ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY
ON
WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ
BY
Dr. RAVIKRISHNA.S
B.A.M.S
Dissertation submitte...
Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore
DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE
I hereby declare that this d...
Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore
CERTIFICATE BY THE GUIDE
This is to certify that the diss...
Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore
ENDORSEMENT BY THE HOD, PRINCIPAL/HEAD OF THE INSTITUTION...
© COPYRIGHT
DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE
I hereby declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of health Sciences, Karnataka
s...
IV 
 
LIST OF CONTENTS
 
CHAPTER
NO.
CONTENT PAGE
NO.
SECTION I
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1-2
Chapter 2 OBJECTIVES 3
SECTION ...
V 
 
LIST OF FIGURES
SL.
NO. LIST OF FIGURES
PAGE
NO.
1. India Map 43
2. Karnataka Map 43
3. Udupi Taluq Map 43
4. Average...
VI 
 
LIST OF TABLES
SL.
NO. LIST OF TABLES
PAGE
NO.
1. Explaining Phala and their Viruddha 11
2. Explaining Phalavarga of...
VII 
 
LIST OF COLOUR PLATES
SL.
NO. LIST OF COLOUR PLATES
1 Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn.
2 Aporusa lindleyana (Wight) B...
LIST OF ABBREVATIONS
1. A. H. - Astanga Hrdaya
2. B. P. N - Bhavaprakasha Nighantu
3. D. N. - Dhanwantari Nighantu
4. M.P....
 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
 I express gratitude beyond words to my guide Dr. T.Shridhara Bairy MD (GAU), Ph.D,
Prof. of Dravyaguna,...
 
It will not be out of the way to express my thanks to my friends Dr.Jayanthi,
Dr.Umayamma, Dr.Radhika, Dr.Rekha, Dr.Seet...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dedicate to  
My parents, teachers and  
all those native informers  
who had whole  
heartedly shared t...
 
ABSTRACT
Ayurveda being a science of life, it is not only about treating sickness- it is also all
about preventing disea...
 
              
Plate No.1. Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn. Plate No.2 Aporusa lindleyana (Wight) Baill.
( Euphorbiaceae )...
 
              
Plate No.7.Mimusops elengi L. Plate No.8.Memecylon edule Roxb.
(Sapotaceae) (Melastomataceae) 
 
        ...
 
Plate No.13. Artocarpus hirsutus Lam.
(Moraceae)
DRY SAMPLES
 
 
Plate No.14. Artocarpus gomezianus Wall.ex Trec. ssp. z...
                    
INTRODUCTION 
 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ
Page 1 
 
1. INT...
                    
INTRODUCTION 
 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ
Page 2 
 
By the...
OBJECTIVES
 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ
Page 3 
 
2. OBJECTIVES
• Compilation on...
 
                                                                                REVIEW OF LITERATURE 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOT...
 
                                                                                REVIEW OF LITERATURE 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOT...
 
                                                                                REVIEW OF LITERATURE 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOT...
 
                                                                                REVIEW OF LITERATURE 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOT...
 
                                                                               REVIEW OF LITERATURE 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTA...
 
                                                                               REVIEW OF LITERATURE 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTA...
 
                                                                               REVIEW OF LITERATURE 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTA...
 
                                                                               REVIEW OF LITERATURE 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTA...
 
                                                                               REVIEW OF LITERATURE 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTA...
 
                                                                               REVIEW OF LITERATURE 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTA...
                                                                            
   MATERIALS & METHODS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANI...
                                                                            
   MATERIALS & METHODS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANI...
                                                                            
   MATERIALS & METHODS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANI...
                                                                            
   MATERIALS & METHODS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANI...
                                                                            
   MATERIALS & METHODS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANI...
                                                                            
   MATERIALS & METHODS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANI...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
                                                                        
METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 
ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL S...
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Ethno  medico- botanical survey-dg
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Ethno medico- botanical survey-dg

2,827

Published on

ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ
BY Dr. RAVIKRISHNA.S, DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN
DRAVYA GUNA VIJNANA, S. D. M. COLLEGE OF AYURVEDA, UDUPI

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,827
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
42
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Ethno medico- botanical survey-dg"

