Daradavati sandhivata rs005-gdg


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The preparation, physico-chemical analysis of darada vati and evaluation of its clinical efficacy on sandhigata vata” (Osteoarthritis)” - Dr. Kallappa. M. Jaggal, Department of rasashastra, Post graduate studies and research center, Shri D. G. Melmalagi Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag

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Daradavati sandhivata rs005-gdg

  2. 2. Department of Post Graduate INSTITUTATION Post Graduate cum Research Center,Studies in RASASHASTRA D.G.M.Ayurvedic Medical College Gadag –582103 J.S.V.V. SAMITE’S ENDORSEMENT ΕΡΤΙΦΙΑΧ I here by declare that this dissertation entitled “THE PREPARATION, PHYSICO- CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF DARADA VATI AND EVALUATION OF ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATA(Osteoarthritis)” is a bonafide and genuine research work done by Dr.Kallappa.M.Jaggal under the guidence of Dr.M.C.Patil Professor, HOD Department of Post Graduate Studies & Dr.Girish.N.Danappagoudar Lecturer, Department of Rasashastra, Post Graduate Studies in D.G.M.Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag. Seal & Signature of the Principal: Seal & Signature of the HOD. Name: Name: Date: Place: Date: Place: Gadag.
  3. 3. Department of Post graduate Post Graduate cum Research Center,Studies in RASASHASTRA D.G.M.Ayurvedic Medical College Gadag –582103 J.S.V.V. SAMITE’S CERTIFICATE I here by declare that this dissertation entitled “THE PREPARATION, PHYSICO- CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF DARADA VATI AND EVALUATION OF ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATA(Osteoarthritis)” is a bonafide and genuine research work done by Dr.Kallappa.M.Jaggal in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspati (M.D) in Rasashastra of Rajiv Gandhi University of Health sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka. Date: Guide Place: Gadag. Dr.M.C.Patil. M.D.(RS) Head of the department Rasashastra, Post Graduate cum Research Center D.G.M. Ayurvedic Medical College Gadag –582103
  4. 4. Department of Post graduate D.G.M.Ayurvedic Medical College &Studies in RASASHASTRA Post Graduate cum Research Center Gadag –582103 Dist: Gadag J.S.V.V. SAMITE’S CERTIFICATEI here by declare that this dissertation entitled “THE PREPARATION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF DARADA VATI AND EVALUATION OF ITSCLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATA(Osteoarthritis) ” is a bonafideand genuine research work done by Dr.Kallappa.M.Jaggal in partial fulfillmentof the requirement for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspati (M.D) in Rasashastra ofRajiv Gandhi University of Health sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka.Date: Co-GuidePlace: Gadag. Dr.Girish.N.Danappagoudar M.D.(RS). Lecturer Rasashastra Post Graduate cum Research Center D.G.M. Ayurvedic Medical College Gadag –582103
  5. 5. J.S.V.V. SAMITE’S DECLARATIONI here by declare that this dissertation entitled “ THE PREPARATION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF DARADA VATI AND EVALUATION OF ITS CLINICALEFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATA (Osteoarthritis)” is a bonafide and genuine researchwork carried out by me under the guidance of Dr.M.C.Patil. Professor &HOD, Department of Post Graduate Studies in Rasashastra, Post Graduate cum ResearchCenter, D. G. M Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag –582103Date: Dr.Kallappa.M.Jaggal P.G.Schalor, Place: Gadag. of Rasashastra, Post Graduate Dept. cum Research Center, D.G.M Ayurvedic Medical College Gadag –582103
