISM, V2 N1, Jan- Mar 2014, pp.1-2 Is century's old human need serving health profession Ayurveda undergoing rescission at present?Yes! It is. The lack of knowledge of research methodology and clinical practice without following the basic concepts ofAyurveda has lead to decreased growth rate of this Indian system of medicine. The glory of Ayurveda lies in its holistic approach and methodology of metaphysical base scientific attitude. Present day approaches are disposing the predestined Ayurveda methods. Today researcher wishes to express his orientations towards making impression to modern scientific community, but without strengthening theAyurvedic foundations. Ayurveda defined the objectives of life and how to attain it. The concept of health is so wide that it includes altogether the healthy state of mind, soul and body ( ). The triads (3- Satwa, Atma & Shareera ) of life in description include a triad of Sthambha organization and categorization also. At this juncture a doubt arises regarding the Quality of Health Care services in fulfilling the objective of life and concept of health. The definition of Quality Health Care from different resources includes, where low error rate patient safety and patient-centered procedures / outcomes with timely management and evidence-influenced decisions or actions includes making consistent planning and delivery of treatments. Six very similar characteristics or desired outcomes have been identified by both the IOM and the WHO. The WHOsuggests that health care must be: delivering health care that is 1. Effective-improved adherent to an evidence base and results in health outcomes for individuals and communities, based on need; - delivering health care in a manner which maximizes resource use and avoids waste; - delivering health care that is timely, geographically reasonable, and provided in a setting where skills and resources are appropriate to medical need; delivering health care which takes into account the preferences and aspirations of individual service users and the cultures of their communities; delivering health care which does not vary in quality because of personal characteristics such as gender, race, ethnicity, geographical location, or socioeconomic status; delivering health care which minimizes risks and harm to service users. The IOM (Institute of Medicine) lists these six dimensions: —avoid injury to patients from the care that is intended to help them —reduce waits and harmful delays —provide services based on scientific knowledge to all who could benefit and refrain from providing services to those not likely to benefit (avoiding overuse and under use, respectively) — 2. Efficient 3. Accessible 4. Acceptable/patient-centered- 5. Equitable- 6. Safe- 1. Safety 2. Timeliness 3. Effectiveness 4. Efficiency avoid waste to improve Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-March, 2014 1
  9. 9. SRP Kethamakka, Editor's Note, Remodeling the pillars of Ayurveda, J-ISM V2-N1, pp 1-2 efficiency. 5. Equitability —provide care that does not vary in quality because of personal characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, geographical location, and socioeconomic status 6. Patient centeredness —provide care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values Where inAyurveda defines Health as - the state of equilibrium of three Dosha ( Vata, Pitta and Kapha ), tissue materials, digestive fire, proper evacuation of waste materials (feces, urine and sweat), balanced mental state, senses, and soul (spirit). Vata is responsible for locomotion and perceptions, Pitta maintain the body temperature (BMR) and enzymatic reactions and the Kapha is responsible for build and cellular level integrity through fluid maintenance. ISO 9000's (quality management system) definition of quality is “degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirement”. In relation to healthcare, the IOM back in 1998 defines quality as “The degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge”. The day is promising for the Ayurveda, which is based on strong fundamental concepts. Our ancestors have undertaken centuries of observations to record the facts for health up thrust. The chosen base for which is even though strong still needs extra support for remodeling and establishment of the science for present circumstances. There by remodeling the pillars of Ayurveda inevitability. These new supports are - Quality, safety and efficacy. These are to be maintained by all the four quadrants of (Physician, Patient, Attendant, medicine) of Ayurveda for three- . Chikitsa Sthambha is an essential and distinguishing Quality attribute of something or someone. is the state of being certain that Safety adverse effects will not be caused by some agent under defined conditions. is the capacity or power to produce Efficacy a desired effect. The medicines that are produced in mass by mushroomed pharmacies in Ayurveda are unable to establish the claims either because of non-practice of text told vegetation methods or with the problems of procurement. On the other hand non availability of disease combating protocols and fewer skills in Ayurveda foundations are pulling the physician to the bottom line and transformation in to an alternative practitioner. The improvement in quality, safety and efficacy ofAyurveda medicine, Physician skills and attendant nursing staff is the top priority. We have to accept our weakness and thrive for establishing as the best is necessary. It is possible in Ayurveda with new remodeled pillars (Quality, safety and efficacy) support. 2 Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-March, 2014
  10. 10. Guest Editorial Concept of Heart Disease in Ayurveda O P Gupta Journal of Indian System of Medicine Emeritus Professor, Department of Medicine,MGIMS,Sewagram (MS), (opgupta@mgims.ac.in) JISM1340N Received for publication: February 14, 2013;Accepted: September 10, 2013 How to cite the article: Gupta O P, Concept of Heart diseases in Ayurveda, J-ISM, V2 N1, Jan- Mar 2014, pp.3-5 Cardiovascular diseases account for far greater morbidity and mortality all over the world than any other ailment. The Coronary artery disease (CAD) is ranked number one killer, The global burden of disease study reported almost 25% out of total deaths (2.3 million) due to cardiovascular diseases [1]. It is predicted that by 2020 there would be a 111% increase in cardiovascular deaths in India [2]. The cause of this increase is said to the epidemiological transition [3]. Ayurveda is a rich heritage and a vast scientific system. The Ancient scholars like Charaka (1500 BC), Sushruta (300-400 AD) and Vagbhata (500AD) have compiled the art and science of Ayurveda practiced at their times. They were in a position to explain Anatomical, Physiological, Pathological and Emergency medical Care with special reference to conservation of heart. The oldest scripture i.e. Rigveda mentioned the basis of Ayurveda is dependent on the theories of and Triguna, Pancha Mahabhuta, Tridosha, Trimala Sapta Dhatu; pivot on which the science forming the ofAyurveda revolves [4]. is a dynamic or vital force which causes Vata senses to perform their functions, holds together all the elements of the body, assisting adhesion of the particles and is cause of speech, sound and touch perception [10]. Pitta prepares the material to be absorbed and metabolized at macro and micro levels i.e. it manifests itself in different forms viz. chemical activities like digestion and assimilation and it generates the heat. Kapha on the other hand participates in various secretions of the body, be it from mucous membranes and other tissues and preserves their functions [5]. It generates strength of the limbs, growth, courage and vitality [11]. Diseases are classified in Ayurveda as Adventitious Physical Mental and Natural . Agantuk ( ), Sharirika ( ), Manasika ( ) Swabhavik ( ) Diseases due to the derangement of and Vata, Pitta result from improper food and mode of living Kapha which corroborate with modern medicine. The heart diseases in Ayurveda can be classified as following [6]. 1. Adibalapravrutta: Hereditary Cardiovascular Disease 2. Janmabalapravrutta: Congenital Cardiovascular Disease 3. Doshabala pravrutta: Cardiovascular Disease due to vitiation Doshic Vata, Pitta, Kapha, Sannipatika 4. Sanghatabalapravrutta: Cardiovascular Disease due to (a) Trauma (b) Poisoning 5. Kalabalapravrutta: Cardiovascular Disease due to Environmental or seasonal variations 6. Upasargaja: Cardiovascular Disease due to Infectious diseases e.g. Endocarditis, etc 7. Swabhavabalakruta: Cardiovascular Disease due to Natural ageing process 8.Adhyatmika: Psychological factors leading to Cardiovascular Disease like hypertension 9. Daivabalakruta: Cardiovascular Disease due to Idiopathic or Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-March, 2014 3