  1. 1.    ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ BY Dr. RAVIKRISHNA.S B.A.M.S Dissertation submitted to the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore. In partial fulfillment Of the requirements for the degree of AYURVEDA VACHASPATI (DOCTOR OF MEDICINE IN AYURVEDA) In DRAVYAGUNA VIJNANA GUIDE Dr. T.SHRIDHARA BAIRY  M.D. (AYU), G.A.U., Ph. D., PROFESSOR DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN DRAVYA GUNA VIJNANA S. D. M. COLLEGE OF AYURVEDA, UDUPI. 2010 - 2011
  2. 2. Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE I hereby declare that this dissertation thesis entitled “ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ” is a bonafide and genuine research work carried out by me under the guidance of Dr.T.Shridhara Bairy M.D. (Ayu) G.A.U., Ph.D., .Professor and S.D.M.C.A, Udupi. Date: Signature of the Candidate Place: Udupi Dr.Ravikrishna.S
  3. 3. Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore CERTIFICATE BY THE GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ ” is a bonafide research work done by Dr.Ravikrishna.S, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Medicine in Ayurveda, under my guidance . Date: Place: Udupi Signature of the Guide Dr. T.Shridhara Bairy M.D (Ayu)G.A.U., Ph.D Professor. Department of Postgraduate Studies in Dravya Guna Vigyan S.D.M.C.A, Udupi
  4. 4. Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore ENDORSEMENT BY THE HOD, PRINCIPAL/HEAD OF THE INSTITUTION This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ” is a bonafide research work carried out by Dr.Ravikrishna.S, under the guidance of Dr.T.Shridhara Bairy M.D. (Ayu) (G.A.U), Ph.D., Professor , S.D.M.C.A, Udupi. Signature of H.O.D Signature of Principal Dr. C.Sethumadhava Murthy M.D (Ayu) Dr. U.N.Prasad M.D (Ayu.) Professor and Head of the Department, Principal, of Post graduate Studies in Dravyaguna, S.D.M.College of Ayurveda. S.D.M. College of Ayurveda. Date: Date: Place: Udupi Place: Udupi
  5. 5. © COPYRIGHT DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE I hereby declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of health Sciences, Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminate this dissertation in print or electronic format for academic / research purpose. Date: Signature of the Candidate Place: Udupi Dr. Ravikrishna.S, © Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka
  6. 6. IV    LIST OF CONTENTS   CHAPTER NO. CONTENT PAGE NO. SECTION I Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1-2 Chapter 2 OBJECTIVES 3 SECTION II REVIEW OF LITERATURE Chapter 3 HISTORICAL REVIEW 4-7 Chapter 4 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF PHALA 8-38 Chapter 5 MATERIALS AND METHODS 39-44 SECTION III METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS Chapter 6 WILD EDIBLE FRUITS 45-113 Chapter 7 OBSERVATION 114-116 SECTION IV Chapter 8 DISCUSSION 117-124 Chapter 9 CONCLUSION 125-126 Chapter 10 SUMMARY 127-128 SECTION V Chapter 11 BIBLIOGRAPHY 129-140 Chapter 12 ANNEXURE 141-143
  7. 7. V    LIST OF FIGURES SL. NO. LIST OF FIGURES PAGE NO. 1. India Map 43 2. Karnataka Map 43 3. Udupi Taluq Map 43 4. Average rain fall – maximum & minimum temperature 44 5. Number of Edible vegetable fruits & edible fruit 114 6. Number of different types of plants 114 7. Number of cultivated & wild fruits 115 8. Number of fruits with textual references & without textual references 115 9 Number of fruits according to Rasa 116
  8. 8. VI    LIST OF TABLES SL. NO. LIST OF TABLES PAGE NO. 1. Explaining Phala and their Viruddha 11 2. Explaining Phalavarga of Caraka Samhita 14-16 3. Explaining Phalavarga of Susruta Samhita 3.1 Explains amlarasa phalavarga 17 3.2 Explaining kashya-madhura rasa phalavarga 18 3.3 Explaining madhurarasa phalavarga 19-20 3.4 Explaining kashaya rasa phalavarga 21 3.5 Explaining Katu rasa phala varga 21 4. Explaining Phalavarga of Astanga Hrudaya 22-23 5 Explaining Phalavarga of Dhanvanrari Nigantu 24-26 6 Explaining Phalavarga of Shodala Nigantu 27-29 7 Explaining Phalavarga of Madanapaala NIgantu 30-32 8 Explaining Phalavarga of Raja Nigantu 33-35 9 Explaining Phalavarga of Bhavaprakasha Nigantu 36-38 10 Explaining of Population of Udupi taluq 44 11 Explaining Projected Population of Udupi taluq 44 12 Explaining No. of edible fruits and edible vegetable fruits 114 13 Explaining Types of plants 114 14 Explaining Pure wild & cultivated fruits 115 15 Explaining fruits with textual reference & without textual reference 115 16 Explaining fruits according to rasa. 116
  9. 9. VII    LIST OF COLOUR PLATES SL. NO. LIST OF COLOUR PLATES 1 Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn. 2 Aporusa lindleyana (Wight) Baill. 3 Artocarpus gomezianus Wall.ex Trec. ssp. zeylanicus Jarrett   4 Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng. 5 Flacourtia montana Grah. 6 Holigarna arnottiana Hook.f. 7 Mimusops elengi L. 8 Memecylon edule Roxb. 9 Passiflora foetida L. 10 Syzygium caryophyllatum (L.)Alston 11 Syzygium zeylanicum (L.) DC 12 Tamilnadia uliginosa ( Retz.) Tirv. & Sastre 13 Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. 14 Artocarpus gomezianus Wall.ex Trec. ssp. zeylanicus Jarrett 15 Garcinia indica (Dupetit- Thouars) 16 Garcinia xanthochymus Hook. f. ex. T. And
  10. 10. LIST OF ABBREVATIONS 1. A. H. - Astanga Hrdaya 2. B. P. N - Bhavaprakasha Nighantu 3. D. N. - Dhanwantari Nighantu 4. M.P.N - Madanapala Nigantu 5. R. N. - Raja Nighantu 6. S.N - Shodala Nigantu 7. S. S. - Susruta Samhita 8. V - Vata 9. P - Pitta 10. K - Kapha 11. TD - Tridosha 12. - Increase 13. - Decrease VIII   
  11. 11.   ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I express gratitude beyond words to my guide Dr. T.Shridhara Bairy MD (GAU), Ph.D, Prof. of Dravyaguna, S.D.M. College of Ayurveda, who given me a motivation to take this work of exploration on hidden treasure of knowledge in plant wonders and also for his encouragement, wholehearted support and timely suggestion. I express my deep sense of gratitude to Dr.C.Seethumadhava Murthy, HOD Dept. of Dravyaguna, for his encouragement and support. I express my sincere thanks to Dr..Srikanth.P ,Asst.Prof, Dr.Chitra C.H, Lecturer, Dr.Suma.V.Mallya, Lecturer & Dr.Mohd.Faisal, Lecturer, Dept. of Dravyaguna for their Valuable suggestions. I also extend my sincere thanks to the head of the institution, Dr.U.N.Prasad and Dean ,Dr.Shrikanth.U & Dr.Govindaraju, for the timely support provided. I sincerely thankful to, Dr. K. Gopalakrishna Bhat, PPC, Udupi, for identification, authentification and clarification of the plants which I found during my survey. I avail of this opportunity to express my profound love and gratitude to my parents Sri S.K.Aithal and Smt. Malathi Aithal and all my family member for their support & encouragement throughout this research work. I thank all the folklore informers of the Udupi Taluk for their whole hearted discussion related to their ancestor’s knowledge. I Specially thank Vd.Bhaskara Poojary , Mrs.Stoiny Jathanna, Smt.Sunandamma, Mr.Panduranga Kamath who helped me a lot during my study. I am really thankful to my friend Dr.Gurumurthy.Upadhya, Herooru, for his moral support and valuable suggestion and to Mr.Manjunath K.M for his co-operation extended to me during the study period. I thank the librarian Mr. Harish Bhat for providing me with all the necessary books at the appropriate time. I  I like to thank Mr. Suresh Amin, Gram panchayath, Udupi. For providing me the needful information during my survey.  
  12. 12.   It will not be out of the way to express my thanks to my friends Dr.Jayanthi, Dr.Umayamma, Dr.Radhika, Dr.Rekha, Dr.Seetaram and Dr.Yogeesh Acharya for the discussions they extended to me during my project work. I also extend my thanks to my seniors and juniors for their timely support. I whole heartedly thankful to Staffs of Sampark Xerox and Anand Graphics for their timely & valuable support. I thank all those who have directly or indirectly contributed to the successful completion of this thesis work. Date: Place: Udupi Dr. Ravikrishna.S II   
  13. 13.                   Dedicate to   My parents, teachers and   all those native informers   who had whole   heartedly shared their precious knowledge   on wild edible fruits.     
  14. 14.   ABSTRACT Ayurveda being a science of life, it is not only about treating sickness- it is also all about preventing disease and enhancing health, longevity and vitality. Pathya is an important concept in Ayurveda and is beneficial in the maintenance of health and to manage diseases. This research work titled “Ethno- medico- botanical surveyon wild edible fruits of Udupi taluq”, with the objectives, Compilation on Phalavarga from available Ayurvedic textbooks, field survey on wild edible fruits of Udupi Taluq to collect and document the native information of locally available wild fruits, identification of the fruits botanically and its possible classical correlations, search on research updates of the identified fruits species. Phalavarga is considered under Aharavarga by Acaryas in their Samhitas and as individual vargas in nigantus. Nearly 70, 90, 44 fruits are explained by Acarya Caraka, Susruta and Vagbhata under phala varga respectively. 43 fruits explained in Dhanvantari Nigantu, 59 in Bhvaprakasha Nigantu , 48 in Raja Nigantu & 53 in Madanapala Nigantu. Acaryas advised to collect the information of locally available fruits and their uses. The development of horticulture technologies on some of the most commercial fruits and their marketing everywhere masked the knowledge regarding the locally available fruits. In this Ethnobotanical survey the information about 69 native fruits of Udupi taluq were collected, arranged in alphabetical order, with morphology, native information about its ethnic use, collection, preservation & research updates etc. III  Key word : Phalavarga, ethno botanical survey, Aharavarga.  
  15. 15.                  Plate No.1. Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn. Plate No.2 Aporusa lindleyana (Wight) Baill. ( Euphorbiaceae ) (Euphorbiaceae)                  Plate No.3. Artocarpus gomezianus Wall.ex Trec. Plate No.4. Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng. ssp. zeylanicus Jarrett   (Moraceae ) (Euphorbiaceae)                   Plate No.5 Flacourtia montana Grah. Plate No.6. Holigarna arnottiana Hook.f. (Flacourtiaceae) (Anacardiaceae)      
  16. 16.                  Plate No.7.Mimusops elengi L. Plate No.8.Memecylon edule Roxb. (Sapotaceae) (Melastomataceae)                   Plate No.9. Passiflora foetida L. Plate No.10. Syzygium caryophyllatum (L.)Alston. ( Passifloraceae ) (Myrtaceae)                   Plate No.11. Syzygium zeylanicum (L.) DC Plate No. 12.Tamilnadia uliginosa ( Retz.) Tirv. & Sastre ( Myrtaceae). ( Rubiaceae)  
  17. 17.   Plate No.13. Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. (Moraceae) DRY SAMPLES     Plate No.14. Artocarpus gomezianus Wall.ex Trec. ssp. zeylanicus Jarrett (Moraceae)                Plate No.15. Garcinia indica (Dupetit- Thouars) Plate No.16. Garcinia xanthochymus Hook. f. ex. T. And Choisy (Clusiaceae) (Clusiaceae)   
  18. 18.                      INTRODUCTION    ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 1    1. INTRODUCTION Ayurveda is a science with rock solid fundamentals principals which are eternal and can not be changed. Though, by the continuous invasion of people of various countries and the influence of different political and religious leaders and strict ban to Ayurveda, it never lost its sanctity Its principles and concepts are still present in each and every home in India & it is practiced routinely. The folklore healers are the bridge between the traditional Ayurvedic knowledge and new Ayurvedic research scholars. These healers are silently serving the society without any advertisements. To trace such hidden treasure a continuous field survey, interaction with folklore informers are essential with proper documentation, along with methodical literary survey. Pathya is one of the important concepts in Ayurveda and it is beneficial in the maintenance of health of healthy individuals and to manage the diseases. Acaryas explained many Ahara varga among which the edible fruits are listed under Phalavarga. In almost all the texts we can see the explanation of Phalavarga. Acarya Caraka opines that the most useful Ahara dravyas of specific region has been mentioned in his text, as it is difficult to explain each and every dravya in one place. On the basis of these explanations one has to acquire and accept all the locally available dravyas including the fruits.1 Since the earliest times fruits are the common and important items of man’s diet. In earliest times when man lived in forest he had to fill his belly with raw vegetables, fresh fruits and tubers whatever he could find in the surroundings. Later he started to cultivate commercial vegetables, fruits and tubers to fulfill his need. This cultivation method restricted the knowledge of locally available wild fruits.
