Evaluation of efficacy of Maricha Patra and Pippali Moola In the mangement of Nidranasha(Primary Insomina) –              ...
D.G.M.AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGEPOST GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH CENTRE                                    GADAG, 582 103...
J.S.V.V. SAMSTHE’S                     D.G.M.AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE    POST GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH CENTRE       ...
Declaration by the candidate       I here by declare that this dissertation / thesis entitled “Evaluation ofefficacy of Ma...
© Copy right             Declaration by the candidate        I here by declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health ...
ACKNOWLEDGMENT    I express my deep sense of gratitude to my respected guide Assistant professor DrT.R. Bhagyalaxmi M.D (A...
I sincerely thanks my beloved classmates and also seniours Dr Veena.Kori, Dr S.BBani, Dr K.S.Hiremath, Dr Ashok Bm Dr. Shi...
ABBREVIATIONA.H        -   Astamga HrudayaA.P.I      -   Ayurvdic Pharamacopoeia of IndiaA.R        -   Abhidana Ratnamala...
ABSTRACT       Charaka included Asvapna in 80 Nonataja vata vikara but has not explained in chikitsasthana Madhavakara als...
KEY WORDSNidranasha; Primary Insomnia; Pippalimoola(Roots of Pipper longum); Maricha patra(Leaves of Piper nigrum); Method...
CONTENTS                                           Page No1.   Introduction                            1-22.   Objectives ...
LIST OF TABLES             Table 1 MARICHA                                             Page No.Table 1.1    -     Showing ...
Table 4 OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS                                               Page NoTable 4.1-Showing age distribution o...
Table 4.32-Showing comparative overall assessment of therapeutic response of Group A&B
LIST OF GRAPHS.                                                             Page NoGraph 1    -      Showing Age distribut...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha                      ...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaNidranasha has become ...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha                      ...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha                      ...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha CONCEPT OF NIDRA Etym...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha Definition of Nidra: ...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha i)      Ayurvedic con...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha         c) Fatigue th...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha 2) Sushruta classifie...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha                      ...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha Etymological derivati...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha A) Table No. – 1. Syn...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha Classification of Nid...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha 2. Paratantra Nidrana...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha 1. Nidana of Nidranas...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha         Further Sushr...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha Vagbhata has describe...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha The schematic diagram...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha      Some other measu...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha Concept of Sleep Defi...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha 4) Pavlov’s Theory : ...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha Sleep-wake cycle174: ...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha Types of Sleep175:   ...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha Characteristics of RE...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha 2. NREM Sleep :      ...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha Benefits of sleep176:...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha Sleep Disorders177   ...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha B. Sleep disorders ac...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha INSOMNIA178         D...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha          Usually the ...
                                               Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha 1. Primary Insomnia :...
                                                        Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaA)        DRU...
                                                        Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaSYNONYMS WITH...
                                                        Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaTable 1.1 : S...
                                                        Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaTable 1.2 : G...
                                                        Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha             ...
                                                        Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaTable 1.5 : P...
                                                        Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaTable 1.6 : U...
                                                        Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaSL.NO        ...
                                                        Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaSL.NO        ...
                                                        Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha             ...
                                                        Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaTAXONOMICAL C...
                                                        Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha         Anth...
                                                        Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaGENUS CHARACT...
                                                        Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaCHARACTERS OF...
                                                        Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaDISTRIBUTION ...
                                                        Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranashac) Microscopi...
                                                        Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaPHYTOCHEMISTR...
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Evaluation of efficacy of maricha patra and pippalimoola in the management of nidranaasha (primary insomnia) – a comparative clinical study – sunita, Department of Dravya Guna, Post Graduate Studies & Research Centre, D.G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE,GADAG

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  1. 1. Evaluation of efficacy of Maricha Patra and Pippali Moola In the mangement of Nidranasha(Primary Insomina) – A Comparative Clinical Study By Sunitha Dissertation submitted to the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore In partial fulfillment of the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspati M.D. In Dravya Guna Under the Guidance of Dr. T.R. Bhagyalaxmi M.D. (Ayu) and Co- Guidance of Dr. Kuber Sankh M.D. (Ayu) Department of Dravya Guna Post Graduate Studies & Research Centre D.G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GADAG 2006
  2. 2. D.G.M.AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGEPOST GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH CENTRE GADAG, 582 103 This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Evaluation of efficacy of Maricha Patraand Pippali Moola in the mangement Nidranasha (Primary Insomia)-A ComparativeClinical Study” is a bonafide research work done by Sunitha in partial fulfillment of therequirement for the post graduation degree of “Ayurveda Vachaspati M.D. (Dravya Guna)”Under Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka.Dr. KUBER SANKH Dr. T.R. Bhagyalaxmi M.D. (Ayu) M.D. (Ayu)Co- Guide GuideLecturer in Dravya Guna Assist ProfessorDGMAMC, PGS&RC, GADAG Dept. of Dravya GunaDate: DGMAMC, PGS&RC, GADAGPlace: Gadag Date: Place: Gadag
  3. 3. J.S.V.V. SAMSTHE’S D.G.M.AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE POST GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH CENTRE GADAG, 582 103 Endorsement by the H.O.D, Principal/ head of the institution This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Evaluation of efficacy of MarichaPatra and Pippali Moola in the mangement of Nidranasha (Primary Insomia)-AComparative Clinical Study” is a bonafide research work done by Sunitha under theguidance of Dr. T.R.Bhagyalaxmi M.D. (Ayu), Assist Professor and Dr. KUBERSANKH, M.D. (Ayu), in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the post graduationdegree of “Ayurveda Vachaspati M.D. (Dravya Guna)” Under Rajiv Gandhi University ofHealth Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka.. (Dr. G.V.Mulagund) (Dr. G. B. Patil) Professor & HOD Principal, Dept. of Dravya Guna DGM Ayurvedic Medical College, PGS & RC Gadag Date: Date: Place: Gadag Place: Gadag
  4. 4. Declaration by the candidate I here by declare that this dissertation / thesis entitled “Evaluation ofefficacy of Maricha Patra and Pippali Moola in the mangementNidranasha (Primary Insomia)-A Comparative Clinical Study” is abonafide and genuine research work carried out by me under the guidance ofDr. T.R.Bhgyalaxmi M.D.(Ayu) Assist Professor and Dr. Kuber Sankh,M.D.(Ayu), Lecturer in Dravya Guna, DGMAMC, PGS&RC, Gadag.Date :Place : Gadag ( Sunitha )
  5. 5. © Copy right Declaration by the candidate I here by declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminate thisdissertation/ thesis in print or electronic format for the academic / researchpurpose.Date :Place : Gadag ( Sunitha )© Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka
  6. 6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT I express my deep sense of gratitude to my respected guide Assistant professor DrT.R. Bhagyalaxmi M.D (Ayu),Dravyaguna dept. D.G.M Ayurvedic Medical College andPost Graduate and research center, Gadag she has been very kind to guide me in thepreparation of thesis and for whose tremendous encouragement and most valuablethought provoking advise made me to complete this work I am also grateful to my respected professor Dr G.V Mulugund M.D (Ayu) Head ofdepartment of Dravya Guna. D.GM.Ayurvedic Medical College and Post Graduate andresearch center, Gadag whose valuable thought provoking suggestions made me to completethis work I am also grateful to my respected co-guide Dr KuberSankh M.D (ayu) lecturer inDravya Guna,PGARC,D.G.M Ayurvdic Medical College,Gadag.for patiently going throughthe draft of thesis and correcting with precious remarks, which has been very useful I am extremely thankful to our principal Dr G.B.Patil for providing all necessaryfacilities for this research work. I am very much grateful to Dr. G.S Hiremath H.O.D of Dravya Guna & Dr. S.BNidagundi Lecturer in the dept of P.G.S in D.G for their valuable suggestion in this work I wish to convey thanks to my respected Lectures,Dr V.Varadacharyalu.DrPurushottamacharyulu. Dr M.C Patil. Dr Shashidhar Doddamani, , Dr.K.S.R Prasad, DrShivaramudu. Dr R.V Shetter, Dr G Danappagoudar, Dr.Santhosh Belavadi. Dr K.S.Paraddi.Dr Mitti.Dr.Shankargouda and other lectures of our college for their suggestion. I very much thankful to Mr T.M Nandakumar for his help in statisticalevaluation.