  6. 6. COPYRIGHT I here by declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminate this dissertation inprint or electronic format for academic / research purpose.Date: Dr.Kallappa.M.Jaggal P.G.Schalor, Dept. of Rasashastra, Post GraduatePlace: Gadag cum Research Center, D.G.M. Ayurvedic Medical College Gadag –582103© Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka
  7. 7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT My father & mother is the only Inspiration. This work carries some sweatmemories to express & record about some distinguished personalities by whom I had beeninspired during the course of this thesis.I express my deep sense of gratitude to my respected guide Prof.Dr.M.C.Patil. MD(Ayu)Head of Dept. of RS, DGMAMC & PGSRC, Gadag. He has been very kind to guide me in thepreparation of thesis & for who extraordinary efforts, tremendous encouragement & mostvaluable thought provoking critical suggestions, made me to complete this work. I am extremely greatful & obliged to my co-guide Dr.Girish .N.Danappagiudar.MD(Ayu). Lecturer in Rasashastra, PG studies & Research center DGMAMC,Gadag, for patiently going through the draft of thesis & correcting with precious remarks whichhave been very useful. I am thankful to Dr.G.B.Patil principal, DGMAMC, PGSRC,Gadag, forproviding all necessary facilities for this research work. I wish to convey thanks to my teacher Prof.Dr.R.K.GachchinamathHOD,Rasashastra dept,(UG) DGMAMC, Gadag, for being kind & affectionate through hisvaluable suggestions & advises. It gives me immense pleasure to express my gratitude to Dr. Dilipkumar B.MD (Ayu). Asst. Prof. PGSRC for kind advise encouragement during the study. I acknowledge the valuable help given to me by my best friends Dr.Jagadish Mitti MD(Ayu). Lecturer & Dr. Shashikant Nidagundi MD(Ayu) Lecturer, fortheir support during my PG study.
  8. 8. I am greatful for the support and advise given by Dr. S.H.Doddamani MD(Ayu). Asst. Prof. PGSRC. DGMAMC, Gadag, during my clinical trail and encouraged meall the time during this work. I express my deep gratitude to Dr. B.M.Mulkipatil MD (Ayu), Lecture,PGSRC, Gadag, for his fullhanded whole hearted, co-operation and suggestions in thisstudy, for which I will be ever greatful to him. I wish to convey thanks to all UG & PG lectures of DGMAMC, Gadag, fortheir timely help & constant co-operation during my PG work. I sincerely thank my beloved classmates Dr. K.S.Santoji, Dr. P. KoteshwarRao, Dr. V.S.Hiremath, Dr. R.B.Paattanashetti, for their deep co-operation and involvementin the study. I am also thankful to scholars of PG Dept. of Rasashastra who have directlyor indirectly helps my thesis work. & expected their co-operation & support during my PGwork. I am glad to express my heartiest thanks to Dr. Chandur Medical pharma .J.T.College Gadag, having helped me in carrying out analytical works, and for giving kindsuggestions. I wish to convey my thanks to beloved librarian, Sri. V.M.Mundinamani,Asst. S.B.Sureban for providing many valuable references in the study. I am thankful to Sri.B.S.Tippanagouda, Lab technician, who extended this co-operation in investigations. I tender my sincere thanks to Nandakumar, statistician for his help instatistical evaluation & results.
