PREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OFHINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY    IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)       ...
Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka,                          Bangalore.                      DECLARATIO...
SHRI D.G. MELMALGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GADAG.     POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA.                       CE...
SHRI D.G. MELMALGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GADAG.     POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA.                    CERTI...
ENDORSEMENT BY THE H.O.D. AND PRINCIPAL OF                                 THE INSTITUTION               This is to certif...
COPYRIGHT                          Declaration by the candidate              I here by declare that the Rajiv Gandhi Unive...
Abstract       The Rasayogas are frequently divided on the basis of samskara given to them hasled to the evolution of Khar...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT           By the grace of Lord Mahadev and blessings of Shri Abhinav Shivanand swamiji andShri Shivanand B...
With pleasure I extend my sincere gratitude to Dr SDYarageri         RMO,   Dr UVPurad,DrAMAdi,Principal,AMC,Ron, DrKottur...
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED1) A E C      – Absolute Eosinophil Count2) A H        – Ashtanga Hridaya3) A P        – Ayurved...
Table of ContentsSl                           Index              Page No01. Introduction                                  ...
LIST OF GRAPHS and FIGURESSl                             Title of Graphs                          Page                    ...
LIST OF TABLESSl                                Title of Tables                               Pages01 Showing Preparation ...
30 Showing the response to the Treatment Dukhena Kapha Nissranam                 9631 Showing the response to the Treatmen...
Introduction       As regards the qualities of Rasoushadhies, it is said to be more of Rasayana innature, which in practic...
Introduction       In this present research work we have selected Rasasindura as our test drug onvirtue of its vital impor...
Introductionannavaha srotas and udakavaha srotas are also involved in the Tamaka shwasa, acondition, which in modern parla...
Introduction4)      “A comparative pharmaceutico-chemical study on Samaguna and Shadguna     Balijarita ‘Rasasindura’ with...
Introduction   c. Clinical study- This is important pole of the study which deals with the       clinical efficiency of th...
Objectives                       Aims and objectives of the study      The present study has been done with the following ...
Drug Review       Our Rasa Acharyas have developed a special process known as Kupipakwa orKupi Paka for harnessing the pro...
Drug Reviewthe author has neither used Kachakupi nor Valuka Yantra eventhough he had theknowledge of the same.Rasendra Chu...
Drug ReviewRasa Kamadhenu-       In this text, there is no any description of Rasasindura. The text is a collection ofvers...
Drug ReviewSiddha Bhaishajya Manimala-       In the context of Hingulad Rasasindura Ayurveda Prakashakara20 gives the cros...
Drug ReviewTable no. 1 showing Preparation of Rasasindura in various Texts of Rasa Shastra:-      Preparation    Ingredien...
Drug Review9                  Parada-1 part   Prepare Kajjali and fill it in     Ra.Pu.        Gandhaka-       Kachakupi. ...
Drug Review      Samana              Parada-8 part   Prepare Kajjali and give Bhavana20    Gandhaka            Gandhaka-8p...
Drug ReviewClassification of Rasa Sindura preparation according to various processes adopted27    1. Antardhuma – In this ...
Drug Review         Rajivopam32c                     - Similar to lotus.         Raktavarna34                     - Red li...
Drug Review24        Mukhapaka             Chandana kalka.25        Mutra Krucchra        Mishri or Shilajatu + Ela.26    ...
Drug Review         Table no. 4 showing the dosage of Rasa Sindura according to age38:                                 Age...
Drug Reviewon the body tissues. Sulphide of mercury is not used in any of the pharmacopeias ofWestern countries as it is c...
Drug Review(i) Collection of Equipments:Bhatti44:       The height and width of the Bhatti should be 18 angula’s, shaped l...
Drug Reviewcan be used. Valmika mrittika or potters mud can also be used. It is advised to preparekapad mitti from, husk -...
Drug Review        Apart from Kajjali the colour of prematerial used to prepare Kupipakwa Rasayanadepends on the ingredien...
Drug ReviewHeating pattern48:       A few signs and standards of different heating stages of Kupi Pakwa Rasayanasare menti...
Drug Review   6. It is necessary to prevent the material coming out of the Kupi mouth by         maintaining and controlli...
Drug Reviewprocedure sheeta shalaka is used especially for noting the state of Kajjali, whether it is inpowder form, melte...
Drug Review    7.   Before corking 2-3 inches of sand layer should be moved aside from the neck         region to make it ...
Drug Reviewwet cloth, then the Kupi breaks into two halves at desired level. The product which iseither Talastha or Galast...
Drug Review                                            HINGULA       Hingula is one of the Sadharana Rasa58, but authors o...
Drug ReviewKhanija variety is of three types       Charmara        :       Krishna, Rakta Varna       Shukatunda      :   ...
Drug ReviewGunas of Hingula68, 69-       Rasa    :      Tikta, Katu, Kashaya       Guna :         Ushna       Virya :     ...
Drug Review                                       CINNABAR72, 73       The Main Ore of Mercury, from which the metal is ex...
Drug Review                                    GANDHAKA         Gandhaka is next to Parada and has been explained in Dhatu...
Drug Review              Table no.6 showing types of Gandhaka according to Rasa Classics        Sl               Types    ...
Drug Review           Karma              :       Deepana, Pachana, Vishahara, Jantughna,                                  ...
Drug Review   self cooling the manibhakara Gandhaka is collected and washed with water and this   process is called as Kur...
Drug ReviewSulphate:      Gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O), Barytes (Ba SO4), Epsom salt (MgSo4 7H2O),               Ferrous sulphate (...
Drug ReviewImportance of Sulphur to man•   As a constituent of proteins, essential amino acids, important vitamins and hor...
Drug Review                                   JAMBEERA96, 97       For the present study Nimbu Swarasa was used for the Sh...
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Preparation, analytical study of hinguladrasa sindura and its clinical efficacy in tamakashwasa (bronchial ASTHMA) - Dr. Basavaraj Yallappa Ganti, Department of rasashastra, Post graduate studies and research center, Shri D. G. Melmalagi Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag

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Hinguladrasasindura tamakaswasa rs008_gdg

  1. 1. PREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OFHINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA) By Basavaraj Yallappa Ganti Dissertation Submitted to the Rajeev Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore. In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of AYURVEDA VACHASPATHI M. D. In RASASHASTRA Under the guidance of Dr. M. C. Patil M.D. (Ayu) Under the co-guidance of Dr. G. N. Danappagoudar M.D. (Ayu) DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA, POST GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH CENTER, SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GADAG – 582103. 2003-2006
  2. 2. Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore. DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE I here by declare that this dissertation / thesis entitled“Preparation, Analytical study of Hinguladrasasindura and its clinicalTamakashwasa (Bronchial Asthma)” is a bonafide and genuine researchwork carried out by me under the guidance of Dr. M. C. Patil, M.D.(Rasashastra), Professor and H.O.D, Post-graduate department ofRasashastra and under the co-guidance of Dr. G. N. DanappagoudarM.D. (Rasashastra), Lecturer, Post-graduate department of Rasashastra.Date:Place: Basavaraj Y Ganti.
  3. 3. SHRI D.G. MELMALGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GADAG. POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA. CERTIFICATE BY THE GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Preparation, Analyticalstudy of Hinguladrasasindura and its clinical efficacy in Tamakashwasa(Bronchial Asthma)” is a bonafide research work done by Basavaraj Y.Ganti in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of AyurvedaVachaspathi. M.D. (Rasashastra). Dr. M. C. Patil, M.D. (Rasashastra) Professor & H. O. D.Date: Department of Rasashastra,Place: Gadag. Post Graduate Studies and Research Center, D.G.Melmalgi Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag.
  4. 4. SHRI D.G. MELMALGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GADAG. POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA. CERTIFICATE BY THE CO-GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Preparation, Analyticalstudy of Hinguladrasasindura and its clinical efficacy in Tamakashwasa(Bronchial Asthma)” is a bonafide research work done by Basavaraj Y.Ganti in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of AyurvedaVachaspathi. M.D. (Rasashastra). Dr. G. N. Danappagoudar M.D. (Rasashastra) LecturerDate: Department of Rasashastra,Place: Gadag. Post Graduate Studies and Research Center, D.G.Melmalgi Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag.
  5. 5. ENDORSEMENT BY THE H.O.D. AND PRINCIPAL OF THE INSTITUTION This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Preparation,Analytical study of Hinguladrasasindura and its clinical efficacy inTamakashwasa (Bronchial Asthma)” is a bonafide research work done byBasavaraj Y Ganti under the guidance of Dr. M. C. Patil, M.D. (Rasashastra),Professor and H.O.D, Postgraduate department of Rasashastra and under the co-guidance of Dr. G. N. Danappagoudar M. D. (Rasashatra) Lecturer, Postgraduatedepartment of Rasashastra. Dr. M.C. Patil, M.D. (Rasashastra) Dr. G. B. Patil. Professor & H.O.D Principal Department of Rasashastra, D G M A M C, Gadag.P G S & R C, D.G.M A M C, Gadag.Date: Date:Place: Gadag. Place: Gadag.