  19. 19.                      INTRODUCTION    ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 2    By the advent and colonization of India by the foreigners many exotic fruits made their entry into the country. As these fruits were grown and people started to use them in abundance, automatically it gained popularity and knowledge of local fruits declined gradually. The new cultivation techniques, new and high-breed varieties of fruits are now available in the market Now a days the fruit like apple has been popularized by advertisements saying “AN APPLE A DAY KEEPS THE DOCTOR AWAY” has made people to use such fruits routinely and has completely made them to forget the knowledge and utility of fruits that are available in their own vicinity. In spite of commercial propaganda of these fruits the rural, folk public still depend upon and using the locally available vegetables, fruits and tubers. Instead of resorting to such advertisements made by the media, one should abide by the principles described in our Samhitas. As it is told by Acarya Vagbhata as, one should use the plants grown in their vicinity 2 .   The seasonal variation causes the imbalance in tridosa. Ayurveda explains Ritucharya to combat this imbalance the where they mention to take So this study is planned to survey and excavate forgotten information about locally available fruits of Udupi, Taluq and bring back them to mainstream.
  20. 20. OBJECTIVES   ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 3    2. OBJECTIVES • Compilation on Phalavarga from available Ayurvedic textbooks. • Field survey on wild edible fruits of Udupi Taluq to collect and document the native information of locally available wild fruits. • Identification of the fruits botanically and its possible classical correlations. • Search on research updates of the identified fruits species.
  21. 21.                                                                                   REVIEW OF LITERATURE  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 4    REVIEW OF LITERATURE 3. HISTORICAL REVIEW 1. VEDIC PERIOD 3 : RIGVEDA: Reference about Pippala fruit is available along with common fruits like amra. YAJURVEDA: Badara, bilwa, Karira, Udumbara, Jambira etc fruits are mentioned. ATHRVAVEDA: Kapitthaka and Parushaka are seen. SHATAPATA BRAHMANA: Amra, Udumbara and Pippala are mentioned. CHANDOKYA UPANISHAD: Reference about Amalaka is seen. PURANAS: Importance of fruits is clearly seen by the facts that the dwipas are named mostly after plants and the foremost one Jambudwipa named after jambu, a common fruit of India. In all the Puranas, there is mentioning of a large number of fruits and fruit- bearing trees. Specially in Garuda purana 169th chapter we can see explanation about phalavarga which consists fruits like jambira, dadima, naranga, matulunga amlaka, haritaki,tintidikakapitta, mara, jambu, tinduka, badara, bilwa, priyala, rajadana etc. 4
  22. 22.                                                                                   REVIEW OF LITERATURE  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 5    During Ramayana & Mahabharata period fruits are frequently mentioned they are used in some social customs like offering fruits to guests. In Ramayana while explaining Chitrakuta parvata a number of fruit bearing trees are explained like Amra, jambu, priyala, tinduka, kashmarya, nipa, amalaki, Bhavya nad dhanvana etc. In Mahabharata while explaining Dwithavana fruit bearing plants like Tala, madhuka, Nipa, kadamba etc are mentioned. In Panini’s Ashtadhyayi, we can find mentioning of fruits Ashwatta, amra, jambu, tala, bilwa.In Ganapaatha, there are several others like amlaka, ingudi, kadali, kapitta, dadima, draksha, lakucha, beejapura etc. Panasa found in Linganushasana. In Jain and Buddist period the mango was getting famous day by day so its frequently mentioned in their literatures. It is belived that Lord Buddha was fond of fruits and fruit orchards. 2. SAMHITA KALA: CHARAKA SAMHITA: Acharya Charaka has mentioned edible fruit under phalavarga in Aharavarga. He explained about 70 fruits with their qualities. He has mentioned Mrudwika as best and lakucha as worst fruits among fruits. He also mentioned fruits for Shirovirechana in vimana sthana. We can find reference about fruits in the concept of Agrya aushadi. Like tinduka, kapitta, madanaphala, amalaka, haritaki, bilwa, kshmarya, amlavetasa. SUSHRUTA SAMHITA : Acharya Sushruta mentioned edible fruits in phala varga. Nearly about 90 fruits are identified with their qualities under 5 groups 1. Amlarasa, phalavarga – amalaka, dadima, karamarda etc , 2.kashaya madhura rasa phalavarga- nygrodha, ashwatta, jambu, bakula etc. 3. Madhura rasa phalavarga – tala, narikela, drksha, madhuka, karjura etc. 4. Kashaya rasa phalavarga- arushkara, tuvataka, karanja, puga etc. 5. Katu
  23. 23.                                                                                   REVIEW OF LITERATURE  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 6    rasa phala varga – jati, karpoora, latakasturi. He also explained among phala varga dadima, amlaka, draksha, kharjura, paushaka, rajadana, matulunga, are of high quality. ASHTANGA HRUDAYA: Acarya Vagbhata has explained about 44 fruits with their qualities, in Ahara varga, like draksha, dadima, mocha, karjura,mocha karjura etc. He also explained about the collection of fruits. The fruits eaten by animals, worms, grown in unhealthy place, without proper taste etc. should be avoided. 3. NIGANTU KAALA: DHANVANTARI NIGANTU: Information of edible fruits with their qualities are seen Amradi varga, He explained not only fruits in this varga along with that he explained the bark, flowers which are having aroma. He explained about 43 fruits in Amradi varga. SHODALA NIGANTU: It is also known as Namasangraha & Gunasangraha. In this text author First explains the synonyms of the plant, then its quality. The information about fruit are catagorised under amradi varga. Many fruits are explained. MADANAPAALA NIGANTU: He explained phalavarga separately. In that he explained about 53 fruits with their qualities, types and stages. Draksha,dadima, badara, kataka, tinduka, kinkini etc are explained in detail. RAJA NIGANTU: In this Nigantu the fruits are included under phalavarga, he followed a unique style of writing, in initial 8 shlokas he mentioned the name of fruits with their number of
  24. 24.                                                                                   REVIEW OF LITERATURE  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 7    types. Then individual fruits are explained with synonyms, quality and its uses. He explained about 48 fruits with their subtypes. KAIYYADEVA NIGANTU: He has explained fruits in Auoshadi varga, starts from haritaki to puga. With their synonyms types, stages etc. BHAVAPRAKASHA NIGANTU: In this Nigantu fruits are included under phalavarga. About 60 fruits are explained. He explained fruits its synonyms, types, stages of maturity, with their quality in detail. In parishista portion explanation of seetha phala is seen. The first fruit is Amra so named this group as Amradi phala varga. SHALIGRAMA NIGANTU: He has explained fruits in detail in Phalavarga. He has taken reference from Rajanigantu, Bhavapraksha nigantu, Shodala nigantu. He explained about 60 fruits with its synonyms, types, stages quality etc.. Fruits like Amara, kadali, narikela etc.
  25. 25.                                                                                  REVIEW OF LITERATURE  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 8    4. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF PHALA PHALA: Since time immemorial human being having intimate relationship with the fruits. One or the other way man depends on fruits for his survival. He is using them for nutrition, ritual programmes, as offerings, to show gratitude to the guest, teachers & God, for his entertainment etc purposes. DEFINATION OF PHALA: Phalam Phala nishpatto |5 Phalam laabhah |6 DEFINATION OF PHALAVARGA:7 Yanyupabhunjananam sa bhavati samsara padapah saphalah | Teshameva phalanam vargah phalavarga iti kathitah || By consuming the edible fruits, the consumer gets the offspring and his family tree will be fruitful. The group of such fruits is known as phalavarga. CLASSIFICATION OF PHALA: We can see the classification of fruits according to their different stages is appreciated. like 1 Ama & pakva 2. Bala, ama & pakva 3. Sarasa & shushka
  26. 26.                                                                                  REVIEW OF LITERATURE  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 9    While explaining Dharanyadi varga, R.N, gives different names to fruits in their different stages as Shasya for Immature fruits, Shalatu for unripe fruit & Vaana for dry fruits.. 8 USES OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF FRUITS:9 Detailed studies had been done about the fruits by our Acaryas, According to B.P.N the types and different stages of fruits are explained. Also he explained different parts of fruits and their qualities in detail. For ex: Amra Initially he explains its synonyms, then quality of its flowers, then fruit, its dried fruit, ripen fruit, quality of fruit ripen in the tree itself, fruit ripen artificially, fruit juice taken by squeezing, ripe fruit pieces, fruit with milk, Amrapata ( dried fruit juice), seeds & buds of Amra. COLLECTION TIME FOR THE FRUITS: According to Acarya Caraka the fruits are to be collected according to the natural fruiting season.10 DIFFERENT PREPARATIONS OF FRUITS:11 Dietary preparations from fruits: 1.Lehya : The dish which can be licked are prepared using fruits like amra, amrataka etc. 2. Phalabhakshya: The food preparations containing fruits are phalabhakshyas. 3. Phala audana: The fruits mixed with rice and cooked is phala audana. 4. Raga shadava: These are the preparations like modern murabba. 5. Saktu: Powder of dried fruits like badara was saktu. 6. Vilepi: Fruits are used in Vilepi.
  27. 27.                                                                                  REVIEW OF LITERATURE  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 10    Liquid preparation from fruits: 1. Lajamanda: It is prepared with the help of amla dadima, is recommened after purification. 2. Mantha: fruits are used in preparation of Mantha. 3. Panaka: Fruit juices are prepared using fruits like draksha, kharjura, kola etc 4. Rasa: Fresh juice is extracted from fruit for ex: Amrarasa, similarly the fruit juice of draksha, dadima are also extracted. 5. Yusha: Soups are prepared from different fruits like dadima, amalaka etc. A term khala used for soup prepare from fruits by Acarya Vagbhata. Fermented beverages: In this alcoholic preparations in general, draksha is regarded as best basic material, according to Acarya Vagbhata. 1. Asava: Acarya Caraka mentioned phalasava, prepared out of 26 fruits including mrudvika, kharjura, parushaka etc. 2. Arista: Similarly like asava, some aristas are prepared from fruits as basic materials. 3. Sura: Acarya Susruta, mentioned Akshiki Sura prepared using akshiki fruits. 4. Seedhu: Acarya Susruta, mentioned Seedhu prepared using akshiki and jamboo fruits. 5. Shukta: Fruits are used to prepare Shukta also. 6. Madya: Acarya Susruta, mentioned Madya prepared using draksha and karjura fruits.
  28. 28.                                                                                  REVIEW OF LITERATURE  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 11    Fruits used as mouth fresheners: Vibhitaki, Ela, jatiphala, Jatikosha, Kakkola, Katuka, Lathakasturi, Lavali, Lavanga etc are seen in different texts of Ayurveda. FRUITS TO BE AVOIDED: According to Acarya Susruta,12 Among all the edible fruits explained under phalavarga, which are diseased (infected), eaten by worms, over- ripe, unseasonal or unripe should be avoided, Acarya Vagbhata,13 explains the fruits which is effected by excess cold, heat & bad odour, one which is eaten by animals and worms, fallen, dipped in water, fruits from unhealthy place, with less potency, decayed fruits should be avoided. FRUITS IN CONCEPT OF VIRUDDHA 14 : Acarya Caraka deals more details regarding the incompatibility of the dietetic articles. There are certain food items which should never be taken in combination, as they disturb the equilibrium of the dosas and lead to onset of several diseases. In this context he also explained fruits and its incompatibility. This are listed as below. Table No. 1 Explaining Phala and their Viruddha. Sr.No. Ahara Dravya Its opposite combination 1. Ripe fruit of Nikucha Honey, milk, soup of masa, sugar candy and ghee. 2 Amra Milk 3 Matulunga Milk 4 Karmarda Milk 5 Mocha Milk 6 Dantashatha Milk 7 Badara Milk 8 Kosamra or Jaituna,Bhavya or Kamarakha Milk 9 Jambu Milk 10 Kapittha Milk 11 Tintidi Milk 12 Akshota Milk 13 Panasa Milk 14 Narikela Milk 15 Dadima Milk