  9. 9. I wish to thank the physicians , House surgeons, Hospital staff, nurses &non teaching staff for their timely assistance in completion of this work. Let me express my thanks to all patients, those were on trial for theirconsent for enrolling in this clinical study & obedience to advises. I am highly indebted to my beloved parents brothers sisters & other familymembers for their love & affection rendered through out my career. I am thankful to computer operator in bringing out the computer presenceof my thesis in such a elegant way. I express my thanks to all the persons who have helped me directly &indirectly with apologies for my ability to identify them individually. Lastly I prey my deep homage & tribute to my grand parents for the love &affection rendered through out my career.GadagFebruary 2005 Dr: K.M.Jaggal
  10. 10. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATA CONTENTS • Acknowledgement • List of Tables • List of Photographs And Diagrams • Abbreviations ABSTRACT Chapter name Page No. 1. Introduction 1-3 2. Objectives 4 3. Review of Literature’s 5-59 4. Materials and Methods 60-83 5. Results 84-98 6. Discussion 99-108 7. Summary and Conclusion 109-111 • References • Appendix 4
  11. 11. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATA INTRODUCTION Kaya Vagbuddhi Vishayo ye malaha Samupasthita ⎜ Chikitsa laxanaadyatma shastrai stesham vishuddhaya⎜⎜ (V.P) Kaya, Vak, Buddhi, Doshas can be Corrected by chikitsa, Vyakarana, Adhyatmarespectively, which are studied under the roof of Ayurveda. Ayurveda is one of the most ancient systems of health science based on its own uniqueoriginal concepts, fundamental principles. The development of Science is by Brihatrayis andlaghutrayis. These texts have described well developed eight clinical specialties for thepurpose of chikitsa In this chikitsa, vanaspathija dravyas are most dominant and next pranja dravya, veryfew metal minerals were used. In Bouddhika kala the practice of shalya and panchakarma were declined, as they werethe followers of “ahimsho paramu dharma”. These leads to development of alternativemedicinal remedies with use of metals and minerals keeping in view that “yatha lohe tathadehe.” Mahaboutika compositions of metal and minerals will differ, than the tissue element ofthe body; these raw heterogeneous and toxic properties are removed by shodhana, maranadisamskaras, according to the nature of the dravya and the diseases for which they are to beused, such drugs become more potent thus they can be used in minimal dose. The rasa dravyas are classified differently by various authors on the basis oftherapeutic effect and process makes fit for uses. 5
  12. 12. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATA In these parada is supreme one because of “kastoushadhyo nage nago vangastavangamapi shulbe ⎜ shulbam tare taram kanake kanakam cha liyate cha suthe⎜⎜”1 and ithas the power to assimilate all the other metal and minerals, and preventing from the jara,akalamrityu, curing diseases when it processed in proper way. Parada can be extracted by darada, so darada is one of the measure sources of parada.Parada extracted from this is called Hingulottha parada. This has the property of ashtasamskarita parada, gandhaka jarita parada. Hingula can be studied under sadaranarasa as well as maharasa, uparasa rasadhatuvarga, according to different opinion. Shodhita hingula act as a Sarvarogaghna, Sarvadoshaghna, Rasayana, Balavardhaka,Medhya, Agnivardaka, and Yakritaplehavikaranashaka, Meha, and Kushta etc.vikara nashaka. According to Rasamritakara shodhita hingula should be subjected to bhavana withLasuna, Palandu, Tambula, and Ardraka sawrasa seven times with each. The vati prepared byit may be act on all vatakaphaja vikara especially sandhigatavata, puranapinasa, by virtue ofproperties like agnideepaka, balya, tridoshaghna, rasayana property. Sandhigata vata is explained in almost all Ayurvedic classics in vata vyadhi adhyaya,they explained about sign and symptoms those are sandhishoola, shotha, atopa, etc. and alsomentioned different chikitsa procedures like abhyanga, swedana, snehana, basti and drugs insingle, compound drug formulations like kashaya, guggulu kalpa, and churana etc. According to modern signs and symptoms resembles like osteoarthritis, osteoarthritis isa degenerative inflammatory joint disease characterized by destruction of articular cartilageand formation of new bone at the joint surface and margin, in this pain is universal problem,which has an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potentialtissue damage, it does not lead to mortality but it definitely causes morbidity. 6