  6. 6. COPYRIGHT Declaration by the candidate I here by declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of HealthSciences, Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminate thisdissertation / thesis in print or electronic format for academic / research purpose.Date:Place: Gadag. Basavaraj Y Ganti © Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka
  7. 7. Abstract The Rasayogas are frequently divided on the basis of samskara given to them hasled to the evolution of Kharaleeya, Parpati, Kupipakwa and Pottali Rasayanas with variedtherapeutic efficacy. HinguladRasasindura is a KupipakwaRasayana and is Sagni, Sagandha,Bahirdhuma Murchana of Parada. Rasataranginikara cite Shodhita Hingula and ShodhitaGandhaka in sama pramana, simulating Rasasindura in properties. In the present study itsefficacy in Tamakashwasa (Bronchial Asthma) was under trial. Based on several observations the duration of heat required to prepare HRS wasnoted as 30 hours in Kramagni pattern; Mrudvagni (300-3500C), Madhyamagni (450-5500C) and Teevragni (650-8000C). 75% of the final product obtained show economy.Analytical studies depicted the proportions of Hg & S in accordance with law of definiteproportions. ESCA reveals change in energy levels of Hg and S. Other analyticalprocedures such as Organoleptic, pH, loss on drying, fineness of particles, flow propertywere also carried out. Therapeutic efficacy of Hingulad Rasasindura was evaluated in single blindclinical trial on 20 selected cases of Tamakashwasa. Result showed Highly Significant (p< 0.001) by student’s paired t test. Overall response to the treatment was found to be well(60%) out of 20 patients under trial. It was established in the present study that Hingulad Rasasindura can also becalled as Dwiguna Bali Jarita Rasa Sindura. It is found useful in cases of Tamakashwasain whom kaphotpatti is more.Key words: KupipakwaRasayana; Rasasindura; HinguladRasasindura: Kramagni;Hg and S%, ESCA, Tamakashwasa; Bronchial Asthma; Kaphotpatti; Therapeuticefficacy. iv
  8. 8. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT By the grace of Lord Mahadev and blessings of Shri Abhinav Shivanand swamiji andShri Shivanand Bharati mahaswamiji, it is pleasure to express my full respect and regards to myparents Shri Yallappa and Smt. Yallavva and my blood relation Smt and Shri Y B Ganti whomade me proficient and gave constant support and encouragement. With deep sense of pleasure, I acknowledge my gratitude to my beloved guide Dr. M CPatil MD (Ayu) Professor and HOD, PG Dept of Rasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag, for his scholarlyguidance, supervision, creative criticism, constant encouragement and high inspiration at everystage of this work. My gratitude is greatest towards my co-guide Dr G N Danappagoudar MD (Ayu) Lecturer,PG Dept of Rasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag, who gave me timely, advises and suggestionsduring the entire period of this effort. I express my sincere obligations to beloved Principal Dr G B Patil, PGS & RC,DGMAMC, Gadag, for his encouragement and provision of amenities required during this toil. I offer my sincere thanks to Dr RKGacchinmath, Professor and HOD, UG Dept ofRasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag, for his constant support and valuable directions. I owe my heartfelt credit to Dr DilipkumarB, Asst Professor, PG Dept of Rasashastra,DGMAMC, Gadag, for his critical views and precious suggestions. I wish to convey my regards to Dr J G Mitti, Lecturer, PG Dept of Rasashastra,DGMAMC, Gadag, for his enormous co-operation. I express my earnest gratitude to Dr GS Hiremath, Dr Varadacharyulu, DrBSPatil, DrAvvanni, Dr Prushottamacharyulu, Dr Mulugund, Dr KSR Prasad, Dr SH Doddamani, Dr Shettar,Dr Belawadi, Dr Paraddi, Dr Sankh, Dr Nidagundi, Dr Mulkipatil, Dr Shankargouda, Dr Samudri,and Dr Yasmin for their great co-operation. I utilize this opportunity to render my thanks to the staff of Syndicate bank Bailhongal,Shri DB Mallur, chairman, SSRAMC, Inchal and Shri SD Karade for their pecuniary support tocomplete this course. I am greatful Dr KY Krishnaji, Dr BB Joshi, Dr Gudagnatti, Smt and Shri Dr RSHiremath, Dr Vastrad, Dr VM Hiremath principal, BMK AMV, Belgaum, Dr Hebballi, DrMathad, Dr SKHiremath, Dr SGHiremath, DrJadar, Dr MAHullur, Dr Emmi, Dr SKBannigol, DrAS Prashant, Smt and Shri Dr RBPatil, Smt and Shri MBRamannavar, Dr AnilBacha, DrPrashant MB, PSBillur, DrSanjaygouda, Dr RaviHungund, Dr MSPuranikmath, DrVSCharantimath, Dr CCHiremath, Dr AshokJN, Dr PBUndi, Dr Surekha, Dr Aparna, DrJayaRT, Dr Kagalkar for their inspiration and constant support through out my carrier. i
  9. 9. With pleasure I extend my sincere gratitude to Dr SDYarageri RMO, Dr UVPurad,DrAMAdi,Principal,AMC,Ron, DrKotturshetti, DrBGSwamy, DrVMSajjan, SmtPKBelwadi, SmtSarangmath, Tippanagoudar, Kallangoudar, Biradar, SmtEkbote, MMJoshi, Shri ShankarBelwadi for their co-operation and help during the study. I extend my gratitude to Shri VMMundinmani and Sureban and SSRAMCollge forproviding the required books during the study. I am deeply indebt to Dr Koteshwar, DrChetan, DrDPJoshi, DrSantoji, DrVSHiremath,DrPattanshetti, DrVeenaK, DrSReddy, DrYadalli, Dr PDDeshpande, Dr MBRudrapuri, DrGSKulkarni, DrVMKullolli, DrAIAkki, DrTeggi, DrSubin, DrFebin, DrSatish,DrMaheshAbhang, DrVinayRK, DrBani and DrVarsha for their friendly affection. I ackwoledge my sincere thanks to Nandakumar for his statistical work, DrDVijaykumar,DrRevati, ShriChandur, ShriSuresh, ShriDNPatil, ShriPolicepatil for their kind co-operation andhelp in analytical study. With great pleasure I offer my recognition my friends DrPradeep, DrShaila, DrMouli,DrBhingi, DrRatna, DrUday for their friendly affection and amiable attitude during my studyperiod without which it would never be complete. I offer my sincere thanks to my friends and colleagues DrSobagin, DrShakuntala,DrKendadmath, DrJayaraj, DrHugar, DrKalmath, DrVenkaraddi, DrMeenaxi, DrMSHiremath,DrSajjan, DrSunita, DrRonad for their immense help and affection. I am also thankful to my junior friends DrAnandH, DrAnita, DrSuvarna, DrSharanu,DrJayashri, DrSuma, DrRudraxi, DrKattimani, DrJagdishH, DrVijaySH, DrHakkandi, DrAshwin,DrGavi, DrAnandHD, DrAshwini, DrJiglur, DrSarvi, DrAshok, DrSulochana, DrManjunath,DrAmnish, DrShibaprasad, DrPrasanna, DrBudi, DrMadhushri, DrPayappagouda, DrShivaleela,DrKumbar, DrGavimath and Dr ArunkumarBiradar for their support and affection. It would be my privilege to convey my regards to families of Shri Meleppanavar, ShriRonimath, Shri Bhandari and Shri GGKelur for their affection and care during my study. I express my affectionate love to my brothers Vitthal, Raghavendra, Manjunath, Suniland sisters Annapurna, Rajeshwari, Netra and mamaji Kusheba Kale for their moral and cordialsupport during my study. I acknowledge my patients for their kind co-operation and whole-hearted consent toparticipate in this clinical trial. I express my thanks all those who have helped me directly andindirectly with apologies for my inability to identify them individually. I dedicate this work done as partial fulfillment of postgraduate degree to my ever-remembering respectful parents and my Godfather Dr Ramesh Kabade. Dr Basavaraj Y Ganti ii
  10. 10. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED1) A E C – Absolute Eosinophil Count2) A H – Ashtanga Hridaya3) A P – Ayurveda Prakash4) A T – After Treatment5) B P – Bhava Prakasha6) B R – Bhaishajya Ratnavali7) B T – Before Treatment8) C S – Charaka Samhita9) Cha Chi – Charaka Chikitsa10) Dh N – Dhanwantari Nighantu11) ESCA – Electron Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis12) F E V – Forced Expiratory Volume13) F R L H T – Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions14) H R S – Hingulad Rasa Sindura15) IICT – Indian Institute of Chemical Technology16) M N – Madhava Nidana17) M P N – Madana Pala Nighantu18) P E F R – Peak Expiratory Flow Rate19) Pa Sa – Parada Samhita20) Ra Chi – Rasendra Chintamani21) R H T – Rasa Hridaya Tantra22) R J N – Rasa Jala Nidhi23) R N – Raj Nighantu24) Ra Pu – Rasendra Purana25) R P S – Rasa Prakasha Sudhakar26) R R S – Rasa Ratna Samucchaya27) R S S – Rasendra Sara Sangraha28) R T – Rasatarangini29) S S – Sushruta samhita30) Su Ut – Sushruta Uttaratantra31) T S – Tamaka Shwasa32) Y R – Yoga Ratnakara iii
  11. 11. Table of ContentsSl Index Page No01. Introduction 1-502 Aims and Objectives 603 Review of Literature 7-5904 Methodology 60-8805 Results 89-10606 Discussion 107-12107 Conclusion 122-12408 Summary 125-12609 Bibliography 127-13410 Annexure I. Slokas of Hingulad Rasasindura II. Case Sheet Proforma v
  12. 12. LIST OF GRAPHS and FIGURESSl Title of Graphs Page no01 Showing the Temperature and Time during Valuka Yantra Pachana 7502 Showing the distribution of patients by sex 8903 Showing the distribution of patients by sex 9004 Showing the distribution of patients by preceding symptoms 9305 Showing the distribution of patients by Pradhana Vedana 9406 Showing the distribution of patients by Anubandhi Vedana 9507 Showing the response to the treatment in Shwasa Kricchrata 10008 Showing the response to the treatment in Kasa 10009 Showing the response to the treatment in Dukhen Kapha Nissaran 10010 Showing the response to the treatment in Ghurghuratwam 10011 Showing the response to the treatment in Urah Peeda 10112 Showing the response to the reatment in Shayanasya Shwasa Peedita 10113 Showing the response to the treatment in Duration of Symptoms 10114 Showing the response to the treatment in Frequency of Attack 10115 Showing the response to the treatment in Absolute Eosinophil Count 10116 Showing the response to the treatment in Peak Expiratory Flow Rate 10117 Showing the overall result obtained after the treatment 10418 Photograph no. 1 showing Hingulad Rasasindura Nirmana 75 viii