  11. 11. Gupta O P: Concept of Heart Disease in Ayurveda, pp 3-5 unknown cause, due to bad deeds of previous lives How are affected due to vitiated Dhatus is well described in Ayurveda- The three Tridoshas layer of heart are derived from different - endocardium from Rasa and Rakta , myocardium from Mamsa and pericardium from Meda . Probable diseases of these three layers of heart due to involvement of can be explained based on their Dosha . [Table 1] Dhatus Vikruta Karmas Table 1 : Probable diseases caused by Doshic vitiation The Vitiated in coronary arteries may Vata present as angina pectoris, as inflammation of Pitta and as hardening of arteries due to Kapha atherosclerosis, calcification, plaque formation and obstruction [7]. Hypertension is described in relation to as and variety. In Doshas Vataja, Pittaja Kaphaja hypertension, the blood pressure fluctuates and Vataja rises with nervous tension. Patients may have insomnia and irregularity of pulse. They are prone to get nervous system disorder like encephalopathy, or stroke. The patients with Pittaja hypertension have flushed faces, violent headache, photophobia, irritability, anger and nose bleed, where as those of hypertension are generally obese, have Kaphaja persistent hypertension, edema, high end lipid levels in blood. The imparts movements in and is driving force for electrical activity i.e. Vyanvata Rasa Dhatu impulse generation and transmission from SAnode to Purkinje fibers and to bring about the mechanical activity. The vitiation of Vyanvata may be responsible for tachyarrhythmias / brady-arrhythmias and heart arteritis blocks. Variety of symptoms experienced by the patients have been described in Ayurvedic literature ( ) [6], like stiffness in cardiac region ( ), stabbing pain in cardiac region ( ), heaviness in heart ( Rugviniscaya Hradayayama Hradaya dirana Hradaya Gaurava) , weakness of heart ( Hradaya Kshobha, Hradaya Klama ), Cutting pain in heart Hradayapatna, Hradayasphotna ( ), pericardial discomfort ( Hradaya Pidana, Hradayatoda, , pain and discomfort in Hrdgraha, Hrdruk, Hrdshula heart region ( Hrdadayaruja, Hrdayavyadha, ), feeling emptiness of heart ( ), Hrtpida Hrdsamyata pericardial suppression ( Hrdstambha ), heaviness of the heart Hrtstyana ), burning sensation ( Hrdadaha ), fluttering of the heart or palpitation ( Hradya ), Tachycardia ( ), Precordial Nirmathana Hrdvega twitching + tachycardia ( ) etc. Modern medicine relates cardiac disease to changed lifestyle, sedentary habits, type of food, smoking, hypertension, hyper-lipidemia, increased waist-hip ratio, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism and stress resulting in athero-sclerosis, plaque formation in the coronary arteries and ultimately clogging. This leads to ischemic damage to cardiac muscle and subsequently the cardiac dysfunction. Ayurveda puts forth - Hrtkamp vR;knue~ x#fLuuX/ka] fpUrue ps”Vue~A funzk lq[ka pkE;f/kde~ dQ g`nzksxdkj.ke~AA Over eating, heavy and fatty meals, worries, sedentary habits and over indulgence in sleep are the causes of cardiac diseases due to Kapha . The person desiring to be protected from the adverse effects upon his heart, coronary blood vessels, and the contents thereof should particularly avoid all that causes of mental affliction [12]. Besides above mentioned causes various other causes are mentioned in Ayurveda includes Excessive consumption of food having heavy, dry, frozen, bitter and astringent qualities; Excessive physical exertion; Excessive purgation and enema; Anxiety; Fear; Mental stress; and Side effect of wrong medication; Suppression of natural urges; External Injury. Ayurveda views atherosclerosis as degeneration of the blood vessels caused by Layers of Heart Diseases caused by Vata Diseases caused by Pitta Diseases caused by Kapha Endo cardium Valvular abnormal-lities Bacterial Endo carditis Endo cardial fibro-elastosis Myo-cardium Atrophy / fibrosis and dilatation of heart Myo-carditis Hypertrop hy due to storage disorders Pericardium Pericardial constrictions Pericarditis Pericardial effusion 4 Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-March, 2014
  12. 12. Gupta O P: Concept of Heart Disease in Ayurveda, pp 3-5 increased Vata in the blood vessels, which make them hard, thin, and rough. Deposits of lipids and calcium represent increase in Kapha (water earth element) in the degenerated vessels resulting in irregular thickening of blood vessels. Ayurveda therefore concludes that cardiac disease is caused by an increase of and vitiation of in the blood vessels. Vata Kapha In a recent study [7] of 300 subjects who underwent angiography were diagnosed to be suffering from CAD, it is reported that majority of them belonged to and i.e. Vata Kapha Prakriti (62.3%), (17%), Vatakapha Vatapitta Kaphapitta (15.7%) and Kapha only 5%. That suggests individuals with Vata and Kapha Prakrit are more prone to develop such a disease. It was also noted that hypertension was highest in Vatakapha group (48.1%) comparing the others ( Vatapitta - 36, 2%, Kaphapitta 27.5%. and Kapha 26.7% the same group had strong correlation with diabetes, hyper-lipidemia and insulin resistance. Ayurveda diagnosis thus depends upon knowing the Prakriti of individual along with clinical feature and examination of pulse. The gadgets in modern medicine are the best available tools electrocardiograph, CT / MR angiography as non invasive procedures and coronary angiography, Blood tests for CK-MB and troponin which indicate damage to the myocardium. The first randomized HeartTrial due to lifestyle causes by Ornish et. Al. in USA [8] and in India by Manchanda et. al., Satish Gupta et. al. [9] were demonstrating usefulness of yoga and allied life-pattern changes in reversing atherosclerosis in patients with mild to moderate coronary artery disease. Despite spectacular advancement in the knowledge, technology and devices the morbidity and mortality in CAD remains high. Moreover after angioplasty and even coronary bypass surgery, the chances of recurrence remain high. There should be integration of modern medicine; with concepts of heart diseases and its management mentioned in Ayurveda in order to protect the heart . References : [1] Beaglehole R, Global cardiovascular disease prevention: time to get serious: Lancet: 2001:358:661-63 [2] Reddy KS Cardiovascular diseases in India; WHOstat Q; 1993:46:101-7 [3] Gupta R, Gupta A: Ayurveda, Cholesterol and coronary heart disease: S Asian J of Preventive Cardiology: 2002: 6: 32 [4] Rig.Veda I ,35,5 f=/kkrq 'keZ ogra 'kqHkLifr losZ”kkap o'kk/khuka okrfiRr'ys”ek.k ,o ewyeA [5] The system of Ayurveda; 1929: By Shiv Sharma, Bombay, Khemraj Shrikrisnadas, Shri Vekateshwar steam press [6] Vorstermans J: A study of cardiovascular diseases in Ayurveda with special emphasis on the role of Ayurveda as a complimentary medicine in selected cardiovascular diseases; 2007 : http://www.ayurvedawellbeing.co.nz/pdf/ResearchP aper- 071128.pdf [7] ICMR-Scientific basis for Ayurvedic Therapies: 2003 Ed Mishra LC; London, Boca Raton (ISBN 0-8493-1366-X –alk paper) [8] Ornish D, Scherwitz LW, Billing J, et al: Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease. JAMA: 1998: 280: 2001-07 [9] Manchanda SC, Narang R, Reddy KS, et al Retardation of coronary athero sclerosis with yoga lifestyle intervention. J Assoc Physicians India: 2000: 48: 687-94 [10] Sharma RK, Bhagawan das ed., Charaka Samhita, sutra, 6 th ed, 2000, Chowkhambha Sanskrit series, 12/8, pp 267 [11] Ibid, 12/11-12, pp268 [12] Ibid,, 30/13, pp 428 and improve the quality of life Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-March, 2014 5