  7. 7. I sincerely thanks my beloved classmates and also seniours Dr Veena.Kori, Dr S.BBani, Dr K.S.Hiremath, Dr Ashok Bm Dr. Shivakumar S, Dr Anand D, Dr jagadish H,Dr C.B Inamdar, Dr. Shalini S, Dr Shivaleela K, Dr Ashwini V, Dr. V.Kataraki, DrShaila B, Dr Shivaleela Dr.Pradeep.Dr Ganti. and all classmates for their constantco-operation. I wish to convey my thanks to beloved Librarian Shri V.M.Mundimani and Mr S.BSureban for providing me essential references on the study. I am thankful to Mr B.S.Tippanagoudar lab technician who extended his co-operationin Investigations. I am thankful to Vijay,Ashwini who helped me in typing work within stipulated time. I wish to convey my thank to beloved friends Dr Nagaraj S, Dr Kishor K, Nivedita,Dr and others U.G friends for their co-operation. I am highly indebted to my beloved Father in law Late Shri SharanegoudaGaddigoudar and Mother in law Smt Mallamma for their inspiration. I am also highly thankful to my beloved parents Shir Pampangouda Patil,and SmtMahantamma who are the basement for my studies.& my career. I am also thankful to my beloved brothers Mahesh Patil Udayashankar,MahenteshPatil and my sister Anitha and brother in law Mounesh gouda & Sharanamma, Suvarna,Uma .Najaratna & their family for their love and affection. This list is incomplete without remembering my beloved husband Dr AyyanagoudaS.Gaddigoudar who is the root cause for my P.G studies and helped me in all respects.Encouraged and inspired me every moment to complete this valuable dissertation work.DatePlace Sunita
  8. 8. ABBREVIATIONA.H - Astamga HrudayaA.P.I - Ayurvdic Pharamacopoeia of IndiaA.R - Abhidana RatnamalaA.S - Astanga SangrahaB.P - BhavaorakshaB.P.N - Bhavapraksha NighantuC.S - Charaka Samhita Sutra StanaC.S - CharakasmhitaD.N - Dhanvantari NighantuD.G.Pr - Dravyaguna Vijnana by Priyavrat SharmaD.G.V.MG - Dravyaguna Vijnana by V.M. GogteDGYT - Dravyaguna Vijnana by Yadavji TrikamjiI.M.M - Indian Materia MedicaI.M.P - Indian Medicinal PlantsK.N - Kaiyadeva NighantuM.N - Madanapala NighantuMau.N - Mahaushadha NighantuN.A - Nighantu AdarshaR.N - Raja NighantuSha.Sm - Sharangadhara Samhita Madhyama KhandaSu - Sushruta SamhitaV.S - Vangasena
  9. 9. ABSTRACT Charaka included Asvapna in 80 Nonataja vata vikara but has not explained in chikitsasthana Madhavakara also mentioned Nidranasha as lakshana in some diseases.Nidranasha can be correlated with Insomnia on the basis symptoms mentioned in litratures.Insomnia is difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep and may be short term or chronic.compartive clinical trail has been carried out with the required parameters. HerePippalimoola(Roots of Pipper longum) and Maricha(Piper nigrum) are used in the form ofvati to find out their comparative efficacy in Nidranasha (V.N 1/718 1/712).OBJECTIVES1.To evaluate the efficacy of Maricha patra choorna in Nidranasha.2.To evaluate the efficacy of Pippalimoola choorna in Nidranasha.3.To compare the efficacy of Maricha patra and Pippalimoola in Nidranasha.METHODIn this comparative clinical study, 30 patients randomly selected & grouped as A & Breceives Marichapatra vati & Pippalimoola vati respectively for the duration of 30 days withdose of 1gm B.D.Efficacy was assessed by the difference of before & after treatment fromthe subjective parameters.RESULTSIndividually all the 2 groups showed highly significant in subjective parameters.Comparatively group B shows more significant than the group A.INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONThis clinical study shows the mean overall performance of group A and B(Marichapatravati & Pippalimoola vati) in all the parameters highly significant after the treatment.B(Pippalimoola vati) than the group A(Marihapatra vati).
  10. 10. KEY WORDSNidranasha; Primary Insomnia; Pippalimoola(Roots of Pipper longum); Maricha patra(Leaves of Piper nigrum); Methods; Clinical study; Results.
  11. 11. CONTENTS Page No1. Introduction 1-22. Objectives 3-33. Review of literature A) Drug Review 4-43 B) Disease Review 44-714. Methodology 72-815. Results 82-1126. Discussion 113-1207 Conclusion 121-1218 Summary 122-1229 Bibliography 123-13010 Annexure 131-137
  12. 12. LIST OF TABLES Table 1 MARICHA Page No.Table 1.1 - Showing synonyms according to different authors 06Table 1.2 - Showing Gana and Varga according to different classics 07Table 1.3 - Showing Guna & Karma according to different authors 08Table 1.4 - Showing Prayoga according to different authors 09Table 1.5 - Showing use of Maricha in different Yoga’s 10-12 Table 2 PIPPALI MOOLATable 2.1 - Showing synonyms according to different authors 27Table 2.2 - Showing Gana and Varga according to different classics 28Tables 2.3 - Showing Guna according to different authors 29Tables 2.4 - Showing Karma according to different authors 30Table 2.5 - Showing Prayojyanga according to different authors 31Table 2.7 - Showing use of Pippalimoola in different yoga’s 32-33 Table 3 DISEASETable 3.1 - Showing synonyms according to different authors 52Table 3.2 - Showing Nidranasha as a svatahtra vyadhi 53Table 3.3 - Showing Nidranasha as a Lakshana in various disease 54Table 3.4 - Showing Nidranasha as Nidana in various diseases 54Table 3.5 - Showing Nidranasha as a pooravarupa of various diseases 54Table 3.6 - Showing Causative factors for Insomnia 69
  13. 13. Table 4 OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS Page NoTable 4.1-Showing age distribution of 30 patients.Table 4.2-Showing sex distribution of 30 patientsTable 4.3-Showing distribution of religion of 30 patientsTable 4.4-Showing distribution of patients according to the occupationTable 4.5-Showing distribution of patients according to the economical statusTable 4.6-Showing distribution of patients according to the diet habitTable 4.7-Showing presenting symptoms of thirty patientsTable 4.8-Showing duration of the patients in the present studyTable 4.9-Showing prakruti of thirty patientsTable 4.10-Showing Agni of thirty patientsTable 4.11 -Showing grades of Reduction in sleep time before treatment in Group A, BTable 4.12-Showing grades of Reduction in sleep time after treatment in Group A & BTable 4.13-Showing grades of difficulty in initiating sleep before treatment in Group A &BTable 4.14-Showing grades of difficulty in initiating sleep after treatment in Group A & BTable 4.15-Showing grades of wakefullness during normal sleep before treatment in Group A & BTable 4.16-Showing grades of wakefullness during normal sleep agter treatment inGroup A & BTable 4.17-Showing grades of Angamarda before treatment in Group A . BTable 4.18-Showing grades of Angamarda after treatment in Group A & BTable 4.19-Showing grades of Shirogourava before the treatment in Group A & BTable 4.20-Showing grades of Shirogourava after the treatment in Group A & BTable 4.21-Showing grades of Jrumbha before the treatment in Group A & BTable 4.22-Showing grades of Jrumbha after the treatment in Group A & BTable 4.23-Showing comparative results of Group A & B with reduction in sleep timeTable 4.24-Showing comparative results of Group A & B with difficulty in initiatinsleepTable 4.25-Showing comparative results of Group A & B with wakefullness during normal sleepTable 4.26-Showing comparative results of Group A & B with AngamardaTable 4.27-Showing comparative results of Group A & B with ShirogouravaTable 4.28-Showing comparative results of Group A & B with JrumbhaTable 4.29-Showing statistical analysis of subjective parameters in Group ATable 4.30-Showing statistical analysis of subjective parameters in Group BTable 4.31-(a) Showing comparative treatment result of Group A & B
  14. 14. Table 4.32-Showing comparative overall assessment of therapeutic response of Group A&B
  15. 15. LIST OF GRAPHS. Page NoGraph 1 - Showing Age distribution of 30 patients 82Graph 2 - Showing Sex distribution of 30 patients 83Graph 3 - Showing distribution patients according to the Religion 84Graph 4 - Showing distribution of patients according to the Occupation85Graph 5 - Showing distribution of patients acc to the Economical status86Graph 6 - Showing distribution of patients acc to the diet habbit 87Graph 7 - Showing presenting symptoms of 30 patients 89Graph 8 - Showing duration of the patients in the present study 90Graph 9 - Showing Agni bala of 30 patients 91Graph 10 - Showing prakruti of thirty patients 92Graph 11 - Showing comparative results of Groups A & B with Reduction in sleep time 99Graph 12 - Showing comparative results of group A & B difficulty in 100 initiating sleepGraph 13 - Showing comparative results of Group A & B c wakefulness 101 during normal sleepGraph 14 - Showing comparative results of A & B with Angamarda 102Graph 15 - Showing comparative results of A & B with Shirogurava 103Graph 16 - Showing comparative results of A & B with Jrumbha 104Graph 17 - Showing comparative over all assessment of therapauic 108 Response of Group A & B