  13. 13. LIST OF TABLESSl Title of Tables Pages01 Showing Preparation of Rasasindura in various Texts of Rasa Shastra 11-1302 Showing Classification of Rasa Sindura depending on proportions of Parada 13 and Gandhaka03 Showing Different Anupanas for Rasa Sindura according to various diseases 15-1604 Showing the dosage of Rasa Sindura according to age 1705 Showing different proportions of Gandhaka in Rasa Sindura and its specific 17 indications according to different authors06 Showing types of Gandhaka according to Rasa Classics 3207 Showing types of Gandhaka and their qualities and uses 3208 Showing Nidana of Shwasa/Tamaka Shwasa 43-4609 Showing Poorvaroopa of Shwasa Roga 4710 Showing Roopa of Tamaka Shwasa 4811 Showing Upashaya and Anupashaya of Tamaka Shwasa 4912 Showing the observations done during Hingula shodhana 6213 Showing the observations done during Gandhaka shodhana 6514 Showing the Physical Examination of Gandhaka before and after shodhana 6515 Showing the age of Tamakashwasa patients 8916 Showing the sex wise incidence of patients 8917 Showing the religion wise distribution of patients 9018 Showing the socio-economic status wise distribution of patients 9019 Showing Residential area wise distribution 9120 Showing the chronicity of the disease 9121 Showing the family history of Bronchial Asthma 9122 Showing the nature of kostha of the Patients 9223 Showing the Agni of the Patients 9224 Showing the influence of Ahara 9225 Showing the preceding symptoms 9326 Showing chief complaints 9327 Showing Associated Complaints 9428 Showing the response to the Treatment in Shwasa Kricchrata 9529 Showing the response to the Treatment in Kasa 96 vi
  14. 14. 30 Showing the response to the Treatment Dukhena Kapha Nissranam 9631 Showing the response to the Treatment Ghurghuratwam 9732 Showing the response to the Treatment in Urah Peeda 9733 Showing the response to the Treatment in Shayanasya Shwasa Peeda 9734 Showing the response to the Treatment in Frequency of Attack 9835 Showing the response to the Treatment Duration of Symptoms 9836 Showing the response to the Treatment in Absolute Eosinophil Count 9937 Showing the response to the Treatment in Peak Expiratory Flow Rate 9938 Showing the statistical analysis of the subjective and objective parameters 102 before and after the treatment39 Showing the cumulative effects in percentage obtained through subjective 103 and objective parameters for Hingulad Rasasindura in Tamakashwasa40 Showing the cumulative effects in percentage obtained through subjective 104 and objective parameters for Hingulad Rasasindura in Tamakashwasa41 Showing weight and percentage of mercury and sulphur in different samples 115 vii
  15. 15. Introduction As regards the qualities of Rasoushadhies, it is said to be more of Rasayana innature, which in practice are fast acting and found effective in smaller doses while othersnot and hence considered superior in the management of diseases. Rasa Shastra incorporates many of the inorganic and Herbo-MineralPharmaceutical preparations namely Khalvi Rasayana, Parpati Rasayana, KupipakwaRasayana, Pottali Rasayana and Bhasmas. Among these Pharmaceutical preparationsKupipakwa Rasayanas are the popular and therapeutically effective mineral preparationsin vogue. Historically their manufacturing and therapeutic uses have started since 12thcentury AD onwards “Sri Dundukanatha” the author of Rasendra Chintamani was thefirst intellectual to introduce this type of preparation in Ayurvedic therapeutics in view oftheir high potency, therapeutic efficacy and least toxicity in treating almost all types ofailments. Kupipakwa Rasayanas are the best examples of the “Murchana” concepts ofRasa Shastra and through these ‘Avyabhicharita Vyadhi Ghataka’ (a definite diseasedestroying capacity) could be included in parada yogas. Agni is the important factor which changes the physico–chemical properties ofthe drug which depends on its chemical combination and dissociation which can bebrought about by the duration and pattern of heat. Gandhaka Jarana plays an important role in enhancing the potency of parada. Ithas been claimed in the text that Parada treated with the process of Gandhaka Jarana,becomes highly potent i.e. it acquires many therapeutic properties. Different textualreference also supports the above statements. The preparation of Rasa Sindura under thedefinition of Murchana has been performed using various proportions of Gandhaka andprocessed in specially prepared Kachakupi under Kramagni for specified period. It isbelieved that as the quantity of Gandhaka increases, with the heat supply the qualities ofParada also get enhanced. The induction of new physical and chemical properties to thecompound by this unique technology can be investigated scientifically through Analyticaland therapeutic studies. PREPARATION AND ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 1 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL STHMA)
  16. 16. Introduction In this present research work we have selected Rasasindura as our test drug onvirtue of its vital importance in therapeutics as well as particular skill involved in itspharmaceutical preparation. In this study Rasasindura was prepared according to theguideline of Rasa Tarangini (9/32-34), where in instead of shuddha Parada, shuddhaHingula is used along with equal quantity of shuddha Gandhaka. To evaluate the effect of Gandhaka Jarana scientifically the present study wasplanned at the level of pharmaceutical manufacturing and therapeutics. Looking at thetherapeutic indication mentioned in our classics, one may infer that Rasasindura iseffective in respiratory disorders so we had decided to perform a clinical study to find outthe effect of Hingulad Rasasindura in Tamaka Shwasa. Tamaka Shwasa has remained to be a challenging and unremitting disease. Inboth sexes it may occur at any time of the age. It is chronic respiratory disease which isincreasing day by day due to change in mode of life, dietetic changes, pollution,environmental changes and various stimuli like dust, cold air, smoke, pollens, house dustmite, viral respiratory tract infections. It is highly variable disease and may differ fromperson to person, so needs much attention and more care. A lot of water has flowed since the beginning of the research work; yet asignificant break-through to root out the illness remains elusive; this is the bitter truth.Furthermore, it is extremely difficult to nip this progressive malady from its root. It is anopen truth that even the most intelligent physician will have a bumpy ride in planning atreatment to relieve the symptoms of this illness. Radical treatment of Tamaka Shwasa isthe Gordian knot waiting to be cut. Tamaka Shwasa if not properly treated, will kill the patients like the fire burns thedried bush. Even though Tamaka Shwasa is a Yapya Vyadhi, it becomes Sadhya, if it isNavothitha. There is a feeling among the common masses that shwasa roga will go only whenshwasa (prana) goes away. Shwasa is considered krichhra sadhya or difficult to cure. Inthis condition kapha, the predominant dosha causes obstruction in the pranavaha srotas,thereby disturbing the movement of vata. Consequently vata is aggravated and itspratilomagati takes place, which results in shwasakashtata. The Pranavaha srotas, PREPARATION AND ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 2 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL STHMA)
  17. 17. Introductionannavaha srotas and udakavaha srotas are also involved in the Tamaka shwasa, acondition, which in modern parlance is known as Bronchial Asthma. Clinicalpresentation of the illness is never ambiguous and therefore the diagnosis is easy andstraight forward. Bronchial Asthma is characterized by paroxysms of dyspnoea, accompanied bywheezing, resulting from narrowing of the bronchial airways by muscle spasm, mucosalswelling or viscid secretion. The airflow obstruction causes mismatching of alveolarventilation and perfusion and increases the work of breathing. Being more marked duringexpiration it also causes air to be trapped in the lungs. The narrowed bronchi can nolonger effectively clear mucus by the act of coughing and in patients with severe acuteasthma; many of the smaller bronchi become obstructed by inspissated and often verytenacious mucus. Although modern medicines are effective in managing acute attacks of BronchialAsthma but in long term they have their own limitations and side effects. There is ascarcity of drugs which can prevent the further attacks for which various Rasoushadhiesare in practice. According to Rasataranginikara, Rasasindura has been indicated inTamakashwasa among various indications. The present study involves the preparation of Rasasindura using Shuddha Hingulaand Shuddha Gandhaka which makes the procedure simple, economical, timeconservative and is endowed with similar properties of Rasasindura prepared usingParada.Review of Previous worksWorks done on Kupipakva Rasayana –1) “A study of Rasasindura with varying proportions of Sulphur”. (Badhe. H. Jaishree IPGT & R Jamnagar-1995).2) “Preparation and Physico-chemical analysis of Hinguliya Manikya Rasa and its effect on Vicharchika(Allergic Dermatitis)” (Dinesh-TGAMC, Bellary-2005).3) “Preparation and Analytical study of Dviguna Bali Jarita Rasasindura and its Therapeutic Efficacy in Kitibha Kusta (Psoriasis)”, (Savita-TGAMC, Bellary-2005). PREPARATION AND ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 3 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL STHMA)
  18. 18. Introduction4) “A comparative pharmaceutico-chemical study on Samaguna and Shadguna Balijarita ‘Rasasindura’ with special reference to its toxicity and Bronchodilating effect” (Milan N Dasondi, IPGT & R Jamnagar-2002)Importance of Present study (1) Till date no is study conducted on Rasasindura prepared with Shodhita Hingula and Shodhita Gandhaka as far as our knowledge is concerned. (2) Hingulad Rasasindura is taken for clinical study to check its effect on Tamakashwasa along with role of Vibhitaki Phala Twak Kwatha as Anupana.The entire study was done in following chapters – 1. Introduction- Involves need of the present study, emphasis on its importance and plan of the whole study. 2. Review of Literature- Here literary evidences are collected under two headings. In Drug review as regarding detailed description of Kupipakva Rasayana, Rasasindura, its method of preparation and varied therapeutic uses mentioned in various Rasa texts. The yoga under research Hingulad Rasasindura followed by detailed/up to date compilation about the ingredients- Hingula, Gandhaka, Shodhana Dravyas such as Jambeera and Bhringaraj and about the anupana Vibhitaki with respect to their pharmacological properties are collected. In Disease review detailed description about Tamakashwasa from classical Ayurvedic literatures and relevant modern review of Bronchial asthma is done. 3. Methodology a. Pharmaceutical study- This part encompasses all the processes adopted during the preparation of the drug Rasasindura such as Sodhana of Hingula and Gandhaka and preparation of Rasasindura. b. Analytical study- In this part the sample of Shuddha Hingula and Hingulad Rasasindura were analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters. PREPARATION AND ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 4 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL STHMA)