  13. 13. Cover Story ReviewArticle Jayanti Veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda SRP Kethamakka , Meena S Deogade 1 2 1 Head, Panchakarma, technoayurveda@gmail.com , 2 Reader, Dravyaguna,MGACHRC,Wardha, (MS), JISM1403H Received for publication: January 19, 2014;Accepted: February 11, 2014 How to cite the article: SRP Kethamakka, Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda, J-ISM, V2 N1, Jan- Mar 2014, pp 6-22 Abstract: Indian Traditional / folklore Medicine is source of many herbs which are not included in Ayurveda material medica. As potential to develop new compounds and chemotherapeutic agents are found through in vitro and vivo studies, it is right time to include new herbs in to Ayurveda pharmacopeias. Key words: is one such multifaceted weed available throughout the continent which can be used as a substitute for many herbs. The prime focus of scientific Ayurveda is to strengthen the herbal treasure house through Ayurvedic concept based researches. The present endeavor embarks on analyzing the updated information of identification, phyto-anatomy, phyto-chemical study, toxicity and therapeutics, to fortify the knowledge of rich traditional folkore practices followed since years to the well being of mankind. Kotobukigiku, Coat Buttons Plant Tridax Tridax Tridax, Jayantiveda, Kshudra-Shevantika, Traditional Indian Medicine (TIM) is an important source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of chemotherapeutic agents. Nature has been a source of medicinal agents for thousands of years and an impressive number of modern drugs have been isolated from natural resources [1]. It has been estimated that herbal medicines serve about 80% of the world's population health need for millions of people in the rural areas of developing countries and more than 65% of the global population use traditional medicine for basic health care [2]. WHO estimated that approximately one fourth of the 500 million prescriptions written in US each year contain a mention of leafy plant extracts or active ingredients obtained from or modeled on plant substances [3]. According to one estimate 20,000 to 35,000 species of plants are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and neutraceuticals by different ethnic groups the entire world over [4]. It is necessary to convert ethno-medicine practices into organized system either following through scientific extractive evaluations and /or onAyurveda systemic approaches. In recent, herbal medicines and extracts have gained renewed interest for several reasons; affordability, low pricing, no side effects, solutions for chronic diseases and disorders, time tested remedies (folklore), preventive approaches, etc. [5]. The present review is aimed to notice biological and medicinal activity of Tridax and introducing such unnoticed herbs for inclusion in Ayurveda Materia-medica which helps in serving the ailing mankind L. is a common . Tridax procumbens medicinal herb called Jayanti Veda in Sanskrit [6] belonging to family Asteraceae . It is best known as a widespread weed coat buttons plant, wild daisy and pest plant and Kotobukigiku in Japanese [7]. The Distribution: Journal of Indian System of Medicine 6 Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-March, 2014
  14. 14. SRP Kethamakka , Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda,pp-6-22 1 plant is native of tropical America and naturalized in tropical Africa, Asia, Australia and India [22]. is present throughout India (Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh [13]) and is employed as indigenous folklore medicine for variety of ailments. It is widely distributed throughout Indo Pak region [11, 12]. Tridax is a hardy, perennial [14], with week Description: Tridax - straggling, hispid, procumbent herb with woody base sometime rooting at the node, up to 60 cm high or about 12-24cm long with few leaves 6-8cm long and very long slender solitary peduncles a foot or more in length. The leaves are short, hairy and arrow shaped [17]. It's Leaf is simple, opposite, exstipulate, ovate-lanceolate 2 to7 cm and lamina pinnatisect, sometimes three lobed, acute with two types of flowers such as ray-florets, disk-florets and Basal placentation, and these flowers are small, long peduncled heads; achenes 1.5 - 2.5 mm long x 0.5 – 1 mm in diameter and densely ascending pubescent; persistent; bristles of disc achenes alternately longer and shorter, 3.5 – 6 mm in length with inflorescence capitulum. It has daisy-like yellow centered white or yellow flowers with three toothed ray floret; [18, 19] and it produces a hard achene cypsela [21] fruit that is covered with stiff hairs [20]. Its widespread distribution and importance as a weed are due to its spreading stems and abundant seed production [22]. Microscopic study The leaf section shows single layered upper epidermis consisting of polygonal tabular cells about 40-70 μ m by 15 to 30 μ m with a single layer of cylindrical palisade cells about 18 to 30 μ m wide and 60 to 70 μ m long, spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered, cells polyhedral or isodiametric in shape. The root section shows composed of thin walled tangentially elongated cells. Cortex composed of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cell. Simple pitted vessels are present. The stele is surrounded by a single layer of pericycle and has xylem and phloem arranged in a circle, alternating in position so that each lies on a different radius. The stem section shows cortex consisting of 1-2 layers of collenchyma and 6-7 layers of parenchyma. Endodermis is indistinct. Powder microscopy of the plant showed fibers of 175 μ m length, and collenchyma cells of 70-115 μ m diameter, glandular trichomes of stem are present, latex cells are seen in the stem, root cortex cells of diameter 80-120 μ m are present, spiral vessels are present in the leaf, unicellular covering trichomes of length 200 μ m[55]. Extraction Procedure: Various methods are followed to draw the Tridax extracts of using a soxhlet extractor from Juice of fresh leaves , dried leaves powder, air dried whole plant is pulverized and extracts are prepared for 72 hours and the yield found to be 6% W/V at room temperature [25-32]. Standard solutions were prepared in methanol for alkaloids and tannins, and methylene chloride for phytosterols. The linearity of the dependence of response on concentration was verified by regression analysis [33]. The extraction commonly carried out according to Tram method [34], and of oil withAOAC method 999.02 [35], and the analysis of sterols was carried out according to AOAC method 994.10 [36]. This involved extraction of the lipid fraction from homogenized sample material, followed by alkaline hydrolysis (saponification) extraction of the non-saponifiables, clean-up of the extract, derivatisation of the sterols, and separation and quantification of the sterol derivatives by gas chromatography (GC) using a capillary column [37]. Preparation of extract dose The powder compound obtained from Tridax extract of leaves was administered orally at different doses by dissolving it in Normal saline [29, 30]. The other method is, 2% acacia suspension was prepared by suspending 2 gram of accurately weighed Tridax powder in 100 ml of 0.9% saline. 20 ml of vehicle was taken separately to which 2 gram of dried extract was added and sonicated, this Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-March, 2014 7