  13. 13. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATA Radiological and autopsy surveys shows that a steady rise in degenerative changes in the joint from the age 30 yrs, 65% of people have radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis, 35% may have symptoms, male and female both were affected but more generalized, more severe in older women’s. Geographical survey show different in both the prevalence of osteoarthritis and pattern of joint involvement, cold and damp climates are associated with more symptoms but not in greater radiological. Now a day this common disease affecting in 25% of population and more generalized. The disease treated by many drugs, there is no satisfactory treatment is established. In this view the rule of Darada Vati may be as an effective drug. Plan of study The study has been planed as below1. Objectives2. Review of literature – Drug review and Disease review3. Methodology- Pharmaceutical study, Analytical study, Clinical study.4. Results5. Discussion6. Summary7. Conclusion 7
  14. 14. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATAAims and Objectives of the Study1. Preparation of Darada vati2. Physicochemical analysis of darada vati3. Clinical evaluation of Darada vati on sandhigatavata 8
  15. 15. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATA Drug Review HINGULAHistrological aspect: The possible available references regarding hingula since, ancient period to presentday are as follows. There is no reference in Prevedic, Vedic, Purana, Upanishad period.Samhita kala (100 B.C):- All the literatures which are written during the Samhita kala are not available atpresent, the leading Samhita available are charaka, sushruta, kashyapa, etc. In these textsalso there is no reference of hingula is found. In these Samhita only use of parada available.Kautilya arthashastra (200 B.C): Chanukya has mentioned hingula in his text for the first time. But the usage ofhingula as a medicine is not described by him. He has mentioned hingula with swarnadidhatu. “Ghanasushire vaa roope swarna mrit valuka hingula kalko vaataptovatishthate”(Kou Arth 2/14/40) Another reference of hingula is found in the methodsfor testing of various metals. He has mentioned four types of testing methods namely 1. Parikuttanam (hammering), 2. Avachahedana (cutting), 3. Ullekhana (scratching), 4. Parimardana (rubbing), Here hingula is mentioned in the parimardana (Kou Arth 2/14/54)Nighantu period: In Dhanwantari, Raja, Kaideva, in these nighantu reference of hingula available inbhouma dhatu varga.Rasakala (6th-8th century A.D): 9
  16. 16. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATAI.Rasarathanakara (6th century): Rasarathanakara tantra written by nagarjuna,nagarjuna was first time mentioned the hingula for therapeutic purposeII. Rasendramangala2 (8th century A.D): The oldest text of rasashastra rasendramangalaas per the first time descried about shodhana and the therapeutic usage of hingula isdiscussed, and this is also used for the preparation of loha bhasma. He has consideredHingulottha Parada is the satwa of hingula.III.Rasa hridaya tantrakara (10th century A.D): Acharya bhagvata govinda pada hasmentioned in the list of eight rasa dravyas.IV. Rasarnava3 (12th century A.D): He has considered hingula as a maharasa; he alsodescribed the synonyms varieties properties and satwapatana of hingula. He utilized theterm “Rasagandasombhotam”. From this world it is understood that he was aware ofchemical composition of hingula.V. Rasaratnakara4 (15th century A.D): Rasaratnakara described the hingula and alsomentioned the artificial preparation of hingula; this indicates they were well known aboutchemical composition.VI. Other rasagranthas (6th – 20th century A.D) Rasa ratna samuchchaya5, Rasa prakasha sudakara, Rasendra Sara sangraha6,Rasendra chudamani, etc. and Naveena rasa grandha likeRasa tarangin7i, rasamritakara, Ayurveda prakasha8, siddha bhaishajya manimala, etcmentioned the Synonyms, varieties, properties, shodhana, grahyalakshana and uses, thesetexts also mentioned the artificial preparation of hingula. 10