  19. 19. Introduction c. Clinical study- This is important pole of the study which deals with the clinical efficiency of the prepared sample of Hingulad Rasasindura.4. Results- The obtained results are systematically presented, make up demographic data, data related to disease and data related to the response to treatment.5. Discussion- In this part a humble attempt is made to throw the light on the salient facts hidden in literary review and drug review. Also the facts, observations, data and results of pharmaceutical, analytical and clinical study are discussed elaborately along with the probable mode of action of the yoga Hingulad Rasasindura.6. Conclusion- Here, an effort is made to assess the present work and its achievements, the fruits of the study in form of conclusions are put forward.7. Summary – This part of the work represents the nut-shell information about the overall studies carried out.PREPARATION AND ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 5 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL STHMA)
  20. 20. Objectives Aims and objectives of the study The present study has been done with the following aims and objectives: a. Preparation of Hingulad Rasasindura. b. Analytical study of Hingulad Rasasindura. c. To study the clinical efficacy in selected cases of Tamakashwasa.REPARATION AND ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY IN 6 TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  21. 21. Drug Review Our Rasa Acharyas have developed a special process known as Kupipakwa orKupi Paka for harnessing the properties of minerals and metals for medicinal purposes.Derivation of the word KUPI PAKWA RASAYANA:“Kupi Iti Kacha Kupi, Pakwam Iti Agnina Pakwam, Rasasya Paradasya AyanamSthanam Arthat Kupyam Agninam Pakwam Yadrasayanam Tat KupiPakwaRasayanam”1 The process where Parada and other dravyas are processed by heating in aspecialized bottle to prepare medicine is called Kupi Pakwa Rasayana. Rasa Sindura isprepared by Kupi Pakwa Rasayana method where in kramagni (Graded heating-Mrudu,Madhyama and Teevragni) is given for a specific period of time during which GandhakaJarana occurs completely, as it is a vital process among Parada yogas.Historical Background of RASASINDURA: There is no reference regarding Kupi Pakwa Rasayana or Rasa Sindura foundduring Prevedic, Vedic and samhita period i.e. upto 600 A.D. Use of Kachakupi in the preparation of Kupi Pakva Rasayana has started since th10 century AD. According to Madhava Upadhyaya the author of ‘Ayurveda Prakash’,the Kupi can be made of glass (Kacha), clay (Mrittika), gold (Hema), iron (Loha) andsilver (Raupya) 2. The Kupipakva Rasayanas are to be subjected to heating in a specialtype of Yantra known as ‘Valuka Yantra’, which was developed only after 8th centuryA.D., as per reference of Rasa Hridaya Tantra3.Rasarnav - In this text different types of ‘Gandhaka Jarana’ and ‘Parada Marana’ procedureshave been mentioned. But no reference regarding the preparation of Rasasindura is found.Ananda Kanda - Here, 31 types of Parada marana methods have been mentioned, among which inonly two types, the help of Kachakupi and Valuka Yantra4 is taken to prepare Bhasma. Intwo types, the specified colour (Sindura Varna 1 and Rakta Varna 1) of the Bhasma hasbeen mentioned but these are prepared with the help of different types of Yantras5. HerePREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 7 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  22. 22. Drug Reviewthe author has neither used Kachakupi nor Valuka Yantra eventhough he had theknowledge of the same.Rasendra Chudamani - Somdeva, the author has mentioned about the Valuka Yantra6, but not aboutRasasindura or Rasasindura like preparation.Rasa Ratna Samucchaya - The author Rasa Vagbhata has mentioned very clearly about Valuka Yantra andKachakupi7 but there is no specific mentioning about Rasasindura. Only commentator Dr.D. A. Kulkarni had explained the preparation of Rasasindura8. (Table 1/1)Rasa Prakash Sudhakar- Acharya Yashodhar the author has mentioned some preparations with differentnames and varnas which are similar to the preparation of the Rasasindura viz.Udaybhaskara Rasa9 and Talastha Rasa Bhasma10. The procedures remain unchanged forthe above preparations. (Table 1/2-3)Rasendra Sara Sangraha- In this text three preparations of Rasasindura have been mentioned with differentingredients other than Parada and Gandhaka11. The method, apparatus and Yantra aresame in all preparations. (Table 1/4-6)Rasendra Chintamani- In this text author has given much stress on ‘Gandhaka Jarana’ and itsimportance. Here, we get the mention of preparation of Rasa sindura using shodhitaHingula and shodhita Gandhaka instead of shodhita Parada12. (Table 1/7)Rasendra Purana- In this text total three methods have been described to prepare Rasasindura13 suchas Samaguna, Dwiguna and Shadguna. (Table 1/8-10)PREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 8 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  23. 23. Drug ReviewRasa Kamadhenu- In this text, there is no any description of Rasasindura. The text is a collection ofverses from different texts like Rasarnava, Rasendra Chintamani and Rasa Sara, etc.Ayurveda Prakash- In Ayurveda Prakash, the author Madhava has mentioned about four preparationsof Rasasindura in 1st chapter where in he mentions this preparation in RasaBhasmeekarana14 as Urdhwa bhasma. In these preparations he has mentioned differentproportions of ingredients though the procedure and Yantra are the same. Further he hasmentioned about the preparation of Rasa sindura using Shodhita Hingula in the nonavailability of Shodhita Parada15. He has further suggested that if during heating themouth of Kachakupi is blocked by accumulation of fumes of Gandhaka and Navasagara,it should be cleared by introducing the Tapta Shalaka16. (Table 1/11-14)Bhava Prakash- In Bhava Prakash, Sri Bhava Mishra has described one preparation of RasaSinudra in Poorva khanda17. In this connection, the commentator has mentioned that theauthor has not clearly mentioned about artificial Gandhaka, so the Amalasar Gandhakashould be used. (Table 1/15)Rasa Yoga Sagara- The Rasa Yoga Sagara is a comprehensive compilation of Rasa Shastra. In thistext, there is a mention of 10 preparations of Rasasindura18. But the author has notcontributed anything special to his credit except the collection of the preparations oftherapeutic importance from different Rasa-Shastra text.Kupipakva Rasa Nirmana Vignana- In this text the author has mentioned about Kupi and Kupipakva preparations.Besides, five types of Rasasindura preparations are mentioned19 which are collected fromdifferent texts; Nighantu Ratnakar, Ratnakara Aushadhayoga and Rasendra SaraSangraha.PREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 9 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  24. 24. Drug ReviewSiddha Bhaishajya Manimala- In the context of Hingulad Rasasindura Ayurveda Prakashakara20 gives the crossreference from Siddha Bhaishajya Manimala that the author has mentioned a Sindurapreparation using Hingula alone by exploiting Kupi Pakwa method. Here, Hingula isfilled in the Kupi and placed in Angara kosthi. When flames start appearing, the Kupi istaken out and water is sprinkled over its mouth and the product is collected. To thispreparation he calls as Hingula chandrodaya. Acharya Laxmiramji swamy commentingon this explains that this method is extensively used by the crook Vaidya.Yoga Ratnakara In this text many preparations of Rasasindura have been mentioned21. Hereexcept one, other preparations are collected by commentator from different text of RasaShastra. (Table 1/16)Bhasma Vignana Sri Harisharmananda, the author of Bhasma Vignana has mentioned severalpreparations, out of these 17 preparations are either of Rasasindura or resembling withRasasindura.Rasa Tarangini (20th century A.D.) In this text, 7 preparations of Rasasindura have been mentioned. All these 7preparations are prepared with Gandhaka in different proportions starting with the ratio of1:1/2 and extending to the ratio of 1:6 of Parada: Gandhaka, (Ardhguna to ShadagunaGandhaka)22 (Table 1/17-23)Parada Samhita- The author has mentioned about the preparation of Rasa sindura using ShodhitaHingula in the non availability of Shodhita Parada along with Shodhita Gandhaka23.PREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 10 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  25. 25. Drug ReviewTable no. 1 showing Preparation of Rasasindura in various Texts of Rasa Shastra:- Preparation IngredientsN Name with and their Method of preparation Varna o Reference Quantity1 Rasasindura Parada-1 part -Prepare Kajjali & give Bhavana R.R.S. Gandhaka-1 with Swarasa for 5 times. Fill the Tarunaditya preparation part Kachakupi with Kajjali & keep in Sannibham added by Vatankura Valuka Yantra & give Mandagni Dr.Kulkarni. Swarasa-Q.S. for 4 Prahara.2 Udaya Parada-1 part Prepare Kajjali & triturated with Bhaskara Ganghaka-1p Nimbu swarasa. Fill the Kamala Rasa Jambira Kachakupi with Kajjali & give Varna R.P.S. Nimbu Atikrisha Agni (3 days) through 3/10-12 swarasa-Q.S. Sikata Yantra.3 Rasa Bhasma Parada+melted Gandhaka-kajjali Purified preparation (9 hrs. tri.) R.P.S. Parada-1 part -Kajjali heated with Kupipaka 3/15-18 Purified method in Valuka Yantra by Rakta Varna (Talastha Gandhaka- giving Tushagni for 36 hrs. Rasasindura) 1 part -After Swangasita get Talastha Rasasindura4 Rasasindura Parada-1 part -Kajjali of Parada Gandhaka & Gandhaka- Naga. Fill this material in Banduka R.S.S 3 part Kachakupi & seal the mouth. Then Pupsa Varna 1/66-68 Naga-1 part give Kramagni for 3 days through Valuka Yantra.5 Rasasindura Parada-1 part -Prepare Kajjali & give Bhavana Gandhaka- with Vatankura Swarasa for 3 R.S.S 1 part times. --Fill the Kajjali in Tarunaditya 1/69-71 Vatankura Kachakupi & give Mandagni for 4 Varna Swarasa-Q.S. Praharas through Valuka Yantra.6 Parada-1 part Prepared Kajjali & add Navsadara Gandhaka-1p and Grihadhuma to it. Rasasindura Navsadara-1p -Then do Bhavana with Nimbu Grihadhuma- swarasa for 1 Prahara. Resultant R.S.S 1 part material placed in Kupi and is 1/72-76 Nimbu heated in Valuka Yantra by giving Swarasa-Q.S. Kramagni for 12 Praharas.7 Rasasindura Hingula-1part Prepare Kajjali with Hingula and Ra.Chi. 2/9 Gandhaka-1p Gandhaka. Sindura Paka is done.8 Rasasindura Parada-5 pala Prepare Kajjali out of the 4 Vahnibhi Gandhaka5pal ingredients and fill it in Rudravatva Ra.Pu. Navsadar- Kachakupi. Paka is performed for Arunam 3/157 8masi 3 days following Kramagni. (red varna Sphatika-1tola of sun)PREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 11 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  26. 