  16. 16.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha INTRODUCTION Ayurveda is a science of life with two main aims maintenance of normal health andpromotion of possitive health, and cure of the diseases. In 1971 W.H.O recognizedAyurveda the Indian tradition of medicine is much popular for curing the most of thediseases. As the drug being one among the chikitsa chatuspada and the armour of thephysician. So the drug occupies as prime position for the achievement of the success oftreatment. The drug is given vital importance because of its efficacy, cost effective easyavailability and multiple formulations. Since the time immemorial herbs as being used asfood as time immemorial herbs are being used as good as for medicinal purpose andalso for making materials like chariot etc. Nidranasha is a nonotmaja Vata Vyadhi mentioned by charaka and it is also aLakshana of some of the diseases, according to Madhavakara & Yogaratnakara.Nidranasha can be correlated to Insomnia. Which is difficulty in initiating or maintainingsleep, and may be short term or chronic. The onset of primary insomnia is usually inyoung adult hood and middle age. About 25% of elderly people and 5% of the general population suffers fromInsomnia. In India about 3-4% of total population suffer from this complaint. So                                                                                                                            
  17. 17.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaNidranasha has become a major problem in the present days due to altered life styles,busy schedules and stressful living. The management of Insomnia in contemporary sciences mainly depends on mostcommonly available antidepressant drugs, sedatives, tranquilizer and hypnotic drugspresent available treatment with contemporary science is only able to give a temporaryrelief to the patients. therefore there is a great demand for the drugs which will relievesleeplessness. So Ayurvedic approach to this problem of Nidranasha aims, basically to correctthe deranged sleep. Then to provide induction of sleep there by giving a long lastingrelief to the patients. Among the various formulations indicated in the management of Nidranasha,Maricha patra (leaves of Piper Nigrum Linn) and Pippali moola (Roots of Piper LongumLinn) appears to be very cost effective, easily available and there is no adverse effect. The Maricha possesses Katu tikta rasa,Ushna veerya and Katu vipaka Vata haraproperty due to Ushna veerya it allivates the aggrevated Vata, As Nidranasha is causedby the Vikruti of Vata this property helps in curing Nidranasha and Pippali moola ishaving Katu tikta rasa,Katu vipaka,Ushna veery,Vata hara, Shoolahara,yogavahi andRasayana properties. Which are helpful in the Shamana of Vata & Pitta and makes dhatuposhana and mentains the regular sleep. The present study aims at a comparative study on the efficacy of Maricha patra andPippali moola in the management of Nidranasha (Primary Insomnia).                                                                                                                            
  18. 18.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha  OBJECTIVES1.To evaluate the efficacy of the Maricha patra choorna in Nidranasha.2. To evaluate the efficacy of Pippalimoola choorna in Nidranasha.3.To compare the efficacy of Marichapatra and Pippalimoola choorna in Nidranasha.4.To provide cost effective and cheaper therapy                                                                                                                                  
  19. 19.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha  DISEASE REVIEWHISTORICAL REVIEWThe knowledge of history assists us to pave the pathway for future. It is a general beliefthat documentation of Indian culture starts from the Vedic period. As Nidranasha is notmentioned as a separate disease so review on Nidranasha along with Nidra from theVedic period is being presented here chronologically.Vaidika Kala: In Atharva Veda Shaunakeeya Shakha, during explaining the maulika Siddhantain Dravyaguna the reference of Nidrajanana as a Karma is available.Samhita Kala:In this period Charaka, Sushruta, Bhela and Kashyapa Samhita gave descriptions relatedto Nidra and Nidranasha. Charaka and Sushruta have not described Nidranashaseparately. Charaka has described Nidana of Nidranasha in the context of AtinidraChikitsa in Sutrasthana 21st Chapter and then Chikitsa of Nidranasha is also described.Sangraha Kala: In Astanga Sangraha and Astanga Hridaya the Nidana & Chikitsa of Nidranashaare available. Madhavakara also mentioned Nidranasha as lakshana in some diseases.Adhunika Kala: Bhavaprakash and Yogaratnakara have described Nidana and Chikitsa ofNidranasha and also explained it as lakshana in some diseases.
  20. 20.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha CONCEPT OF NIDRA Etymological derivation of Nidra119:(1) Root Ni + dra + rak + ta = Nidra The word Nidra is formed by the prefix Ni + dra + rak + ta. It is always used in feminine gender. This is a state of nature which causes encapsulation to the consciousness of the person.Nidra: So the acharyas of Ayurveda has given importance to the sleep by considering itone among Trayopasthambha and discussed its role in maintenance of life120. Sleep is mentioned as one among the thirteen Adharaneeya Vegas121 The happiness, nourishment, strength, virility, knowledge and life depends on theproper or adequate sleep122 Charaka has called the Sleep as Bhuta Dhatri which occurred by nature of Night,that nourishes all the living beings. Sushruta has mentioned it as a SvabhavikaRoga123,124 Like Aahara the adequate sleep is essential for maintenance of the body 125 Sushruta called Nidra as Vaishnavimaya on a metaphoric language which is aphysiological process and provides nourishment to the living body and maintains thehealth126 Bhavaprakasha has described importance of sleep in fetal life. He hasemphasized that the fetus in the womb enjoys better rest and comfort when the mothersleeps during pregnancy127
  21. 21.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha Definition of Nidra: Nidra cannot be explained in a concise form. From the time immemorial it is aquestion in every mind that what is sleep, how it occurs and what is its role in health.Though there are various views regarding sleep but all considered it as one of theessential function for the living beings.Different opinions are as follows:(i) Nidra is the state of life where Jnanendriaya and Karmendriaya are not doing their functions128(ii) Nidra is the state where mind and intellects are at rest129(iii) Sharngadhara mentions that Nidra is a state where predominance of Kapha and Tamas is seen130
  22. 22.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha i) Ayurvedic concept: Several concepts have been put forward by our ancient Ayurvedic Acharyas in their texts to explain the phenomenon of Nidra which can be studied under following headings. a) Tamoguna theory : 1. Sushruta explains Utpatti of nidra by giving importance to Hridaya which is considered as Chetana Sthana. When Chetana Sthana Hridaya is over come or enveloped by Tamas, the person goes to sleep131. 2. Astanga Hridaya states that at night, Tamas being powerful and the higher psychic centers being over powered by it, then the living organism goes to sleep132. 3. According to Kashyapa the Satvaguna is Prakashaka (brightening), Raja guna is Pravartaka (promoter) and Tama guna is Niyamaka (controller). So predominance of Tamoguna than Satva and Raja is the prime cause for sleep133. b) Kapha Dosa Theory : 1) Sushruta mentions that when the Sanjavaha srotas are filled with Kapha and Indriyas are deprived from their respective objects of senses, the person goes to sleep. He also clearly mentions the role of Kapha and Tama for Nidra Utpatti134. 2) Astanga Sangraha states that due to Avarana by Shlesma of the Srotas and Shrama of both types of the Indriyas occur which dissociates from their respective senses then Nidra occurs135. 3) Astanga Hridaya describes that whenever the sensation conveying channels of the body are blocked or filled up by the Shleshma and when this Shleshma is over saturated with the Tamasika quality the living being gets sleep136.