  17. 17. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATAVII. Modern Historical Aspect9& 10: Before 3000 yrs hingula was collected from mines situated near by Konia inminor Asia for colouring purpose. Reference of hingula can be found in the text on stoneswritten by Theofiastice (300 B.C). He has described a method for the separation of mercuryfrom hingula by adding copper powder and vinegar, Diokaridase used iron powder insteadof copper for the same purpose. Hingula is being obtained from almond (Spain) since 2000 yrs.Classification: Hingula was classified into different groups in different texts according to author’sopinions is given below.Table No. 1 Showing the class of Hingula according to different text Sl.no Classification Rasagranthas 1 Rasa Rasa Hridaya tantra 2 Maharasa Rasarnava11, Rasaratna samucchaya12, Rasakalpa, Rasakamadhenu13, Goraksha Samhita, Rasaviveka 3 Uparasa Anandakanda, Rasaratnakara, Rasaprakasha 14 sudhakara, Rasasarasangraha , Rasamanjari, Rasendra chintamani, Ayurveda prakasha15, Bavaprakasha, Rasapradeepeka, Rasoddhara tantra, Brihatyogatarangini. 4. Sadharana Rasaratna samuchchaya16, Rasaendra 17 rasa chudamani, Rasajalanidhi , Rasachandansh, Rasadhatuprakash, Bharatiyarasashastra18, 5 Suvarnadi Dhanwantarinighantu, Rajanighantu19, 6 Rasadhatu Rasamrita20, yogaratnakara21 7 Bhouma Dravyagunavignan. uparasa 11
  18. 18. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATA Vernacular names22&23 Sanskrita ---- Hingula, Darada, Churnaparada, Mlechch Hindi----- Hingula, Singarpha, Latin name –Sulphuatumhydragyrium English------ Cinnabara, Redsulphide of Mercury Kannada----- Ingalika, Marathi----- Hingula, Assami----- Janophar Telagu------ Ingulikam, Gujarati--- Hingula Malyali------- Sedilengam, Arabic----- Zunjefer Nepal------- Sabita, Persian---- Shengherf SynonymsRasaganda sambuta, Maniragaja, Kandarasa24Hinguala, Hingulik, Hingoola, Ingalika, Mlecch, Rakth, Suranga, Chitranga, Churnaparada,Rasodbhava, Rasasthana, Ranjani, Kapishirshaka25, Raktakaya, Hamsapada. Shukatunda,Pravalabha, Bimbiphala. Kuravinda, Gandhika.Table No. 2 Showing different synonyms of Hingula according to content place coloursimilarity uses Content Place Colour(similarity) UsesOrigin26- Rasodbhava Hingula Rakta,,raktakaya Ratnaragakari Churnaparda M Darada Suranga,,hamsapada lohaghnaythol Rasagandhasambuta Mleccha Chitranga,,japakusum Ranjaniogic Rasagarbha Chinipisti Daityarakta,,shukatund hingulaal Lagukandarasa Bimbiphala Maniragajastory charmargandika pravalabha kuravinda 12
  19. 19. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATAhas been described that hingula is virya of lord shiva which was recived by god Agni butdue to its high intensity he vomited it, this vomited material fell in daradadesh and becomemixed with the earthy material, this mixture is known as hingula.Chemical composition27 (HgS): According to rasarnava “Rasagandha samnbutham”by this hingula is a compound ofparada and gandaka,Chemically it is called as red sulphide of mercury; it contains 86.2%of parada and 13.8% ofgandaka and trace amount of arsenic, iron pyrite, clay, gypsum, black earthy materialsoccurrence28&29: It is obtained from the mines as a natural mineral and also prepared artificially In ancient days hingula was available in darada desh.at present it can be found atmany places all over the world i.e., Spain(almandine), Italy, Russia, Yugoslavia,Jechoslovia, Germany (idria mines), Japan, china, USA,Austraila,Nepal etc…. But