  15. 15. SRP Kethamakka , Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda,pp-6-22 1 produce suspension of 100 mg/ml strength. Both ethanolic extract (TPEE) and ethyl acetate extract (TPEAE) Tridax procumbens Tridax procumbens suspension were prepared in such manner [38]. : Phytochemistry The Phyoto-chemical investigation reports the isolation of lipid constituents, sterols, flavonoids, and polysaccharide; and bergenin derivatives from [39, 40]. Some of the reported chemical Tridax constituents present in the aerial parts of the plant are phytosterols; beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol [41] and a characteristic triterpene; beta-amyrin [42]. The plant yielded interesting compounds β β like luteolin, -amyrin, -amyron, lupeol, tria contanol, fucosterol, campasterol, stigma sterol, besides arachidic acid, lauric acid, palmatic acid, flavones and glycosides [43, 44]. The flower yields steroidal saponin, characterized as b-sitosterol 3-O-b- D-xylopyranoside, which has been isolated from the flowers of Tridax [45]. The amount of total phenolics was expressed as gallic acid equivalent (GAE) in milligram per gram dry plant extract using the expression;C= c xV/m [46] The proximate profile shows that the plant is rich in sodium, potassium and calcium [47]. Leaf of mainly contains crude proteins of 26%, 17% of Tridax crude fiber, soluble carbohydrates 39%, and calcium oxide 5%. Luteolin, glucoluteolin, quercetin and isoquercetin have been reported from its flowers. Whereas the fumaric acid, flsitosterol and tannin has also been reported in the plant [48]. Flower extract has even b-Sitosterol-3-O-b-Dxylopyranoside [49]. have a high phenolic content of 12 mg/g GAE Tridax (gallic acid equivalent) [50]. Oleanolic acid was obtained in good amounts and found to be a potential anti-diabetic agent when tested against aglucosidase [51]. The presence of flavonoid quercitin is confirmed in the plant since the HPLC and HPTLC studies of the ethanolic extract of the whole plant and that of standard quercitin match each other [52]. isolations are observed with methyl 14 Tridax oxoacagaecunoate, methyl 14-oxononacosanoate, 3- methyl-non adecylben-zene, heptacosanyl cyclohexane carboxylate, 1-(2,2, dimethyl-3- hydroxypropyl) isobutyl phthalate, 12- hydroxytetracosa-15-one, 32-methyl-30- ozotetraatriacont-31-en-1-ol along with β -amyrin, β - amyrone, fucosterol and sitosterol, arachidic, behenic, lauric, linoeic, linolenic, myristic, palmitic and stearic acids ]53]. Twenty-three known flavonoids were detected, consisting mainly of apigenin (29.00%), quercetin (21.67%), kaempferol (11.20%), (-)- epicatechin (6.38%), naringenin (4.82%), (+)- catechin (3.28%), biochanin (3.21%), robinetin (3.13%), diadzein (2.57%), and nobiletin (2.07%). Compared to test control, the treatment dose dependently significantly lowered ( P 0.05) alkaline phosphatase (54.91-100.52%), aspartate transaminase (37.74-64.79%), and alanine transaminase (32.96-57.82%) activities [54]. Toxicity Studies The “Staire case” method LD was 50 determined in rats and mice by oral and intra-peritoneal Tridax route. The initial dosing of was 2000 mg/kg p.o. and 800 mg/kg i.p. in both the species [56]. In acute toxicity studies with a dose of 250 mg/kg of dried extract on mice were observed for motor reflexes for 48 h. and the study carried out for a period of 15 days. In chronic toxicity studies in two groups extract of Tridax at 250 mg/kg was administered daily for a period of 15 days. No mortality was observed and the behavioral pattern was unaffected [57]. FolkPharmacology Practices The Ethno pharmacological and traditional use of plants often results in the discovery of new biologically active molecules [58]. Plants have a long history of use in the treatment of many diseases like cancer, etc [59]. Research is being spotlighted on plants and their phytochemicals [61] and 74% of the plant- derived medicines have a modern indication that correlates with their traditional, cultural and sometimes ancient uses [62]. Hence, traditional 8 Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-March, 2014
  16. 16. SRP Kethamakka , Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda,pp-6-22 1 medicine is an important source for the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents which are less toxic and more economic [63]. In village side it is a best medicine to stop hemorrhage from cuts and bruises as anticoagulant [8]. It is used as an ornamental or fodder plant, and its leaves are cooked as vegetables [23, 24]. In Nigeria [9], is traditionally used in the treatment of fever, typhoid fever, cough, asthma, epilepsy and diarrhea [10]. In the West Africa sub-region and tropical zone of the world, Traditional medical practitioners and the native peoples of these areas use the leaves of the Tridax as a remedy against conjunctivitis [60]. Traditionally, Tridax is used for the treatment of bronchial catarrh, malaria, stomach ache, diarrhoea, epilepsy, diabetes, high blood pressure, hemorrhage, liver problems, and as a hair tonic [64, 65, 66, 67, 68]. [69] possesses significant Tridax Tridax pharmacological practices like -Wound healing [70], anti-inflammatory [71-74], Analgesic [99], Immunomodulatory [75,76, 77], Anti-oxidant [78,79], Anti-hyperglycemic [80] Anti-diabetic activity [81,82,171] hypotensive effect [83, 84], Hepatoprotective [85-87], Anti hepatotoxic [88], etc. The researches on its efficacy over liver injury [89] and Lung metastasis [90] are noticeable. Its action is found as Anti-arthritic [91], Anti fungal [92], antibacterial action [93], Antimicrobial [94] also. The exhibits antimicrobial activity against both Tridax gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria [95] and also found as Antileishmanial [96]. It is parasite [97] killer and also works as insect repellent [98]. It is also used as bio-adsorbent for chromium (VI) is one of the highly toxic ions released into the environment through leather processing and chrome plating industries [99]. successfully inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia Proteus vulgaris , Bacillus subtilis Staphylococcus aureus and Tridax [100]. Its leaves are also used for bronchial catarrh, dysentery, diarrhoea and also used as preventive measure for hair falling / promoting hair growth [102, 124, 125] noticed in 1991 [101]. The cardiovascular effects of aqueous leaf Sprague-Dawley extract (on rat) decreases the mean arterial blood pressure and the higher dose leads to significant reduction in heart rate where as lower dose did not cause any changes in the same [120]. have antiplasmodial activity against Tridax P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant parasites with aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The RBC protection started at a concentration of 100 μ g/ml [121]. In another study with essential oils of steam distillation from leaves found for its topical repellency effects against malarial parasite Anopheles stephensi in mosquito cages [122, 123]. The n-hexane extract of the flowers showed activity against Escherichia coli. A whole aerial part was active against Mycobacterium smegmatis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella group C and Salmonella paratyphi. None of the tested extracts was active against the yeasts, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula rubra; or the fungi: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Mucor sp. and Trichophyton rubrum [130]. This plant was also used as a good bioadsorbent for the removal of highly toxic ions of Cr (VI) from industrial wastewater. Hence recommended for bio-remediation [126]. This plant was also used for bronchial catarrh, dysentery, diarrhoea and in the West Africa and for a remedy against conjunctivitis [127, 128, 129]. Tridax The studies of Ikewuchi on the elemental composition [107], Salahdeen on high blood pressure and heart rate on rats [108], Ravikumar on liver antioxidant defense system during lipo-polysaccharide- induced hepatitis [109], weight reducing activity [110], and analgesic activity [111], and the protective effects of aqueous extract of the leaves against cholesterol and salt loading (inWistar albino rats) [112, 113] is remarkable. It possesses antiseptic, insecticidal, parasiticidal properties and has marked depressant action on respiration [114, Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-March, 2014 9