  29. 29.                                                                                  REVIEW OF LITERATURE  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 12    16 Amalaka Milk FRUITS IN CONCEPT OF AGRYA AUSHADHI 15 : Acarya caraka while explaining the agryoshadhi concept, explains few fruits. 1. Tinduka: It is best among the fruits which produce tatse in food items. 2. Kapitta: best among fruits, in its immature state it is harmful to throat. 3. Jambu : Best fruit among others which increase vata. 4. Madanaphala : Best fruit which used in vamana, asthapana & anuvasana. 5. Amalaka : Best fruit which delays aging process. 6. Haritaki: Best among patya drugs. 7. Bilwa: Best in Graahi, appetizer, mitigates vata & Kapha. 8. Kashmarya : Best fruits which has Haemostatic and cure raktapitta, 9. Amlavetasa : Best among Bhedana, dipana, anulomana & mitigates vata & kapha. FRUITS & DRAVYA NAMAKARANA: The plant nomenclature is done, for the better identification we can see that some plants are given synonyms by looking at their fruits. For ex: Kantaki phala – for Panasa Danta beeja – for Dadima Dhaara phala – for Patola Golaphala – for Madana phala
  30. 30.                                                                                  REVIEW OF LITERATURE  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 13    PHALAMAJJA (Seed kernel) 16 : Acarya Susruta after explaining the fruits in detail explains about the seed kernels of plants like priyala, vibhitaki,kola, amalaka In general all properties, potency told to the fruit, the same is to be understood as the property and potency of the kernel of that fruit. SOME OF THE CULTIVATION TECHNIQUES FOR GOOD YIELD OF FRUITS 17 : There are some of the horticultural wonders we can see in Vrikshayurveda. Using naturally available substances without harming the ecosystem. For instance - An ordinary mango tree gets the good quality of a high class mango tree and puts forth fragrant blossom effecting the bees if it is smeared with the thick paste of jambu, coral and the root of Kusha and then sprinkled with the water from the same paste. - A ball is made out of the mixture of the flowers of Madhuka, honey from lotuses, crystalline sugar and Yasti kept in a hole made at the root of tree, produces a long lasting fruits on tree. - A tamarind plant is grown into an excellent creeper if feed with water, mixed with the powder of triphala, sesame, barley and black gram and then smoked well with the turmeric powder. - A Plantain tree with its roots pierced with a golden rod heated in fire of dust of ivory, turns into a creeper producing fruits of larger size.
  31. 31.                                                                                 MATERIALS & METHODS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQPage 39  5. MATERIALS & METHODS STUDY AREA UDUPI TALUQ: Udupi taluq is fast growing city, present in Udupi district of Karnataka state in India. After division from Southcanara, Udupi is considered as separate district with 3 Taluks, Like 1. Udupi 2. Karkala & 3. Kundapura. This place is known for its cultural heritage. The spoken language here is Tulu, Kannada and Konkani. Among these Tulu has the first priority. Yakshagana & Hulivesha are traditional arts. Paryaya, Saptostava, tapta-mudra dharana are famous & unique festivals. Udupi Taluq is also famous for its religious places like Shrikrishna temple, its also has many temples, sacred grooves around its vicinity so it is known as city of temples. This place is also recognized internationally as city of education, as it has many big institutes giving education in all respects. Also there are many multispecialty hospitals, polyclinics, clinics around giving good health service even in rural areas of this taluk. There are many folklore Nati Vaidyas are practicing the old traditional system of medicine using the medicinal plants and serving the society. This gives a good recognition to this taluk in health sector. Location and boundaries: • Udupi Taluq, one of the three taluq of Udupi District of Karnataka. • It covers an area of 929 sq.km. • It is bordered on east by Karkala, and Mangalore. North side by Kundapura and whole western boundary is formed of costle line.
  32. 32.                                                                                 MATERIALS & METHODS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQPage 40  Physiography of Udupi Taluq Physiographically, this area can be divided into 2 regions 1. The sandy low land adjoining the coast. 2. An undulating plateau which covers more than 2/3 of area. Climate: • The climate in general is of a humid tropical type. • Mean maximum temperature in summer is about 35° C. • Minimum temperature in winter is about 25° C. • The weather is hot and humid in most of the time of the year. The relative humidity is the highest in July (about 98%) and the lowest during December (55%). Vegetation: Two types of vegetation seen 1. Coastal and Mangrove vegetation. 2. Vegetation along the Coastal Belt and in the Inland Plateau. Soils: We can classify the soil into 3 types 1. Red soil: Red soils overlie granites from which they are derived. They are all in situ formations, formed under prevailing conditions. They have a pH ranging from 6-8, and have a low vase status and organic matter content. 2. Laterite soil: Laterite soils are generally reddish or yellowish-red in colour and often have vesicular structure. Laterite soils are associated with and are derived from laterites. They are both in situ and sedimentary formations.
  33. 33.                                                                                 MATERIALS & METHODS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQPage 41  3. Coastal sands: Poor in nutrients and organic matters. They contain calcium carbonate in varying proportions derived from the shells of marine molluscs. Socio-economic conditions All three categories (high, middle & low) of peoples are residing here. Agriculture is main occupation, the major traditional community groups have their own agricultural lands and plantations. 80 % of the populations here are depended on agriculture for their livelihood and the 40 % of the available land is used for agriculture. Agriculture: Paddy is the major crop grown in the study area. Usually they grow two crops and rarely three. Among commercial plantations crops, cashew is the major crop, followed by coconut, arecanut and banana. Different vegetable crops are also cultivated like lady’s finger, Brinjal, cucumber etc. Also flowers like jasmine are cultivated. Table No.9 Details of Udupi Taluq Location Udupi District of Karnataka. Geographical Area 929 sq.km. Population 529225 Male 251021 Female 278204 Soil types Red, laterite & costal sands Rain fall 4136.3 mm Forest type Semi-evergreen.
  34. 34.                                                                                 MATERIALS & METHODS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQPage 42  METHODOLOGY: • Literary collections and research updates are collected from, Library and digital library of S. D. M. College of Ayurveda, Kuthpady, Udupi. • With the help of Gram panchayath, different NGO’s and Folklore Medicine Research Centre, S. D. M. College of Ayurveda, Kuthpady, Udupi, the information and address of local informers and traditional vaidyas are collected • The research was conducted by approaching them and repeated conversations. Repeated field trips were conducted throughout Udupi taluk during fruiting seasons mainly March – June and November- December • During these visits both elderly people, youngsters were contacted and through discussions and interviews the following ethno medico botanical informations were collected. a. The local identity and the common name of edible fruits. b. Fruiting season. c. Its method of collection. d. Processing, preparation and preservation methods. e. Indications and the administration techniques like dose, duration and other information of the fruits. • The collected informations are documented as pre proforma prepared which consists a. Wild edible fruits, their local identity, method of use and its benefits are recorded. b. With the help of expert Botanist the proper botanical identification is recorded. c. These plants are listed alphabetically with review of literature.
  35. 35.                                                                                 MATERIALS & METHODS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQPage 43  MAPS OF STUDY AREA-INDIA, KARNATAKA, UDUPI Fig. No. 1 India map Fig. No.2. Karnataka map Fig. No.3. Udupi taluq map Visitied areas of Udupi Taluq  UDUPI   PUTTURU  THONSE  HIRIYADKA  PERDOORU  KAPU  PADUBIDRI  NANDIKURU  SHIRVA  BRAMHAVARA  KOKKARNE 
  36. 36.                                                                                 MATERIALS & METHODS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQPage 44  Fig.No. 4. Explaining average rain fall & Maximum – minimum temperatures. Table .No. 10. Explaining the density of population in Udupi Taluq. Taluk Density of population per kilometer per Sq Km Sex Ratio (Female per 1000 males) Growth Rate(percentage) General population 0-6 Eligible 6-0age 1981-91 1991- 2001 Udupi 570 1180 963 7.66 6.75 Table. No. 11 Explaining Total Population and projected population: Taluk Male(population) Female(population) Total(Population) Udupi (2001) 251021 278204 529225 Projected population,2011 559236
  37. 37.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 45  6. WILD EDIBLE FRUITS Documentation the indigenous knowledge through ethno-botanical studies is important for the conservation and utilization of biological resources. During the last few decades there has been an increasing interest in the study of medicinal plants and their traditional use in different parts of the world. Traditional medical knowledge of medicinal plants and their use by indigenous cultures is not only useful for conservation of cultural traditions and biodiversity but also for community healthcare and drug development in the present as well as in future. By regular survey and collecting information from native informers of different areas of Udupi Taluq enables to list 69 wild edible fruit. The data of each wild edible species are arranged in the following sequence: Botanical name, Family, Botanical features, Edible part, fruiting season, Local name, Native information and the review of the plant in literatures & research updates on same fruit if any. 1. Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa Rutaceae Botanical features: 26 A small to medium- sized tree with old spiny old branches; spines single or paired. Leaf;lets up to 7.5 x 4.8 cm. ovate- lanceolate, crenate, terminal one usually larger and long- petioluled; lateral leaf-lets subsessile; petioles 2-4 cm long. Flowers c. 3 cm in diam., scented; pedicels pubescent. Calyx pubescent. Fruit 5 -12.5 cm in diam., pericarp smooth, pulp orange- coloured, aromatic. Edible part: Fruits Local name: Bela, Bilwa Fruiting season: April – May
  38. 38.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 46  Native information: The ripened fruit pulp is edible, also juice can be prepared. It quenches thirst. Helps to improve digestion, it good for health, with sour, astringent Review of the plant: It is explained in almost all texts of Ayurveda. In C.S, consider this fruit in Agrya auoshadi for sangraahi, dipana, vata, kapha prashamaka.27 Research updates: Hypoglycemic effect of water extracts of Aegle marmelos fruits in streptozotocin diabetic rats. The results of this study clearly show the hypoglycemic activity of the fruit extract.28 2. Aglaia elaeagnoidea (A. Juss.) Benth. Meliaceae Botanical features: A small tree or shrub. Leaves imparipinnate, up to 23 cm long; leaflets 3-7, up to 16 x 6 cm, elliptic to oblanceolate or obovate, entire, rounded or acuminate at apex. Flowers minute, in supra axillary dense spreading panicles; pedicels 0.5-1.5 mm long. Calyx 5-lobed, scaly. Petals 5, erect, oblong. Stamens 5, anthers sessile. Berry subglobose or pyriform, ferruginous, yellow or orange at maturity. Seeds 1-2, usually completely covered with a thin white gelatinous aril. Edible part: The fruit, especially the white gelatinous aril coat around the seed. Fruiting season: November Local name: Jangamana hannu / Kudka parndh
