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A STUDY OF SAMSKARA AND ITS ROLE IN ALTERATION OF PANCAUBHAUTIKA COMPOSITION OF A DRAVYA DILIP H. NALAGE, 2004, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar

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Dravya ss002 jam

  1. 1. Gujarat Ayurved University  Institute for Post Graduate Teaching & Research in Ayurveda  Jamnagar ‐ 361 008. (India)  Phone No. (0288) ‐ 2676856 (O) 2752103  Fax : +91 ‐ 288 ‐ 2555966  E‐mail : info@ayurveduniversity.com  Website : www.ayurveduniversity.com  Date : / 03 / 2004 Certificate This is to certify that Dr. DILIP H. NALAGE, a student of theDepartment of Basic Principles has written this thesis entitled "A STUDY OFSAMSKARA AND ITS ROLE IN ALTERATION OF PANCAUBHAUTIKA COMPOSITION OF A DRAVYA" for theDegree of Doctor of Medicine (Ayu.) under my direct guidance andsupervision. The scholar has put in hard work in bringing out this thoughtprovoking work after making an intensive study of the problemliterally and practically with its applied aspect. Some of the findingsare valuable and considerably contribute to the fundamental researchof Ayurveda. I, therefore recommend and forward this thesis to be submittedfor adjudication.Forwarded : Guide : Prof. R. R. DWIVEDI M.D. (Ayu.), Ph.D. Dean and Head of Department Department of Basic Principles I.P.G.T. & R.A. Gujarat Ayurved University Jamnagar
  2. 2. CONTENTS Page. No. Acknowledgements Key to transliteration Abbreviations INTRODUCTION 001 CONCEPTUAL STUDY 008  Concept of Samskara i) Etymology, definition, meanings, Synonyms, scope ii) Samskara : Guna or Karma ? iii) Need, importance and utility of a Samskara iv) Samskara as a process its types and effect on a dravya v) Pancamahabhuta Siddhanta and its relation with Samskara vi) Samskara : for the formation of new Dravyas DRUG REVIEW 056 PRACTICAL STUDY 062 i) Physical study ii) Physico chemical study iii) Clinical study DISCUSSION 097 CONCLUSION 116 SUMMARY 121
  3. 3.  APPENDIX 125  Bibliography  Research Proforma
  4. 4. CONCEPTUAL STUDY
  5. 5. ABBREVIATIONSA.H.Ci. - Ashtanga Hridaya Chikitsa SthanaA.H.Ni - Ashtanga Hridaya Nidana SthanaA.H.Su. - Ashtanga Hridaya SutrasthanaA.S.Su. - Ashtanga Sangraha SutrasthanaB.H. - BhavprakashB.R. - Bhaishajya RatnavaliCa.Ci. - Charaka Samhita Chikitsa SthanaCa.Sa. - Charaka Samhita Sharira SthanaCa.Su. - Charaka Samhita Sutra SthanaCa.Vi. - Charaka Samhita Vimana SthanaCk. - ChakrapaniMa.Ni. - Madhava NidanaSa.Pu. - Sharangadhara Samhita Purva KhandaSu.Ci. - Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa SthanaSu.Su. - Sushruta Samhita Sutra SthanaY.R. - Yoga Ratnakara
  6. 6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ";tIDŸŸlXJDŸ ;]gNZDŸ" On the occasion of submission of this thesis work, I offer mygratitude to almighty authority, Lord of the Lords Bhagavan Shiva. I pay sincere regards to my guide and present Dean ShreeProf. R. R. Dwivedi, a rarest combination of profound intellect anda generous liberal heart. I will always remain obliged for thepaternal affection and masterly guidance given by him. I would like to acknowledge Hon. Vice Chancellor and Deanof the Institute for providing me all necessary facilities. I amthankful to the departmental lecturers. Dr. Maheshkumar Vyasand Dr. Hitesh Vyas for their timely suggestions. I am foreever indebted to Brahmakumaris divine family fortheir timely encouragement making me aware of my aims andcapacities without which it was impossible for me to reach thisstage of life. I cannot express gratitude for my all the family members. Itis but their affection and love that helped me complete thisresearch endeavour. I feel short of words to express my thanks toSupriyadidi (Dr. Supriya Bhalerao). She had taken keen interestfrom start of the work and made many valuable suggestionswhich made this task easier for me. I express my deep gratitude towards Vd. Indramani Pandey,Vd. Suhas Nayadu for setting the stepping stone of Ayurveda in
  7. 7. my mind. I am highly thankful to Dr. B. V. Sathye for the guidancegiven by him, whenever I confronted him with my queries. I wish to thank staff of Deaprtment, PharmaceuticalChemistry Laboratory, Pharmacy (G.A.U.), Pathology Laboratoryfor the help received from them. I extend my hearty thanks to thestaff of Library for their timely help. My special thanks to Mr. andMrs. Mund for the help and co-operation given by them. I have no words to express my feelings and gratitude toMataji, Dr. Anilbhai and Dr. Vasantbhai. The happymoments spent with them made my stay wonderful in Jamnagar. The support and co-operation I received from seniors,colleagues, junior friends and well wishers will ever remain freshin memory. I thank one and all of them. I acknowledge all the subjects who participated in the study. I also extend thanks to Rajubhai, the team of KamleshCommercial Centre and Vivek Xerox for their fine and skillfulcomposition of the work. At last, I am thankful to all those who have helped medirectly or indirectly during this endeavour. I seek pardon and apologise for any errata. - Dr. Dilip H. Nalage
  8. 8. Bibliography…… 1 INTRODUCTION Everything has to undergo a change. It is the only unchangeable factand everything else in this universe is in a continuous process of changing.The changes happening continuously & naturally in any pancabhautikasubstance are due to Agni Mahabhuta present in it. But, the time required fortransformation will be different according to quantity of Agni Mahabhuta &other helpful conditions. By providing Agni from outside, one can achieve thetransformation early. But the transformation can takes place in any mannerforming any dravya. When this transformation is done in proper way undercontrolled conditions to get expected resultant, it is termed as samskara,according to Ayurveda. ‘Karana-karya vada’ (cause-effect relationship) iswidely accepted siddhanta in Ayurveda. Karana can get transformed in to anykarya. But for ‘Samyak Karyotpatti’ the process which is creatively done inproper way is Samskara. Bhesaja, an integral part of Cikitsa is also requiredto be changed according to patient, status of dosa, stage of disease, prakrti etc.before administration. So, when this change (rate of transformation)happening naturally is accelerated by various processes to acquire expectedguna-karmas according to need of situation, the process is termed asSamskara. By this process, one can modify the dravya to meet hisrequirements. In current era, many of the valuable drugs mentioned inAyurvedic Classics are becoming rarely available or unavailable due toseveral reasons. Here comes the importance of Samskara. The drugsavailable can be utilized multidimensionally only with the help of Samskara,in different diseases as well as different stages of the same disease. Samskarais one of the important concepts of Ayurveda. The importance of samskaracan be ascertained form the fact that, routinely used gurvadi gunas can be
  9. 9. Bibliography…… 2modified with the help of Samskara. For this matter, its Significance is beenidentified even with the routine food as one of the factor of Astau ahara-vidhi-visesa-ayatanas. The concept of Samskara according to Acarya Caraka is - ;:SFZF[ lC U]6FgTZFWFG prIT[ × T[ U]6Fo TMIFluG;lgGSQF" XF{RDYGPPPPPPP VFWLIgT[ ×× (Ca.Vi. 1/21) The Samskara performed in this way superimpose various gunas due tometamorphosis in the nature of a dravya. This metamorphosis is manifested interms of change in gunas. These gunas, which are again manifestation ofpancabhuatika composition, get classified into two types. Samsiddhika andNaimittika. Samsiddhika gunas are those, which are forever stable and cannotbe altered. Gunas can be altered by samskaras is true in case of naimittikagunas. In present days of globalization, all the rational sceptics are engrossedin finding the basic reasons for transformation or existence. Ayurveda canprovide sound explanation on the basis of pancamahabhuta sidhanta for thesame. Every dravya has its specific pancabhautika composition. AcaryaCaraka quotes - ;JÅ ãjI 5F×REF{lTSDŸ Vl:DGŸ VY[" × (Ca.Su. 26/10)all the perceivable matters (Karyadravyas) existing in the world ispancabhautika. Pancamahabhutas are at the juncture of the subtle to the moregross manifestation of the universe. But, according to some, it is more of amental exercise and has very less practical application. The rationale ofanything and everything which cannot be explained by tridosas can be verywell interpreted by pancamahabhuta siddhanta. This concept ofpancamahabhutas is able to provide ultimate solution for the queries in the
  10. 10. Bibliography…… 3field of Ayurveda, as told by acarya susruta. Developing oneself with thisconcept will make the fundamentals more clear and strong. Reviewing all the works done till date, a major tool like Samskara hasnot been given enough justice. To study this aspect without bias, it wasnecessary for a research scholar to choose the topic of Samskara with thesuitable drug to establish its practical aspects. Haritaki was found to be suchversatile drug which gives the research worker, an ample scope todemonstrate the effect of various Samskaras. PPPPP 5F[lQFTF D,XMlWGL × l:JgGF ;U|FlC6L ÝMÉTF PPPPP ×× (B.P.) The same drug after being subjected to two different samskaras showscontrary actions. When pesana Samskara is being done on Haritaki, it showsmalasodhana activity. Whereas when swinna, it shows samgrahana activity.Here Haritaki is common and only the Samskara is variable. This variationwith Samskara as the root cause can be rationally deducted with the help ofPancamahabhuta Siddhanta. Usually Guna-Karma of any dravya depends on Conjugation andconfiguaration of Mahabhutas present in it. This Pharmacology can bemodified with Samskaras due to alteration in pancabhautika composition. Aclear cut understanding of the Samskaras with the exposition ofPacamahabhuta will give the Physician, an advantage to confidently employSamskaras. Here with to develop this judicious approach, the scholar hasselected this problem. Hence, the hypothesis put forth was ‘Gunantaradhanaby Samskara is due to alteration in pancabhautika composition i.e. Change indominant Mahabhutas’.REVIEW OF PREVIOUS WORKS:-(1) A study of concept of Pancamahabhutas - Dwivedi L.D. - B.H.U. 1969 (M.D.), 1975 (P.H.D.)