  23. 23.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha  c) Fatigue theory: This theory is mainly stated by Aatreya school of Ayurveda and both Astanga Sangraha and Astanga Hridaya followed this view. 1) Charaka states that when the mind including Jnanendriya and Karmendriya are exhausted they dissociate themselves from their objects, and then the individual sleeps137. 2) Vagbhata gives importance to the Kapha Dosha and Shrama of the Indriya and Manas in the normal onset of sleep138. d) Svabhava : Ayurveda always gives emphasis on nature or Svabhava. According to this description even though we considered various theories still the natural instinct appears to be more powerful cause than others. Charaka and Sushruta have mentioned by nature, the night serves as a causative factor for sleep139,140.Types of Sleep: Various Acharyas have given various opinions regarding the types of sleep. Butbroadly it can classify into 2 types. 1) Svabhavika Nidra – which comes regularly and naturally at night. 2) Asvabhavika Nidra – which comes due to some other causes. Other types of Nidra according to different Acharyas are as follows:1) According to Charaka –141 a) Tamobhava b) Shleshmasamudbhava c) & (d) Manashareera Shrama Sambhava e) Agantuki f) Vyadhyanuvartini g) Ratri svabhava
  24. 24.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha 2) Sushruta classifies as follows:142 a) Tamasi b) Svabhavika / Vaishnavi c) Vaikarika3) Vagbhata’s classification of sleep is similar with Charak’s classification but the names differ143. a) Tamobhava e) Agantuki b) Kaphabhava f) Kalasvabhava c) Chittakhedaja g) Amayaja d) Dehakhedaja
  25. 25.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha  Nidra Tamasi Prakruta Vaikruta Tamobhava Sleshma Manoshrama Shareera shrama samudbhava sambhava sambhavaBenefits of Sleep1) Properly and timely taking sleep brings the happiness, nourishment, strength, virility, knowledge and maintains the life144.2) As the real knowledge brings about siddhi in a yogi similarly properly intake of sleep brings about happiness and longevity in human beings145. Persons who intake proper sleep in proper time will not suffer from diseases, their mind will be peaceful, they will gain strength, good complexion, good virility, attractive body and they will not be too lean or too fatty and they live good 100 years146.Concept of Nidranasha147 All the great sages of Ayurveda considered Nidra as a very essential factor for all theliving beings. Inadequate intake of Nidra (Nidranasha),leads to various problems likeDukha, Karsya, Abala, Klibata, Ajnana and at last leads to death also. Acharya Charaka explains Nidra and Nidranasha in the context of Asta NinditiyaAdhyaya of Sutra Sthana. Charaka included Asvapna (Nidranasha) in 80 Nanatmaja VataVikara but has not explained in Chikitsa Sthana148. Vagbhata in Astanga Sangraha mentions it in Viruddha Annavijnaniya Adhyaya and inAstanga Hridaya the Nidra, Nidra Vikaras and Chikitsa are mentioned under AnnarakshaAdhyaya149.
  26. 26.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha Etymological derivation of Nidranasha: The word Nidranasha is formed by composition of two words i.e. Nidra &Nasha.1. Nidra150 : Nidra is the state where mind and intelects are rest2. Nasha : Sabdastoma Mahanidhi explains ‘Nasha’ as Kshaya, Samkshaya, Apachya,Hrasa, Adarshana and Bhanga. So ‘Nasha’ means being lost, elimination, disappearance,destruction, etc. The definition of Nidranasha is not mentioned in any of the popular dictionariessuch as Monier William’s Sanskrit-English dictionary. But in translation work of 20thcentury authors have termed Nidranasha as Insomnia.Based on the above Nirukti the term Nidranasha can be broadly defined as the loss ofsleep or the derangement in the quality and quantity of sleep.Paryaya of Nidranasha: The word Nidranasha is described in different names in different contexts intexts. Various words used to denote Nidranasha are presented in the table.
  27. 27.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha A) Table No. – 1. Synonyms of Nidranasha Sl No Paryaya nama CS151 SS152 AH153 1 Anidra + + + 2 Alpanidra - + + 3 Asvapna + + + 4 Jagarana + - + 5 Nidranasha + + + 6 Nidravighata + - - 7 Nastanidra + - + 8 Nidradaurbalya - + - 9 Nidrabhramsa - - + 10 Nidrakshaya - + +Alpa Nidra : ‘Alpa’ means small, minute which refers to reduction in sleep time.Jagarana : ‘Jagarana’ means awake or waking Nidra Rahita, Nidra Abhava which refersto the loss of sleep or no sleep.Nidra Kshaya : ‘Kshaya’ means Hrasa, Adarshana, Bhanga So this term refers todisturbances in sleep, reduction in sleep time.Nidra Bhanga : The word ‘Bhanga’ means breaking, splitting, dividing which showsdisturbances of sleep.Nasta Nidra : ‘Nasta’ means lost, disappeared, deprived which convey the meaning ofloss of sleep.By seeing all these synonyms Nidranasha can be considered as difficulty in initiation ofsleep, reduction in sleep time and disturbances during sleep either one or more (ICD –10).
  28. 28.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha Classification of Nidranasha154:  Nidranasha may be classified under the following two broad headings byconsidering its etiological factors. 1) Svatantra Nidranasha – where Nidranasha is an independent disease. 2) Paratantra Nidnranasha – where Nidranasha appears as a Lakshana or Etiopathological factor, Poorvaroopa, Upadrava or Asadhya lakshanas of some disease.1. Svatantra Nidranasha : It may be seen rarely in ancient time but at present time it is a common problem in our society. Charaka, Vagbhata, etc. have mentioned Nidranasha as a disease condition under Nanatmaja Vatavyadhi and Pitta Vridhi Lakshanas. Sushruta has given the causative factors of Nidranasha as vitiated Vata and Pitta but it has not been described as a separate disease (Su.Sha 4/41) as shown in Table No.2B) Table No. - 2 Nidranasha as a Svatantra Vyadhi (as a disease) Name of Texts Vatika disorder Paitika disorder C.S. (Su,20/11) Asvapana - A.S.(Nidna stana) Asvapana + M.N. (22/7) Anidrata +
  29. 29.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha 2. Paratantra Nidranasha : Apart from the lists of Vataja Nanatmaja Vikara and Pitta Vridhi Lakshanas, Nidranasha also present in numerous diseases as a part of Nidana, Lakshana, Poorvaroopa, (Table No. 3 to 5)C) Table No. – 3 Nidranasha as a Lakshana in various diseases Sl. No Disease CS155 SS156 AH157 1 Vataja Jvara Prajagarana Nidranasha Jagarana 2 Vata pittaja Jvara Nidranasha Svapna nasha Anidrata 3 Vataja madatyaya Prajagarana - JagaranaD) Table No. - 4 : Nidranasha as Nidana in various diseases Sl. No Disease CS158 SS159 AH160 1 Vata raktha Prajagarana Jagarana - 2 Vataja madatyaya Nisinidram - - Nishatya cha 3 Pandu roga - - Jagarana Table No. - 5 Nidranasha as a Poorvarupa of various diseases Sl. No Disease CS161 AH162 1 Jvara Prajagarana - 2 Sannipatjwara - Jagarana 3 Vatavyadhi - -
  30. 30.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha 1. Nidana of Nidranasha162 : There is no direct references regarding the causative factors of Nidranasha. InCharak Samhita, Astanga Hridaya and Astanga Samgraha the Acharayas are explainedthe Chikitsa procedure of Atinidra and in this context they mentioned that if any Atiyogaoccurs to these Chikitsa procedures it may leads to Nidranasha condition. So Atiyoga ofthese Chikitsa procedures may be taken as causative factors of Nidranasha byconsidering the Charaka’s opinions of ‘Eva Eva Cha Vigneyo NidranashasyaHetavaha.These factors are: 1) Atiyoga of Vamana 2) Atiyoga of Virechana 3) Atiyoga of Nasya karma 4) Atiyoga of Rakta mokshana 5) Atiyoga of Dhoomapana 6) Ati Chinta 7) Ati Krodha 8) Ati Bhaya 9) Ati Vyayama 10) Ati Upavasa 11)Asukha sayaa
  31. 31.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha  Further Sushruta has mentioned some extra Nidana factors which may causeNidranasha. These factors are163 1) Vata Vridhi 2) Pitta Vridhi 3) Manastapa 4) Kshaya 5) Abhighata Some other Nidana factors which may also causes the Nidranasha according toAstanga Sangraha are as follows164: 1) Lobha 2) Harsha 3) Vyatha 4) Atimaithuna 5) Ati kshudha 6) Rukshanna sevana 7) Yavanna sevana 8) Anjana So considering all these Nidana factors the Sharirika Doshas such as Vata, Pitta,and Manasika Dosa Raja may be the principal causative factors for Nidranasha. All these Nidana factors have been described in under following headings: 1) Aharaja Nidana – Rookshannasevana165. 2) Viharaja Nidana – Vyayama,Upavasa,Asukha Shayya166. 167 3) Manasika Nidana – Bhaya,Chinta,Krodha .
  32. 32.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha Vagbhata has described the symptoms which are produced due to Nidranasha are asfollows167a:• Angamarda • Bhrama• Shirogaurav • Apakti• Jrumbha • Tandra• Jadyata • Vataja Rogas• GlaniSamprapti168 As Nidranasha is not explained as a separate disease in Ayurveda so its sampraptiis also not available. However it can be constructed on the basis of Dosha, Dushya, etc.involved. Nidranasha is explained as Vataja Nanatmaja Vikara, in Vata and Pitta Vridhilakshanas and lakshanas of some other diseases. In aged Nidranasha is common. During the description of Nidra Utpatti Acharayas have mentioned that SharirkaDosha Kapha, Manasika Dosa Tama, Chetana Sthana Hridaya and Sanjnavaha Srotas areresponsible for it. According to Yogic concept when Atma having contact withManomaya Kosa then Susupti Avastha (Sleep) occurs. So if there will be any changes inthis physiological process or in this physiological path it causes the Nidranasha. Hence it is evident that the Vata, Pitta, Raja, Hridaya and Sanjnavaha Srota playimportant role in the Samprapti of Nidranasha. So the vitiation of these factors leads tothe condition of Nidranasha.