now a day no deposit of cinnabar can be detected in India. For that purposeartificial hingula is prepared in Surat and Calcutta.The hingula what we get from market is almost artificial prepared.Preparation of artificial hingula Preparation of artificial hingula prepared since rasaratnakara30 period, next after thisnumber of text also mentioned the artificial preparation of Hingula. Here the ratio of paradaand gandaka is differing from text to text.According to Rasa tarangini31---- 42 part parada and 8 part gandaka subjected to paka inmrudangayantraAccording to rasakamadhenu and Ayurveda prakasha321 part ashuddha parada and 4 part ashuddha gandaka, subjected to pachana in lohapatra.after paka 1/10 part manashila was added and make mardana fill in kachakupiAfter filling kept in valuka yantra and subjected to paka karma (mridu, madyam, teevra)According to Materiaindica33, 13
  20. 20. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATA Red sulphide of mercury may be obtained from the block sulphurent by heating itred hot in a flask, and then gray sublimate is produced.The cinnabar is compound of about eight parts of mercury with one part of sulpur ismanufactured to a great extent in Holland as a red pigment.Varieties Ancient rasagranthas like Rasa Hirudaya Tantra, Rasa Prakasha Sudakara34, Rasendrachudamani35 etc. considered two varieties. 1. Shukatunda 2. Hamsapada According to Rasamrita36- 1. Hamsapada 2. Mlecchaka Rasagranthas of middle period like Anandakanda, Rasakamadhenu37, Ayurvedaprakasha38, etc. considered three varieties1. Charmara 2. Shukatunda 3. HamsapadaModern rasagranthas like Rasatarangini39, Rasamritha described two varieties according to itsorigin 1. Kritrima (artificial) 2. Khanija (natural)According to Haridatta shastri commentator of Rasa Tarangini further classified artificialhingula into two types in his prasadini commentary i.e. 1. Mrisrina 2. KathinaAccording to Bharatiya Rasa shastra40 kritrima hingula again classified into two types1) Rumi Hingula(Rakta Varna) 2) Katha Hingula (Krishna Hingula) Table No. 3 showing classification of hingula according to ancient period. Ancient Middle period Modern rasagranthas acharya RHT, RPS, RC, RK, AU PR, RT, RA AK 1. shukatunda 1. charmara 1. Kritrima 1. Mrisrima 2. hamsapada 2. shukatunda 2. khanija 2. katina 3. hamsapada 14
  21. 21. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATAProperties of Standard Quality Hingula: According to Rasaprakasha sudhakara41, Hamspada is the best variety of 3 types According to Rasendrasarasangraha42 Bimbi pahal samana rakta varana According to Rasatarangini43 Japakusumavarnayukta, Mritsna, Shlakshna, Bhara, is thebest.Shodhana44, 45, 46, 47Rasagranthas have described different methods of hingula shodhana and drugs also differ inthis process. Yantra used for the shodhana are only two yantras i.e 1. Khalva yantra, 2. Dola yantraMethods used for shodhana are Bhavana, Swedana, Prakshalana with Swarasa of herbal drugsand pranija dravyas like Dugdha, Mutra of, etc some authors told that Prakshalna has to becarried out after bhavana. Bhavana is suggested after swedana karma.Shodhana drugs according to origin 1. Animal origin – Dugdha and Mutra of Go, Aja, Mahisha, Meshi, 2. Plant origin – Amla vargiya dravya swarasa like Jambira, Nimbu,Matulunga,Lakucha, and Drakshaphala swarasa, Kusmandu swrasa, Ardraka swarasa,Shunti kashaya,Jayanti swarasa , Laksha rasa, Taila, Ksharajala,Laksh rasaAlmost all reference mentioned Bhavana Method with Amlavargia dravya swarasa,Ardraka swarasa.According to Rasa mrita, shodhana is by Meshi Dugdha for one times after this seventimes Nimbu swarasa Bhavana.Matra48, 49: ½ to 2 ratti (62.5mg to 250mg)Anupana50:Maricha, Guda, Pipali, Guduchi swarasa, Madhu, Ardraka swarasa, Tambula SwarsaProperties: 15