26. Drug Review9 Parada-1 part Prepare Kajjali and fill it in Ra.Pu. Gandhaka- Kachakupi. Cork it with Ishtika Varna 3/158-162 2 part cork followed by 27 Prahara similar to Kramagni heating. Hamsapada10 Shadgun Rasa Hingulotha Prepare Kajjali and fill it in sindura Ra.Pu Parada-1 part Kachakupi. Kramagni heat for 7 Sindura 3/163-168 Gandhaka-6p days. varna11 Parada-20part Prepare Kajjali out of the 4 Rasasindura Gandhaka20p ingredients and fill it in Arunabha Navasadara- Kachakupi. Paka is performed for (red hot A.P. 1/397 1/40 part 3 days following Kramagni. varna) Sphatika1/20p12 Rasa Raja Parada-1 part Prepare Kajjali out of the 4 Rasasindura Gandhaka-1p ingredients and fill it in Kumkum Navasadara- Kachakupi. Paka is performed for Pinjaram A.P. 1/398 1/4 part 12 Prahara following Kramagni.13 Rasasindura Samaguna Prepare Kajjali out of the 3 Kajjali-6Tola ingredients and fill it in Bandhuka A.P. Navasadara- Kachakupi. Paka is performed for Pushpa 1/401-403 1 Masa 3 days following Kramagni.14 Sindura Rasa Parada-1 part Prepare Kajjali and fill it in A.P. Gandhaka- Kachakupi. Paka is performed for Sindura 1/426-427 1/2 part 4 Prahara following Kramagni. Sadrisha15 Sindura Rasa Parada-1 part Prepare Kajjali and fill it in B.P. Gandhaka- Kachakupi. Paka is performed for Darada 5/44-46 1/2/ 1/4 part 8 Prahara following Kramagni. samam16 Rasasindura Parada-2 part Prepare Kajjali and give Bhavana Gandhaka-2p with Nimbu Swarasa. Then fill it Sindura Y.R. Navasadara- in Kachakupi and give Kramagni Sadrisha 155/1-8 1/4 p, Nimbu for 8 Prahara in Valuka Yantra. Swarasa-Q.S.17 Parada-8 part Prepare Kajjali and give 3 Rasasindura Gandhaka-8p Bhavanas with one of the Swarasa. Raktakamal R.T. Vatankura Then fill it in Kachakupi and give a Sadrisha 6/168-176 Swarasa-QS Kramagni through Valuka Yantra. Talastha Prepare Kajjali. Then fill it in18 Rasasindura Parada-1 part Kachakupi and cork it well. Give R.T. Gandhaka- Kramagni through Adhah Saikata 6/177-182 1 part Yantra. Ardha Parada-8 part Prepare Kajjali and give Bhavana19 Gandhaka Gandhaka-4p with Nimbu Swarasa. Then fill it Jarita Rasa Navsadara-2 p in Kachakupi and give Kramagni Hingulabha sindura R.T. Matulunga through Valuka Yantra. 6/183-184 Swarasa-Q.S.PREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 12 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  27. 27. Drug Review Samana Parada-8 part Prepare Kajjali and give Bhavana20 Gandhaka Gandhaka-8p with Nimbu Swarasa. Then fill it Jarita Navasadara-2 in Kachakupi and give Kramagni Rakta Varna Rasasindura part, Nimbu through Valuka Yantra. R.T. 6/185 Swarasa-Q.S. Dviguna Parada-8 part Prepare Kajjali and give Bhavana21 Gandhaka Gandhaka16p with Rakta Karpasa Puspas Jarita RaktaKarpasa Swarasa. Then fill it in Kachakupi Rakta Rasasindura Pushpa and give Kramagni for 1 day Kamalavat R.T. 6/186 Swarasa-Q.S. through Valuka Yantra. Triguna22 Gandhaka Parada-8 part Prepare Kajjali and fill it in Jarita Rasa Gandhaka- Kachakupi and give Kramagni for Rakta sindura R.T. 24 part 1 day through Valuka Yantra. Kamlavat 6/187-188 Shadaguna Parada-8 part Prepare Kajjali and give Bhavana23 Gandhaka Gandhaka-48 with Kumari Swarasa for 3 hours. Sindura Jarita part, Kumari Fill it in Kachakupi and give Samam Rasasindura Swarasa-Q.S. Kramagni for 7 day through R.T. 6/189 Valuka Yantra. Other names of Rasa Sindura mentioned in different texts: 1. Chandrodaya Rasa24 3. Sindura Nama Rasa25 2. Udaya Bhaskara Rasa26 Table no.2 showing Classification of Rasa Sindura depending on proportions of Parada and Gandhaka22 SI. No Ratio of Hg : S Name of R.S 1. 1: ½ Ardhaguna 2. 1: 1 Samaguna 3. 1: 2 Dwiguna 4. 1: 3 Triguna 5. 1: 4 Chaturguna 6. 1: 5 Panchaguna 7. 1: 6 ShadgunaPREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 13 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  28. 28. Drug ReviewClassification of Rasa Sindura preparation according to various processes adopted27 1. Antardhuma – In this method, Kupi is sealed from the beginning and smoke (Sulphur fumes) is not allowed to escape. 2. Bahirdhuma – In this, Sulphur fumes are allowed to go out completely and then Kupi is sealed. 3. Galastha – In this process, Rasa Sindura get accumulated at the neck of the bottle. 4. Talastha – Rasa Sindura is collected from the bottom of the bottle. Among all these Antardhuma and Talastha process is comparatively difficult one and generally Bahirdhuma Kantastha method is followed.Hours of heat: In Rasa Tarangini the minimum of 12 hours is needed for ardhaguna sindura andmaximum duration of heat is advised for the preparation containing shadguna Gandhaka(7 days/168 hrs) 28, 29.Rasa Sindura Varna in various texts: The word Rasa Sindura itself clarifies the criteria of this process. Sinduraindicates the vermilion colour of the product. Sindura is the colour of Rising Sun.Depending on the proportions of Gandhaka added the colour varies and the metaphorsgiven for this red colour by various texts are as follows: Aruna Bhasma30a - Vermilion colour ash and lustre like. Bandhuka pushpa Varna31 - Flower of Hibiscus Rosa. Balaruna Surya Sannibham32a - Morning sun. Hingulabham32b - Carrying cinnabar type luster. Indrogopanibham33a - Like rainy insect of red colour. Kumkuma pinjaram30b - Saffron like reddish yellow. Padmaraga Maniprabha33b - Like ruby.PREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 14 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  29. 29. Drug Review Rajivopam32c - Similar to lotus. Raktavarna34 - Red like blood. Sonavarnam32d - Like the colour of blood. Tarunaditya sannibham35 - Equivalent to the morning sun.Anupana for Rasa Sindura36, 37: According to various classical texts different Anupanas are mentioned for RasaSindura according to various diseases. However in general Madhu, Dugdha or Ghruta canbe used as an ideal anupana. Table no. 3 showing Different Anupanas for Rasa Sindura according to various diseases.SI. No Diseases Anupanas1 Ajirna Madhu +Musta Kwatha, Dhanyaka + Nagara Kwatha.2 Apasmara Vacha + Sankapushpi Churna or Bharngi Swarasa or Kalyana Ghruta.3 Arsha Haritaki Kashaya.4 Aruchi Matulanga Swarasa.5 Atisara Lavanga + Ahiphena + Bhanga.6 Bhagandara Triphala + Vidanga Kwatha.7 Danta Roga Dantadhavana Sara.8 Dhatukshaya Abhraka bhasma, Ardraka Swarasa.9 Dhatu Vriddhi Vidarikanda Churna.10 Garbhashaya roga Kakoli churna + Narikela taila.11 Grahani Charngeri Swarasa + Shunthi Kwatha, Bhrista Haritaki or Shunthi.12 Gulma Ajamoda churna and Vida lavana.13 Hidma Kulatha kwatha.14 Hrudroga Arjuna + Vishanika beeja + Madhu.15 Jirna Jwara Guduchi kwatha + Parpata.16 Jwara Jiraka, Pippali + Dhanyaka kwatha or Kiratha tikta + Haritaki + Jiraka.17 Kamala Trikatu Triphala + Vasa Swarasa or Daruharidra kwatha.18 Kasa (Vasa Swarasa) + Pippali + Madhu. Trikatu +Bharngi + Bibitaki + Madhu or Vidanga.19 Krimi Palasha phala Churna 2 Ratti + Guda.20 Kshaya Ardraka Swarasa.21 Kushta Bakuchi or Chakrabeeja +Khadira.22 Madatyaya Nimbu Swarasa + Sharkara.23 Murcha Narikela Jala or Kalyanaka Ghruta.PREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 15 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  30. 30. Drug Review24 Mukhapaka Chandana kalka.25 Mutra Krucchra Mishri or Shilajatu + Ela.26 Mutraghata Dhanyamla + Saindhava.27 Nava Jwara Tulasi Patra Swarasa or Ardraka Swarasa or Nagavalli Swarasa.28 Pandu Loha Bhasma, Trikatu, Triphala, Vasa Swarasa.29 Parvabheda Changeri Swarasa.30 Peenasa Maricha Churna.31 Pittaja Prameha Triphala + Mishri.32 Prameha Guduchi swarasa or Haridra swarasa.33 Pradara Ashoka + Lodra or Daru Haridra + Ashokadi kwatha.34 Rajayakshma Ghruta.35 Rakta Pitta Draksha + Sarkara.36 Rakta Vikara Honey or Haridra + Mishri.37 Sannipatika Jwara Nirgundi Swarasa or Chandana + Agaru + Kasturi + Kesara.38 Shotha Punarnava Kashaya.39 Shukra Vriddhi Karpura 1.5 Ratti + Lavanga + Kesari + Jatipatra + Akara (Kadali + Ikshu Karabha + Bhanga all 2 Ratti + Mishri 1 Masha or with Rasa) banana.40 Shwasa Vasa Swarasa or Vibhitaki Phala Twak Kashaya.41 Soola Trikatu + Bharngi + Bibitaki + Madhu.42 Trishna Sheeta Jala.43 Udara Roga Triphala kwatha or Krishna Lavana + Haridra + Bhanga + Ajamoda churna.44 Unmada Kushmanda swarasa45 Vajikarana Musali choorna + Milk or Suvarna bhasma.46 Vataja Prameha Madhu + Pippali.47 Vatarakta Kokilaksha.48 Vibandha Chitrakamula + Haritaki + Krishna Lavana or Ela.49 Visoochika Shunthi + Jeera or Jati50 Vrana Sugandhi + Bala + Guduchi + Shunthi Kashaya.51 Visphota Chaturjata.Matra of Rasa Sindura: Due to the variation in individuality on the basis of treatment, compatibility,acuteness of disease, age, climate etc, the dose will differ from one individual to another.Despite of different methods adopted for Rasa Sindura preparations and the variousproportions of ingredients used, dose of Rasa Sindura may be estimated between 1/16 – 5Ratti according to various Rasa texts.PREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 16 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  31. 31. Drug Review Table no. 4 showing the dosage of Rasa Sindura according to age38: Age Dose 1 yr 1/16 Ratti 2 yrs 1/7 Ratti 6 yrs 1/3 Ratti 12 yrs 1/2 Ratti > 12 yrs and Adults 1 Ratti Table no.5 showing different proportions of Gandhaka in Rasa Sindura and its specific indications according to different authors: AyurvedaSI. Proportion of Rasendra Prakasha40/ Rasa Tarangini42No Gandhaka Chintamani39 Yoga Ratnakar411 Samaguna Suddhat Shata guno Rogaghna Samanya Rasaha Gadanashana2 Dviguna Sarva Kushta Hara Raja Yakshmahara Maharogahara3 Triguna Sarva Jadya Kaminidarpa Pumstva Vinashaka Nashaka Prakashaka4 Chaturguna Valipalita Nashana Tejasvi, Sarva Mahotsaha Shastranam Medha, Smruthi Siddidhah Vivardhana5 Panchaguna Kshaya Akshayakara Sidha Bhaishajya Ashesha gada Santhapanasaka6 Shadguna Sarvaroghara Mrityujit Adbhuta Karyakrit. Specific properties can be attributed by using specific additional and infusionaldrugs. These drugs influence the properties of Rasa Sindura by their presence during theprocess. By increasing the proportion of gandhaka efficiency of Rasa Sindura is enhancedwhich is difficult to find out by chemical analysis.Pharmacological action of Rasa Sindura according to Modern view43: In the case of sulphides, however a great deal of doubt exists as to whether theyare absorbed at all. The sulphide ion is very inert and it is clear that unless and until thesalt is dissociated into its constituent ions, mercury will not be able to exert its influencePREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 17 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  32. 