  39. 39.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 47  Native information: The fruit pulp portion is sweet in taste, available twice in a year. It has sour & sweet in taste. Review of the plant: No references are available regarding the edible part of this plant in Ayurvedic text books. But the plant is used as a substitute for Priyangu. Research updates: Anti-inflammatory activity of Aglaia roxburghiana var. beddomei extract and triterpenes roxburghiadiol A and B shows The triterpenes roxburghiadiol A and B may play a significant role in the observed anti-inflammatory effect of A. roxburghiana.29 3. Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) Wangerin ssp.hexapetalum (Lamk.) Wangerin Rubiaceae Botanical description: A straggling shrub armed leaves upto 15 x 6cm,broadly elliptic- ovate 3 - 5 nerved from the base, acuminate at apex, pubescent beneath; petioles up to 1.2 cm long. Flowers white , in axillary fascicles; pedicels short. calyx silky- pubscent; lobes triangular , very short. Petals usually 6, c..2cm long, densely pubescent outside , reflexed. Ovary 1-celled. Fruit ovoid, globose, up to 2 cm long, tomentose, purplish-red when ripe, 1- seeded. Edible part: Fruit Fruiting season: April - may Local name: Ankole hannu
  40. 40.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 48  Native information: Its fruits are eaten fresh after ripening, it is good for health. Sweet in taste. Review of the plant: In A.H this fruit included in phala varga, in the name of Ankola, he explained it has sweet taste, heavy for digestion, cold in potency, it cures daaha & Kshata.30 Research updates: No research work on its fruit is traced.. 4. Anacardium occidentale L. Anacardiaceae Botanical description: A small tree. Leaves up to 15 x 7.5 cm, obovate, coriaceous, entire, rounded- emarginated at apex, cuneate at base. Panicle up to 16 cm long; bracts large, deciduous. Sepals lanceolate. Petals yellow with pink strips, recurved. Stamens 8 -10, fertile stamen longer than the rest. Nut c. 2.5 cm long, on a pyriform orange or red- colored fleshy pseudocarp. Edible part: Fleshy pseudocarp. Fruiting season: December – June Local name: Geru hannu/ Beejada mara Native information:
  41. 41.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 49  The ripened fleshy pseudocarp is sour, pungent, sweet in taste. Good for health, it can be eaten as it is, some add pinch of salt to it. Its juice can be extracted which is digestive, carminative, energetic. Its Lehya & Arista prepared for Kasa, swasa. With the help of its juice alcoholic beverages are prepared. Review of the plant: Kajutaka is a coined name is seen for this plant in recent texts is observed. Research updates: Characterization of alkyl phenols in cashew (Anacardium occidentale) products and assay of their antioxidant capacity -The data presented in this study, indicates that this waste product along with CNSL, both of which contain high contents of anacardic acids, could be better utilized in functional food formulations and may represent a cheap source of cancer chemopreventive agents.31 5. Annona muricata L. Annonaceae Botanical description: A small tree. Leaves up to 16 x 7 cm, obovate- oblong or elliptic, acute or bluntly acuminate, glabrous; petioles up to 8 cm long. Flowers greenish yellow, on short peduncles. Sepals 3, small. Outer petals 2 -3.5 cm long and almost as wid, subcordate at base.Inner petals 1.8 – 3 cm long shortly clawed at base. Stemens 4 -5 mm. long. Friuts large, 10-20 cm long, ovoid, often of irregular growth, muricate, pulp, white. Seeds blackish- brown. Edible part: Fruit pulp Fruiting season: June - August
  42. 42.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 50  Local name: Hanuman phala Native information: The ripened fruits can be eaten as it is, it has sweet, sour taste. Matured fruits can also be used in the form of Sambar. A special fried food item Podi also can be prepared. Review of the plant: No reference is seen in texts. Research updates: Quantification of acetogenins in Annona muricata linked to atypical parkinsonism in guadeloupe – concludes as an adult who consumes one fruit or can of nectar a day is estimated to ingest over 1 year the amount of annonacin that induced brain lesions in rats receiving purified annonacin by intravenous infusion.32 6. Annona reticulata L. Annonaceae Botanical description: A small tree. Leaves up to 10 – 20 x 2 – 5 cm, oblong – lanceolate, acuminate, acute or obtuse at base, lateral veins 9 – 18 pairs. Pubescent when young; petioles up to 1.5 cm long. Flowers green, several from intermodal cymes. Sepals broadly ovate, pubescent. Petals 3, 1.5 – 2 cm long, oblong- lanceolate. Stemens 1 -1.3 mm long. Fruits up to 10 cm in diam., subglobose, turning yellow or reddish, smooth with flat 5- cornered areoles, pulp yellowish. Seeds black- brown. Edible part: Fruit
  43. 43.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 51  Fruiting season: June - August Local name: Ramphala Native information: The fruits can be as it is after ripening. Taste is sweet. By eating this fruit regularly one can be free from renal calculi. Review of the plant: No reference is seen in texts. Research updates: Research carried out in the title, Characterization of Volatiles in Bullock's Heart (Annona reticulata L.) Fruit Cultivars from Cuba. One hundred and eighty compounds were identified in the aroma extracts.Study reveals the presence of many terpenic compounds is thought to contribute to the unique flavor of the fruit.33 7. Annona squamosa L. Annonaceae Botanical description: A small tree. Leaves up to 15 x 5 cm, elliptical or elliptic- oblong, acute or obtuse, obtuse or rounded at base, lateral veins 5 – 10 pairs; petioles up to 1.2 cm long. Flowers green, few in leaf- opposed cymes. Sepals small, ovate, acute. Petals 3, 1.5 – 3 cm long, oblong- linear, obtuse. Stemens 1 mm long. Fruits 5 -10 cm in diam., ovoid, greenish yellow, with projecting ovoid areoles, separated by grooves; pulp whitish. Seeds blackish – brown. Edible part: Fruit Fruiting season: April – May.
  44. 44.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 52  Local name: Seetaphala Native information: The fruits can be as it is after ripening. Taste is sweet. By eating this fruit regularly one can be free from renal calculi. Review of the plant: It is named as Seethaphala in Bhavaprakasha Nihantu.34 Research updates: In the study, used various solvent extracts of Annona squamosa fruit pericarp to test for cytotoxic activity using in vitro cultures of Dalton’s lymphoma cells as well as HeLa cells. This study suggests the potential of Annonna squamosa fruit pericarp for the development of modern medicine for the treatment of cancers.35 8. Antidesma acidum Retz. Euphorbiaceae Botanical description: A large shrub or small tree. Leaves up to 10 x 5 cm, elliptic or obovate, acute at apex; petioles short, pubescent; stipules lanceolate, longer than the petioles, caducous. Flowers pedicellate, in slender racems. Calyx 4-lobed. Stamens usually 2; filaments inserted in hollows of the disc. Ovary glabrous; style short. drupe ovoid-acute, purplish- red when ripe. Edible part: Fruits
  45. 45.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 53  Fruiting season: May- June Local name: Migana kudi,, Huli soppu, Huli majjige hannu. Native information: The fruits are eaten as it is. It has sour taste. Good for health. Review of the plant: No reference is seen in any Ayurvedic texts. Research updates: No research work is found till date. 9. Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn. Euphorbiaceae Botanical description: A small tree or shrub. Leaves up to 7.5 x 5 cm, orbicular- obovate or oblong, obtuse or emarginated at apex, tomentose beneath; petioles up to 1 cm long; stipules lanceolate, caduceus. Flowers sessile, in villous panicled spikes. Calyx 5 – 7 lobed. Stamens usually 5; filaments inserted within the disc. Ovary pubescent. Drupe ovoid, reddish- purple when ripe. Edible part: Fruits Fruiting season: April - June Local name: Majjige hannu
  46. 46.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 54  Native information: Fruits are sour in taste, similar to that of buttermilk, good for health, eaten as it is. It quenches thirst. While travelling in forest it is much beneficial fruits. Review of the plant: No reference are seen in any Ayurvedic texts. Research updates: No research works are found. 10. Aporusa lindleyana (Wight) Baill. Euphorbiaceae Botanical description: A moderate-sized tree. Leaves up to 17 x 5 cm, elliptic-oblong, shortly acuminate at apex, glabrous; petioles up to 1.2 cm long; stipules lanceolate, caducous. Male spikes often fascicled, up to 5 cm long, frequently shorter; flowers yellowish; stamens 2-3. Female flowers in short racemes; ovary hairy. Capsule subglobose, c. 1 cm in diam., crowned with the short style. Seeds in yellow pulp which has a pleasant acidic taste. Edible part: Yellow pulp of the fruits. Fruiting season: December- February Local name: Salle / Saroli hannu. Native information: The fruits are sour and sweet and are eaten freshly in the rainy season. They heat the body and increase Pitta and appetite. Excess intake causes thirst and dysentery.
  47. 47.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 55  Review of the plant: No Ayurvedic textual references are available. Research updates: Antihyperglycemic and hypoglycemic effect of Aporosa lindleyana in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats was carried out.36 11. Artocarpus gomezianus Wall.ex Trec.ssp. zeylanicus Jarrett Moraceae Botanical description: A large deciduous tree; branchlets densely grey- or rusty – tomentose. Leaves up to 25 x 15 cm, ovate or obovate, shortly acuminate or cuspidate at apex, glabrous above, densely grey – pubescent beneath; petioles up to 2.5 cm long, stipules small. Inflorescence globose, axillary, solitary or in pairs, shortly peduncled or subsessile; female heads stouter. Syncarp 5 -8 cm in diam., irregularly globose smooth yellow when ripe. Edible part: Fruits Fruiting season: March- April Local name: Vaate huli / Unde puli Native information: The fruits are made into pieces and dried this dried fruit used as substitute for tamarind during preparation of dishes. Used to prepare Pickle and chatni. Fruits are eaten as it is. Also used in the form of juice Review of the plant:
  48. 48.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 56  The Lakuca fruits are generally considered to be worst among fruits in A.H37 Research updates: No research works are found. 12. Artocarpus heterophyllus . Lam Moraceae Botanical description: A large, glabrous, ever green tree. Leaves up to 20 x 8 cm, elliptic or obovate, obtuse or subacuminate at apex, cunate at base; petioles up to 2.5 cm long, stipules large, lanceolate. Inflorescence cauliflorous, from the main branches and trunk, enclosed in spathaceous deciduous sheaths; male heads clavate- oblong, up to 7 cm long; female heads more massive. Syncarps up to 80 x 50 cm, echinate, hanging on thick stalks; seeds enclosed in the yellow fleshy enlarged perianth. Edible part: Fleshy perianth of fruit. Fruiting season: December- june Local name: Halasu / Pelakaayi Native information: In its matured state it used in different dishes like Palya, sambar and fried items like papad, Sonte ( like chips). There is a special method for papad like it should not be fried, it is heated over hot charcoal then coconut oil is smeared over it, then used to eat this is a healthy method. The ripened yellow fleshy perianth of fruit which is sweet, eaten as it is, Special sweets prepared out of this like Appa, Gatti can be prepared. The gatti is prepared only in Tectona grandis leaf or banana leaf should be used. All of the