  11. 11. Bibliography…… 4(2) Pancabhautika guna (A study with special reference to Guru and Laghu) - Rao T. Srinivas - Jamnagar 1970.(3) Concept of Panca Mahabhutas in the light of Samkhya, yoga and Ayurveda - Srivastav L.P. - B.H.U. 1988.(4) Sharirmen Pancamahabhutonki Vyapakata - Bawisakar Geeta - Nagpur - 1988-89.(5) Concept of Pancamahabhuta and its utility in Cikitsa - Dixit V.D., Jamanagar - 1995.(6) Currently a PHD research work is going on in the department of basic principles, Jamnagar regarding Pancamahabhutas i.e. Biotransformation of Pancamahabhuta and its interpretation in terms of cell injury - Dr. Bishnupriya Mohanty. Though lots of research works have been carried out regardingpancamahabhutas, but no work has been carried out on application ofpancamahabhuta siddhanta in Samskara. So, it is a first attempt in thisdirection. This study is undertaken with following aims and objectives.AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:1. To study conceptual and applied aspect of Samskara.2. To develop or find out parameters for assessment of Pancabhautika compositon / Mahabhuta Pradhanya of a dravya, if possible.3. To analyze organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of Haritaki before and after the Samskaras.4. To study the therapeutic effect of Samskarita Haritaki.5. To find out the changes those occur in pancabhautika Composition / Mahabhuta pradhanya after Samskara through Physcial, Physico- Chemical and Pharmaco-clinical Parameters.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
  12. 12. Bibliography…… 5A) LITERARY MATERIALS: (i) the classical texts mainly caraka, susruta, Astanga Samgraha, Astanga Hrdaya and concerned topics from the darsanika texts (Vaisesika darsana) (ii) Articles possessing the relevant topics. (iii) Lexical literature Literary material was compiled, critically analyzed, assessed, evaluated and interpreted as per the problem and hypothesis.(B) CLINICAL MATERIALS:(a) Drug: - Haritaki in 3 forms: (i) pesita Haritaki (ii) Swinna Haritaki and (iii) Haritaki Yavakuta (as a control)(b) Patients: To assess the effect of Samskara on Haritaki, not the disease but two conditions were decided and patients of 2 types were selected accordingly. (1) The patients having complaint of unsatisfactory bowel clearance. (2) The patients complaining of passing stools of semi-liquid or watery type. Literary material and applied material is arranged systematically,critically discussed and conclusions have been drawn.PLAN OF STUDY:For the presentation purpose, the study is divided in 5 sections :(1) CONCEPTUAL STUDY : This section will be further divided in six sub-chapters. In first chapter, Sabda-Sakti (i.e. etymology, definition, meanings andsynonyms) Will be dealt in details. Scope of the concept and some importantterms related with Samskara will be elaborated here. Second chapter will deal with the basic question, whether Samskaracan be included in Guna Category or Karma Category.
  13. 13. Bibliography…… 6 Third chapter will be about need, importance and utility of Concept ofSamskara. In forth chapter, elaborate description and discussion will be givenregarding Samskara as a process, its types and effect on a dravya. Fifth Chapter will be about Pancamahabhuta Siddhanta and its relationwith Samskara. Here, Various stages of formation of pancabhautika dravya,Gunantaradhana at Mahabhuta level and Reactions between Mahabhutasresponsible for Gunantaradhana will be elaborated. In Sixth Chapter, use of the Concept of Samskara for formation of newdravyas through alteration in Pancabhautika Composition will be discussed.(2) DRUG REVIEW : A detailed description of drug Haritaki will be given here. ProbablePancabhautika Composition according to its Rasa-Pancaka, Referencesshowing uses of Haritaki in different diseases according to Samskara &Samyoga with different dravyas, latest research work done on Haritaki will bementioned here.(3) PRACTICAL STUDY : Practical study will be presented under three sub-headings.(i) Physical Study : Identification of Mahabhuta dominance in Samskarita & asamskarita Haritaki done by organo leptic method will be mentioned here.(ii) Physico-Chemical Study : Some Physico-Chemical parameters helpful in determining Mahabhuta dominance will be given here. Also Mahabhuta dominance of Samskarita Haritaki determined by using these Parameters will be mentioned.(iii) Clinical Study :- In this section, aims and objects of the study along with Materials and methods will be described. The scoring pattern of the subjective Parameters will be mentioned. There after, observations,
  14. 14. Bibliography…… 7 Results and Statistical analysis will also be presented in tabular forms & graphs.(4) DISCUSSION :- The Concept of Samskara, its role in pancabhautika alteration,Utilization of this concept for formation of new dravyas will be criticallydiscussed here. The Validity of Parameters for identification of Mahabhuta dominance,utility of Physical, Physico-Chemical and Clinical Study for understandingpancabhautika alteration will be discused on the basis of Tarka and Uhya.(5) CONCLUSION : The last section of the thesis will be conclusion. Some fruitful conclusions will be drawn on the basis of criticaldiscussion of conceptual and practical study. The whole work will be Sammarised in the summary parts. Bibliography will be incroporated in the end. According to aims and objectives, the humble and honest efforts havebeen made to clarify the subject on the basis of scientific evidences. It is verydifficult to explore all the concepts in the given stipulated time. So, somelacuna may be there. The scholar apologies for that.
  15. 15. Bibliography…… 8 CONCEPTUAL STUDY While understanding the different aspects of any concept, it is first andprime most important step to have the profound knowledge of that concept.So, while studying various aspects of Samskara, it is necessary to haveknowledge of the concept of Samskara. After knowing the concept thoroughlyone becomes able to establish its various applied aspects. The maximumknowledge of any concept can be achieved by proper assessment of thespecific word used to denote that concept, as word is having its own poweri.e. Sabda Sakti. This Sabda Sakti could be understood by thoroughassessment of that word with the help of etymology, Nirukti, availablemeanings, synonyms etc.SAMSKARA :[1] ETYMOLOGY: Samskara word is formed from Kr Dhatu with Upsarga Sam. i.e. ; ´ S` ´ 3´Ÿ ; .lT ;dISŸ × s;dISŸ v IYFIMuITIFf S` .lT ST`"tJFTŸ SFZ6tJFTŸ JF × Upsarga Sam means in proper way or as required. Dhatu Kr means Kartrtva (Kriya) as a process Karanatva as a causativityNirukti of Samskara can be given as ;dISŸ SZMlT VG[G .lT ;:SFZo × ;l:ÊIT[ VG[G .lT ;:SFZo × SvSZ6[ EFJ[ 3´Ÿ Ÿ The process or tool by which Dravya is modified as required is termedas Samskara.
  16. 16. Bibliography…… 9[2] MEANINGS: The word Samskara has number of meanings in different contexts asfollows (Acc. to Aptes Samskrt English Dictionary) :1. Making perfect, refining, polishing (R.V.3.10)2. Grammatical purity (as of words) (K.S. 1/28 Mallinath)3. Education, cultivation, training (as of mind) (R.V.3/35, K.S. 7/10)4. Making ready, preparation5. Cooking, dressing (as of food)6. Embellishment decoration, ornament (D.S. 49 S-7/23)7. Consecration, Sanctification, hallowing (M.S. Sa. 3.1.3)8. Impression, form, mould, operation, influence (H.P. 8, B.H.V. 3-84)9. Idea, Notion, Conception10. Any faculty or capacity11. Effect of work, merit of action (R.V. 1/20)12. The self reproductive quality, faculty of impression (one of the 24 qualities recognized by Vaisesikas)13. The faculty of recollection, impression on the memory (T.S.)14. A purificatory rite, a sacred rite or ceremony15. A rite or ceremony in general16. Investiture with the sacred thread (M.B. 12-165-76)17. A polishing stone (Shakuntalam 6.5) Here the word Samskara is used by different sciences according totheir context. But Ayurveda has employed the term Samskara more in regard withdrugs and diet i.e. processing and preparation.[3] DEFINITION : The definitions of Samskara given by Various Ayurvedic scholars areas follows:-
  17. 17. Bibliography…… 10 ——;:SFZM lC U]6FgTZFWFGDŸ prIT[ × T[ Uq6Fo TMIVluG;lgGSQF"XF{RDgYGN[XSF, JF;GEFJGFlNlEo SF,5|SQF"EFHGFlNlEo R VFWLIgT[ × (Ca. Vi. 1/21) Acarya Caraka defines Samskara as transformation of the inherentattributes of a substance. This is created by dilution, application of heat,cleansing, churning, storing in a specific place, maturing, flavoring,impregnation, preservation, container etc. In Astanga Samgraha, though clearcut difiniton of Samskara is notgiven but the processes by which Samskara could be done on a substance arementioned like dilution, application of heat etc. Acarya Susruta and Astangahrdayakara Vagbhata both are mum aboutthe concept of Samskara. Though illustrations or examples of utilization ofthe concept found at various places in both these texts, but concept ofSamskara is not clearly high lighted here, so definition of Samskara is also notfound here. Various commentators have tried to define Samskara as follows: Cakrapani quotes it as - —;:SFZM U]6FgTZ VFZM56DŸ ×c (Ca. Su. 13/13Cakra) i.e. imbibing different Gunas on the original Gunas of a Dravya —U]6FWFG NMQF5lZCFZM JF ;:SFZo ×c (A.D.5/1/36-44) i.e. increasing useful gunas and removing harmful dosas The word Gunantaradhana is made up of 3 words:1) Guna - meaning properties or attributes of substance2) Antar- (a) it is used as a Prefix to verbs and regarded as a preposition or gati