32. Drug Reviewon the body tissues. Sulphide of mercury is not used in any of the pharmacopeias ofWestern countries as it is considered to be devoid of therapeutic activity. This idea gainsadditional support from the fact that the various Mercurial salts after absorption areexcreted into the caecum as Sulphides and in this form Mercury is found in the faeces.In Ayurvedic Pharmacopia, on the other hand, mercury is predominantly used in theform of Sulphides. Small doses of mercury diminish the oxidation of tissues. Furtheradministration of mercury in small doses to rabbits, dogs and men causes an increase inthe number of RBC’s while the body gains weight and the general nutrition is increased. Mercury is tonic, alterative, purgative, indirect cholagogue, antiseptic andsialogogue. When taken into the system it combines with the acids and fluids of the body;it is then easily absorbed by the skin, mucus membranes, lungs and stomach and passesinto the blood as oxy-albuminate. In the stomach it is converted into double chloride ofsodium and mercury. It unites with the albuminous juices and is easily aabsorbed; the restbeing converted into a sulphide and eliminated with the faeces.Procedure of Kupi Pakwa Rasayana:It can be divided under 3 headings as follows: 1. Purva Karma 2. Pradhana Karma 3. Paschat Karma1. Purva Karma: During Purva Karma following points are to be considered: i. Collection of appropriate instruments. ii. Purification of ingredients. iii. Preparation of Kajjali iv. Preparation of Kupi. v. Filling of Kupi with prematerial.PREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 18 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  33. 33. Drug Review(i) Collection of Equipments:Bhatti44: The height and width of the Bhatti should be 18 angula’s, shaped like an Ant hillwith a hollow space of 5 Gulpha (20") inside and should have many holes in its lowerportion. There should be an opening for introducing fuel, of about 12 angulas. In theBhatti heat of the burning fuel should properly reach the centre as well as surrounding theValuka Yantra. There should be sufficient air ventilation inside the furnace. An out let forthe fumes should be there from inside. The flame should go up rather coming down.Bhatti can be made with the fire proof bricks which minimizes the loss of heat and fuelconsumption.Fuel used: WoodValuka yantra45: A Loha bhanda having narrow base and wide mouth depending on thesize of the Kupi (1" taller then kupi) should be prepared with the 2 handles. Thecircumferences of Valuka yantra should fit exactly over the hole of the Agnibhatti. Itshould fill 5 Adhaka sand and have a central hole of 2 to 2.5 cm at the bottom, whichshould be closed with Abhraka patra before keeping the Kupi during heating. Accordingto Yadavji Trikamji Acharya the depth of the vessel should be 1 Vitasti pramana.Valuka: Natisthoola and clean Valuka (Sand) should be filled into the Valuka yantra. Atfirst 2 – 3 c.m of sand is spread over the Abhraka Patra which is kept covered over thecentral hole, over which Kajjali filled Kupi is kept and remaining part of Valuka yantrashould be filled with valuka till the neck of the Kupi.Kupi46: During ancient period they used to prepare Sinduras in Andha mooshas or Kupimade with Hema, Tara, Ayas / Mrittika. Any materials can be used but they shouldsustain intense heat. After 10th century when glass bottles were invented it was used forthe medicine preparations. Now a day beer bottles of 650ml capacity with the neck 1-1.5inches in length and moderate thickness with variable varnas are used.Kapad Mitti: As per the textual reference the Kupi which is used in Valuka yantrashould be covered with the mud smeared cloth which can withstand intense heat. Mudwhich is pandura Varna, obtained in mass, Krishna or swetha Varna which sustains heatPREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 19 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  34. 34. Drug Reviewcan be used. Valmika mrittika or potters mud can also be used. It is advised to preparekapad mitti from, husk -2 parts, cotton–1 part, mud–3 parts, and fibres, grinded and keptsoaked in water for 7 days and then used to cover the Kupi. Now a day gopichandana or clay is used for this purpose. The mud smeared clothapplied to the kupi from bottom to mouth and should be well dried. Whole length of theKupi can be applied with kapad mitti as it prevents breakage of kupi during heating.Pyrometer: In Kupi Pakwa Rasayana preparation, heating schedule is the most importantfactor. Through Pyrometer, one can regulate the heat supplement for the preparation.Pyrometer used for the purpose is that which records the Temperature of the sand bykeeping the sensors in Valuka Yantra.Cork: Corking material is called Mudra. In Kupi Pakwa Rasayana procedure aftercomplete evaporation of fumes and cessation of flame, Kupi’s mouth is closed with corkand is called Mudrana or Corking. For this purpose any sticky substance which getshardened with further heating and which can properly fit the mouth of the Kupi is used. 1. Madanamudra: made with latex of udmbara & vata, lac, kantaloha, gorochana and atasi taila. It is sticky and slightly hard. 2. Hata mudra: made with glass powder brick powder, tankana, mandura rubbed with latex of vata, udumbara and arka for 1 day. Now a day isthika cork is plugged into the mouth of the bottle and wrapped withthe cloth smeared in gopichandana.ii. Purification of ingredients: The raw materials should be identified first for thegenuinity and purity. Every raw material should be purified according to the methodprescribed in classics. Again purified ingredients should be tested according the SamyakShodhita lakshanas described in the texts.iii. Preparation of Kajjali47: Equal quantity of Hingula and Gandhaka should be taken according to thereference and mardana should be done without using any liquid till the mixture becomesslakshna choorna. Generally Kajjali is preferred as the prematerial for preparing KupiPakwa Rasayana.PREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 20 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  35. 35. Drug Review Apart from Kajjali the colour of prematerial used to prepare Kupipakwa Rasayanadepends on the ingredients used; for eg: Red colour in Hingulad Rasa sindura. Ash colourin Rasa pushpa and so on. If Bhavana is mentioned it is given after the completion of Kajjali preparation.After Bhavana the mixture should be well dried before filling into the Kupi.iv. Filling of Kajjali into the Kupi: The Kupi should be filled upto 1/3rd with the Kajjali so that there should beenough space inside the Kupi for melting and boiling of Kajjali and also for thesublimation of compound which is going to be condensed and deposited at the neck ofthe Kupi. Such Kupi should be kept exactly at the centre of Valuka Yantra which is inturn placed in the Agni bhatti and remaining part of the Valuka yantra should be filledwith sand upto neck of the Kupi.3. Pradhana Karma (Valuka Yantra Pachana) includes: 1. Temperature analysis and monitoring 2. Heating pattern / schedule. 3. Shalaka sanchalana. 4. Observation of fumes and flames. 5. Corking of mouth of Kupi (Mukhamudrana) 6. Self cooling (Swanga Shitalikarana)Temperature scrutiny: Ancient Parameters: Traditionally following tests were in practice. a. Cotton, dry grass test – Cotton or dry grass kept on the Valuka catches fire and burns then it is considered to be Tivragni. b. Rice test – When a paddy or maize put on Valuka it puffs up- tivragni. Now a day, Pyrometer is used for measuring the temperature.PREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 21 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  36. 36. Drug ReviewHeating pattern48: A few signs and standards of different heating stages of Kupi Pakwa Rasayanasare mentioned by the ancient scholars for deciding proper pachana of the ingredients,through Kramagni paka. It has to be considered as follows: 1. In terms of duration of heating. 2. In terms of temperature. The term duration indicates the time limit for maintenance of Kramagni and interms of temperature indicates the temperature limit for maintenance of Kramagni. Kramagni pattern is categorized into three stages. 1. Mrudu Agni – 150 - 200°C (Initial stage) 2. Madhyamagni – 350 - 400°C (Middle stage) 3. Tivragni - 550 - 600°C (Endstage)I stage Mrudu Agni (150 - 200°C): (Stage of Liquefaction of Kajjali) 1. Material in the Kupi completely melts during this stage which may be ascertained by inserting cold shalaka in to the Kupi. 2. This heat may be maintained for the prescribed time to allow chemical reactions to start with.II stage – Madhyamagni (350 - 400°C): (Stage of profuse fumes and boiling of Kajjali) 1. This stage commences from the complete melting of Kajjali and lasts till the starting of formation of Sindura compound. 2. In this stage profuse fume of Sulphur from the Kupi mouth is obvious. 3. Liquified Kajjali starts boiling. 4. Deposition of fumes at the neck of the Kupi may cause chocking, which may frequently be removed by inserting Tapta shalaka in to the Kupi mouth. 5. Boiling of melted material at the Kupi is ascertained by inserting cold iron rod in the Kupi or by visualizing through torch light.PREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 22 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  37. 37. Drug Review 6. It is necessary to prevent the material coming out of the Kupi mouth by maintaining and controlling heat temperature to desired level. 7. Maintain moderate heat for the prescribed period to ensure burning of extra Sulphur in the product. 8. Same degree of heating is maintained till boiling of Kajjali ceases.III Stage – Tivragni (550 - 600°C): (Stage of appearance of flame and corking of Kupimouth) 1. This stage commences from the formation of Sindura compound and lasts up to the completion of Jarana of Gandhaka. The process of formation of Sindura occurs in the middle stage, it means when Kajjali is in boiling stage (Honey comb like appearance), chemical changes occurs and as a result formation of new compound takes place which is called as Sindura Kalpa. Afterwards as heating persists, this newly formed compound sublimates and gets condensed at the neck and mouth of the Kupi. 2. At the end of middle stage Sulphur fumes catches fire and it takes a form of flame. In this end stage flame appears. 3. Slowly the height of the flame starts to rise. 4. When extra Sulphur burns out completely flame disappears and this indicates the completion of Gandhaka Jarana. 