  17. 17. SRP Kethamakka , Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda,pp-6-22 1 115, 116, 117] along with nutrient/ nutraceutical potential of the leaves [118, 119]. Some specific studies have shown that the - pinene, along with -pinene and other terpenes are cytotoxic on cancer cells [103]. The - and -pinenes were strongly reported for its cytotoxic activity on several cell lines like breast cancer and leukemic cell lines and anti Prostate Cancer activities [104]. As the essential oil of has revealed to have -pinene, -pinene l-phellandrene and Sabinene as their major bioactive compounds as identified and studies reveled that its preventive/ chemotherapeutic effect on experimentally induced lung cancer development. The essential oil of was found to have 14 compounds and out of which four compounds namely -pinene (C10H16) -pinene (C10H16) phellandrene (C10H16) and Sabinene (C10H16) were found to be the major compounds used for cancer treatment [105]. The essential oil of showed a high cytotoxicity of cancer cell death within 24 hrs for 50 g which shows the potency of essential oil on killing B16F-10 cells in vitro. From the in vivo drug toxicity study it is clear that the even in its highest dosage did not show any lethal effect/ abnormality on C57BL/6 mice, and have taken 50 g as the minimal dose for the anti-cancer studies. It can be concluded that the synergistic effects of essential oil of on chemoprevention of lung cancer development in B16F- 10 injected mice makes them potentially valuable drug for cancer treatment [106]. Aqueous extract of the leaves of is an effective agent in the treatment and prevention of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic cytotoxicity. The data suggest that the daily oral consumption of the extract was prophylactic to carbon tetrachloride poisoning. This confirms the use of in traditional health care for the treatment of liver problems [131] also. Human mycoses, especially in immuno- Anti-Cancer Anti-fungal β α α β α β α β μ μ Tridax Tridax Tridax Tridax Tridax Tridax Tridax compromised patients are not always successfully treated due to the ineffectiveness or toxicity of the available antifungal drugs. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) and total activity were evaluated for determination of antifungal potential of each active extract. Excellent antifungal potential was recorded for free flavonoid of stem (IZ 12 mm, AI 1.2, with same MIC and MFC 0.156 mg/ml), bound flavonoid of stem (IZ 10 mm,AI 1, MIC 0.312 and MFC 0.625 mg/ml) and flower (IZ 10.2 mm, AI 1.02, with same MIC andMFC0.312 mg/ml) against A. niger Tridax . Study indicated that can be used as a source of formulations of antifungal drug for treatment of diseases caused by A. niger [132]. Plants with antimicrobial potential has become the need of today's research [133] and hundreds of plant species have been tested for antimicrobial properties, the vast majority have not been adequately evaluated [134]. The traditional medicinal plants are emerging as potential sources of new antimicrobial agents [135] and several workers have reported antibacterial activities of local plants [136, 137, 138]. The development and spread of multi drug resistant super bugs especially in the hospital environment, continues to be a burning global issue due to the indiscriminate and irrational use of antibiotics [139]. The antimicrobial potential of this herb is tested with methanolic extract was found to be more effective than water extract against all bacteria. Author suggests that -amyrin found in the leaves of this plant could be responsible for its antimicrobial activity [140]. Various studies on the anti-bacterial activity Tridax Pseudomonas, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, of revealed that the plant extract was effective on as well as Aspergillus niger Candida albicans for fungus and [141-147] Antioxidants prevent the damage done to Anti-bacterial Antioxidant β 10 Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-March, 2014
  18. 18. SRP Kethamakka , Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda,pp-6-22 1 cells by free radicals-molecules that are released during the normal metabolic process of oxidation. Some of these free radicals include reactive oxygen free radicals species (ROS), reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH.), the superoxide anion radical (O .), 2 hydrogen peroxides (H O ) and peroxyl (ROO.) 2 2 which generates metabolic products that attack lipids in cell membranes or DNA and associated with several types of biological damage [148]. Numerous reports indicate variations in the levels of antioxidants in the diabetic patients [149, 150]. Studies around the world have identified many new plant constituents with antioxidant activity, among these are the polyphenols [151]. The results of the DPPH radical scavenging activity of Tridax against test sample and standard (gallic and ascorbic acids (Fluka)) shows that Tridax possesses very high percentage antioxidant activity, 96.70% at a concentration of 250μg/ml. It shows a reductive potential of 0.89 nm. Tridax extracts may have hydrogen donors thus scavenging the free radical DPPH, with highAA%of 96.70% at 250μg/ml which was observed to be higher than even those of the standards (ascorbic and gallic acids) at a concentration of 250 g/ml used [152]. plants are rich sources of natural Tridax antioxidant. T. procumbens has a percentage antioxidant activity (AA %) of 96.70 which was observed to be higher than those of gallic (92.92%) and ascorbic acids (94.81%) used as standards [172]. The clinically useful drugs against pain and inflammation exhibit many adverse effects; this leads to considerable interest in search of safer drug for these conditions [153]. The study of plants that have been traditionally used as pain killers should still be seen as a fruitful and logical research strategy, in the search for new analgesic drugs [154, 155]. Tridax has shown significant anti-inflammatory action influencing exudates, leucocyte migration, rat paw edema and granuloma. The anti-inflammatory action of may possibly be due to corticotrophic Tridax μ Anti-inflammatory (exudates) influence as evident from increase in weight. This adrenal corticotrophic effect might be indirectly inhibiting the inflammation by secretion of endogenous cortical hormones. The model of leucocyte migration has been used as this is an essential step in the development of inflammation [156]. The leucocyte migration and exudate studies done at the end of six hours [157, 158] inhibit the accumulation of exudate and leucocyte migration between 3 to 6 hrs after carrageenin [159], but there is disagreement about the steroidal activity [160]. The higher doses have been used as lower doses do not affect leucocyte migration. The results of Tridax are comparable to NSAIAS in all respects. A study reveals that none of the drugs tested potentiated either exudates volume or leucocyte migration. It is suggested that leucocyte migration will detect weaker anti-inflammatory activity and recommend as a good model for rapid screening [161]. It has been reported that prostaglandins are involved in causing gastric ulcers. A study is expressive that does not cause ulcer indicating less Tridax involvement of prostaglandins in anti-inflammatory effect [162]. Formalin induced persistent pain (Biphasic pain), Acetic acid induced writhing test (Peripheral pain) and CFA induced hyper analgesia in rat (Inflammatory pain) were tested with Tridax against standard (Diclofenac Sodium). procumbens The measurement of mechanical hyperalgesia was done at 30, 60 and 120 min. Tridax - 400mpk in Normal Saline vehicle, Kg/10mL on Rats as dose volume for Biphasic pain exhibits 95±09 % of reversal. The same quantification of Tridax extract relives peripheral pain 78±07 % Reversal and inflammatory pain with 27±8 % Reversal. The % reversal =100 – (AVG response of test drug/ AVG response of vehicle*100). Oral administration of extract of Tridax procumbens significantly reduced mechanical hyper analgesia in CFAinjected rats. As this anti nociceptive property of the extract may be attributed to the presence of flavonoids and phytosterol which are present in the plant However, Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-March, 2014 11