  18. 18. Bibliography…… 11 (b) Also it has different meaning such as in the middle, between, in, into, inside, amongst, within, in the middle or interior, inside etc. In this context amongst or inside can be taken as a proper meaning.3) Adhana - the word Adhana also has various meanings. Some relevant meanings in this context are as follows. 1. Placing or putting upon 2. Infusing, putting in, imparting U]6MlJX[QF VFWFGC[T]o l;âMJ:T]WD"o × (Sahitya Darpana) 3. A place where any thing is deposited. A receptacle, as in Pakvadhana, Garbhadhana etc. VI DwIDo 5|F6o T:I .NDŸ ,J VFWFGDŸ × (Brhadaranyaka Upanisada 2.2.1) According to Cakrapani, This above said gunantaradhana (change ingunas) by Samskara is possible only in case of naimittika gunas, not in thecase of samsiddhika gunas. e.g.hotness of fire, Calatva of Vayu, Snigdha gunaof oil etc. can not be changed by samskara, because these are samisddhikagunas called as Yavat dravya bhavina by Cakrapani. Now the basic questionarises, whether this is only gunantaradhana or dravyantaradhana also.Gunantaradhana or Dravyantaradhana? Gunas are nothing but the manifestation of configuration &conjugation of mahabhatas in the pancabhautika Dravya. Every Karyadravyahas its specific pan cabhautika composition. Guna-Karmas done by anydravya are depending upon the dominatnt Mahabhuta present in it. Thatswhy, all the Karya-dravyas are categoriesed by the acaryas into 5 categories(i.e. parthiva, Apya, Agneya, Vayveeya & Akasiya). Guna-Karmas ofrespected dravyas are also mentioned under these 5 categories. So, according
  19. 19. Bibliography…… 12to guna-karmas of any dravya, one is able to understand Mahabhutadominance accordingly. So, there exists Samavaya relation (inseparableconcomitance) between Mahabhutas & their guna-karmas, as also narrated byacarya Caraka. —;DJFIF[ V5YSŸEFJF[ E}dIFlNGF U]6{oDTo ×c (Ca.Su. 1/50) This Aprthakbhava (inseparable concomitance) has its Specificimportance in the basis principles of Ayurveda. This concept is used rightfrom diagnosing the disease up to selecting the drug for treatment. Whiledoing diagnosis, one can not see directly by senses, which disease the patientis having. One has to depend on (inseparable concomitance) aprthakbhavapresent between symptoms & disease (Vyadhi Laksanayoh Sambandha).While doing Cikitsa, the drug is also selected on the basis of aprthakbhavapresent between gunas & dravya. By seeing gunas only dravya is selected. So,here also Samavaya Sambandh is considered. If it is said that, gunas are changing and dravya is not Changing, then itwill hamper the rule of inseparable concomitance between gunas anddravyas. But practically in many examples one can see change in gunas but nochange in dravya. For e.g. Drugs which are potent becomes less potent aftersome period. Potency of Curnas of any dravya remains for specific period of6 months only. Here, dravya is same but guna is changing. So, is it that thereexists no relationship of ‘aprthakbhava’? It is not so in reality. Every dravya is having its specific pancabhautikacomposition. The alteration in pancabhautika composition is taking place atevery moment, due to Agni Mahabhuta present in it. But rate oftransformation or alteration is too slow to identify or measure by some
  20. 20. Bibliography…… 13instrument. After specific period only, these alterations are identified in theform of decrease of potency etc. Moreover, the factors outside like desa, kalaetc, are also affecting the pancamahabhutas present in a dravya. So, afterthinking minutely, it becomes clear that after change in dravya (in the form ofalteration in pancabhautika composition) Change in gunas takes place, whichis called as gunantaradhana. For practical understanding, the wordgunantaradhana is used, instead of dravyantaradhana. As in the case of guna-karmas of rasas also, acarya caraka have cleared the thing afterwards bysaying that ‘Guna Gunasraya Nokta But Abhiprayaha Prthakvidha’. In thecase of gunantaradhana also, same thing is happening. So, now question may arise, if dravya is changing why the dravyas isnot renamed? Again the answer is that, practically it is not possible to givenew names, as dravya is changing at each moment. Also, it will create moreconfusion rather than solving the purpose. In the case of samskara also, the physician makes the changes in thepancabhautika composition as required (with the help of specificprocesses/procedures) according to condition, thereby forming a new dravyahaving expected gunas which are helpful in that condition.[4] SYNONYMS: Synonyms or Paryayas are those who help to understand the variousdifferent aspects of that particular concept. But they are not able to give exactmeaning. By seeing Paryayas, one becomes able to understand the limitationsand scope of that concept.1. Gunantaradhana (Ca. Vi. 1/22-2)2. Karana (Ca. Su. 26/34)3. Kriya (Ca. Su. 16/33, 25/32, 25/46, Vi. 8/130)4. Vidhi (Ca. Su. 27/232, 30/32, Ca. Sa. 8/17, Ca. Ci. 1-2/17)5. Kriyavidhi (Ca. Ka. 1/3)
  21. 21. Bibliography…… 146. Kalpanam (Ca.Su. 4/17 Cakra)7. Kalpana (Ca. Sa. 4/19 Cakra)8. Kalpanavidhi (Ca. Ci. 30/331)9. Karana (Ca.Su. 11/35 Cakra)10. Kalpa (Ca. Ka. 7./6 Cakra)11. Prayoga (Ca Ka. 1/6 Cakra)12. Upakalpana (Ca. Su. 30/32 Cakra)13. Samskaranam (Ca. Su.4/7)14. Abhi Samskara (Ca. Vi. 22-2, Ca. Su. 12/89, 26/104)15. Prakalpanam (Ca. Su. 4/7 Cakra)16. Sadhana (Ca.Ci. 26/175 Cakra)17. Karma (Su. Su. 20/14 Dalhana)18. Upaya (Su. Su. 41/5 - Dalhana) These are the synonyms of Samskara found in Caraka Samhita andCakrapani-teeka (commentary) at different places showing different aspectsof Samskara. Some are showing its meaning as a process, some as amethodology, some as a tool, some showing its causativity, while someshowing its utility. Accordingly if classified, these synonyms can be groupedas follows:-Synonyms showing -1) Samskara as a tool: 1. Karana 2. Sadhana2) Samskara as a process or methodology 1. Kriya 2. Vidhi 3. Kriyavidhi 4. Kalpanavidhi 5. Karma 6. Gunantaradhana
  22. 22. Bibliography…… 153) Samskara as a causativity (or causative factor) 1. Karana4) Samskara showing its utility or effect 1. Kalpa 2. Kalpanam 3. Kalpana 4. Upakalpana 5. Prakalpanam 6. Prayoga 7. Upaya5) Others 1. Samskaranam 2. Abhi Samskara[5] SCOPE : The scope of a particular concept can be decided by the usefulness inpractical life, as well as the ability to nourish the other concepts and scienceas a whole. Scope is denoting effectiveness and boundaries or limitations too. In this era of modernization and civilization, the people are becomingmore aware about usefulness of Ayurvedic drugs and formulations. So,everyday new Ayurvedic Pharmacies are getting established. Demand forAyurvedic drugs is increasing day by day. But supply of raw drugs is less. Incurrent era, many of the valuable drugs mentioned in Ayurvedic classics areunavailable or rarely available due to these reasons. If this process will go oncontinuing, the time will come that very less drugs will be available, becausepharmacies are borrowing crude drugs on large scale and plantation of thesedrugs is being not done by them. Here comes the importance or scope of thisconcept. Scope of the concept of Samskara lies in the broader use of dravyasi.e. with minimum cause maximum effects obtained. As with the help ofSamskara, one can alter Panchabhautika composition, thereby forming
  23. 23. Bibliography…… 16various new dravyas as per requirement, from single dravya, a broad field isobtained for the use of single drug in treatment of different diseases as well asdifferent stages of the same disease. ãjI U]6[G SDÅ S]~T[ × Effect of any Dravya depends on Gunas present in it and Gunas arenothing but the attributes of conjugation and configuration ofPancamahabhutas, as every dravya is having its specific Pancabhautikacomposition. So, by altering Pancabhautika composition of a dravyaultimately pharmacological action of that dravya gets changed. By use of this concept only, one is able to use toxic substances asmedicines and if Samskara is not done properly, the medicine can act as atoxic substance. IMUFTŸ Vl5 lJQF TL16 p¿D E[QFHEJ[TŸ × (Ca.Su. 1/126)[6] SOME IMPORTANT TERMS RELATED WITH SAMSKARA : While discussing the concept of samskara, it is also important here tounderstand some important terms which are having their relation withSamskara.(1) SAMYOGA :- In texts, at many places, Samyoga & Samskara words are used inadherence with each other. The reason is that, for creating Samskara on any dravya, Samyoga ofSamskaraka & Samskarita dravya is mandatory. It is not possible at all, to dosamskara without samyoga. So, Samskara can be considered under samyoga.Then why samyoga and samskara are mentioned separately? The answer forthis question given by Cakrapani is as above-Here, in the present context, themeaning of samyoga is combination of two or more dominant substances (i.e.