5. Redness starts appearing at the bottom of the Kupi (seen through torch light) which gets more brightened (Sooryodaya lakshana).Sindura test becomes positive. 6. Almost disappearance of fumes / flame at the Kupi mouth could be observed which is ascertained by performing Sheeta shalaka test. 7. When Copper coin is placed on the Kupi mouth, due to Mercury fumes which is getting evaporated, it becomes white in colour.Shalaka sanchalana49: Ayurveda Prakashakara mentioned the use of tapta shalaka during blocking of theKupi mouth by the fumes. Iron rods of different size and shapes were used.During thePREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 23 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  38. 38. Drug Reviewprocedure sheeta shalaka is used especially for noting the state of Kajjali, whether it is inpowder form, melted form or in boiling state or in sublimating compound state. Taptashalaka is used for burning the sublimated Sulphur deposited at the neck region of Kupiwhich may block the Kupi mouth resulting in breaking of Kupi otherwise.Observation of fumes and flames50: All the characteristics of fumes like colour, smell etc must be observed. It differsaccording to the ingredients. Colour -yellowish, orange, bluish or white etc. Odour - sulphurous, arsenical etc. Quantity - mild, moderate, profuse / dense etc.Flame: This is also an important factor while preparing Kupi Pakwa Rasayana. Time ofstarting of flame, its height, colour and its duration are the important features. Theseimportant features depend on ingredients used.Corking of Kupi Mouth51: It is important to decide the proper time of corking but priorto that few tests are to be conducted such as: 1. Absence of flame. 2. Absence of fumes. 3. Copper coin test – should be positive. 4. Appearance of Redness in the bottom of Kupi (Sooryodaya lakshana) - positive. 5. Dry grass test should be positive. 6. If a Sheeta shalaka is introduced into the Kupi, a white dense fume appears suggests completion of Gandhaka Jarana. Sheeta shalaka gets coating of different coloured powder according to different compounds. eg: Blackish in Rasa Sindura, White coating in Rasapushpa etc. This is called positive Sheeta shalaka test is confirmatory before corking.PREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 24 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  39. 39. Drug Review 7. Before corking 2-3 inches of sand layer should be moved aside from the neck region to make it cool as the sublimating compound can get well condensed in the neck portion of the Kupi.Method of corking52: Cork made up of stone or wood or mud is kept over the mouth of the Kupi andthen it is covered with the cloth smeared with clay / Multani mitti. For the sealingpurpose chalk powder (Khatika), Guda (jaggery), Madhu (honey) etc can be used. There is a controversy regarding heating after corking. Some opine to continueheating as per textual reference for complete period and then leaving for self cooling andwhile some opine that heating should be discontinued after corking and allow the Yantrato get self cooled.Swanga sitalikarana (self cooling): After heating for a prescribed period, Bhatti is leftfor self cooling in order to avoid breaking of kupi by sudden exposure to cold air.3. Paschat Karma (Collection of final product): Removal of Kupi from the Valuka yantra Breaking of Kupi. Collection of final product. Examination of the final product.Removal of Kupi from the Valuka yantra: First sand should be removed from the Valuka yantra and then the Kupi isremoved carefully. Kapadmitti layers are carefully scraped out; Kupi is cleaned with wetcloth. Level of the product inside the Kupi is observed and marked.Breaking of Kupi53: A thread soaked in Kerosene or Spirit is tied just below (2-3 cm) the level of theproduct and fire is set. Kupi is kept horizontal and rotated so that whole thread getscompletely ignited. Little of cold water is sprinkled over it or Kupi can be wrapped with aPREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 25 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  40. 40. Drug Reviewwet cloth, then the Kupi breaks into two halves at desired level. The product which iseither Talastha or Galastha from the broken Kupi is collected, powdered well and stored.Examination of the final product: Judgment about the colour and shape of the crystal of Sindura can be made by theingredients of the Kajjali. Similarly smell and colour of flame are the basis for thedetermination of Sindura compound going to be formed. At last chemical analysis,crystallographic study and clinical study are done for confirmatory evidences of theSindura. HINGULAD RASA SINDURA54, 55, 56, 57Introduction: Hingulad Rasa sindura is one of the Kupi Pakwa Rasayana. It is a Sagandha,Sagni and Bahirdhuma Kantastha Kupi Pakwa Rasayana containing Shodhita Hingula,and Shodhita Gandhaka in equal proportions. Here the period for which the Agni is to begiven is not mentioned. It resembles the colour of japa kusuma.Method of preparation: All the ingredients are selected according to their Grahya Lakshanas andsubjected to Shodhana individually with different Dravyas. After Shodhana, Hingula andGandhaka are powdered separately and then both are mixed well by carrying out mardanain khalva yantra till they attain Slakshnatva (smoothness). This well triturated mixture iscalled as Kajjali. The Kajjali thus prepared is kept inside a Kupi and heat is given inKramagni. After Kupi Paka the corking is done and allowed for self cooling and finallythe product is collected from Kantabhaga.Therapeutic Indication: Therapeutic properties of Hingulad Rasasindura are similar to Rasa sindura.Although it has been indicated in almost all the diseases, but for the present study,efficacy of Hingulad Rasasindura is tried in Tamakashwasa. Dose –1 ratti two times a day, Anupana -Vibhitaki phala twak kwatha.PREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 26 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  41. 41. Drug Review HINGULA Hingula is one of the Sadharana Rasa58, but authors of Rasarnava, RasahrudayaTantra and Rasa Kamadhenu mentioned it under Maharasa Varga. Hingula is the mainsource of Parada. Parada extracted from Hingula is said to be equivalent toAshtasamskarita Parada. Anandakanda named Hingula as Rasa Garbha and it is RasaGandhaka Sambhava according to Rasarnava.History- No references about Hingula are available in any of the Vedas. Even no whereinsamhitas, we find the reference of Hingula. The reference of Hingula is found inKautilyas Arthashastra in “testing of gold”. He has not described its medicinal use59.Vernacular Names Sanskrit: Hingula, Hindi: Hingul, Singarph, Assami: Janjaphar, Gujarati/ Marathi: Hingula, Kannada: Ingalika, Telugu: Ingalikam, English: Cinnabar. Scientific name: Red sulphide of Mercury.Synonyms60: Hingala, Hingula, Inglula, Mleccha, Darada, Rakta, Suranga, Chitranga, ChurnaParada, Rasodbhava, Rasasthana, Shukatunda, Ranjana, Kapishirshaka, Rakta Kaya,Hamsapada.Meaning of Synonyms: Darada : Native place. Hamsapada : Resembles the colour of feet of swan. Shukatunda : Resembles the colour of beak of parrot. Suranga : Has good colour. Ranjana : That which imparts colour.Varieties61 (On the basis of occurrence): • Khanija (Mineral) • Krutrima (Artificial)PREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 27 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  42. 42. Drug ReviewKhanija variety is of three types Charmara : Krishna, Rakta Varna Shukatunda : Peeta Varna Hamsa Pada : Japa Kusuma Varna According to Rasa Ratna Samuchchayakara Hingula is of two types they are,Shukatunda and Hamsapada. Hamsapada is said to be best variety.Grahya Lakshna62The lakshana of best variety of Hingula is as follows:• Japakusuma Varnabha - It resembles the colour of petals of red hibiscus flower.• Peshane Sumanoharaha - When triturated its colour becomes beautiful.• Mahojwala - Reflects in sunlight.• Bharapurna - Heavy in weight.• Shweta Rekha - Having white or silvery streaks.• Pravalabha - Resembles like that of Pravala.Ashodhita Hingula Sevana Dosha63 Tasya chikitsa64: The Ashodhita Hingula causes Andhata, Kshinata, Klama, Bhrama, Moha andPrameha. It is treated similar to the ashuddha parada bhakshanajanya dosha. The personshould be administered Shuddha Gandhaka for 2 months.Hingula shodhana-Hingula is purified by subjecting it to: Seven Bhavanas with Nimbu Swarasa65. Seven Bhavanas with Ardraka or Lakucha Swarasa66. 7 bhavanas of mesi ksheera or with amla rasa dravyas67.PREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 28 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  43. 43. Drug ReviewGunas of Hingula68, 69- Rasa : Tikta, Katu, Kashaya Guna : Ushna Virya : Ushna Hingula is Deepana, Rasayana, Vrushya, Balya, Vajikara, Santatikara,Sukhayukara, Srikara, Medha Kanti Vardhaka, Agnivardhaka, Sarva Doshaghna, Ruchi,Hrudaya Utsahakara and Netrya. Shodhita Hingula is useful in the treatment of Prameha, Kushta, Jwara, Mandagni,Hrdroga, Aruchi, Amlapitta, Hrullasa, Kamala, Pliharoga, and Amavata and also usefulin treating Gara Visha. The properties of Hingula are equal to the samaguna Gandhaka Jarita parada. Matra - ½ - 1 Ratti Anupana - Maricha, Guda, Pippali, Guduchi Swarasa, Madhu.Hingulakrushta Rasa70- Parada which is extracted from Hingula by triturating with Jambira Swarasa for aday and heated in Urdhwapatana Yantra is known as Hingulakrushta Rasa. Even in othertexts we find the reference of satvapatana.Important Yogas of Hingula71 - Some of the important Yogas are Hinguleshwara Rasa, Ananda Bhairava Rasa,Kanaka Sundara Rasa, Jwara Murari Rasa, Vasanta Malati Rasa, Ratna Garbha PottaliRasa, Darada Vati, Tribhuvana Kirti Rasa, Kasturi Bhairava Rasa, Atisarahara Vati,Hingulad Rasa Sindura and Hinguliya Manikya Rasa. Hingula is an important raw material in different Khalvi Rasayana preparations.Its reddish brown and brown colours as against grey, grayish black and black colour ofKajjali identify the Hingulayukta Kalpas.PREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 29 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  44. 