  33. 33.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha The schematic diagram of Samprapti of Nidranasha can be represented as follows: Nidana Aaharaja, Viharaja Manasika & Anya ↑ Vata ↑ Pitta ↓ Kapha ↑ Satwa ↑ Raja ↓ Tama (Chala, Ruksha (Ushma & (Snigdha, Guru & Laghuguna) Tikshna guna) & Manda guna) Kaphakshaya Tamakshaya Lack of sleshma or Tama avarana to Chetanasthana hridayaor Sanjnavaha Srotas NidranashaBahya Upacharas for Nidranasha169Charaka mentioned Abhyanga,Utsadana,Samvahana,Akshitarpana,Moordhni Taila asbahya upacharas.Manasika Upacharas for Nidranasha170Charaka mentioned Manonukula vishaya grahana,Manonukula sabdagranaha,Manonukula gandha granaha, as manasika upacharasAahara Upacharas for Nidranasha171Charaka mentioned Gramya mamsa rasa,Anupa mamsa rasa,Jaleeya mamsarasa,Mahisha ksheera,Peeyusha,Morata as manasika upacharas
  34. 34.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha  Some other measures, which can be advised to the patient of Nidranasha, though arenot mentioned in Ayurvedic texts, are as follows:• Maintaining regular time for going to bed.• Avoid smoking, tea, coffee or alcohol at night before going to sleep.• Not indulge in any type of work or reading till late night.• Should devoid of thoughts tensions before going to bed.• Hearing soft music or favorite songs also induces sleep.• 5-10 minutes mediation before going for sleep.• Offering prayer before sleep.• Washing of hand, feet and face before goes to sleep.• Avoid of day sleep.• Proper evacuation of stool and urine.• Avoid mosquito bites.• Maintenance of adequate privacy and free from disturbance.
  35. 35.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha Concept of Sleep Definition of Sleep172 Sleep is defined as a state of changed consciousness or partial unconsciousnessand a state of physical and mental inactivity from which the subject can be aroused bystimuli.Physiology of Sleep173 Modern research workers and scientists are doing many experiments and clinicalobservations to find out the exact nature of the physiological process of sleep. But tilldate, no single explanation can be accepted as the final theory for the understanding ofphysiology of sleep in any modern text. There were so many theories exist regarding the phenomenon of sleep which areas follows:1) Vascular Theory: Decreased reduction in the blood supply to the brain is the basic phenomenon of sleep.2) Chemical Theory : Some chemicals like lactic acid, acetyl choline, bromide or specific fatigue toxins were supposed to accumulate during working which irritates the nerve cells of the brain and causes sleep as a result.3) Cortical theory or Kleitman’s theory : Sleep is caused due to reduction of the muscle tone and discharge of less afferent impulses, thereby keeping the cerebral cortex inactive.
  36. 36.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha 4) Pavlov’s Theory : Pavlov as a result of his study of conditioned reflexes in dogs, proposed a theory for sleep, based upon the cortical inhibition caused by the repeated elicitation of a condition response without reinforcement. The conditioned inhibition slowly spread the entire cortex that caused sleep, according to Pavlov (The living body, C.H.Best & N.B. Taylor).Passive Theory : This is the earlier theory for sleep which suggests in the awake statealertness of the cerebral cortex (the conscious brain)5) Is mediated by the ‘RAS’ (Reticular Activating System), when RAS activity declines, cerebral cortical activity declines as well. Thus lesion of RAS nuclei results unconsciousness. However sleep is much more than simply turning of the arousal (RAS) mechanism.6) Active Theory : It based on an experiment that – sleep is probably caused by an active inhibitory processSo there seems to be some center or centers located below the mid pontine level ofbrainstem that actively cause sleep by inhibiting other parts of the brain.7) Role of Neuro humoral substance : Stimulation of several specific areas of brain can produce sleep.The most conspicious stimulation areas for causing almost natural sleep is the raphe nuclei in the lower half of the pons and in the medulla.It is also known that many of the endings of the fibers from their raphe neurones secret serotonin which assumed that serotonin is the major transmitter substance associated with production of sleep.Experiment shows when a drug given which blocks the serotonin secretion cause the animal awake for several days.
  37. 37.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha Sleep-wake cycle174: The term ‘sleep-wake cycle’ means in a 24 hours period a man sleeps how manyhour and how many hours remains awake. For example if a person sleeps 7 hours andremains awake 17 hours, then the sleep-wake cycle of that person is 7/17 hours. Thenthis is also called as ‘Circadian clock’. When the sleep centers are not activated, the release from inhibition of themesencephalic and upper pontine reticular nuclei allows this region to becomespontaneously active. This in turn from excites both the cerebral cortex and theperipherals nervous system both of which then send numerous positive feed back signalsback to the same reticular nuclei to activate them still further. Once wakefulness begins,it has a natural tendency to sustain itself because of all this positive feedback activity. After the brain remains active for many hours, even the neurons within theactivating system presumably will become fatigued consequently, the positive feedbackcycle between the mesencephalic reticular nuclei and the cortex will fade and theinhibitory effects of the sleep centers will take over, leading to rapid transition from thewakefulness state to sleep state. Then one could postulate that during prolonged sleep, the excitatory neurons ofthe reticular activating system gradually become more and more excitable because of theprolonged rest, whereas the inhibitory neurons of the sleep centers become less excitablebecause of their over activity, thus leading to a new cycle of wakefulness. It can also explain arousal, the insomnia that occurs when a person’s mindbecomes preoccupied with a thought the wakefulness that is produced by bodily activity.Many other conditions that affect the person’s state of sleep or wakefulness.
  38. 38.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha Types of Sleep175: In terms of the EEG pattern the sleeps are of 2 types 1) Slow wave sleep or NREM sleep (Deep sleep) – where the brain waves are very slow. 2) REM sleep – where the eyes undergo rapid movements despite the fact that the person is still asleep. Each night a person goes through stages of 2 different types of sleep thatalternate with each other. Most sleep during each night is of the NREM sleep which is the deep sleep.There is a periodical alteration in REM and NREM sleep with each cycle lastingapproximately 70-90 min. REM sleep typically occupies 20-25% of the human circadiansleep period while NREM sleep occupies the remaining 75-80% of the time spent asleep.1. REM Sleep (Paradoxical sleep or Desynchronized sleep):i. It usually appears on the average of every 90 min. interval.ii. 1st bout of REM sleep occurs after 80-100 min of sleep.iii. Bouts of REM sleep lasting 5-30 min.
  39. 39.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha Characteristics of REM sleep:• Usually associated with active dreaming.• More difficult to arouse by sensory stimuli then NREM sleep.• Eyes move rapidly under the lids during REM sleep. It is mainly due to dreaming.• Most dreaming occurs during REM sleep.• Most nightmares, night terrors occurs during 3rd and 4th bouts of REM sleep.• In adolescents and adult male, REM sleep is associated with erections of penis.• Oxygen used by brain during REM sleep is greater than during the awake state because brain is highly active in REM sleep and over all brain metabolism may be increased as much as 20%.• Increase of Body temperature, Heart rate, Respiratory rate and Blood pressure.• Decrease of GIT motility.• Most of the body’s muscles are actively inhibited and go limp. This temporary paralysis prevents us from acting out our dreams.• Muscle tone through out the body is exceedingly depressed which indicates the strongly inhibition of the spinal projection from excitatory area of the brain stem.
  40. 40.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha 2. NREM Sleep : This sleep is exceedingly restful and is associated with a decrease in bothperipheral vascular tone and many other vegetative functions of the body as well. Thereis a 10-30% decrease in Blood pressure, Respiratory rate and BMR. It frequently called as dreamless sleep but dreams and night mares may occuroften during this sleep. The dreams in REM sleeps are remembered where as in NREMSleep are not.Stages of NREM Sleep : It have 4 stages -Stage 1 : Eyes are closed and relaxation begins. Thoughts flit and out and driftingsensation occurs. Vital signs like temperature, pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate arenormal.Stage 2 : Sleep gradually deepens. It follows within minutes of Stage1.Stage 3 : Sleep deepens, vital signs begin to decline. Skeletal muscles very relaxed.Dreaming is common. It takes about 20 min. after the onset of Stage 1.Stage 4 : Vital signs reach to their lowest normal levels, digestive system motilityincreases. Skeletal muscles are relaxed. Arousal is difficult. Bed wetting and sleepwalking occurs during this stage.