  24. 24. Bibliography…… 17dominance in quantity). Samskara (impregnation), no doubt involves theunion of one substance with another, but the substance with which the drug isimpregnated is not dominantly observed. Hence, this union in present contextcannot be treated as samyoga.(2) YUKTI : While commenting on Ca.Su.26/30, Cakrapani states) I]lÉTo R .I ;IMU5lZDF6;:SFZFlN VgTU"TF·l5 VtI]5I]ÉTtJFTŸ 5`YSŸ prIT[ × INTER-RELATION OF PARADI GUNAS Vibhaga Samkhya Samyoga Prthaktva Abhyasa Yukti Parimana SamskaraParatva and Aparatva related with all the factors separately. Though Yukti can be considered under samyoga, parimana, samskaraetc, it is separately mentioned, as it is very important in the field of Cikitsa. So, it can be said that, while doing Yukti (i.e. Proper Kalpana of drug)the above 3 factors are more important to be get considered and related witheach other:
  25. 25. Bibliography…… 18(i) Samyoga: The drug should be used in proper combination of other drugs with proper anupana etc., So that there should be synergistic effect, thereby increasing total efficacy.(ii) Samskara: - Proper processing is required as per the need of the patient and according to condition & status of dosas etc.(iii) Parimana: Proper dose is also a very important thing while administering any drug. Effect & ill-effect of any drug depends on the proper & improper dose only. Toxic substance too, used in proper dose becomes useful drug.(iv) Abhyasa: By abhyasa i.e. taking medicine regularly for specific duration, samyoga of drug is happening with the body for specific time and it creates proper samskara in the body, thereby alleviating dosas in the body. So, it is quoted by Cakrapani regarding Abhyasa as a ‘Samyoga-Samskara Visesa Rupa’. VI R ;IMU;:SFZlJX[QF~5F[·l5 lJX[QF[6lRlSt;F[5I]ÉTtJFTŸ 5`YSŸ prIT[ × (Cakra. Ca. Su. 26/29-35) So, these are the some important factors, which are inter-related and tobe considered before administering the drug to the patient. Using thesefactors in appropriate manner gives success in the treatment and it is called asYukti. If success is not there, being Kalpana also it is not called as Yukti,indicating that these above said important factors are not given dueimportance, before doing Yojana of the drug. IF S<5GF IF{lUSL EJlT ;F T] I]lÉTo prIT[4 VIF{lUSL T] S<5GF·l5 ;lT I]lÉTo G prIT[ × (Cakra. Ca.Su. 26/29-35)
  26. 26. Bibliography…… 19 SAMSKARA : GUNA OR KARMA ? All the available Bhava-Padarthas in the world can be grouped into 6categories i.e. Dravya, Guna, Karma, Samanya, Visesa and Samavaya.Ayurveda has told these 6 categories with different terminology (i.e. Karanas)with different sequence (i.e. Samanya, Visesa, Guna, Dravya, Karma &Samavaya) according to its aim dhatusamya. While studying concept of Samskara, the basic question arises, out ofthese 6 categories, in which category samskara can be included? Becausethough it is included in gunas by Acarya Caraka, at many places the termsamskara is used as a karma or process. So what should be understood bysamskara, guna or karma? Let us discuss this in more details.SAMSKARA AS A GUNA: As a guna, if we see, there are two major points indicating samskarashould be included under guna category which are as follows:-1) In vaisesika darsana, Samskara is clearly mentioned as a guna-visesa and included in Caturvimsatika Gunas by Prasastapada. 3 types of it, namely Vega, Bhavana & Sthitisthapakatva are also mentioned here.2) In Ayurvedic texts, Carakasamhita in which concept of Samskara is elaborated, mentioned samskara under the category of paradi gunas. (Ca. Su. 26/29)SAMSKARA AS KARMA As Karma, if we see-1) While describing types of Viruddha, Acarya Susruta had used the term “Karma-viruddha’ instead of ‘Samskara-viruddha’. Dalhana had explained it as, the term ‘Karma’ here indicates samskara. So in this context, the word Karma is used as a synonym of Samskara.
  27. 27. Bibliography…… 202) In the text, at majority places, Samskara word is used denoting processing or method. E.g. Svedana Samsakara. Here the process by which drug is made swinna is called as Svedana Samskara. In the Rasa-Sastra texts also, where-ever Samskara word is used, it is denoting a process or method indicative of Samskara as Karma.CONCEPT OF GUNA & KARMA ACCORDING TO AYURVEDA: This controversy can be resolved by understanding Ayurvediyaconcept of Guna and Karma. Firstly, one has to understand, what concept ofGuna according to Ayurveda is. Acarya caraka has quoted the definition ofguna as ;DJFIL T] lGxR[Q8o SFZ6 U]6o × (Ca.Su. 1/ 51) Guna possesses inseprable concomitance with dravya, it is the causedevoid of action. But this definition goes parallel to that of Vaisesikas. Acarya Susruta has explained gunas in relation to their Karmas, whichis more practical view. SD"lE:T] VG]DLIgT[ GFGFãjIFzIF U]6Fo × (Su.Su. 46/514) i.e. Gunas can be interpreted according to Karmas (actions) done by adravya. Commenting on Ca. Su. 1/63, Cakrapani has used ‘Sasthi Tatpurusa’instead of ‘Dvandva Samasa’ to resolve the word “Gunakarmani.”. Hence, themeaning of the word becomes Karmas of Gunas. This clearly implies thatCakrpani too understands gunas in terms of Karmas. By the definition, gunas are niscesta. Generally the meaning of thisword is taken as devoid of action. The controversy between ‘Niscesta’ and
  28. 28. Bibliography…… 21‘Gunanam Karmavistaram’ can be resolved if, one interprets Niscesta as thepotential energy of a dravya, which is not yet executed in the form of Karma. Thinking along the same lines, Hemadri is the first person to frame thismeaning in more appropriate words. He explains gunas as follows: ãjI:I AC6[ SD"l6 XlÉTo U]~o × ãjI:I ,3G[ SD"l6 XlÉTo ,3]o ×      And so on …… the definition of different gunas is given in the similarway in relation to their karmas. Thus, to convey the précised and applicablemeaning of the description, the definition of Guna can be understood infollowing words. —ãjI:I lJlXQ8[ SD"l6 XlÉTo U]6o ×c In simple language, it can be said that gunas are the potential energiesof a dravya and Karmas are the execution of it, in the form of Kinetic energy.This is the application of ‘Parinamavada’. i.e. e = mc2 ãjI U]6[G SD" S]~T[ × Thus by understanding the ayurvediya concept of guna & karma, it canbe said that, Samskara as a guna is a causative factor responsible for newability introduced in a dravya. As karma, Samskara is a process or method ofintroducing new ability in a dravya. Here again, it is important to note that Samskara is guna & Karma indifferent contexts. In both the contexts, Karta (or Karana) is different. WhenSamskara term is used as a guna, it is in relation with pancabhautika dravyaon which Samskara is created. Here, Karta or Karana is Pancabhautikadravya. When samskara term is used as a Karma, it is in relation with caitanyakarta i.e. Pharmacist or physician, who is doing samskara. So, here pharmacistor physician is Karta or Karana.
  29. 29. Bibliography…… 22 NEED, IMPORTANCE & UTILITY OF A SAMSKARANEED : In present days of globalization, Ayurvedic drugs in name of herbalsare gaining more & more popularity in the international market, everyday.Many Ayurvedic pharmacies have established in India, which are preparingdifferent Ayurvedic formulations. As India is getting good foreign currencyby export of these herbal preparations, government is also giving promotionfor establishment of these pharmacies. Borrowing of crude drugs is increasedand no cultivation is taking place in that amount. In today’s situation also,many of the valuable drugs mentioned in Ayurvedic classics are becomingrarely available or unavailable. In such conditions, it may happen that today’savailable drugs will become unavailable after some time. So availability ofherbal drugs is going on decreasing day by day. While explaining catuspada of Cikitsa, Acarya Caraka has explained 4qualities of bhesaja. AC]TF T+ IF[uItJ VG[SlJWS<5GF × ;5TŸ R[lT RT]QSF[·I ãjIF6F U]6DŸ prIT[ × (Ca.Su. 9/7) Here also Bahuta or availability has given first preference by acaryacaraka. While commenting on this, Cakrapani quotes, ‘A bhesaja which ishaving less availability is of no use in spite of having number of goodqualities’. In such conditions, the drugs available can be utilizedmultidimensionally only with the help of Samskara. So, here it becomesnecessary to understand the concept of Samskara & basic principles behind it,so that one can use it more effectively to form number of differentformulations from single drug, as per requirement.
  30. 30. Bibliography…… 23 While introducing kalpasthana, Acarya Drdhabala has narrated numberof factors in first chapter, showing necessity of Samskara, which is as follows: The drugs are of different types depending upon 1) Desa (habitat) 2) Kala (time of their availability) 3) Sambhava (origin) 4) Asvada (Palatability) 5) Rasa (taste) 6) Virya (Potency) 7) Vipaka (the taste that emerges after digestion) 8) Prabhava (specific action) Patients for whom these drugs to be used are also of different typesdepending upon: 1) Nature of deha, i.e. physique 2) Condition of the dosas 3) Prakrti (constitution) 4) Vaya (Age) 5) Bala (Strength) 6) Agni (power of digestion & metabolism) 7) Bhakti (Liking for a particular type of recipe) 8) Satmya (Wholesomeness) 9) Rogavastha (Stage of the disease) etc. So the drug cannot be used as it is, in all types of patients, conditions& stages of the disease. The drug requires modifications according to thefactors described above. So to make these modifications & formation ofdifferent formulations, samskara is mandatory. After description of guna-karmas of parthivadi dravyas in 26th Chapterof Sutrasthana, Acarya Caraka had quoted, ‘No any substance on this earth iswithout medicinal use’ But necessity is to employ proper Yukti according to
  31. 31. Bibliography…… 24need of the situation. In this Yukti, Samskara is having a major role to play, asit is the only factor by which one can make modifications in pancabhautikacomposition of a dravya, thereby forming new dravya according torequirement. So, it is necessary to understand basic concept behind Samskarato develop more & more new samskaras and new formulations. T:DFTŸ ;lT Vl5 lGN["X[ S]IF"TŸ pCI :JI lWIF× (Ca.Si. 2/28) Though many things are mentioned in classics, an intelligent personuses this information to understand logic behind it. Likewise, by samskaras &formulations mentioned in classics & understanding the logic ofpancabhautika alteration behind it one can use the available dravyas as perneed.IMPORTANCE : 5×RDCFE}TlJSFZF:T] VFzIFo45|SlTlJSlTlJRFZN[XSF,JXFo × (Ca.Su. 26/9) While asserting conclusive remarks, regarding number of tastes in theconference of sages, Punarvasu Atreya had narrated these five factorsinfluencing pancabhautika composition of a dravya. Here, the term Vikrtiimplies Samskara, as per the explanation of Cakrapani. So, samskara is one of the important tools in the hands of physician, tomake alterations in pancabhautika composition under controlled conditions,thereby forming new dravya having expected guna-karmas as per need. In 4 qualities of bhesaja, Anekavidha-Kalpana is one of the importantquality. Here, the other 3 qualities i.e. Bahuta, Yogyatva & Sampat maydegrade or decrease. But by making Samskara, multiple formulations can be