44. Drug Review CINNABAR72, 73 The Main Ore of Mercury, from which the metal is extracted by distillation. It is aheavy red powder Mercury sulfide. When used as a pigment it is called Vermillion.Nearly all mercury in the world is obtained from Cinnabar. It occurs both in crystallineand massive forms. The ore is a red crystalline mass that is easily distinguishable from allother red minerals by its peculiar shade of colour and its great weight.General information- Chemical formula - HgS Molecular weight - 232.66 gm Composition - Mercury (Hg) – 86.22% and Sulphur (S) - 13.78% Locality - Alma den, Spain Synonyms - Cinabre, Zinnober.Physical properties of Cinnabar- Though usually, Cinnabar is granular, massive or earthy, it some times occursbeautifully crystallized in small complex and highly modified hexagonal crystals. Usuallythe crystals are rhombohedral or prismatic in crystals. It is a cochineal red in colour ofteninclining brown. Its streak is bright red. Adamantine to dull luster perfect prismaticcleavage. Density =8.1 and Hardness =2-2.5. If moistened with HCl and rubbed on clearcopper, a silvery white streak is produced usually associated are native mercury, pyrite,marcasite, realgar calcite, stibnite, quartz and opal. Cinnabar is a chief source of metallicmercury.Cinnabar classification-• Dana class - Contains sulfides including Selenides and Telluride.• Strunz class - Contains sulfides and Sulpho salts.PREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 30 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  45. 45. Drug Review GANDHAKA Gandhaka is next to Parada and has been explained in Dhatu Karma and in thepreparation of various Rasaushadhis. It is grouped under Uparasa Varga by authors ofdifferent Rasa classics like Rasa Hrudaya Tantra, Rasendra Chudamani, Rasa PrakashaSudhakara, Rasa Ratna Samuchchaya and Rasa Kamadhenu.Mythological origin75- Mythologically Gandhaka is said to be the result of churning of Ksheerasagaraand it is originated along with Amruta and said to origin from the menstrual flow ofParvati.Vernacular Names- Assami – Kiburit, Bengali – Gandhaka, English – Sulphur, Gujarati – Gandhaka, Hindi – Gandhaka, Marathi – Gandhaka, Parsi – Gogrid, Kannada – Gandhaka, Telugu–Gandhakamu.Synonyms76-Saugandhika Putigandha NavanithaGandhapashana Atigandha Daityendra GandhiPamari Gandhamadana Rasa Gandhaka BaliKeetadhna Sugandhika Balivasa KruragandhaGandhika Kushtari Gandha ShulbariTypes of Gandhaka- Rasarnava explained three types of Gandhaka and remaining authors explainedfour types. The following table shows types of Gandhaka according to different RasaClassics.PREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 31 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  46. 46. Drug Review Table no.6 showing types of Gandhaka according to Rasa Classics Sl Types RRS77 AP78 RPS79 YR80 Ra.Chu81 1. Shuka Chanchunibha Shukatunda (Rakta) + + + + + 2. Shukapichchanibha + + + + + (Peeta) 3. Shukla (Shweta) + + + + + 4. Krishna (Black) + + + + + Table no.7 showing types of Gandhaka and their qualities and uses82 Sl.No. Types Quality Used for 1. Shukachunchanibham Sreshta Dhatuvada 2. Shukapichchanibham Madhyama Rasayana Karma 3. Shukla Adhama Loha Marana 4. Krishna Jara Mrutyu NashanaGrahya lakshanas of Gandhaka83 -1. That which is clear. 2. Turmeric in colour.3. Shiny. 4. Smooth to touch like that of butter. The above said qualities are present in Amalasara Gandhaka which isrecommended for Rasa-Rasayana Karma.Pharmacological and Therapeutic Properties84, 85, - Rasa : Katu, Tikta, Kashaya Guna : Ushna, Sara, Snigdha Virya : Ushna Vipaka : Madhura (R.C.), Katu (RRS; AP)PREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 32 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  47. 47. Drug Review Karma : Deepana, Pachana, Vishahara, Jantughna, Rasayana, Balya, Veerya Vardhaka, Kandu, and Visarpahara. Dosha Prabhava : Kaphavatahara, Pittavardhaka Vyadhi Prabhava : Garavishahara, Kshudra Kushtahara, Kasa, Shwasa, Agnivardhaka, Rasayana, Dadruhara.Doshas of Gandhaka86 -According to Rasa classics, Gandhaka has two types of doshas; • Sila Churna (Physical impurities like clay, sand etc) • Visha (Chemical impurities Viz., arsenical, lead etc) Gandhaka should be purified before administering internally other wise it willproduce the diseases like Kushta, Bhrama, Klama, Paithika Roga, Balakshaya,Shukrakshaya, Veeryahani and Kandu.Shodhana – According to Rasa classics the Shodhana of Gandhaka can be carried out by usingfollowing dravyas: Godugdha, Nimbu Swarasa, Tankana, Goghrita, Karanja Taila,Ardraka Swarasa, Bhringaraja, Kanji, and Ajadugdha.Methods of Gandhaka Shodhana87, 88, 89 -• Gandhaka is taken in darvi with equal amount of Cow’s Ghee and melted on Mrudu Agni. This liquified Gandhaka is poured into another vessel which contains Cow’s Milk through a cloth tied over the mouth of the vessel. After that it is taken out and washed with hot water.• Gandhaka is melted and poured into a vessel containing Bhringaraja Swarasa and boiled for some time and this process is repeated for seven times.• A vessel with wide mouth is filled with Cow’s Milk with a cloth tied on the mouth of the vessel. The powdered Gandhaka should be spread on this and covered with a broad Sharava. Cow dung cakes are then spread upon the Sharava and ignited. AfterPREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 33 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  48. 48. Drug Review self cooling the manibhakara Gandhaka is collected and washed with water and this process is called as Kurma puta Gandhaka Shodhana.Dose of Gandhaka90- 1 to 8 Ratti.Pathya91- Mamsa Bhakshana of wild animals and birds, Cow’s Milk, Ghee and Rice.Apathya92- Kshara, Amla, Atilavana, Katu, Vidahi and Stree sevana should be avoided.Gandhaka Yogas93 – Kajjali; Gandhaka Rasayana; Rasa Parpati; Makaradhwaja; Rasa Sindura and Samira pannaga Rasa. SULPHUR94 The name sulphur is derived from the Sanskrit word “Sulveret” through the LatinSulphurium.History- The ancients probably due to its frequent occurrence in Free State knew Sulphur.Aryans, Greeks, Romans and Indians used it for fumigation and as medicine. The Biblerefers to be as “Brimstone” meaning “Burning Stone”. Antony lavoiser placed it amongthe elements in 1777, which was regarded as “Principle of fire”. It is estimated as the 9thmost abundant element in the universe.Occurrence- Sulphur is distributed in nature both in free and combined form. Free sulphur isfound in volcanic regions in Sicily. Approximately 0.06% of earth’s crust containssulphur. Pure sulphur contains traces of Selenium, Tellurium and Arsenic some timesmixed with Bitumen and Clay. Sulphur is found because of sublimation or interaction of Sulphurous vapourdecomposition of pyrite and other Sulphide mineral. There are important minerals andcompounds containing sulphur such as:Sulphides: Zinc Blend (ZnS), Galena (PbS), Copper Pyrites (CuFeS2), Cinnabar (HgS), Iron pyrites (FeS).PREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 34 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  49. 49. Drug ReviewSulphate: Gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O), Barytes (Ba SO4), Epsom salt (MgSo4 7H2O), Ferrous sulphate (FeSo4 7H2O) Traces of sulphur occur as H2S in Volcanic gases, organic substance such as eggs,proteins, garlic, mustard, onion, hair and wool. It is an essential non-metal and is a minorconstituent of fats, body fluids and skeleton muscles. Sulphur appears as solid and liquidform.Solid - Rhombic and MonoclinicLiquid - Sλ and Sµ (Amorphous sulphur)Some of the basic information on sulphur is as follows: Name : Sulphur Symbol : S Atomic Number : 16 Atomic Mass : 32.06. Amu Melting point : 112.80C Boiling point : 444.60C Number of Protons/ Electrons: 16 Number of Neutrons : 16 Classification : Non Metal Crystal structure : Orthorhombic Varna : Yellow British spelling : Sulphur IUPAC spelling : SulfurPREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 35 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  50. 50. Drug ReviewImportance of Sulphur to man• As a constituent of proteins, essential amino acids, important vitamins and hormones.• Sulphur makes up 0.25% of our body weight, meaning that an average adult human body contains around 170 gms of sulphur, of which most occurs in the amino acids cysteine, cystine and methionine.• Sulphur is involved in the formation of bile acids, which are essential for fat digestion and absorption. It also helps to keep skin, hair and nails healthy.• No specific sulphur deficiency diseases are known, however deficiency of sulphur is linked to the skin disorder eczema and also imperfect development of hair and nails. Sulphur containing foods are vegetables (Radishes, Carrots and Cabbage), milkproducts (Cheese), Sea food and Meat protein. KAJJALI 95Definition - Shodhita Parada and Shodhita Gandhaka alone or in combination, with otherUparasa and different Dhatus is mixed and triturated without adding any liquid to anypowder. This is called Kajjali. It should be free from any shining particles. Generally apart from Kajjali the colour of prematerial used to prepare KupipakwaRasayana depends on the ingredients used; for eg: Red colour in Hingulad Rasa sindura.Ash colour in Rasa pushpa and so on. Any powdered prematerial that which is filled intoKupi should be smooth i.e. which is having Slakshnatva and Sukshmatva like that ofKajjali and should also pass Rekhpurnata, Nischandrata and Loha Pareeksha. For the present study equal quantity of Hingula and Gandhaka are taken accordingto the reference and mardana is done without using any liquid till the mixture becomesslakshna choorna.PREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 36 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)
  51. 51. Drug Review JAMBEERA96, 97 For the present study Nimbu Swarasa was used for the Shodhana of Hingula. It isan important Dravya of Amla Varga. In Rasa Classics, it is explained for Shodhana andMarana of various Metals and Minerals.Latin Name: Citrus acida Family: RutaceaeSynonyms- Amlajambira, Jantumari, Amlasara, Nimbuka, Dantaghna, Rochana, Jambeera, Shodhana.Description – Leaflets are elliptic, oblong, racemes short, flowers small, petals usually four.Fruits are usually small, globose or ovoid, rind thick or thin. Pulp pale, very acidicUseful parts - Phala, Twak and Patra. Fruit juice of lemon contains citric acid 10%, Phosphoric acid 4%, Sugar 10.9%,Cellulose, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Citrine 76%, Citrol 7.8% and Sulphuric acid.Distribution: It is available throughout India.Pharmacological and Therapeutic Properties Rasa : Amla Guna : Guru, Tikshna Virya : Ushna Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Deepana, Rochaka, Anulomana, Pachaka, Krimighna Dosha : Kaphavata shamaka, Pittavardhaka Vyadhi Prabhava: Agnimandya, Trishna, Udarashoola, Chardi, Aruchi, Vibandha, Kasa, Shwasa and KrimirogaPREPARATION, ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HINGULADRASASINDURA AND ITS CLINICAL 37 EFFICACY IN TAMAKASHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA)

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