  41. 41.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha Benefits of sleep176:1) Sleep is necessary for processes of energy regulation and also for cellular rejuvenation2) Slow-wave sleep (NREM) serves as protective functions as follows: a) The association between Slow-wave sleep and anabolic steroid secretion. b) Diminished capacity for Slow-wave sleep rebound in affective disorder and schizophrenic patients compare to healthy controls. c) The correlation between Slow-wave sleep rebound and improvement in mood following sleep deprivation in endogenous depressives.3) Persons having 7-9 hrs sleep/night have significantly lower rates of illness.4) Decrease in metabolic rate during night sleep by 5-25% which caused conservation of energy.5) Particularly NREM sleep serves restorative function for the whole body while REM sleep for brain (cognitive functions) restoration. a) Total body restoration : - Consumption of oxygen is lowest during slow-wave sleep. - Rate of anabolism is at its peak during sleep. - It has been postulated that Slow-wave sleep (NREM) being more important for macromolecular synthesis and REM sleep for removing of the synthetic products of slow-wave sleep to maintain synaptic connections which is necessary to maintain cognitive functions (ABC of Sleep disorders). b) Brain restoration :Some research workers have postulated that it is the brain not the body that recuperatesduring sleep and that counteracts the effects of the metabolism of the brain during theday.
  42. 42.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha Sleep Disorders177 Interests on sleep disorders started in the early 1970’s when obstructive sleepapnea becomes established as a common and often life threatening condition. A numberof survey’s carried out in different countries indicates that sleep related complaints aremost commonly encountered in modern medicine. The disturbances of sleep are alsovery common complaints in psychiatry. Sleep is disturbed in several ways in its pattern,quality and duration. As age advances the average sleeping time decreases which isnormal phenomenon. In some pathological problems like mania, insomnia may be total.Delay in falling asleep (early insomnia) occurs in anxiety, depression is characterized byearly waking up (late insomnia) and the sleep is usually non-refreshing. The sleep wakepattern is disturbed in certain organic conditions like delirium and dementia. Sleep isinterrupted in several conditions. So the proper appreciation and understanding of sleeprelated symptoms are therefore vital for an internist.Classification of Sleep Disorders:A. The classification of sleep disorders introduced in 1979 by the Association of Sleep Disorders Centers (ASDC) which has been widely accepted. It consists of 4 major types of sleep disorders.i. DIMS (Disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep)ii. DOES (Disorder of Excessive somnolence)iii. DOSWS (Disorder of sleep wake schedule)iv. Parasomnias
  43. 43.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha B. Sleep disorders according to ICSD (International Classification of Sleep Disorders) i. Dyssomnias ii. Sleep disorders associated with medical or psychiatric illness iii. Parasomnias iv. Proposed sleep disorders (Sleep related laryngeal spasm)C. Sleep disorders according to DSM-IV i. Dyssomnias ii. Parasomnias iii. Sleep disorders related to another mental disorders iv. Others sleep disorders1) Dyssomnias : Some author described the following classification under Dyssomnias a) Insomnia (DIMS) b) Hypersomnia (DOES) c) Disorders of Sleep-wake schedule (DOSWS)a) Insomnia (DIMS) – described later onb) Hypersomnia (DOES) – It may be due to - Psychological or associated with psychiatric disorders - Use of drugs or alcohol - Sleep induced ventilatory impairments i.e. sleep apnoea, etc. - Periodic leg movements and restless leg syndrome - Narcolepsy / Cataplexy - Idiopathic CNS hyper somnolence
  44. 44.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha INSOMNIA178 During classification of sleep disorders Insomnia is mentioned under Dyssomnia.A synonym also gives for insomnia which shows its clinical features i.e. DIMS(Disorders of Initiation and Maintenance of Sleep).Table No : 6Causative factors of Insomnia: Psychiatric / environmental Symptoms Medical conditions conditions 1. For falling asleep • Any painful or • Anxiety (Difficulty in uncomfortable • Pre psychotic tension (stress) initiation of sleep) conditions • Environmental changes • CNS lesion • Sleep-wake cycle disorders2. For remaining asleep • Sleep apnoea syndrome • Depression (Difficulty in • Nocturnal myoclonus • Sleep-wake disorders maintaining of sleep) • Parasomnias • Dream interruption • Alcohol withdrawal • Environmental changes • CNS/ Painful diseases • Mania • Drug effects • Dementia, etc. Two unique disorders, which produce DIMS, include periodic leg movementsand restless leg syndromeDiagnosis of Insomnia: People are varying in their amount of sleep they require and some of those whocomplain of insomnia may be having enough sleep without realising it.
  45. 45.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha  Usually the diagnosis of Insomnia can be based on the account given by thepatient. EEG recordings are occasionally helpful whether there is continuing doubt aboutthe extent and nature of the insomnia. So diagnosis of insomnia made on the basis offollowing points:• The sleep disturbances like – - Difficulty in initiation of sleep - Difficulty in maintaining of sleep (may be frequent awakening or early morning awakening) - Non restorative sleep (i.e. despite adequate duration of sleep, feeling of not having proper sleep) (Poor quality of sleep)• It causes either marked distress or interferes with social and occupational functioning. Above sleep disturbances (either one or more) if occurs at least 3 times in a weekfor at least one month can be diagnosed as Insomnia.Types: Mainly Insomnia is of 2 typesi) Primary – No discernible cause for insomniaii) Secondary – It is caused by one of several medical conditions that affect sleep.
  46. 46.                                                Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha 1. Primary Insomnia : About 15% of all the insomnia is primary origin. They are rare in childhood andadolescences but become more prevalent as age advances. Females are more affected.Symptoms of primary insomnia are - Difficulty in initiating of sleep (more common in younger adults) - Difficulty in maintaining of sleep (common in elderly) - Not related to any mental disorders or physical conditions - Individual shows excessive worry during the day about not being able to fall asleep. - In evening the person shows intense efforts to fall asleep but becomes unsuccessful. - Person complaining of lethargy, fatigue, lack of concentration, easily irritable.He may resort to hypnotics or alcohol to reduce tension or cups of coffee or otherstimulants to overcome the tired feelings.2. Secondary Insomnia - Secondary to other disorders - Several psychiatric disorders are associated with insomnia - Also occur secondary to substance abuse like alcohol, amphetamine, steroids and several others - After a course of progressive worsening a chronic stable stage is reached with continue for several years. Sometimes the course is episodic with short periods of improvement and worsening.
  47. 47.                                                         Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaA) DRUG REVIEW CLASSICAL REVIEW OF THE DRUG MARICHA HISTORICAL ASPECT OF THE DRUG1,2 According to vedic litrature (Pa upanishad.Bhoja 2/2/77). Brahmans should not sell maricha and pippali. It means the utility of Maricha is very less compared to that of pippali in the Rugveda. However, in the Samhita period the utility of black pepper is more realized and used extensively in the therapeutics. The drug is also mentioned in the works of kalidas (4th century A.D), Bhana bhatta (7th century A.D) & in Amarakosha, (6th century A.D). In Gupt kala some important spicy drugs were being transported from India to Arab country among them Maricha is one. Brhattrayi exensively decribed this plant as apetizer,carminative and antimicrobial. Sharangdhara quoted it as the example for chedana & pramathi group of drugs. Brhattryai have quoted another variety of Maricha i.e Sweta maricha (C.S Ci 20/193, S.S 54 46/224.A.H.Ut 16/2-5 & A.H U 36/71). In the Nighantu period we get explaination of Maricha.       
  48. 48.                                                         Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaSYNONYMS WITH MEANING Maricha - That which dispels poisons. Ooshanam - That which causes burning sensation. Krishnam - Fruits are black when dried. Vallija - It is born on the creepers. Vrittaphalam - Fruit is round in shape. Dharmapattanam - That which grows near Dharmapatanam. Vritta - It is potent drug for disorders caused by kapha. Shakanga - It is also one of the spieces. Yavanistam - That which is liked by Westerners. Suvruttam - The fruit is round in shape. Teekshna - As it is sharp in quality Katuka - It causes secretion from eyes, nose and mouth Vellaja - It grows near rivers. Kolakam, Kolam - Fruits are in clusters.      