  32. 32. Bibliography…… 25formed from single drug, (i.e.Bahuta) The drug can be made effectiveaccording to different diseases or different stages of the same disease,(i.e.Yogyatva) & potency can be increased by giving bhavana of same drug(i.e.Sampat). In short, to increase qualities of bhesaja, Samskara is the onlyimportant tool which is in the hands of physician. Regarding this, Acarya Drdhabala in Siddhisthana 6th Chapter hadelaborated qualities of proper medication which are as under:1) Alpamatram - having good effect, even if used in the small dose,2) Mahavegam - quicker in action,3) Bahudosaharam - Curative of even an excessive degree of morbidity of the dosas,4) Sukham - Easy to take5) Laghupakam - Light in digestion6) Sukhasvadam - Palatable7) Preenanam - Pleasing8) Vyadhinasanam - Curative of the particular disease.9) Vyapattau ca Avikari- Not harmful, even if complications arise10) Natiglanikaram - Not very depressant11) Gandha Varna Rasa upetam – Most agreeable smell, colour & taste. To achieve all these qualities, Samskara is an important factor to madechanges as per requirement. Acarya Caraka had mentioned samskara in paradi gunas, which arecalled as Cikitsopayogi gunas. This indicates importance of Samskara in thetreatment modality. Samskara is also one of the important factor of Astau-AharaVidhivisesa ayatanas, indicating it’s importance in dietetic field. Its very important thing to know which Samskara should be employedto which dravya, because some drugs and diets, when prepared in a particular
  33. 33. Bibliography…… 26way produce poisonous effects known as Samskara Virruddha. eg.Kampillaka boiled with buttermilk is Samskara Virruddha producingpoisonous effects. So, one should be aware of the mode of preparation i.e.Samskara to be employed for a Dravya. Above are some of the references showing importance of samskara.Owing to constant use or unpalatability, if the wholesome regimen becomesrepulsive, it should be rendered palatable by various modes of preparation i.e.through various samskaras. (Ca. Ci. 30/331) Changes as per requirement - by skillfully carrying out synthetic andanalytic procedures on drugs with the help of (a) Time factor & (b) by pharmaceutical processes i.e. Samskara, evena small dose of a drug may produce powerful action and a big dose ofmedication may produce very mild results (Ca. Ka. 12/48) To increase potency of drugs (Ca. Ka. 12/47)i) The dynamism of drugs may be increased by impregnation with their expressed juice.ii) A drug, even though small in measure becomes great in it’s action, if well impregnated. Therefore, drugs should be impregnated either with a) Their own expressed juice or b) The expressed juice of the drugs of similar potency.UTILITY: The utility of the concept of Samskara can be understood by variousreferences in the text showing it’s applied aspect. Ghee is able to do thousands of functions if processed accordingly.(Ca. Su. 27/232) Taila is told to be Sarvarogapaham i.e. curing all the diseases, if properSamskara & Samyoga is done according to disease. (Ca Su. 27/287)
  34. 34. Bibliography…… 27 This may be one of the causes that in Ayurvedic texts, especiallycaraka samhita, most of the preparations are found in taila or ghee form. Haritaki is called as ‘sarvarogaprasamanim’after proper samskara,samyoga etc. (Cakra.Ca.Ci.1-1/29) . Heaviness of food articles can be converted into lightness and vice-versa by the process of Samskara. E.g. Vrihi type of corn and Saktu (friedcorn flour) are heavy and light respectively in their natural state. But whenfried, Vrihi becomes light. Similarly Saktu becomes heavy, when boiled withwater. (Ca. Su. 27/339) Ghee, though having similar qualities as that of Kapha-dosa canalleviate the same after doing proper Samskara. (Ca. Ni. 1/37) While suggesting treatment modality for the diseases occurring due toviruddhahara, one of the preventive aspects is suggested as Abhisamskara ofSarira i.e. using the rasayana drugs regularly in the body. So that Immunitywill be increased.(Ca.Su.26/104) If the desire of pregnant lady is very strong, then even things which areharmful can be given by neutralizing their injurious effects through samskarasor adding wholesome things i.e. Samyoga. This is necessary with a view tosatisfy the desires. (Ca. Sa. 4/19) In the case of Samskara Vaha sandha, the channels for the ejaculationof Semen are obstructed by vata. But it can be corrected by doing someprocedures or processes (samskara) on the body i.e. by basti & administrationof aphrodisiac drugs. (Ca. Sa. 2/19) The drug like Bhallataka which is of toxic nature can be very useful, ifadministrated with proper samskara & samyoga.(Ca. ci. 1-2/17) In patients of Raktapitta having Vibandha, Rabbit meat though havingKasaya rasa, can be used as a laxative after samskar of Vastuka, which ishaving laxative property. Similarly meat of partridge, Peacock etc. though hot
  35. 35. Bibliography…… 28in potency becomes useful in raktapitta, aftet doing samskara with Udumbaraetc.which is having seta guna dominancy. (Cakra Ca. Ci. 4/49)
  36. 36. Bibliography…… 29 SAMSKARA AS A PROCESS, ITS TYPES AND EFFECT ON A DRAVYASAMSKARA AS A PROCESS : Samskara as a process existed even before the term Samskara wasevolved. Since Vedika Kala, references are found showing differentSamskaras involved in method of preparation. ‘Soma Nirmana. Vidhi’ is oneof the well known example in which various Samskaras like Kuttan, Pesana,Nispidana are there, though not mentioned separately as a Samskara. InSamhitakala also, at majority of the places Samskara word is used fordifferent processes such as Svedana, Mardana, Bhavana, Manthana etc. InRasasastra and Bhaisajyakalapana, all the available references are indicativeof Samskara as a different processing or methods of preparation. In Caraka Samhita, the oldest treatise of Ayurveda, after quotingdefinition of Samskara, a list of various processes useful for makingGunantaradhana is given.TYPES : In Brhat-trayi, directly types of Samskara are not mentioned. Clearcutreference regarding types is found in Vaisesika Darsana which could beunderstood according to view of Ayurveda as Ayurveda being a SvatantraMaulika Darsana having its own aims and objectives. 3 types of Samskara areas follows (T.S.) :-(1) Vegakhya Samskara : Situated in Prthvi, Apa, Teja, Vayu and Mind i.e. Prthvivyadi, Catustayamanovrtti(2) Sthiti Sthapaka Samskara : The Guna responsible for gaining the previous Avastha, after Avastha has been changed by some external source.It is situated in Katadiprthvi i.e. Katadi Prthvi Vrtti. It is a Cause for Syandana .
  37. 37. Bibliography…… 30(3) Bhavnakhya Samskara : as a impression or impregnation on mind, causative factor for memory, situated in soul (Atma) i.e. Atmamatravrtti Now let us see the different processes mentioned in Caraka Samhita,which could also be considered as types of Samskara.(1) Toya Sannikarsa(2) Agni Sannikarsa(3) Sauca(4) Manthana(5) Desa(6) Kala(7) Vasana(8) Bhavanadi By adi all the pharmaceutical processes namely paka. Dhavana, Nimajjana, Avapana, Nirvapana, Patana, Sosana, Sincana, Sthapana, Mardana can be considered.(9) Kala Prakarsa :(10) Bhajanadi By adi Pesana, Abhimantrana can also be included. In this classification, it is important to note that, first preference isgiven to Toyagni Sannikarsa. The cause can be understood by reviewing basicSiddhanta of Pancamahabhutas. At the level of Pancamahabhutas, Prthvi is asubstratum or adhara for all the processes of Samyoga-Vibhaga and Akasa isproviding space for that. Remaining three Mahabhutas, namely Jala, Agni andVayu are responsible for transformations or changes taking place in asubstance.
  38. 38. Bibliography…… 31 In the process of evolution of Mahabhutas, sequence of evolution is AKASA  VAYU  AGNI  JALA  PRTHVI Here Agni Mahabhuta is having its place right in the middle, showingits significant role in the transformation of Mahabhutas. So, in anyPancabhautika substance also, continuous changes or transformations aretaking place due to presence of Agni Mahabhuta in it. But the rate oftransformation may differ according to quantity of Agni Mahabhuta present init and other helpful conditions. By providing Agni from outside, one canincrease the rate of transformation. Agni Murta Amurta (Prthvi & Jala) (Akasa & Vayu) So, main role is of Agni Mahabhuta. Vayu and Jala are accessory orhelpful Mahabhutas in this transformation. It can be explained by a one simple example in our daily life. While making Roti, What we do? Firstly, we take a necessary rawmaterial i.e. Wheat flour which we want to transform into eatable Roti. Thenfirst step is to add water i.e. Jala Mahabhuta dominant Dravya(Toyasannikarsa). After that, proper shape is given by hands so thatparamanus of both the dravyas get adhered with each other. This product,after giving proper round shape (i.e. to increase surface area so that at a timesame amount of agni will be transformed to all the paramanus) is placed on agas for transformation by Agni Mahabhuta. (Agni Sannikarsa) After gettingproper amount of Agni, Vayu Mahabhuta present in the substance startsincreasing space i.e. Akasa Mahabhuta by making Vibhaga or separation ofparamanus. It is also noteworthy that while making roti, if this Akasa isproperly created by Vayu, then only that Roti becomes Laghu i.e. easilydigestible. If any of the step in this process is not done properly i.e. if amountof water is increased, shape will not formed properly or if amount of agni
  39. 39. Bibliography…… 32given is more or less than required amount. Then this will affect the endproduct i.e. proper roti will not be formed. So in this way in any of the transformation, main role is played byAgni Mahabhuta followed by Vayu and Jala Mahabhutas respectively. Thats why in all the process mentioned as a Samskara,ToyaSannikarsa and / or Agni Sannikarsa are Mandatory. The proportion andamount may differ in different processes. Here, it is also important to note that, during process of transformationeither heat is formed i.e. liberated, known as exothermic reaction or heat isrequired for the process of transformation, known as endothermic reaction.The difference between transformation and Samskara is that transformationcan takes place in any manner forming any dravya. But Samskara is makingtransformation in a proper way, by providing required conditions, to get theexpected resultant. As karana Karyavada (cause effect relationship) is widelyaccepted Siddanta in Ayurvedic texts, Karana can get transformed into anyKarya. But for "Samyak Karyotpatti", the process which is creatively done inproper way is termed as Samskara. Transformation Karana Karya Samskara Karana Samyak Karya (as per requirement) So, in a broad sense, Samskara as a process can be classified underfollowing 3 headings(1) Toya Sannikarsa(2) Agni Sannikarsa(3) Toyagni Sannikarsa
  40. 40. Bibliography…… 33 Samskara Toyasannikarsa Agni sannikarsa Toyagnisannikarsa    Sauca Desa Manthana Dhavana Kala Bhavana Nimajjana Kalaprakarsa Nirvapana Sincana Paka Pesana Vasana etc. Daha Svedana etc. Avapana Mardana Sosana etc. These are the some of the examples given to understand the logicbehind it. By using this, all the processes could be classified under these 3headings. Sauca is cleansing with water, so it is considered under toyasannikarsa.In Dhavana instead of water, different medicated decoctions are also used,which are Jala Mahabhuta dominant, so considered under toyasannikarsa. Innimajjana, a substance is placed in specific decoction or liquid medium forspecific time. In all the above processes, one factor is common i.e. use of JalaMahabhuta dominant dravya. Prthvi dominant impurities and impuritieswhich are soluble in water get removed due to this. According toPancamahabhuta Siddhanta, to make changes in Prthvi dominant dravya (i.e.Parthiva Dravya), Jala Mahabhuta is required to soften the hardness present inParthiva Dravyas. Also Jala Mahabhuta penetrates into Parthiva dravya andloosens the molecular bonding, thereby accumulating space present inbetween molecules. As the sequence of evolution is from Akasa to Prthvi, thesequence of dissolution is reversing i.e. Prthvi, Jala, Agni, Vayu, Akasa. So asthe Prthvi gets dissoluted into Jala Mahabhuta, Jala Mahabhuta dominantdravyas are used in the above processes.