  19. 19. SRP Kethamakka , Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda,pp-6-22 1 the isolated flavanoid such as procumbentin and quercetin and sterols such as β sitosterol may show more pronounced analgesic activity compared to the extract, particularly in the formalin – induced pain model, acetic acid induced writhing and in the inflammatory pain model [163]. The effects of an indigenous drug, on developing granulation tissue in rats were studied at 4 day intervals up to 32 days of wounding. Lysyl oxidase activity, protein content, specific activity, and breaking strength were all increased in drug-treated animals as compared to controls. A fall in the lysyl oxidase activity was observed in drug-treated animals after day 8. The drug may be having a dual role: one a stimulatory (direct) effect in the initial phase of wound healing and the other a depressant (indirect) effect in the later stage [164]. antagonized anti-epithelization and tensile strength depressing effect of dexamethasone (a known healing suppressant agent) without affecting anti-contraction and anti-granulation action of dexamethasone [165]. The effect of various extracts (whole plant extract, aqueous extract, butanol extract and ether fraction) of this plant has been studied in dead space wound model [166]. The authors have reported that whole plant extract has the greatest pro-healing activity with increase in tensile strength and lysyl oxidase activity among the various extracts in both normal and immuno-compromised (steroid treated) rats in dead space wound model. The plant increased not only lysyl oxidase but also, protein and nucleic acid content in the granulation tissue, probably as a result of increase in glycosamino glycan content [167]. Kshudra-shevantika ( ) in human show not much significant ulcer healing against standard drug Jatyadi taila [179]. at 250 and 500 mg/kg has displayed significant anti-arthritic activity comparable with that of indomethacin. The ethanolic whole plant extract of exerts an anti-arthritic activity by significantly Wound healing Anti-arthritic Tridax Tridax Tridax Tridax Tridax altering the pathogenesis during FCA -induced arthritis in female SD rats without exerting any side effects [170]. ethanolic extract showed better Tridax results than ethyl acetate extract at 300mg/kg comparatively; as Tridax ethanolic extract showed significant (P0.001– 0.05) whereas Tridax ethyl acetate extract was less significant (P0.05) comparing with various groups by One wayANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison test. The Rheumatoid factor was found negative in animals of all groups of Rat adjuvant polyarthritis. The migration of leucocytes into the inflamed area is significantly suppressed by Tridax ethanolic extract when compared to standard drug (Diclofenac sodium, Cyclophosphamide), as seen from the significant reduction in the total WBC count [168]. Earlier findings suggest that absorption of 14C-glucose and 14C-leucine in rat's intestine was reduced in the case of inflamed rats [169]. Anti-diabetic Diabetes mellitus occurs throughout the th world; Diabetes is 5 in top 10, of the most significant diseases in the developed world and is still gaining significance [171]. The practical usage of juices of various plants achieved the lowering of blood glucose by 10-20% [173]. Alloxan [174, 175] induced Experimental studies revels that the aqueous and alcoholic extracts from Tridax leaves (200 mg/kg) orally administered for 7 days produced a significant decrease in the blood glucose level. Petroleum extract exhibits very weak anti-diabetic activity [176]. Tridax can impart not only by hypoglycemic effects but also by improving lipid metabolism, antioxidant status, and capillary function [177] in diabetics. The profile of malondialdehyde and antioxidant vitamins in the test rats clearly indicate cardio-protective potential and protects against oxidative stress in ocular tissues and support its use in traditional health care practices for the management of diabetes mellitus [178]. 12 Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-March, 2014
  20. 20. SRP Kethamakka , Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda,pp-6-22 1 Discussion: Tridax procumbens Conclusion: References : Tridax Tridax Bhringraj Bhringaraj Tridax Tridax Jayanti Veda leaves have been traditionally and now experimentally used worldwide for its versatile therapeutic properties. At the backdrop of increasing importance of herbal alkaloid usage in medical practice it is necessary to identify the active alkaloids of folk use plants for its therapeutic values. The , a weed spread all over, being time tested and passed through various in vivo and vitro studies, it could not make its place in eitherAyurveda or Alkaloid therapeutics. It is far for the understanding of the common Ayurveda practitioners' wisdom to include the local weeds in to daily practice and the planners are under the crutches of hypocrisy. It is found that is dispensed as “ ”, (adulteration) which is well known Ayurvedic medicine for liver disorders [15, 16]. It is because of the scarcity of or not imparted importance to . For many,Ayurveda principles are hard nut to crack and a simple chemical evaluation is the better way to adopt. Thus, following the extracting methods of alkaloid and testing on animals, which are against to the holistic approach is being practiced at present. , which is wildly used in folklore medicine, has established its therapeutic uses with innumerable studies of in vitro and vivo which recommends itself to be placed inAyurveda Dravyaguna and Pharmacy. However, future researches based on Ayurveda concept are to be initiated to potentiate the . Ayurveda herbal treasure house is to be expanded with new herbal species identified from folk practice as there is restrictions or extinction of known herbs. [1] Ankita Jain et.al, Tridax Procumbens (L.):AWeed With Immense Medicinal Importance: A Review, International Journal of Pharma Bio Sciences; Jan- Mar 2012,Vol. 3 Issue 1, pp.544. [2] General Guidelines for Methodologies on Research and Evaluation of Traditional Medicine. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland 2001, 1. [3] C.P. Malik, Medicinal Uses, Chemical Constituents And Micro Propagation Of Three Potential Medicinal Plants, Int. J. of Life Science Pharma Resaecrh,Vol 2/Issue 3/Jul-Sept 2012, pp L- 58. [4] Trivedi, PC. Herbal medicine: traditional practices (Ed); Aavishkar Publishers, Jaipur. 2006; pp 322. [5] C.P. Malik, Medicinal Uses, Chemical Constituents And Micro Propagation Of Three Potential Medicinal Plants, Int. J. of Life Science Pharma Resaecrh,Vol 2/Issue 3/Jul-Sept 2012, pp L- 57-76. [6] Chitra Pai1, Ujjwala Kulkarni, Manjusha Borde, Sowmya Murali, P. Mrudula1 and Yashwant Deshmukh, Antibacterial Activity of Tridax procumbens with Special Reference to Nosocomial Pathogens, British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2011, 1(4): 164-173, [7] Saxena VK, Albert S. Β -Sitosterol-3-O- β -D-xylopyranoside from the fl owers of Tridax procumbens Linn. J Chem Sci. 2005; 117:263–266. [8] Ali M, et.al, Phytochemical communication a new flavonoid from the aerial parts of Tridax procumbens, Fitoterapia, (2001), 72:313-315. [9] J. D. Habila1, I. A. Bello, A. A. Dzikwi, H. Musa and N. Abubakar, Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of Tridax procumbens Linn., African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 4(3), March 2010, pp. 123-126, [10] MannA,Abdulkadir NU, MuhammadG(2003). Medicinal and Economic Plants of Nupe Land. Juber Evans Books and Publication pp. 78. [11] Durgacharan AB, Suresh GK, Rahul SA. Antidiabetic activity of leaf extract of Tridax procumbense. Int J Green Pharm 2008; 2:126 - 128. [12] Ikewuchi Jude C, Ikewuchi Catherine C, Igboh Ngozi M. Chemical Profile of Tridax procumbense Linn. Pakistan J Nutrition 2009; ]8:548 - 550. [13] C.P. Malik, Medicinal Uses, Chemical Constituents And Micro Propagation Of Three Potential Medicinal Plants, Int. J. of Life Science Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-March, 2014 13