  49. 49.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 57  preparation of this fruit compulsorily used after anointing with ghee, otherwise it will not digest. It is heavy for digestion, nutritive but it should be used by person with good appetite. It should be used judiciously otherwise can produce indigestion, constipation etc. Its seeds called as Bole, are used to prepare Tambali, chatni. Review of the plant: The reference of this fruit can be seen in almost all Ayurvedic texts in the name of panasa. In B.P.N, 2 stages are mentioned as ama with kashaya rasa, guru, vishtambi & pakwa with swadu rasa, guru, Balya, Shukrala 38 Research updates: Anti-inflammatory Effects of Phenolic Compounds Isolated from the Fruits of Artocarpus heterophyllus. The study concludes, artocarpesin (1) may provide a potential therapeutic approach for inflammation-associated disorders.39 13. Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. Moraceae Botanical description: A large, evergreen tree; branchlets strigose with tawny hairs. Leaves up to 25 x 14 cm, broadly ovate, obovate or elliptic, subacute or very shortly acuminate at apex, rounded at base, rusty-pubescent beneath; petioles up to 3 cm long; stipules lanceolate. Male inflorescence narrow, cylindrical, up to 14 cm long; female ovoid; peduncles stout. Syncarp up to 15 x 10 cm, ovoid, echinate, orange when ripe. Edible part: Unripe and ripe fruit. Fruiting season: January- February
  50. 50.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 58  Local name: Hebbelasu Native information: Unripe fruits are used for the preparation of pickles. Ripe fruits are edible like jack fruits but they do not hinder digestion as jack fruits normally do. Sweet in taste.The seed oil extracted is used for culinary purpose. Review of the plant: No classical Ayurvedic textual reference seen. Research updates: No research works are seen for this fruit. 14. Averrhoa bilimbi L. Oxalidaceae Botanical description: A small tree. Leaflets 11 – 35, entire, up to 5.5 x 1.8 cm ovate – oblong, entire, acuminate at apex, unequal-sided at the base, more or less pubescent on both surfaces; petioles pubescent. Flowers dark purple- brown, cauliflourous in short panicles from the old wood of stem and branches. Sepals ovate- lanceolate, acute, pubescent. Petals oblong- spathulate, more than twice as long as the sepals. Berry oblong c. 5 cm long, obtusely lobed, yellowish. Seeds exarillate. Edible part: Fruits Fruiting season: Throughout the year. Local name: Bimbuli
  51. 51.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 59  Native information: They are sour in taste, it is used as substitute for tamarind. It can be dried and stored. The unripe fruits are used to prepare pickle and the fruits can be eaten as it is by adding little amount of salt, it is digestive, carminative. It should not be taken in excess as it may cause pain abdomen and diarrhea. Review of the plant: No classical Ayurvedic textual reference seen. Research updates: Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. fruit and its extracts were screened for antihypercholesterolemic activity using Triton-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats as a model. The fruit and its water extract, but not alcohol and hexane extracts, showed remarkable antihypercholesterolemic activity.40 15. Averrhoa carambola L. Oxalidaceae Botanical description: A small tree. Leaflets 5 – 11, subopposite, up to 7.5 x 4.4 cm. largest at the ends of the leaves, ovate- oblong, acute or acuminate, glaucous beneath, base olique. Flowers in short axillary racemes. Sepals glabrous. Petals purplish, longer than the sepals. Berry obovoid or oblong, c. 7.5 cm long, acutely- angled, yellow seeds arillate. Edible part: Fruit Fruiting season: May - August Local name: Daarepuli / Daarehuli Native information:
  52. 52.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 60  It has sour taste. The ripen fruits are eaten as it is. Its juice is taken, by adding ginger, pepper and sugar candy a lehya is prepared which is beneficial in Swasa, Kasa. The mature fruits are used to prepare pickle. Review of the plant: This fruit is included in the name of karmaranga in phalavarga. In B.P.N, explains as it swadu, amla rasa, sheeta, mitigates vata, pitta.41 Research updates: A study carried out entitled “Acute toxicity of star fruit Averrhoa carambola Linn. On kidney and spleen Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Linn.” Results shows the 96 hrs LC 50 was 0.06 mg/l. 42 16. Borassus flabellifer L. Arecaceae Botanical description: Stem up to 30 m high, when young covered with the dry leaves or the bases of the petioles. Leaves 90 -150 cm in diam,; segments 60 -80, linear- lanceolate, acuminate, margins spinulose; petioles up to 120 cm long, semiterete, edges armed with hard spinescent serratures. Male spadix simply branched; female simple. Drupe up to 20 cm in diam., mesocarp fleshy and fibrous. Edible part: The pulp of the tender fruit. Fruiting season: January – April. Local name: Taali bonda Native information: The pulp of tender fruit is edible, with sweet taste. It is healthy, during summer it quenches thirst, gives energy and nutritive. If used in excess may cause drowsiness.
  53. 53.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 61  Review of the plant: Reference of Taala is seen in maximum texts. Its taruna fruit is are madakaraka, According to B.P.N. 43 Research updates: A study entitled “A review of the chemistry and biochemistry of seed, shoot, flour and fruit pulp of the Palmyrah palm ( Borassus flabellifer L.)”. is seen.44 17. Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng. Euphorbiaceae Botanical description: A small or moderate - sized tree, spinous when young. Leaves up to 20 x 10 cm, elliptic- oblong or obovate, acute, obtuse or retuse at apex, chartaceous, glarous or puberulous beneath, lateral nerves many; petioles up to 1 cm long. Flowers greenish to purplish, subsessile, in dense axillary clusters or on axillary or terminal sometimes paniculate spikes.Drupes c. 5 mm in diam., globose, supported by somewhat enlarged calyx, purplish- black when ripe. Edible part: Fruits Fruiting season: March - September Local name: Kage kaayi / Kovehannu Native information: It has sweet taste. After ripening it turns to black color, it can be eaten as it is. It is good for health, nutritive. Review of the plant:
  54. 54.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 62  No textual Ayurvedic references are seen. Research updates: No research works are seen for this fruit. 18. Buchanania lanzan Spreng. Anacardiaceae Botanical description: A small tree; young parts densely pubescent. Leaves upto25 x 12cm, broadly oblong, obtuse or emarginated at apex, glabrous and shining above, densely villous beneath; petioles c.1.2 cm long. Flowers greenish white, in pubescent panicles. Calyx 5- lobed; lobes broadly ovate, ciliate. Petals ovate- oblong. Disc villous. Stamens 10, a little shorter than petals. Sterile carpels are reduced to short subulate styles. Drupe c.1.2 cm across, black when ripe. Edible part: Fruit, seed karnel Fruiting season: December - March Local name: Charohli, Erpe Native information: The fruits are edible. Sweet in taste. Review of the plant: It is considered as Priyala in the texts. Bhavaprakasha nigantu explains it as swadu, guru, snigdha jwarahara.45 Research updates: Lipid composition of chironji (Buchanania lanzan) kernel - shows
  55. 55.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 63  Total kernel lipids extracted from Chironji (Buchanania lanzan, Anacardiaceae) amounted to 65.6% of the dry kernel. The total lipids consisted of 90.4% neutral lipids, 3.4% glycolipids, and 6.2% phospholipids. Neutral lipids consisted mostly of triacylglycerols (82.2%), free fatty acids (7.8%), and small amounts of diacylglycerols, monoacylglycerols, and sterols. At least three glycolipids and six phospholipids were identified. 46 19. Canthium coromandelicum (Burm.f.) Alston Rubiaceae Botanical description: A stout shrub; spines supra-axillary, straight, up to 5 cm long. Leaves up to 4 x 2.5 cm, ovate to elliptic, acute or acuminate at apex; petioles up to 8 mm long; stipules triangular with a long subulate point. Flowers small, greenish-yellow, and 4-merous, in peduncled cymes. Corolla-tube short; lobes ovate, acute. Drupes obcordate, c. 1 cm in diam., yellow when ripe. Edible part: Fruits. Fruiting season: April - May Local name: Kari Kaare-gida./ Karkate Native information: The yellow ripe fruits are edible. It has astringent, sweet taste. Review of the plant: No references are in Ayurvedic texts.. Research updates: No any research works are seen for this fruit.
  56. 56.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 64  20. Canthium rheedii DC. Rubiaceae Botanical description: A scandent shrub; spines supra- axillary, c. 1.2 cm long, curved or straight. Leaves up to 3.5 x 2.5 cm, ovate to elliptic, acute to acuminate or sub-obtuse at apex, cordate or rounded at base; petioles up to 5 mm long. Flowers 5-merous, small, green, in axillary fascicles. Calyx turbinate; lobes triangular to deltoid. Corolla-tube 2-3 mm long, densely hairy within; lobes ovate, reflexed. Drupes obcordate, c. 0.7 cm, in diam.; pyrenes rugose. Edible part: Fruits. Fruiting season: January - May Local name: Bilpatre hannu, bella hannu, bella parnd Native information: Blackish, brownish very sweet fruits. Fruits are good for health, nutritive Seeds are not edible. Review of the plant: No Ayurvedic textual references are available. Research updates: No research works are seen for this fruit. 21. Carissa congesta Wight: Apocynaceae
  57. 57.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 65  Botanical description: A large shrub, erect, suberct or scandent; spines straight or curved, simple or forked at tip. Leaves up to 8 x 7 cm, broadly ovate or suborbicular, obtuse or slightly emarginated at apex; base slightly cuneate. Calyx-lobes linear-acute. Corolla white, often tinged with pink; tube 1-1.5 cm, long; lobes lanceolate-acute. Berry spherical or ellipsoid, black-purple when ripe, c. 1.2 cm in diam., 4-seeded. Edible part: Fruits. Fruiting season: April - May Local name: Garchana kaayi / Karande kaayi Native information: The matured fruits are boiled, crushed and the seeds are removed. They are boiled for 2 days in sunlight. Then they are mixed with salt, dried in the sun and preserved. This is used as an alternative to tamarind. Specially used in non-vegetarian dishes. Pickles are prepared from the unripe fruits. Ripe as well as unripe fruits are edible. The unripe fruits vitiate Rakta and aggravate Pitta whereas the ripe ones are considered to be a good tonic. But should not use in excess otherwise it cause indigestion, pain abdomen. Review of the plant: Considered to be a source for Karamarda in many Ayurvedic texts. The descriptions of the tender and matured fruits are widely available in B.P.N .47 Research updates: A study -Carissa Congesta: Phytochemical constituents, traditional use and pharmacological properties, shows wide range of evidences for its cardiotonic, hepatoprotective, free radical scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory, histamine
  58. 58.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 66  releasing, antirhumatic, antibacterial, antiviral and anticonvulsant activity. A higher gross heat value of this species indicates its higher potential to be used as good fuel source.48 22. Citrus aurantifolia ( Christm, &Panz.) Swingle Rutaceae Botanical description: A small tree; branchlets with short stiff sharp spines. Leaves up to 7.5 cm long, elliptic to oblong- ovate, obtusely acute at apex, crenulate; petioles narrowly winged. Flowers small, white. Petals 4 or 5.Stamens 20 – 25.Ovary depressed – globose,9 – 12- celled. Fruits small, greenish yellow, globose to ovoid, often not mammillate; pericarp thin smooth, juice very sour. Edible part: Fruits Fruiting season: Almost throughout the year. Local name: Limbe/ Nimbe Native information: A sour taste fruit. Its juice is best appetizer, energy provider, helpful in case of giddiness, vomiting etc condition. Even the juice is best vehicle for most of the medicines. Review of the plant: Considered as Nimbuka, according to R.N, it is dipana, pachana.49 Research updates:
  59. 59.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 67  Developmental Transition from Enzymatic to Acid Hydrolysis of Sucrose in Acid Limes (Citrus aurantifolia) shows acid limes possess a unique and coordinated system for sucrose breakdown that involves both enzymatic and nonenzymatic pathways.50 23. Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck Rutaceae Botanical description: A medium – sized tree; young branchlets pubescent. Leaves ovate to elliptic, obtusely acute at apex, petioles 2 -3 cm long, broadly winged. Flowers large, white, fragrent. Petals 5. Stamens 20 – 25. Ovary large, globose. Fruit large, subglobose to pyriform; pericarp yellowish, smooth; segments large, pinkish; juice sweet or sour. Edible part: Fruit Fruiting season: April - May Local name: Sakkare kanchu / chakkota Native information: It is a healthy fruit with sweet, bitter taste. By adding sugar it can be eaten. Its thick fruit cover is use to prepare pickle. Review of the plant: No reference found in Ayurvedic texts. Research updates: Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of extracts from buntan (Citrus grandis Osbeck) fruit tissues- Their extracts could well be useful to prevent oxidation in fruit