  41. 41. Bibliography…… 34 Desa, Kala are the terms having broad aspect, so how these can beconsidered under Agnisannikarsa? This is the speciality of Ayurveda,especially Caraka Samhita. Here in this context, according to AdhikaranaTantrayukti, if one sees the explanation and examples given by Cakrapani forDesa and Kalaprakarsa, he comes to know the answer. Here, Desa Samskaraimplies putting specific Dravya (eg. Asava, Arista etc), in a specific place i.e.beneath Bhasmarasi, Dhanya Rasi etc. Purpose of putting the Dravya inparticular place is to maintain controlled temperature or heat pattern which isrequired for formation of end product. In this way, this can be included inAgnisannikarsa. Also Kalaprakarsa implies putting a Dravya for specific time,required to enhance maximum potential of end product. Again example givenis Asava Arista etc. which are generally kept in a controlled temperaturecondition for nearly 15 days of time. Here though Caraka has metioned Kalaand Kalaprakarsa as separate entities, Cakrapani has not mentioned itdifferently by giving example of only Kalaprakarsa. Mardana, Sosana, Paka etc can be clearly considered under AgniSannikarsa, though the amount of Agni required for the above said processesis in the increasing order respectively. As Mardanajanya agni is produced(may be due to exothermic reaction) which is in less amount but for longerduration in process of Mardana, while in Paka, more amount of Agni is givendirectly(i.e. endothermic reaction) may be for shorter or longer duration as perrequirement. Maximum number of processes requires toya and Agni Sanikarsa bothto carry out transformation e.g. in Manthana process, Water is added to Dadhi(curd) and it is then churned by a Churner. In this process of churning also, aspecific amount of Agni gets produced which is required to increaseLaghutva, Sothaghna properties forming new product butter milk (Takra). In Nirvapana, firstly the substance is heated (Agnisanikarsa) and thenis dipped in specific decoctions, oil or Kanji etc. (Toyasannikarsa)
  42. 42. Bibliography…… 35 Pesana process can be considered under Toyagnisannikarsa, as whiledoing Pesana with Jala, some amount of Agni is also produced due tofriction(i.e.may be due to exothermic reaction). In Svedana process, clearlyToyagni Sannikarsa is there. In this way, some of the examples of Samskara are explained. Keepingthis view in mind, remaining all the processes can be included under these 3headings only. This is all about the types of Samskara as mentioned in CarakaSamhita. Though Susruta Samhita and Astanga Hrdaya had not contributedmuch about the types and concept of Samskara, Astanga Samgraha had givengood contribution by mentioning Various (22) examples of Samskaracollected at one place i.e. in Sutra Sthana 7th Chapter (221 to 231verse) Induagain has contributed well by classifying these examples under differentheadings which are as under :1. Samskara Visesa2. Svabhava Visesa3. Samskara Svabhava4. Avastha Visesa5. Patra Visesa6. Kriya Visesa7. Kriya Svabhava Visesa8. Kriya Svabhava Krto Visesa9. Kriya Proyoga Visesa10. Kriya Samyoga Visesa11. Samyoga Samskara Visesa12. Samskara KalaVisesa
  43. 43. Bibliography…… 36 If one again tries to understand it more clearly, the following words arerepeatedly used in the above classification. 1. Samyoga SamyogaSamskara Visesa 2. Samskara Samskara SvabhavaKriyaSamyoga 3. Kala Samskara Kala VisesaVisesa 4. Svabhava Kriya Svabhavkrito 5. Kriya Kriya Svabhava 6. Prayoga Kriya Prayoga 7. Patra and 8. Avastha One can consider these as the factors responsible for varioustransformations or means to create the Samskara in a Substance. Now let ussee the examples mentioned under these headings, so that the concept will bemore clear.(1) Samskara Visesa : Under this heading following examples are mentioned by Indu. dipped in lime water(a) Ardraka Sunthi (Toyagnisannikarsa) Dried in sunlight (Guru) (Laghu) Here Ardraka before and after dipping in lime water dried in sunlight. So Jala Mahabhuta dominance gets decreased and Agni Mahabhuta dominance increased comparatively, so that Ardraka having Guru Guna is converted into Sunthi having Laghu Guna.(b) Saktu Siddha Pindika (Toyagnisannikarsa) (Svabhavalaghu) (Guru) Here Saktu is Svabhavalaghu, but when Pindika is made from it, it becomes Guru.
  44. 44. Bibliography…… 37(C) Brihi Laja (Guru, Pittakara) (Laghu, Pittahara) Here Brihi which is Guru and Pittakara, after Samskara becomes Laghu and Pittahara. Alpa Svedana(d) Mudga Kulmasa (Toyagni Sannikarsa) (Laghu, Samgrahana Svabhavi) (Guru, Bhedi) Mudga which is Laghu and Samgrahaka by nature is transformed to Kulmasa, which is Guru and Bhedi after Alpa Svedana. Here also toyagni sannikarsa is there. But alpa word is indicative of Agni Mahabhuta used is less, as compared to Jala Mahabhuta. Also Vayu Mohabhuta which is dominant in Mudga responsible for Samgrahana Svabhava and Laghu Guna get decreased after alpasvedana. Agni Samskara(e) Ama Takra Pakva Takra (Agni Sannikarsa) (Atisamgrahanam) (Kincita Samgrahanam) Here also, Ama Takra which is Atisamgrahana get converted into Pakva Takra after Agni Samskara which is Kincita Samgrahanam. Here, Vayu Mahabhuta responsible for Sosana acivity in Ama Takra get decreased and Agni Mahabhuta is increased comparatively, due to Agni Samskara. Agni(f) Ama Mulakam Pakva Mulakam (Agni Sannikarsa) Samskara (Tridosakaram) (Adosalam) Ama Mulaka which is Tridosakara becomes Adosala after Agni Samskara on it. This is one of the example illustrating how Samskara is useful in removing dosas from the substacne. Agni(g) Visanasanam Maksikam Visibhavati Samskara (Antitoxic) honey (toxic) It is the example showing how Samskara can be harmful, if not properly used in proper substance. Honey which is antitoxic by nature, becomes toxic substance after Agni Samskara (If heated). These are some of the examples of Samskara Visesa.
  45. 45. Bibliography…… 38(2) Svabhava Visesa: Manthana Dadhi Takra Samskara (Snigdha) Navaneeta (Sophakara) (Both are Snigdha but no Sophakara) Dadhi (Curd) which is Snigdha and Sophakara, after Manthana Samskara yields 2 substances- Takra (Buttermilk) and Navaneeta (Butter). Both are Snigdha but not Sophakara. Here the resson given by Indu as Svabhava Visesa. But the reason lies in Samskara only, as Manthana Samskara is done, Some amount of Agni is produced (exothermic reaction) in the process due to Manthana, which changes Abhisyandi and Guru Dadhi into Anabhisyandi and Laghu Takra.(3) Samskara Svabhava : Indu has given example of Samskarita and Asamskarita Takra. In diseases like Peenasa etc. Samskarita Takra is only useful, Asamskarita is not useful. Indu tells it as Samskara Svabhava. But, it is not that much clear. According to Panchamabhuta Siddhanta, it can be said that Vayu Mahabhuta dominance responsible for seeta sparsa in takra gets reduced and Agni Mahabhuta dominance increased comparatively, after agni Samskara which is useful in diseases like peenasa, having Vata Dosa dominance.(4) Avastha Visesa : Avasthantaram Kseera Dadhi (Curd) Ghee Kala Samskara (Madhura, Sara (Amla, Grahi, (Kseera Seeta, Vataghna) Usna, Vataghna) Sadrsam) Ajata Dadhi Takra (Vatakaram) Kasayamla Grahi Amla Bhedanam Here, only Kseera is forming different substances according to different Samskaras. i.e. Kseera (Madhura, Sara, Seeta) is getting
  46. 46. Bibliography…… 39 transformed into Dadhi (Amla, Grahi, Usna) by kala samskara, having exactly different properties. Again, after Agni Samskara, it is gettng converted into Ghee, which is Kseera Sadrsam i.e. Madhura, Seeta, etc. Again the by-product formed in the process is Takra having different properties than Dadhi. So, here it is termed as Avastha Visesa of the same substance as it is exhibiting different properties according to different Avastha.(5) Patra Visesa : Kept in Lohapatra Draksa Draksa (Madhura, Vatapittahara) (Amlatvam, Tridosakaram) It is also important that Patra (Pot) used for keeping Bhesaja should be such that there should be enhancement of properties of Bhesaja. Care should be taken that material used for Patra should not be chemically reactive with the Bhesaja, forming a new substance thereby decreasing the expected properties. The example mentioned above for Patra Visesa is indicative of this fact only. When Draksa is kept in Patra made up of iron, it induces mild chemical reaction, thereby increasing sourness and Tridosa Karatva in Draksa. As Madhura Draksa is getting converted to Amla, it can be said that Prthvi and Jala Mahabhuta dominance is getting changed to Prthvi and Agni Mahabhuta dominance disturbing the natural Pancabhautika Sanghatana of Draksa making it tridosakara. In Caraka Samhita, it is termed as Bhajana Samskara.(6) Kriya Visesa Pista Sali Svabhavaguru Godhumat api (Laghu) Pesana Samskara Adhikam Gurutvam Yati Here, Sali which is Laghu by nature, becomes more Guru than Svabhavaguru Godhuma after Pesana Samskara. After Pesana
  47. 47. Bibliography…… 40 Samskara, Vayu Mahabhuta dominance gets reduced and Jala Mahabhuta dominance increases making it Guru.(7) Kriya Svabhava Visesa : Tila Khalataila (Slesmakara) (Aslesmakara) Tila is Slesmakara, but Khalatail made up of tila is aslesmakara. This is due to Kriya Svabhava Visesa. Here Prthvi dominance in Tila is getting reduced after making Khala Taila.(8) Kriya Svabhavakrto Visesa : (Bharjana Samskara) Bhrsta Raktasali Prthuka (Svabhava Laghu) Musalcinna (Guru) (Kuttana Samskara) Rakta Sali which is Laghu by nature, after Bhrista and Musalacinna gets converted into Prthuka which is Guru. It is similar to Kriya Svabhavavisesa i..e it is Svabhavavisesa of this Kriya (Process) which is responsible for this transformation. Here also Vayu Mahabhuta dominance in Raktasali decreases and Prthvi + Jala Mahabhuta dominance increases in the process thereby making Prthuka Guru.(9) Kriya Prayoga Visesa : Candanasya Lepa Slaskna, Suska, Ghana- Dahakara Aguro lepa Parusa, Ardra, Tanu – Seetakrta Candana having sitaveerya is showing Dahakara effect, if applied on the body in Slaskna, Suska, and Ghana form. Whereas, Aguru which is Usna Virya, shows Sita Krta (Cooling) effect, if applied on the body in Parusa, Ardra and Tanu form. So, here Kriya Prayoga i.e. method of application is showing this difference. But this example is showing more relevance to Samyoga rather than Samskara.