  49. 49.                                                         Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaTable 1.1 : SYNONYMS ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT AUTHORS. Synonyms Cha3 Su4 A.H5 D.N6 BP.N7 R.N8 M.N9 K.N10 N.A11 Maricha + + + + + + + + + Vellija - - - + + + + + - Krishna - - - + + - - - + Ooshana - - - + + + - + + Dharmapattana - - - + + + - - + Palita - - - + - + - - - Shyama - - - + - + + + - Yavanesta - - - + - + - + - Shirovrutta - - - + - + - + - Kolaka - - - + - + - + - Teekshna - - - - - - + + - Malinam - - - - - - + + - Vruttaphala - - - - - + - - - Shakanga - - - - - + - - - Katukancha - - - - - + - - - Veeram - - - - - + - - - Kaphavirodhi - - - - - + - - - Suvrutta - - - - - - - + - Charmabandanam - - - - - - - + - Vallija - - - - - - - - + Dhanvantari - - - - - - - - +      
  50. 50.                                                         Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaTable 1.2 : GANA AND VARGA : ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT CLASSICS. Charaka Samhita Deepaniya Shoola prashamana Krimighna Shirovirechana Shirovirechanopaga Aharopayogi varga Sushruta Samhita Pippalyadi Trikatu Shirovirechana Rakta pravarataka Astanga Sangraha Shirovirechana gana Vatsakadi Pippalyadi Deepaniya Dhanvantari Nighantu Shatapushpadi varga Madanapala Nighantu Shuntyadi varga Raja Nighantu Pippalyadi varga Kaiyadeva Nighantu Oushadi varga Bhavapraksha Nigantu Haritakyadi varga Mahaushada Nigantu Mahaushada varga Nighantu Aadarsha Aadrakadi varga Abidana Ratnamala Katuskanda      
  51. 51.                                                         Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha GUNA KARMATable 1.3 : GUNA (PROPERTIES) ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT AUTHORS. GUNA Cha12 Su13 A.H14 D.N15 M.N16 R.N17 K.N18 BP.N19 P.V.S20 Rasa - Katu + + + + - + + + + Tikta - - - + + + - - - Guna - Laghu + + + + - + + - - Rooksha - - + + + + + + - Ushna + + + + + + + + + Teekshna - - + - - + - + - Veerya - Ushna + + + - - - + - + Vipaka - Katu + + + - + - + - - Doshagnata-Kapha + + + + + + + + + Vata shamaka + + - - + + + + +Table 1.4 : KARMA (ACTIONS) ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT AUTHORS Karma Cha21 Su22 A.Hr23 D.N24 M.N25 K.N26 BP.N27 Mau.N28P.V.S29 R.N30 Krimighna + - + + + + + + + - Shwasahara + - + - + + + + + - Deepana + + + - + + + + + - Shoolaghna + - + - + + + + + - Rochana + - + - + + + + - + Shirovirechana + + - - - - - - - - Hridya - - - - - - - - - + Kustahara + - - - - - - - - - Kasahara + - - - - + - - - - Chakshushya - + - - - - - - - - Gulmahara + - - - - - - - + - Rakta - + - - - - - - - - Pravartaka Jwarahara + - - - - - - - - -      
  52. 52.                                                         Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaTable 1.5 : PRAYOGA ( USES ) ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT AUTHORS. Prayoga Cha31 Su32 D.N33 R.N34 M.N35 K.N36 BP.N37 Mau.N 38 Shoola + + + - + + + + Krimi + - + - + + - + Swasa + - - - + + - + Agnimandya + - - - + + - + Shirashula + - - - - - - + Jwara + - - - - - - - Aruchi + - - + - + - + Hridorga - - - + - - + - Shotha - - - - - - + - Gulma + - - - - - - - Udakodara + - - - - - - - Vamana - - - - - + + - Prameha - - - - - - - - Kapha prakopa + - - - + - - - Unmada + - - - - - - - Udara + - - - - - + -BHEDA(VARITIES)39 The Maricha,which we are using in medicines, is of two types. They are,1. Krishna maricha2. Shweta maricha.ADULTERATION Seeds of evening prime rose are mixed.40PRAYOJYA ANGA – Phala ( fruit )41      
  53. 53.                                                         Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaTable 1.6 : USE OF MARICHA IN DIFFERENT YOGAS.SL.NO YOGA INDICATION REFERENCE 1 Amrtaprashaghrita Jwara,Trishna A.H.Chi 94/101 2 Cyavanaprashavaleha Atidaha Kasa,Shwasa Hridroga Cha.Chi 1/62-74 3 Hingu Suvarchaladya Ghrita Shoola,Anaha, Gulma Cha.chi 5/69-70 4 Madhvasava K & P prameha,Pandu, Grhani Kotha Cha.Chi 15/65-67 5 Kanakabindvarista Mahakusta,Kshudra Kusta, Cha.Chi 76/80 Bhagandhara, Kasa 6 Kanakakshiri Taila Krimi,Kandu,Mandala Kusta Cha.Chi 111/116 7 Punaranavadyarista Jwara,Arochaka,Gulma Cha.Chi 34/38 Kusta,Bhagandara 8 Kamsa Haritaki Shota,Swasa,Jwara,Aruchi,Prameha. Cha.Chi 50/52 9 Chitrakadi Ghrita Amavata,Raktapitta,Arsha,Gulma,Shoola Cha.Chi 55/56 10 Naryana Churna Udararoga,Shota, Vata Vistamba, Gulma Cha.Chi 112/114 11 Nilinyadya Churna Gulma,Udara Cha.Chi 5/137/138 12 Manashiladyanjana Netrakandu,Timira Shuklarma Su:u 19/102 13 Hapushadi Ghrita Shwasa,Gulma Kasa Cha.Chi 5/71/73 14 Hingvadi Churna Anaha,Mootrakriccha,Grahani Cha.Chi 5/79/83 15 Talishadi Gutika Rajayakshma Cha.Chi.8/145-147 16 Lashunadi Ghrita Apasmara,Unmada Cha.Chi 9/49-51 17 Dashamuli Ghrita Vishamajwara,Gulma Cha.Chi 5/142 18 Trayooshanadi Choorna Shoola,Anaha, Arsha Cha.Chi 14/62-64 19 Chavyadi Ghrita Mutrakrichha,pravahika,Arsha Cha.Chi 14/107-109 20 Abhayarista Pandu, Jwara,Kamala Cha.Chi 14/157-143 21 Kanakarista Hridroga,Pandu Cha.Chi 14/157-168 22 Navayasa Choorna Jwara Pandu, Hridroga Cha .Chi 16/70-71 23 Yoshadi Ghrita Pandu Cha.Chi 16/119      
  54. 54.                                                         Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaSL.NO YOGA INDICATION REFERENCE 24 Kusmanda Rasayan Kasa,Jwara.Shwasa Kshaya A.H Chi. 114-118 25 Sadava Churna Swasa, Kasa A.H.Chi 141b-144a 26 Chavikadighrta Kshayaja Kasa A.H Chi 159-161 27 Padmakadi Churna Kasa A.H.Chi 172-173 28 Yavanyadi Churna Hridroga,Aruchi,Arsha,Grahani A.H.Chi 55b-58a 29 Talisadi Churna Aruchi,Kasa,Swasa,Pandu A.H.Chi 58-60 Jwara,Atisara 30 Astanga Lavana Kaphaja Madatyaya A.H.Chi 40b-41 31 Abhayarista Pandu,Kusta,Udara,Shota A.H.Chi 64b-68a 32 Dadimastaka Churna Vataja Atisara A.H.Chi 113b-115 33 Dadhika Ghrita Apasmara.Unmada A.H Chi 13b-21a 34 Tiktaka Ghrita Kandu,Pandu,Nadi Vruna A.H.Chi 2B-7 35 Kalpataru rasa Kasa,Shwasa Bha.Praksha Chi Jwaradikara 310-314 36 Chitrakadivati Agnimandya,Ajeerna Bha.Chi Atisaradhi Kara 37 Trayooshana Mandura Pandu, Kusta, Kamala Bha.Chi Panduroga Vataka dhikara 50-54 Sholka 38 Astadashanglouha Pandu,Halimaka Shota Bha.Chi 55-56 Sholka 39 Manashiladyanjana Prameha,Netrakandu,timira Su.Uttaratantra 19/100-102 40 Gutikanjana Kukunaka Roga Su. Uttaratantra 20/19th Shloka 41 Panchagavya Ghrita Vishamajwara Su.U.39/223 42 Jwaranagara Churna Jwara,Kasa,Shoola Bhaishajya Ratnavali 5/466-478 43 Hata Vati Kasa, Shwasa Bhaishalya Ratnavali 5/534-535 44 Chitrakadi Churna Ajeerna Bhai.Ratnavali 7/27 45 Nagaradi Kwatha Raktapitta,Pittashoola Sha.S.M.Kha 2/97 46 Shuntyadi Kalka Parinama Shoola Amavata Sha.S.M.Kha 5/18 47 Panchakola Choorna Deepana,Pachana ,Anaha Sha.S.M.Kha 5/13-14      
  55. 55.                                                         Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaSL.NO YOGA INDICATION REFERENCE 48 Shuntyadi Choorna Amatisara Sha S.M. Kha 6/46 49 Chitrakadi Choorna Gulma,Grahani Sha.S.M. Kha 6/110-113 50 Yoshadi Vati Swasa, Kasa Sha.S.M. Kha 7/22-23 51 Pippalyadi Grutha Vishamajwara,Pleeharoga Sha.S.M. Kha 9/19-20 52 Changeri Grutha Grahani Vata Vikara Sha.S.M. Kha 9/21-27 53 Nagaradi Kashaya Jwara,Atisara C.D 2/4 54 Nagaradi Kwatha Atisara,Shoola C.D 2/30 55 Navayasa Loham Pandu,Kusta,Hrudroga C.D 8/10-11 56 Vishwadi leha Vatika kasa C.D 11/6 57 Kantkari Grutha Swarabheda,All types of Kasa C.D 13/12 58 Amrutadi Choorna Amavata,Sandishotha C.D 25/14 59 Patyadi Choorna Shotha,Agnimandya, Amavata C.D 25/24 60 Trikatukadi vati Anaha & Shoola C.D 29/8-9 61 Varunadi Kwatha Ashmani C.D 34/2-1 62 Ashta Dashanga Kwatha Jwara Y.R.Jwaradhikara. Chi 3rd Sholka 63 Navayasa Choorna Pandu,Hridroga Y.R.Pandu Roga Chikitsa 1st Sholka      