  60. 60.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 68  juices and essential oil food products as well as for health supplements. Identification of the responsible components is underway.51 24. Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F. Rutaceae Botanical description: A large shrub. Laves ovate, acute at apex, subserrate to crenulate; petioles merely marginate. Flowers often purplish. Petals 5. Stamens up to 40, Fruits ovoid to ovoid – oblong, mammillate at apex, yellowish, 8 -10 celled, juice sour. Edible part: Fruit Fruiting season: Throughout year Local name: gajanimbe Native information: Fruits are edible. Sour in taste. Fruits are also used to prepare beverages and pickle. Review of the plant: It is considered as Jambira. It is used as Hrudya, krimihara accaording to R.N .52 Research updates: No research works are seen for this fruit. 25. Citrus medica L. Rutaceae Botanical description:
  61. 61.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 69  A large shrub. Leaves elliptic-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, obtuse to rounded at apex, serrate – crenate; petioles short, wingless, not articulated at apex. Flowers large, purplish, bisexual or staminate. Petals 5. Stamens30 – 40 or more. Fruits ovoid to oblong, yellowish, rough- tuberculate; pericarp thick; segments rather small, centre often eventually bcoming hollow; juice sour. Edible part: Whole fruit. Fruiting season: Throughout the year. Local name: Maadala / Maadriphala. Native information: The fruit is used as offering in Yajna. It has sour & bitter taste. It is use to prepare pickle. It is also used in the form of Lehya in case of hyperacidity, improves digestion good for health. Review of the plant: It is considered as Beejapura, indicated in case of swasa, kasa, aruchi in B.P.N..53 Research updates: A Study was carried out on Essential Oil Composition of Citrus meyerii Y. Tan. and Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante and Their Lemon Hybrids.54 26. Diospyros malabarica (Desr.) Kostel. Ebenaceae Botanical description: A medium- sized tree. Leaves up to 20 x 7 cm, oblong – lanceolate, obtuse or acute at apex, glabrous; petioles up to 1.2 cm long. Male flowers 3 – 6, in short pedunculate cymes. Calyx hirsute, 4 – 5- lobed. Corolla yellow, 4 – 5- lobed, lobes
  62. 62.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 70  rounded. Female flowers much larger than in the male, c.2.5 cm across, 1 – 5 together. Ovary 8-celled; styles 4, each lobed into many stigmas. Fruits up to 7.5cm in diam,. Subglobose, covered with rusty deciduous hairs, pulp viscid, seated on the much enlarged leathery spreading reflexed calyx. Seeds 4 – 8; albumen not ruminate. Edible part: Viscid fruit pulp Fruiting season: February- November. Local name: Bandada mara, Antina kaayi. Native information: The viscid fruit pulp is edible. It is sweet in taste, nutritive. Only pulp portion is edible.It is also used as paper adhesive. The same was used as binding agent for flooring work. . Review of the plant: It is explained in phalavarga of maximum ayurvedic texts, in the name tinduka. Achaya Sushruta opines that the raw fruit is astringent in taste, increases Vata and the ripe fruit is sweet in taste and mitigate kapha, pitta. 55 Research updates: No research works are found for this fruit. 27. Ensete superbum ( Roxb.) Cheesman Musaceae Botanical description:
  63. 63.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 71  A large herb; pseudostem up to 4 m high. Leaves up to 3.3 x 1 m, oblong; free petioles short. Spikes up to 1.3 m long, ultimately drooping; bracts marron, orbicular. Flowers 20 – 30 to a bract. Berry oblong, trigonous, c. 7 cm long. Seeds subglobose, brown. Edible part: Fruits Fruiting season: - Local name: Kallu bale Native information: Fruits are edible. Sweet in taste. Seeds are used in renal calculi. Review of the plant: No Ayurvedic reference seen in texts. Research updates: No research works are found for this fruit. 28. Ficus auriculata Lour. Moraceae Botanical description: A small spreading tree without aerial roots. Leaves up to 38 x 30 cm, broadly ovate or suborbicular, acuminate at apex, cordate at base, pubescent beneath, basal veins 6 – 7, lateral veins 3 -5 pairs; petioles up to 5 cm long. Figs turbinate, peduncled with longitudinal ridges, 4 -5 cm or more in diam., on short leafless branches from the trunk and large branches, pubescent, purplish or reddish when ripe; basal bracts 3, triangular; peduncles up to 3cm long. Edible part: Fruit Fruiting season: more or less throughout the year.
  64. 64.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 72  Local name: Anjoora Native information: The fruits are edible as it is. It can be preserved and used by drying. Sweet in taste. Good for health gives strength to the body, nutritive. Review of the plant: In M.P.N, in phalavarga we can get the reference for this plant, he explains in the name Anjeera, it is sweet in taste, heavy in quality and cold in potency.56 Research updates: No research works are seen for this fruit. 29. Ficus racemosa L. Moraceae Botanical description: A medium-sized, deciduous tree without aerial roots. Leaves up to 15 x 6 cm, ovate-oblong to lanceolate, tapering to a blunt point at apex, broadly to narrowly cuneate at base, glabrous; lateral veins 4-6 pairs; petioles up to 5 cm long. Figs on short leafless branches from the trunk or larger branches, obovoid, up to 3 cm in diam., peduncles, tomentose when young, reddish when ripe; peduncles up to 2 cm long; basal bracts 3, triangular-ovate. Edible part: Fruit.
  65. 65.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 73  Fruiting season: April – June Local name: Attimara. Native information: Ripe fruits are edible.Many dishes are prepared by crushing and removing the floral portion of the fruit. First it should be made into small pieces and soaked in water to remove its astringent quality. It is also taken as it is. Astringent taste. Review of the plant: Its fruit is listed under the phalavarga in maximum texts, named Udumbara.. The ripe fruits are cold and they quench the thirst. The unripe fruits are astringent and they increase muscle strength. They are useful in treating bleeding disorders according to Rajanigantu.57 Research updates: An experimental evaluation of Udumbara baala phala & twak w.s.r to its gastric ulcer preventive activity, a comprehensive study.58 30. Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr. Flacourtiaceae Botanical description: A shrub or a small tree with stout thorns. Leaves 2-10 x 1-5 cm ovate or obovate, entire to crenate-serrate, glabrous; petioles up to 6 mm long. Sepals ovate, ciliate. Berry globose, about the size of pea, dark purple when ripe. Edible part: Fruits
  66. 66.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 74  Fruiting season: March - September Local name: Jeddu mullu hannu/ Sede mullu Native information: The matured and ripen fruits are edible. Dark purple ripen fruits are sweet, tasty and helpful in liver complaints. Review of the plant: It is a source for Vikankata in Ayurveda. The fruit qualities are mentioned and it is indicated in the treatment of spleen and liver disorders Research updates: Phenolic composition of Flacourtia indica, Opuntia megacantha and Sclerocarya birrea – shows There were differences between the phenolic acids in the peels and the pulps of the fruits.59 31. Flacourtia montana Grah. Flacourtiaceae Botanical description: A medium sized tree; trunk and branches armed with thorns. Leaves 12-18 x 5-7.5 cm, ovate or elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate, base rounded, crenate, 3-5-nerved from the base; petioles up to 8 mm long. Flowers in short densely pubescent racemes. Sepals tomentose. Berry reddish when ripe. Edible part: Fruits. Fruiting season: February – March
  67. 67.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 75  Local name: Chempe hannu / Chemple Native information: A red edible fruit of the size of cherry with pleasant sweetish sour taste and agreeable flavour available in February and March. Seeds are constipating. The fruits increase appetite and digestion. Excess intake causes abdominal pain and dysentery. Review of the plant: No Ayurvedic textual references are available. Research updates: No research was found on fruits seen. 32. Garcinia gummi-gutta (L.) N. Robson Clusiaceae Botanical description: An ever green tree. Leaves 7-15 x 2 -7 cm, elliptic- oblong or obovate, shortly acute to obtuse at apex, cuneate at base; petioles upto2 cm long. Male flowers fascicled, pale white or pale green; pedicels up to 1.5 cm long. Stamns 12 – 20 or more, inserted on a prominent receptacle. Female flowers1 -3 together. Staminodes in an irregular ring. Ovary 8 – 11- celled; stigmatic rays 8 – 11. Berries up to 7 cm in diam., fleshy with 8 - 10 grooves, malillate, 6 -8 seed. Edible part: Fruit
  68. 68.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 76  Fruiting season: April – May Local name: Oante huli / Oate puli Native information: The fruit rind is dried and used as substitute for tamarind for flavoring curries. It can be consumed as it is.It has Sour taste. It is good for health. Review of the plant: No Ayurvedic textual references are available. Research updates: No research was found on fruits seen. 33. Garcinia indica (Dupetit- Thouars) Choisy Clusiaceae Botanical description: A slender tree with drooping branches. Leaves up to 10 x 5 cm, ovate or elliptic- lanceolate, chataceous, rounded, acute or abruptly acuminate at apex, narrowed at base; petioles up to 0.7 cm long.Flowers polygamous. Male flowers 4 – 8, in axillary or terminal fascicles. Sepals 4, decussate, outer ones smaller than inner. Petals 4, Stamens on a short column; anthers 2 – celled, dehiscing longitudinally. Female flowers sessile or sub sessile, solitary or 2-3 together. Staminodes in 4 phalanges. Ovary 4 – 8- celled; stigmas 4 -8 rayed. Berry globose, up to 4 cm in diam., deep purple when ripe. Seeds 5 – 8, large.
  69. 69.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 77  Edible part: Fruit Fruiting season: February- May Local name: Punarpuli / Baddupuli. Native information: The fruits are edible with sour taste. The fresh fruit pulp are use to prepare juice. Thick syrup is prepared and preserved. The fruit rind is dried used in curries. Good for health, it mitigates pitta, useful in case of giddiness, gastric irritation, indigestion etc condition. It is good pathya for maximum diseases. Review of the plant: It is known as Vrukshamla in almost all texts.Bhavaprakasha nigantu explains 2 stages ama & pakwa. Useful as appetizer and good for heart problems. 60 Research updates: Antioxidative and Anti-Glycation Activity of Garcinol from Garcinia indica Fruit Rind- shows nearly 3 times greater DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity than DL-α-tocopherol by weight in aqueous ethanol solution. In a phenazine methosulfate/NADH−nitroblue tetrazolium system, garcinol exhibited superoxide anion scavenging activity and suppressed protein glycation in a bovine serum albumin/fructose system. Thus, garcinol might be beneficial as a potent antioxidant and a glycation inhibitor under specified conditions.61 34. Garcinia morella (Gaertn.) Desr. Clusiaceae
  70. 70.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 78  Botanical description: A small tree. Leaves up 15 x 7 cm, elliptic- ovate, chartaceous, abruptly acuminate at apex, cuneate or rounded at base; petioles up to 1.5 cm long. Male flowers subsessile, 1-3 fascicled on old wood. Sepals 4. Petals 4. Stamens in a globular mass; anther peltate, circumscissile. Female flowers axillary, solitary, subsessile. Staminodes 10 – 12. Ovary 4 – celled; stigmas 4 – lobed. Berry globose, up to 1.8 cm in diam., 4 – seeded. Edible part: Fruits Fruiting season: March – April Local name: Jaarige puli.