  48. 48. Bibliography…… 41(10) Kriya Samyoga Visesa : Guda + Dadhi Rasala (Jaggery) (Curd) (Guru) (Guru) (Atigurutara) After Samyoga of Dadhi and Guda (both Guru), the resultant formed Rasala is Atigurutara i.e. showing more grade of heaviness than expected. This is termed as Kriya Samyoga Visesa by Indu.(11) Samyoga Samskara Visesa Guda + Toya Panakam (Mutral) (Mutral) (Atimutralam, Atiguru Karana- apeksaya) This example is again showing the similarity with above example of Kriya Samyoga Visesa. But Indu termed it as Samyoga Samskara Visesa.(12) Samskara Kala Visesa : Dhataki + Guda (Jaggery) + Water Madya Sukta Dhataki, Guda and water when combined and kept together, it is Samskara and Kala that decides whether it will be Madya or Sukta. So, it is considered under Samskara kala visesa by Indu.
  49. 49. Bibliography…… 42 PANCAMAHABHUTA SIDDHANTA (BHUTANTARANUPRAVESA) AND IT’S RELATION WITH SAMSKARA ;J" ãjI 5F×REF{lTSDŸ Vl:DGŸ VY["× (Ca.Su. 26/10) All the perceivable mattes existing in this universe are pancabhautika.Pancamahabhutas are at the juncture of the subtle to the more grossmanifestation of the universe. But according to some, it is more of a mentalexercise and has very less practical application. The rationale of anything andeverything which cannot be explained by Tridosas can be very wellinterpreted by pancamahabhuta siddhanta. The concept of Pancamahabhutasiddhanta provides ultimate solution for the queries as told by acarya susruta. E}T[eIF[ lC 5Z I:DFTŸ GFl:T lRgTFlRlSlt;T[ × (Su.Sa. 1/13) In present days of globalization, all the rational sceptics are engrossedin finding the basic reasons for transformation or existence. Even the mostmodernized equipment leads them to a more pensive problem. It is thelimitation of theirs which has attracted them to eastern philosophy. Ayurvedacan provide them with a more sound explanation on the basis ofpancamahabhuta siddhanta. Developing oneself with this concept will makethe fundamentals very clear and strong. Usually, the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of a dravyadepends on it’s pancabhautika composition. This pharmacology can bemodified with the help of Samskaras. A clear cut understanding of thesamskaras with the exposition of pancamahabhutas will give the physician anadvantage to confidently employ the samskaras suiting the occasion.
  50. 50. Bibliography…… 43 So, firstly it is necessary to understand normal pancabhautikacomposition of a dravya. One can understand this mainly in two phasesthrough: I) Evolution of Mahabhutas theory and II) Formation of Pancabhautika DrayvaI) Evolution of Mahabhutas : Evolution of Mahabhutas takes place in 3 stages: a) 1st Stage Evolution of Pancatanmatra b) 2nd Stage Bhutantaranupravesa (Imitative Pervasion) c) 3rd Stage Pancikarana (Reciprocal Pervasion) From the Avyakta, a brief look up to the evolution of Mahabhutas is asfollows: Avyakta Mahat Ahankara Satva Rajas Tamas (Nirindriya)(Sendriya) 11 Indriyas Sabda Sparsa Rupa Rasa Gandha Tanmatra Tanmatra Tanmatra Tanmatra Tanmatra Akasa Vayu Agni Jala Prthvi Mahabhuta Mahabhuta Mahabhuta Mahabhuta Mahabhutaa) 1st Stage Evolution of Pancatanmatara At the level of practical utility, tanmatra form of Mahabhutas can beconsidered as eternal. The Ahamkara manifested from Mahat contains three
  51. 51. Bibliography…… 44characteristics. It has got mass (i.e. tamas), energy (i.e. Rajas) and essence(i.e. Satva) The rajas (i.e. energy) charges tamas (i.e. mass) in specific quantities.The first product of Ahamkara by these two is Sabda-tanmatra. Avyakta has subtle quantum of potential energy with mass inrudimentary stage as it’s seat or vehicle. Due to the potential difference inthem, elementary forces come into action producing the potential of vibrationor oscillation i.e. sound potential in them which is called as the Sabdatanmatraof Akasa. The vibration further originates the quantum of elementary forces toact vigorously producing the potential of touch, called as sparsatanmatravayu. The constant vibrations may produce collisions resulting into evolutionof heat and light radiation potential called Rupatanmatra Agni. The forcesfurther produce viscous attractions towards each other, increasing thecondensations. This is called as Rasa tanmatra apa, with potentials of tasteand viscous attractions.. The viscous attraction produces cohesivecondensation and the quanta collocate with smell potential calledgandhatanmatra prthvi. In short, evolution of panca tanmatra from the bhutadi ahamkara is asfollows : Bhutadi Ahamkara Sabda tanmatra Akasa Sparsatanmatra Vayu Rupatanmatra Agni Rasatanmatra Apa Gandha Tanmatra Prthvi
  52. 52. Bibliography…… 45 Tanmatra is a subtle quantum of mahabhuta category having a specificenergy or mass. Philosophical sciences defined them as having a materialform and not divisible further.b) 2nd Stage Bhutantaranupravesa (Imitative pervasion) In this process, tanmatras undergo some reactions to form the pre-molecules of Mahabhutas. These reactions with their products are as above.Sr. Reactions ProductNo. 1 Sabdatanmatra Akasa Sabdatanmatra Akasa 2 Sabdatanmatra akasa + Sparsatanmatra vayu Bitanmatric vayu 3 Bitanmatric vayu + Rupa tanmatra Agni Tritanmatric Agni 4 Tritanmatric agni + Rasa tanmatra apa Tetratanmatric apa 5 Tetratanmatric apa + Gandha tanmatra prthvi Penta tanmatric prthviC) 3rd Stage Pancikarana (Reciprocal Pervasion) The process by which molecules of the mahabhutas are formed fromthe products formed (in the reactions of Bhutan taranupravesa) is called aspancikarana. The procedure of pancikarana explained by Vedanta is as follows:i) Each molecule formed in the reaction of Bhutan taranupravesa divides into two parts. These parts may not be always equal.ii) The first part of division again divides into four parts; these 4 parts also may not be necessarily in equal proportions.iii) One of these 4 parts gets exchanged with all four other molecules.iv) Now all the molecules have fractions of each other. Now the products which are going to act as single units in themanifestation of universe are formed. These conjugated forms of tanmatra aretermed as Mahabhutas.
  53. 53. Bibliography…… 46 The grossness or subtleness of these formed Mahabhutas will dependupon the number of pancikaranas took place in the formation of thatparticular Mahabhuta i.e. Due to more pancikaranas Mahabhuta will be moregross, while if pancikaranas are less Mahabhuta will be subtle. The diagrammatic representation of Mahabhuta formation is as shownin the figure.II) Formation of Pancabhautika dravya: The Mahabhutas so formed, by the bhutantaranupravesa andpancikarana reactions of tanmatra, undergo specific procedures of conjugationto form the manifested pancabhautika dravyas of the universe, around us. Samhitakaras and the tikakaras have not explained much about thereactions taking place in between Mahabhutas. Moreover Cakrapani says that,these reactions of Mahabhutas takes place due to some unknown force i.e.Adrsta. (Ca.ci.1/29-37) Hence, no logic can be suggested in such case. Butthere is an indirect reference from susruta samhita, which could be thesolution for the above query. Acarya Susruta has enlisted 3 words (Su.su.42/3,Su.sa.3/3) I) Paraspara - samsarga II) Parasparanugraha III) Parasparanupravesa So, there are 3 types of conjugations taking place in betweenMahabhutas to form pancabhautika dravya.I) Paraspara samsarga - —5Z:5Z;;UF"TŸVgIF[gI;IF[UFTŸ ×c Dalhana In this process two or more Mahabhutas come in contact and simplyget attached to each other to form pancabhautika dravya. This can becompared with making of bonds in the compound structure.