  56. 56.                                                         Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha MODERN REVIEW OF THE DRUG MARICHABOTANICAL NAME :-PIPER NIGRUM. Meaning of piper nigrum42 is – Piper - ( peppero-Greek ) derived from Pippali Nigrum - black, slightly tinged with grey colour.VERNACULAR NAME :43,44 Latin - Piper nigrum English - Black pepper Sanskrit - Maricha, Napusha Bengal - Golmaricha Marathi - Miri Telagu - Miriyalu Tamil - Milagu Kannada - Menasu Malayalam - Nallamulaku Tulu - Savyaamu Hindi - Kalimaricha French - Poivre Italian - Pepe German - Pfeffer Sindh - Gulmarich Urdu - Kalimirch Deccan - Choca, Kalimirchi      
  57. 57.                                                         Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaTAXONOMICAL CLASSIFICATION OF MARICHA.45 Kingdom - Plantae Division - Monochlamydeae Class - Dicotyledones Subclass - Archichlamydeae Series - Micrembryae Order - Piperales Family - Piperaceae Genus - Piper Species - NigrumFAMILY CHARACTER – PIPERACEAE46 Habit - Herbs or shrubs, often with swollen nodes usually aromatic. Leaf - Simple, entire, sometime secculent, alternate, rarely opposite or whorled, often gland dotted. Stipule - Absent or present and adnate to the petiole. Flower - Minute, hermaphrodite, or unisexual, in an axillary or terminal catkin.like Spikes subtended by a peltate bract. Perinath zero. Sepels - None Petals - None. Stamans - 2-6(rarely 7-8)hypogynous      
  58. 58.                                                         Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranasha Anthers - Often jointed on the filaments, the cells some times confluent, dehiscence ,longitudinal. Ovary - Ovary of 3-4 carpels with many ovules, less commonly ovary 1-celled with 1 ovule, sessile penicillate. Ovules - Orthotropous. stigmas distinct on the free carpels. Fruit - Small,indehiscent in the 1-celled species or of cocci or follicles in the many carpelled species. Seeds - Seeds may be globose, ovoid or ablong, testa thin,albumin copious,floury,embryo enclosed in an amniotic cavity. cotyledons minute or obsolete, radicle superior.      
  59. 59.                                                         Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaGENUS CHARACTERS – PIPER LINN. MORPHOLOGY ( HABIT )47 HABIT :- Shrubs (rarely herbs), errect or scandent, often glandolous and aromatic. Leaves - Entire, often unequal sided Stipules -Various. Flowers - Diecious (very rarely hermophrodite), minute,spicate with or without 2-lateral bracteoles. Sepels - None. Stamens - Stamens 2-4 (rarely more). Filaments - Short,anthers 2-celled, the cells distinct. Ovary - 1-celled,ovule solitary,erect Ovules - Solitary, erect. Style - Short, conic beaked or zero Stigma - 2-5 in number. Fruit - A small ovoid or globose one seeded berry. Seeds - Usually globose, testa thin, albumin floury within. With hardened periphery.      
  60. 60.                                                         Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaCHARACTERS OF PIPER NIGRUM.MORPHOLOGY ( HABIT )48 A stout glabrous climber, stems terete,sparingly rooting much thickend at the nodes. Leaves - Coriaceous, 10-18 by 5.12. 5cm. Broadly ovate ,acuminate, glabrous, 5- 9 nerved,the suprabasal nerves usually alternate,base usually rounded,more or less oblique. Petioles - Stout 1.3 –2.5 cm long.grooved above. Flower - Slightly interrupted glabrous spike of variable length (*5-15cm) diecious or some times polygamous Bisexual achlamydeous or without any perianth, bractate,the bracts more or less adnate to axis & forming a short. Inflorescence - Leaf opposed, simple, pendulous, slender glabrous, interrupted spikes, 10-20cm long but very variable in length & thickness or stoutness,bearing many flowers Stamens - 2 in number Stigma - 2.4 cm Fruit - Globose,6mm in diameter or less at first yellow,after wards becoming red when fully ripe. Seeds - Usually round with hardened periphery solitary with perisperm & floury Endosperm      
  61. 61.                                                         Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaDISTRIBUTION ( HABITAT)49 The plant pepper is found abundantly in the cultivated state in various parts of India from konkan southwards,especially N.Kenara & Kerala. It is cultivated also in ASSAM in the North. The plant frows well in places of fairly heavy rain fall and tolerates shade to some extent. The plants are trained on certain trees whose foliage is not very dense such as Moringa pterigosperna,Mangi fera Indica etc.PHARMACOGNOSTICAL FEATURES OF MARICHA50a) Macroscopic The colour of the drug is blackish – brown or greyish black. It is aromatic and pungent. The berries are 3.5-6 mm in diameter,globular and coarsely reticulatly wrinkled with remains of stigma at the apex. The pericrap is thin with a single white Kernal. The Kernal is hallow at the centre,entirely consisting of perisperm and a small endosperm and embryoa) Macroscopic-fruits greyish-black,hard,wrinkled,0.4-0.5 cm in diameter, odour, aromatic, taste pungent.b) Microscopic The transverse section of drug shows tabular epidermal cells followed by thin walled parenchymatous hypodermis with rectangular stone cells. The inner pericarpic layer is brown coloured and is made up of sclerenchyma. Seed coat layer is attached to it and is reddish-brown. Pericarp and perisperm contains oil glands and abundant starch grains are also present.      
  62. 62.                                                         Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in Nidranashac) Microscopic character of fruit :- Fruit consists of a thick pericarp for about one third of fruit and an inner mass of perisperm, enclosing a small embryo. Pericarp consists of epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp, epicarp composed of single layered, slightly sinuous, tabular cells forming epidermis.below which are present 1 or 2 layers of radially elongated,lignified stone cells adjacent to group of cells of parenchyma, mesocarp wide, composed of band of tangentially elongated parenchymatous cells having a few isolated,tangentially elongated oil cells present in outer region and a few fibro – vascular bundles, a single row of oil cells in the inner region of mesocarp, endocarp composed of a row of beakershaped stone cells. Testa single layered, yellow coloured thick walled sclerenchymalous cells, perisperm contains Parenchymatous cells having a few oil globules and packed with abundant; oval to round, simple and compound starch grains measuring 5.5-11.0 in diameter having 2-3 components and a few minute alevrone grains.      
  63. 63.                                                         Efficacy of Marichapatra & Pippalimoola in NidranashaPHYTOCHEMISTRY51 Pepper consists of an alkaloid piperine (5-9%), volatile oil (1-2.5%), pungent resin (6.0%), piperidine and starch (about 30%), pipeline. The volatile oil which is yellow in colour contains mainly 1 – phellandrene and caryophyllene. It has specific gravity of 0.898-0.900; optical rotation, -30 to 50, and refractive index of 1.4539-1.4977. and in minor quantity it contains piper longuminine, pipeartine, N-iso butyldeca trans-2, trans- 4-diemaide,pipernonaline,piperunde calidine,sesamin,allgnin derivative terpenoids, resin dihydrostigmasterol.Identity Purity and Strength52 Foreign matter - Not more than 2 percent. Total ash - Not more than 5 percent. Acid insoluble ash - Not more than 0.5 percent. Alcohal-soluble extractive - Not less than 6 percent.      

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