  71. 71.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 79  Native information: It is a sour taste fruit, used as substitute for tamarind in preparation of curries. Good for health, improves digestion. Review of the plant: The plant is consider a source for Tamala in B.P.N.62 Research updates: No research articles are found for this fruit. 35. Garcinia xanthochymus Hook. f. ex. T. And Clusiaceae Botanical description: A beautiful tree with dropping branches. Leaves up to 40 x 10 cm, oblong, tapering at both ends, glabrous, shining above; petioles up to 2.5 cm long. Male flowers fascicled on old wood, pedicellate. Sepals 5. Petals 5. Stamens in 5 phalanges, each with 3 stamens. Female flowers fascicled on old wood. Staminodes in 5 phalanges. Ovary ovoid, 5- celled; stigmas 5, spreading. Berry globose, c. 5 cm, in diam., smooth, yellow. Seeds 1-5, large. Edible part: Fruits. Fruiting season: April- May Local name: Julka, Jaarige mara.
  72. 72.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 80  Native information: The ripe fruits are edible. Sour in taste. The fruit rind is sun dried and preserved. Used as an alternative for tamarind, It is indicated in puerperal lady, also mainly used in non-vegetarian preparations. Review of the plant: Not considered to be a source for any Ayurvedic drug. Research updates: Bioactive Benzophenones from Garcinia xanthochymus Fruits, in this study The 11 known compounds were also tested against SW-480 colon cancer cells and in the DPPH assay. 63 36. Gardenia gummifera L. f. Rubiaceae Botanical description: A small or large deciduous shrub with yellow resinous buds. Leaves up to 8 x 2.5 cm, sessile, ovate, elliptic-oblong or obovate, obtuse or subacute at apex. Flowers terminal, 1-3 together, large. Calyx up to 1 cm long, pubescent; teeth 5-6, short, triangular. Corolla-tube 2.5-5 cm long, white, turning yellow in the evening; lobes 5-6, obovate, obtuse. Ovary with 3-5 placentas. Berry ellipsoid or oblong, up to 4 cm long, striate, crowned with the persistent calyx. Edible part: Fruits Fruiting season: April - June Local name: Bukki gida
  73. 73.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 81  Native information: The astringent matured fruits and the sweet ripe fruits are edible. It is considered to be helpful for maintaining bone health. Review of the plant: It is a source for Naadihingu in Ayurveda. Research updates: A study -Development, Structure and Cytochemistry of Resin-secreting Colleters of Gardenia gummifera. was traced. Study reveals The secretion is resinous, occurs in the young colleters, and accumulates between the cells and the cuticle. The cuticle later ruptures and releases the secretory product, which drenches the young shoot apex.64 37. Holigarna arnottiana Hook.f. Anacardiaceae Botanical description: A large tree with black caustic juice. Leaves up to 25 x 9 cm, oblanceolate, acute at apex, glabrous beneath; lateral nerves 14-20 pairs; petioles up to 1.5 cm long with a pair of spurs. Panicle with golden-brown pubescence. Flowers yellowish-brown. Drupe c. 2.5 cm long, completely enclosed in hypocarp, obliquely-ovoid, black when ripe. Edible part: Fruits Fruiting season: May- July Local name: Chere.
  74. 74.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 82  Native information: The fruits are eaten with extra care. Ripe black fruits are gently pressed to remove the outer coat and put on a clean leaf of Aporusa lindleyana (Wight) Baill. The latex is removed by transferring this to seven leaves and consumed. It is sweet, sour and little astringent in taste. Tambali is prepared from the tender vegetative buds. Review of the plant: No Ayurvedic textual references are available. Research updates: No research works are seen for this fruit. 38. Ixora coccinea L. Rubiaceae Botanical description: A much branched shrub. Leaves sessile, up to 10 x 6 cm, oblong or elliptic, obtuse or acute at apex, rounded or cordate at base, coriaceous; stipules cuspidate. Flowers bright-scarlet, sometimes yellow or pink, in dense sessile or peduncled corymbose cymes. Calyx-lobes triangular. Corolla-tube 1.2 -4.5 cm long, slender; lobes ovate, acute. Drupes globose, red. Seeds Plano-convex. Edible part: Fruits. Fruiting season: Almost throughout the year. Local name: Kiskaara./Kepala
  75. 75.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 83  Native information: Astringent, sweet in taste, eating its fruit cures stomatitis and controls excessive menstrual flow. Its juice from fruit and flowers are taken by Putapaka method, is beneficial in eye disorders. Review of the plant: The term Paranti is given to this plant. Research updates: No research works are seen for this fruit. 39. Madhuca neriifolia ( Moon ) H. J. Lam Sapotaceae Botanical description: A moderate- sized tree. Leaves up to 24 x 6 cm, crowded at the end of the branches, oblong- elliptic to narrowly oblong- lanceolate, acute to obtuse at apex, glabrous, lateral naerves 14 -22 pairs; petioles up to 1.3 cm long. Flowers in axillary fascicles near the ends of the branches; pedicels up to 2 cm long, glabrous. Corolla yellowish white. Stamens 16, in 2 whorls. Berry fusiform, up to 3 cm long, glabrous. Edible part: Fruits Fruiting season: January –March Local name: Naanilu
  76. 76.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 84  Native information: Its fruits are sweet & astringent in taste. It is nutritive, healthy. It should be used immediately as it is liked more by the birds. Review of the plant: It is considered as Jalamadhuka. B.P.N explains as sweet in taste, heavy for digestion, It is Ahrudya.65 Research updates: Madhuca latifolia.: Constituents of fruit pulp and nut-shell - shows A number of triterpenoids including α- and β-amyrin acetates, 3β-monocaprylic ester of erythrodiol, 3β-capryloxy oleanolic acid and an acetate, have been isolated from the mesocarp of Madhuca latifolia fruit. The other constituents isolated and characterized are n-hexacosanol, β-D-glucoside of β-sitosterol and free β-sitosterol. The nut-shell extract yielded β-D-glucoside of β-sitosterol, quercetin and dihydroquercetin.66 40. Mangifera indica L. Anacardiaceae Botanical description: A medium to large tree. Leaves 10 – 30 x 2 – 6 cm, oblong- lanceolate, acute or acuminate at apex, glabrous. Panicle up to 40 cm long. Sepals ovate, hairy on back. Petals oblong, white or light yellowish often tinged with purple. Fertile stamen as long as the petal; staminodes very short. Drupe fleshy, ovoid to ellipsoid. Edible part: Fruits Fruiting season: March – May Local name: Maavu / Kukku
  77. 77.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 85  Native information: The immature small fruits are used to prepare pickle. Which is carminative, improves digestion and taste. The matured unripe fruits preserve by boiling then dipped in salt water; it can be used during the rainy season by preparing different dishes. Unripe fruits can be eaten as it is. The ripen fruits are eaten as it is having sweet taste, healthy, nutritive, carminative, energetic. The juice can be prepared also Rasayana a sweet done using mango pulp, jeggery and coconut milk. The thick juice of this fruit is spread over the sheet and dried it is known as mambala, during rainy season it can be consumed as it is or it is dissolved in water and juice can be prepared. It is also good for health. Review of the plant: It is Amra explained in almost all texts of Ayurveda. In many nigantus the Phalavarga starts with this fruit Amradi phalavarga. B.P.N explains 3 stages ama, shushka & Pakwa , it is considered as Vrushya.67 Research updates: Antioxidant action of flavonoids from Mangifera indica and Emblica officinalis in hypercholesterolemic rats – show The activities of free radical-scavenging enzymes were significantly elevated and lipid peroxide content was significantly decreased in flavonoid-treated hypercholesterolemic rats.68 41. Memecylon edule Roxb. Melastomataceae Botanical description:
  78. 78.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 86  A small tree or large shrub. Leaves up to 10 x 4 cm, ovate or ovate- elliptic, subacute, obtuse or bluntly acuminate at apex, acute or obtuse at base, lateral nerves distinct; petioles up to 1 cm long. Flowers pedicelled. Numerous, in umbellate cymes from the axils of the fallen leaves on the old wood, peduncles up to 1.8 cm long. Calyx campanulate; limb truncate or 4 – toothed. Petals blue. Berry up to 6 mm in diam., globose, black- purple when ripe, 1-2 seeded. Edible part: Fruits Fruiting season: April – May Local name: Alimara Native information: The fruits are edible. Sweet and slight astringent in taste. We cannot consume them more. Review of the plant: No Ayurvedic reference seen. Research updates: No research works are seen for this fruit. 42. Mimusops elengi L. Sapotaceae Botanical description:
  79. 79.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 87  A large evergreen tree. Leaves up to 12.5 x 6.5 cm, broadly ovate, shortly acuminate at apex, glabrous; petioles up to 2.5 cm long, slender. Flowers white, sweet- scented, c. 1.8 cm across. Sepals ovate, tomentose. Corolla-tube very short; lobes linear- oblong. Berry c. 2.5 cm long, ovoid, yellow or orange-red, 1-seeded. Edible part: Fruit Fruiting season: April – May Local name: Baagaalu / Renje hannu Native information: The orange-red coloured ripe fruits are astringent and sweet in taste. Clears tongue. Taken in excess will cause dryness in throat. Review of the plant: It is named as Bakula in Ayurveda. Acarya susruta explain it under kashya madhura rasa phalavarga. He explains as it protects the tooth.69 Research updates: A study entitled isolation of antibacterial pentahydroxy flavones from the seeds of Mimusops elengi L. shows strong inhibitory activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria.70 43. Morus australis Poir. Moraceae Botanical description:
  80. 80.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 88  A large shrub or a small tree. Leaves ovate, often deeply lobed, acuminate at apex, serrate. Spikes short, ovoid. Flowers greenish. Fruiting spikes dark purple, sweet. Edible part: Fruits Fruiting season: April – May Local name: Hippinerale Native information: The fruits are edible, sweet and sour in taste. Review of the plant: No as such referesnce seen in Ayurvedic classics. Research updates: No research works are seen for this fruit. 44. Musa balbisiana Colla Musaceae Botanical description: Pseudo-stem 3-10 m high, stoloniferous. Leaves up to 3 x 0.6 m, erect or ascending. Spike drooping; bracts red, lower 15-30 cm long, upper much shorter. Berry oblong, trigonous, up to 7.5 cm long, with full of seeds. Edible part: Fruits and seed. Fruiting season: Almost throughout the year.
  81. 81.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 89  Local name: Kaatu-baale. Native information: Unripe fruits are used for the preparation of Palya and Sambar. Ripe fruit is full of seeds but it is sweet. The fruit is squeezed in water and filtered to remove seeds. This drink is taken by adding jaggery and cardamom. The seeds are crushed and starch is extracted. This is used to thicken the Dosa batter. Review of the plant: Many varieties of Musa species are named in Ayurveda as Kadali variety. They are occasionally cultivated for their leaves. Research updates: Bioactive amines and carbohydrate changes during ripening of ‘Prata' banana (Musa acuminata × M. balbisiana).71 45. Passiflora foetida L. Passifloraceae Botanical description: A herbaceous climber, more or less viscous, densely hirsute; tendrils axillary, simple. Leaves up to 10 x 9 cm, usually 3 – lobed, silky- hairy, with glandular hairs on margins; petioles glandular- ciliate but without true petiolar glands; stipules divided into filiform segments. Flowers solitary, up to 4 cm across; bracts filiform- pectinate. Corolla white. Corona violet and white or purple and white. Berries globose, c. 2 cm across, orange when ripe. Edible part: Glutinous fruit pulp
  82. 82.                                                                          METHODOLOGY & RESULTS  ETHNO- MEDICO- BOTANICAL SURVEY ON WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF UDUPI TALUQ Page 90  Fruiting season: Almost throughout the year. Local name: Gadiyaara hannu / Ajja pottel hannu Native information: The yellow fruits are covered by net like structure. The thick outer cover is removed and inner slimy pulp is chewed and seeds are spitted out. Fruit is sweet in taste. Healthy, nutritive. Review of the plant: No reference is seen in classical texts. Research updates: No research works are found. 46. Phyllanthus emblica L. Euphorbiaceae Botanical description: A medium- sized deciduous tree; bark light grey, exfoliating in irregular patches. Leaves up to 13 x 3 mm, subsessile, oblong – elliptic, acute or mucrunate at apex, closely set and overlapping on deciduous branchlets; stipules minute. Flowers in axillary fascicles. Calyx- lobes 6, oblanceolate, greenish- yellow. Stamens 3; filaments connate. Fruits drupaceous, up to 3 cm across. Seeds trigonous. Edible part: Fruits

×