  54. 54. Bibliography…… 47 In this type of conjugation, all the participating Mahabhutas willmaintain an independent manifestation. The bonds formed betweenmahabhutas by such type of conjugation are not much strong so that they canbe separated easily from each other. P AP TII) Parasparanugraha:- —5Z:5ZFG]U|CFTŸVgIF[gIp5SFZFTŸ ×c Dalhana Anugraha means Upakara, give and take relationship, to enhanceproperties of each other. In this type of conjugation reaction, mahabhutas actin such a way that they will favour each other. This can be explained with oneexample e.g. an atom having an extra electron in its orbit and another atomrequiring one electron for its stability. Here if two atoms combine, there willbe give and take of that extra electron from either part respectively. Due tothis sharing of electrons, both the atoms will get stability. P + AP P AP In this type of conjugation, bonds will be stronger as compared toparasparasamsarga type.III) Parasparanupravesa-—5Z:5ZFG]5|J[XFTŸ VG]5|J[XFTŸ,SFtDLEFJFTŸ ×c Dalhana parasparanupravesa type of conjugation can be understand by twoways:- a) Submerging of Mahabhutas in to each other, b) Pancikarana at mahabhuta levela) Sabmerging of Mahabhutas :-
  55. 55. Bibliography…… 48 In this type of conjugation, Mahabhutas get submerged into each other.So the presence of the submerged Mahabhuta cannot be understoodapparently, but in some processes or reactions, submerged Mahabhuta getvisualised exhibiting its gunas. Vicitrapratyayarabdhatva can be explained onthis basis. VA AP TEb) Pancikarana at Mahabhuta level:- This parasparanupravesa procedure is of pancikarana again, but atMahabhuta level. After initial pancikarana procedure, the Mahabhutas nowhave the characteristic qualities of all five tanmatras which are objects of thefive sense organs. But, due to limitations or definite range of human senses,one is unable to perceive so formed Mahabhuta-molecule. To reach up to theperceiving level, the Mahabhutas must follow some procedures to becomemore gross. Although, vedanta dose not say clearly if this pancikaranaprocedure takes place only once or multiple times, one can imagine it tohappen several times to form various varieties of pancabhautika dravyas.Grossness or subtleness of any pancabhautika dravya depends upon thenumber of pancikaranas at mahabhuta level. More number of pancikaranas inbetween Mahabhutas, leads to utilization of more mahabhautika energy tobind Mahabhautika bonds inside it, so free energy is less reducing itsactivities. But simultaneously, due to more pancikaranas, the pancabhautikadravya will get more stability. While if pancikaranas in between Mahabhutasare less, although stability will be lessened but the free energy and there bythe activity of pancabhautika dravya so formed will be more.
  56. 56. Bibliography…… 49 Thus, it can be said that, in living body, dosas are having less numberof pancikaranas, there fore less stability but dominance in actions over dhatusand malas. While, dhatus are having medium pancikaranas, so more stabilitythan dosas but less activity. In case of malas, maximum pancikaranas takesplace. So they have maximum stability with no activity. So these are the various processes on the basis of which formation ofpancabhautika dravya from Mahabhutas can be explained. Now efforts to be made to understand after Samskara, actually whatchanges can takes place in pancabhautika composition of a dravya resultinginto gunantaradhana?(i.e.change in gunas) Though the gunas and karmas ofany pancabhautika dravya are manifestations of total effect of conjugation &configuration of Mahabhutas, generally Mahabhuta which is dominant showsmaximum guna-karmas. So the pancabhautika dravya is termed as parthiva,apya ets. according to dominance of prithvi & Apa Mahabhutas respectively.Thus whenever guanantaradhana (i.e.change in gunas) takes place in anypancabhautika dravya, it is due to change in dominant Mahabhuta. In short, itcan be said that gunantaradhana takes place by samskara due to change indominant Mahabhutas. Here Gunantaradhana may be of 3 types. According to Jejjata, Samskara or processing has 3 objects :-(ca.ka.1/3Jejjata) 1) Gunotkarsa (potentiation) 2) Vibhaga (division) 3) Bheda (variation) and Elaborating it further, Cakrapani says that, Bheda means variation inuse while vibhaga is division of drugs. So 3 types of gunantaradhana:-1) Gunotkarasa - potency of existing gunas will be enhanced by Samskara. e.g. to increase seeta & dahasamaka guna of Pravala ( coral), bhavana of gulaba jala (rose water) is given, which is having
  57. 57. Bibliography…… 50 seeta & dahasamaka property. si.e.V<5:I Vl5 DCFY"tJDŸ ×f2) Vibhaga (division) Potency of unwanted existing guna (i.e.dosa) will be decreased by samskara i.e. dosaparihara e.g. To reduce excessive Usna, teeksna gunas of gandhaka (sulphur )Sodhana samskara is done with the help of milk and ghee which are havingseeta & manda properties (i.e. 5|E}T:I V<5SD"TFDŸ ×f3) Bheda (variation):- i.e. Variation in gunas. Entirely new gunas get manifested in a dravya after samskara. e.g. Vrihi which is guru & pitta-dosa vitiating, becomes laghu & pitta-dosa alleviating after agni-samskara. So, here entirely new gunas getmanifested after Samskara. This above said gunantaradhana can be explained on the basis ofreactions/ interactions taking place at Mahabhuta level, thereby altering thepancabhautika composition ( Mahabhuta dominance ) of a dravya.INTERACTION BETWEEN MAHABHUTAS:- Due to samskara, the alteration which takes place at the level ofMahabhutas (i.e. change in dominant Mahabhuta) will get manifested in theform of change in gunas i.e. gunantaradhana. Two types of dravyas participate in the process of samskara:-i. Samskaraka dravya: - with the help of which Samskara is created on a dravya.ii. Samskarita dravya: - Dravya on which Samskara is created. e.g. svedana samskara of amalaki In this process Jala & agni are samskaraka dravyas and amalki is aSamskarita dravya.1) Gunotkarsa:- Here, in gunotkarsa type of gunantaradhana as seen in the above ensample Samskaraka & samskarita dravyas are having
  58. 58. Bibliography…… 51 same dominant Mahabhuatas. So, in the process of samskara, quantity of dominant Mahabhuta gets increased, there by forming a pancabhautika dravya of same guna, but in maximum intensity.2) Vibhaga (division) :- In this type of gunantaradhana, interacting Mahabhutas of Samskaraka & samskarita dravya are opposite to each other, so the dominant Mahabhuta get expressed it self. In the above said example of gandhaka-sodhana, dominant Agni Mahabhuta in Gandhaka exhibits Usna - teeksna gunas excessively. So, here potency is decreased with the help of Apa Mahabhuta dominant dravya having seeta & manda gunas, there by reducing excess of Agni Mahabhuta dominance.3) Bheda (Variation):- If the samskara is being done on a pancabhautika dravya having parasparanupravesa type of conjugation, then apparently presence of submerged Mahabhuta get manifested itself in the form of different guna which is not present in either of the dominant Mahabhutas of samskaraka and samskarita dravya. From the above discussion the interaction between the Mahabhutas seems very simple. But it is not so in reality. There are many other factors which affect these reactions such asa. Quantity of the dominant Mahabhutas taking part in the reaction.b. Relative quantity of other Mahabhutas. e.g. guruta and Laghuta of Lavana and amla rasas respectively. Prthvi Mahabhuta is considered heavier than all the rest ofMahabhutas.Still Amla is laghu, which has dominance of Prthvi and agniMahabhutas. While lavana is guru which has dominance of Jala & agniMahabhutas. Lavana - Jala + Agni  Guru Amla - prthvi + Agni  Laghu
  59. 59. Bibliography…… 52 It the agni Mahabhuta from both the rasas is considered constant for awhile, then why prthvi dominant rasa is laghu? Similarly, why Jala dominantrasa is guru ? Here, the quantity of the Mahabhutas has played the importantrole in determining resultant guna. Hence, Cakrapani rightly says that, only by knowing the participatingdominant Mahabhatas, gunas of dravya cannot be determined. —ITF[ G E}TlGJ[X[G UF{ZJ,F3J[ XÉIT[VJWFZlIT]DŸ ×c Cakra. Ca. Su. 26/53-56c. Configuration of the reacting Mahabhutas: Mode of arrangement of Mahabhutas in a particular dravya also affectsthe resultant gunas. e.g. Glucose & fructose have the same chemical formulae, but differentmolecular arrangements, due to which their properties are different. So, if Mahabhutas are present in same quantity in two differentdravyas, but still their gunas will be different if configuration of Mahabhutasdiffers. Vicitrapratyayarabdha phenomenon can be explained on this basis i.e.after process of Jatharagni, there is change in the configuration of Mahabhutasresulting in a vipaka which is not according to rasa. Arundatta on A.H.su.8/27-28 also states the same thing —lJlR+5|tIIFo GFGFSFZ ;lgGJ[X lJX[QFI]ÉTFlGDCFE}TFlGPPPP ×c VPìP;}P9/27-28 VPNPi.e. 1) Nanakara - difference in shapes & size of Mahabhutas,and 2) Nana sannivesa- difference in specific arrangement of Mahabhutas is responsible for vicitrapratyayarabdhatva. Cakrapani also supports this, but ultimately he concludes that, thisdifference in configuration is due to adrsta. Hence, it cannot be explained.
  60. 60. Bibliography…… 53The possible method to understand these configurations is "Action of thatparticular dravya.” —VI E}TFGF ;lgGJ[XF[ VNQ8 5|EFJST,J4 ; R ;lgGJ[Xo SFI"NX"G[G pgG[Io ×c Cakra Ca. Su. 26/40 Now in a comprehensive view, it can be said that, "gunantaradhana bysamskara" at the level of Mahabhutas, depend on the following factors:-1) The quantity of dominant Mahabhutas taking part in reaction,2) Relative quantity of other Mahabhutas present in a pancabhautika dravya,3) The configuration of reacting Mahabhutas,4) Type of reaction / interaction taking place in between reacting Mahabhutas.5) Type of conjugation (paraspara-samsarga etc.) by which pancabhautika (samskarita) dravya is formed.6) Shapes & size of the Mahabhuta- molecules.

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