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  28. 28. SRP Kethamakka , Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda,pp-6-22 1 experimental animals. J Ethnopharmacol 2001; 76:81 86. [156]Walker J. R. Smith M. J. H., Ford Hutchison a. W. (1976). Anti-inflammatory drugs prostaglandins and leucocyte migration. Agents Actions 6, 602- 606. [157] Capasso F, Dum C. J., Yamamoto S, Willoughby D. A. And Giroud J.P.(1975). Further studies on carrageenan induced pleurisy in rats. J. Pathol. 116, 117. [158] Almeida a. P., Bayer B. M., Morakovaz and Beaven (1980). Influence of indometham and other anti-inflammatory drugs on mobilization and production of neutrophils: Studies with carrageenan induced inflammation In rats. J. Pharma-CoI. Exp. Ther. 214, 74. [159] Miyaska K. And Mikami t. (1982) Comparison of antiinflammatory effects of dexamethasone, indomethacin and 13W 755C on carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 77, 229- - 236. [160] Capasso F,Dumc. J.,Yamamoto S,Willoughby D. A. And Giroud J. P. (1975). Further studies on carrageenan induced pleurisy in rats. J. Pathol. 116, 117. [161] Diwan P. V. And Kulkarni D. R.(1983). Antiinflammatory activity of Nandrolone phenylpropionate. Tnd. J. Expt. Biol. 21, 569-57 1. [162] Pharmacology and biochemical evaluation of Tridax procumbens on inflammation. Prakash V. Diwan, Iravati Karwande, I. Margaret and P. B. Sattur Pharmacology Section Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR) Hyderabad. [ 1 6 3 ] V.Vi n o t h Prabhu1*, G . N a l i n i 1 , N.Chidambaranathan1, S. Sudarshan Kisan, Evaluation Of Anti Inflammatory And Analgesic Activity Of Tridax Procumbens Linn Against Formalin, AceticAcidAnd Cfa Induced Pain Models, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 3, Issue 2, 2011, pp 126-130. [164] Planta Med. 1991 Aug; 57(4):325-7. Related Articles, Links Influence of Tridax procumbens on lysyl oxidase activity and wound healing. Udupa SL, Udupa AL, Kulkarni DR.Department of Biochemistry, Kasturba Medical College, India. [165] Diwan et al; 1983-43. Diwan PV, Tilloo, L.D. and Kulkarni D.R. (1983): Steroid depressed wound healing and Tridax procumbens. Indian J. Physiol Pharmacol 27:1, 32-6. [166] Udopa SL, UdopaALand LalkarniDR(1991): Influence of Tridax procumbens on lysl oxidase activity and wound healing. Planta Med Aug 57: 4, 325-7. [167] Udupa SL, Udupa AL, Kulkarni DR.(1998) Fitoterapia 69:507-510. [168] Deepak Kumar Jain, Narayan Singh Patel, Hemant Nagar, Arti Patel and H.S. Chandel, Anti-arthritic activity of tridax procumbens ethanolic extract of leaves, RGUHS J Pharm Sci, Vol 2, Issue 4, Oct–Dec, 2012, pp 80-86. [169] Somasundaran S, Sadique J, Subramoniam A. In vitro absorption of [14C] leucine during inflammation and the effect of anti-inflammatory drugs in the jejunum of rats. Biochem Med 1983; 29:259–264. [170] R Ramesh Petchi, C Vijaya, and S Parasuraman, Anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens (Linn.) in Sprague Dawley rats, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/ articles/PMC3685759/ [171] World Health Organization. Department of Noncommunicable Disease Surveillance. Definition, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications. Geneva: WHO; 1999. [172] J. D. Habila, et.al. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of Tridax procumbens Linn. African Journal of Pharmacy and PharmacologyVol. 4(3), pp. 123-126, March 2010. [173] Ivorra MD, Paya M, Villar A. A review of natural products and plants as potential antidiabetic drugs. J Ethnopharmacol 1989;27:243-75. [174] Lenzen S, Panten U. Alloxan: History and Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-March, 2014 21
  29. 29. SRP Kethamakka , Meena SD, Jayanti veda (Tridax procumbens) - Unnoticed Medicinal plant by Ayurveda,pp-6-22 1 mechanism of action. Diabetologia 1988;31:337-42]. [175] Oberley LW. Free radicals and diabetes. Free Rad BiolMed1988;5:113-24. [176] Bhagwat DA, Killedar SG, Adnaik RS. Anti-diabetic activity of leaf extract of Tridax procumbens. Int J Green Pharm 2008;2:126-8. [177] Bailey CJ, Day C.Traditional plant medicines as treatments for diabetes. Diabetes Care 1989;12:553- 64. [178] Jude Chigozie Ikewuchi, Alteration Of Plasma Biochemical, Haemato-Logical And Ocular Oxidative Indices Of Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats By Aqueous Extract Of Tridax Procumbens Linn (Asteraceae), Excli Journal 2012;11:291-308. [179] Sugate Shridhar Keshav, Narasimha, Evaluation Of The Efficacy Of Kshudra-Shevantika [Tridax Procumbens Linn.] Taila In Comparison With Jatyadi Taila In The Management Of Vrana., 2013, Rguhs Thesis, Bengalure, India. [180] Jude Chigozie Ikewuchi, Alteration Of Plasma Biochemical, Haemato-Logical And Ocular Oxidative Indices Of Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats By Aqueous Extract Of Tridax Procumbens Linn (Asteraceae), Excli Journal 2012;11:291-308. [181] Jude Chigozie Ikewuchi, An Aqueous Extract of the Leaves of Tridax procumbens Linn (Asteraceae) Protected Against Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Liver Injury in Wistar Rats, The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 13. Number 1,May2012, 522 of pp 519-527 Acknowledgements : Thankful for accepting tables reproduction – Jude Chigozie Ikewuchi, An Aqueous Extract of the Leaves of Linn (Asteraceae) ProtectedAgainst Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Liver Injury inWistar Rats, Volume 13. Number 1, May 2012, 522 of pp 519-527. Jude Chigozie Ikewuchi, Alteration Of Plasma Biochemical, Haematological And Ocular Oxidative Indices Of Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats By Aqueous Extract Of Tridax Procumbens Linn (Asteraceae), Tridax procumbens The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, EXCLI Journal 2012;11:291-308. Table-1: Falconoid compositions of Tridax procumbens aqueous extract [181] 22 Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-March, 2014
  30. 30. ReviewArticle Management of Geriatric Eye disorders with Ayurvedic Measures Hande Minal Journal of Indian System of Medicine Assistant professor, Department of Shalakya Tantra, Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College, Hospital Research center, Salod,Wardha. (minal.khobragade@yahoo.com) JISM1358H Received for publication: December 24, 2013; Accepted: January 13, 2014 How to cite the article Hande Minal, Management of Geriatric Eye disorders with Ayurvedic Measures, J-ISM, V2 N1, Jan- Mar 2014, pp 23-28 Abstract: The deterioration of vision in elderly people is a major health problem. Like every part of our body, our eyes change as we grow older.Aging of the eyes affects all ocular structures. By the age 50, one in every three has some vision impairing eye disease. Common Geriatric eye problems are Cataract, Glaucoma, Age related Macular degeneration (AMD), Diabetic Retinopathy, Dry eye syndrome, Ptosis, Entropion, Ectropion, Floaters, Blepharospasm etc. The prevalence rate of each of these ocular conditions increases with age. Three fourth of all blindness and vision impairment are either preventable or treatable. The biggest challenge with Geriatric eye problem is that in most of the cases the condition cannot be attributed to a single cause. Ayurveda has the interventions those enhance physiological processes that influence metabolic and immunological status, (like ) such interventions are significant in the context of Geriatric care. Subsequent eye Chyavanprasha,Triphala diseases were reviewed fromAyurvedic and biomedical literature and corresponding preventive strategies were searched. The review elaborates over the concept of geriatric eye disorders and their management through Dincharya, Rituchary, Rasayana , Yoga Kriyakalpas Panchakarma KeyWords: e p therapy , of eye and procedures. It would be appropriate to consider these time tested ancient measures on scientific parameters so thatAyurveda can help the sufferings in a better way. Geriatric ye roblems, vision impairment, Ayurvedic measures Introduction The deterioration of vision in the elderly is a major health care problem. Approximately one person in the three has some form of vision reducing eye disease by the age 65. [1, 2] Functional abilities, independence (Driving cooking), and qualities of life issues (Reading, watching TV, seeing grandchildren) mental health are of great concern to Geriatricians and their patients. [3] Elderly people generally wish to live independently as long as possible which requires them to be able to engage in self-care and other day today activities.Vision impairment is associated with a decreased ability to perform activities of daily living and an increased risk for depression. [4] Often the treatment is as simple as prescribing spectacles (as in Pressbyopia) or operation (as in case of cataract). Three fourth of all blindness and vision impairment are either preventable or treatable. [5, 6] Most of the eye ailments occurring in today's era are unfortunately lifestyle related. Long hours of work, travel, irregular food habits, entertainment like television and computers including smoking drinking habit play their role in early stages i.e. young adults (between 30- 45 years of age). These causes lead to degenerative and regenerative diseases of the eye like early Pressbyopic changes Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-March, 2014 23
  31. 31. Hande Minal, Geriatric Eye disorders with Ayurvedic Measures, J-ISM V2-N1, pp 23-28 (before 40 years), Age related macular degeneration, Diabetic Retinopathy, Glaucoma, early cataract formation, dry eye syndrome and many others.[7,8] Even though numbers of treatment modalities are available, unfortunately the results of most of these have been disappointing. [9] Success of treatment has been measured in terms of only arrest of vision loss rather than gain in vision. [9] Which suggests that the existing measures and technologies are not enough to solve these problems. Ayurveda on the other hand has interventions those enhance physiological process and immunological status i.e. health promoting agents. is a method to slow down the aging process Rasayana in the human being during degenerative phase of one's life. [10] MATERIALMETHODS National Policy- One of the basic human rights is the right to see. We have to ensure that no citizen goes to blind needlessly or being blind does not remain so, if by reasonable development of skill and resources, sight can be prevented from deteriorating or if already lost, can be restored. Science of Ayurvedic Ophthalmology goes hand in hand with this policy. There are four major age related eye diseases mainly- Age related Macular degeneration (AMD), Glaucoma, Cataract, Diabetic Retinopathy Age related Macular degeneration It is a leading cause of blindness in patients (AMD)- over the age of 50 years. Macular degeneration is usually of older adults that results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field because of damage to the retina. At least10% of people aged between 65 and 75 will have lost some central vision due toAMD. [7] In those older than 75 years, 30% will be affected to some degree. The usual symptoms are- Blurred vision, Central scotomas (shadows or missing areas of vision in the center of visual field), Distorted vision (i.e. metamorphopsia) – A grid of straight lines appears wavy, Color confusions, Slow recovery of visual function after exposure to bright light. [11, 12] AMD occurs in dry (90% of cases) and wet (10 % cases) forms. Dry AMD begins with small, discrete, slightly elevated yellow deposits called drusen in the macula at the posterior pole of both fundi. [Fig-1] Dry macular degeneration Fig-1 In case of wet AMD due to abnormal new blood vessels formation, there will be sudden haemorrhage loss of vision. Modern treatment modalities available are laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy, injections (for wet AMD) and formulations of antioxidant and zinc (for dryAMD). [13,14] According to Ayurveda, macular degeneration is (dry AMD), (wet AMD) predominant. So concentrating on head and eye is necessary. For this Vata Shamanchikitsa by oil, Vata Pitta Brimhananasyam, Sirobasti, Sirodhara Netratarpana etc. are beneficial. Medicine for each of these procedures should be selected very carefully according to the body constitution of the patient, age, mental status of the patient. [15-17] In wetAMD, it is very important to start the treatment immediately otherwise persistent oedema will make irreversible damage in retina. and drugs are Pittashamana, Chakshushya Rasayan suitable for this. Some Rasayan drugs for eye diseases are , Jyotishmati (Celastrus paniculata) (Three myrobalans), , and Triphala Satavari (Asparagus racemosus) Yastimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Amalaki (Emblica officinalis ).[18,19] The treatment procedure should be mainly 24 Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-March, 2014
  32. 32. Hande Minal, Geriatric Eye disorders with Ayurvedic Measures, J-ISM V2-N1, pp 23-28 Ksheerdhara, Netrasekam, Bidalakam etc.[20,21] it is a group of disorders which Glaucoma- causes glaucomatous optic nerve damage that lead to direct vision loss as a result of increased intraocular pressure. The most prevalent form of glaucoma is Primary open angle glaucoma.[22] Primary open angle glaucoma- 'Silent thief of sight', most of the patients will be unaware of the development of the disease. In early stages, there will be no visual symptoms. Mild headaches, heaviness, feeling of fullness in the eyes, decrease in distant visionvisual field especially peripheral. [Fig-2] and increased optic disc cupping [Fig-3] are the main symptoms : Decrease in distant vision visual field in Glaucoma Fig-2 : Fundus photograph demonstrates Fig-3 glaucomatous optic disc cupping and pallor Primary angle closure glaucoma- onset is sudden. In most of cases redness of eye, congestion of vessels, severe pain, photophobia, headache are the main symptoms.[22] According to , glaucoma is best correlated with a condition known as Adhimantha and is of four basic type i.e. Vataj, Pittaj, Kaphaj, Raktaj . [23] Generally speaking Vata regulates retinal nerve function whereas nourishes the eye and acts to drain it in context with .Ayurvedic management of glaucoma consists of four modalities diet regulations, treatment, oral medicines, meditation. The rejuvenating medicines of ( ) give strength to the optic nerve hence restore the vision within limitations. Diet for prevention cure of glaucoma should be rich in vitamins minerals which include zinc, copper, antioxidant, vitamin C, B, E,A Selenium.[24,25] procedure like Kapha Pitta Adhimantha Panchakarma Ayurveda Rasayana Panchakarma Thalam, Sirodhara, Nasyam, Virechana, are of great help in Ayurveda Yoga Netradhara, Anjana glaucoma.[26] In oral medications daily use of in early stages of Triphala Churna, Haritaki Churna, glaucoma is very useful . Mahatriphala Ghrita, etc. can be given to the patients. Punarnawadi Kwath [26, 27] Yoga meditation are always beneficial have played a vital role in curing every eye disease. It helps by reducing stress to reduceprevent IOP.[24] Apart from this Acharya Vaghbhata described para-surgical measures like .[28] Dahan Karma Jalaukacharan Diabetic Retinopathy (DR)- it is the significant cause of vision morbidity in the elderly population. The prevalence of DR rises with increasing duration of Diabetes. However significant DR may be observed in the elderly at the time of diagnosis or during the first few years of diabetes. It is to be remembered that even though blood sugar level is within normal limits, there are chances of developing DRin a diabetic patient. Signssymptoms: - Blurred vision gradual vision loss, floaters, photophobia, scotomas in vision.[29] Stages of DR- Non proliferative, Proliferative DR [Fig-4] [30,31] Journal of Indian System of Medicine Vol.2-Number 1, January-March, 2014 25

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