  22. 22. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATAThe properties of shodhita Hingula equal to property of Rasasindura and parada extractedfrom this equal to Gandhaka jarita parada.Rasa; We have different opinions regarding the rasa of hingula 1. Most of the authors have towards the Tikta Katu Kashaya rasa51 2. Some other opinions Madhura Tikta rasa52 3. Least reference is available about only katu and only Tikta rasa53. Table No. 4 showing rasa of hingula according to different grantha Sl.no Rasa Rasagranthas 1. Katu B.P., A.P., Aryuveda Chintamani, Parada Samhita Tikta Rasendra purana, Rasadhatu Prakasha, Brihat Yoga Kashay Tarangini 2. Madhura Rasarnava, Basavarajiya, Danwantharinighantu, Tikta Rajanighantu 3. Tikta Rasendra Chintamani, 4. Katu Gadatimir bhaskara, Guna: Ushna Guna54 Veerya: Ushna Veerya54 Vipaka: Katu vipaka54 Doshaghnata: Tridoshaghna55, Vatakaphaghna, Kaphaghna, kaphapittaghna56 16
  23. 23. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATA Table No. 5 showing Doshaghnata of Hingula according to different text Sl.No Doshaghnata Rasagranthas 1. Vata Basavarajiya, Rasendra Chudamani, Rasendra Pitta Sara sangraha, RSS, Danwantharinighantu, Kapha Rasamrita, Rasachandanshu, Rasadhatu prakasha 2. Kapha B.P., A.P., Aryuveda Chintamani, Parada Pitta samhita, Rasendra Bhaskara, rasoddhara tantra, Si.Bh.Ma.Ma. Bha.Ra.Sha, Bri YoTarangini, 3. Kapha RasataranginiKrama: Sarvadoshaghna, Aghivardhaka, Rasayana Balya, Medhya, Kantivardhaka,Garavishnashaka, Netraroga, Pramehahara, Ruchikaraka, Hriudayotsadaka,Jawaranashaka, Aruchinashaka, Hrillashanashaka.Upayoga57,58,59: Prameha, Jwara, Hridroga, Kusta, Garavisha, Amlapitta, Kamala, Pleehavraddi, Mandagni, Aruchi, Amavati, Sandhivata, Hrillasha Lohamarnarta, Lohajanarta, Parada niskarshanartha, etc. According to Brandus manual of chemistry volume 2 this has been consider hasAlternative, Deobservent and at one time was much used in Rheumatic Affection, Leprouscases and also in Worm cases Arabians knew that fumigating the Hingula in old venerealcomplaints. Hindus knew how to prefer it in a course manner and considered it asAntispasmodic and also as valuable remedy for cuetaneous affection and for fumigating insuch a case of the Venereal diseases as are attained with ulcers in the mouth, throat. 17
  24. 24. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATATable no.6 shows the properties of hingula according to different text. Properties RJN RPS AP RC RSS RRS RT RP RM BRSsarvadoshaghna + + KP + - + KV - + KP Deepana + + - + - + - - + + Atirasayana + + - + - + - - + +Sarvarogahara + + - + - + - - + - Vrishya + - - + - + - + + - Jaranartha + - - - - + - + - + Meha + - + - + - + + - + Kusta + - + - + - + + - + Aruchi + - + - + - - + - + Medhya + - + - + - + + - + Balya + - + - + - + + - +Agnivardhaka + - + - + - + + - - netraroga - - + - - - + - - + Hrillasa - - + - - - - + - + jwara - - + - - - - + - + Kamala - - + - - - + + - + Pleeha - - + - - - + + - + Amavata - - + - - - + + - + Garavisha - - + - - - + - - - Dehakanti - - - - - - + - - -lohamaranarta - - - - - - - + - - Dravanarta - + - - - - - - - -Ashuddha and asamykashuddha hingula dosha60 Rasagranthas have given description about ashuddha and Asamykashuddha HingulaDosha; Ashuddha Hingula administration may produce dangerous toxic symptoms,Klama. Moha Bhrama, Klaibya, Kusta, Kshinatha, Andatha, Murcha, Prameha, according toUnani Dravy Guna some toxic symptoms like Hridspandana, Akulath, Vishadatha, 18
  25. 25. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATA Table no. 7 shows that complications according to different text Name of Text 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Basava Rajiya - - + + + + + - Ayurveda prakash + + - + + + - - Yogaratanakar + + - + + + - - Parada Samhita - + - + + + - - Rasa Chandanshu - - + + + + + - Rasa Jalanidhi - - + + + + + - Rasendhara Purana - - + + + + + - Rasa Tarangini + + - + - + - - Rasa Dhatu Prakash - - + + + + + - Br,Ra,Ra,Su - - - + + + + - Unani Dravya Guna - - - - - - - +1. Andhata, 2.Kshinata, 3.Kusta, 4.Klama, 5.Bhrama, 6.Moha, 7 Klaibhya, 8 Hridayavasada.Chikithsa of complication caused by Ashuddha and asamykashuddha hingula dosha61 Rsabhaskara mention the treatment about this here management should be done asper the management of apakva parada bhasma asamykashuddha parada sevan “Tpadhayat yat vyadhi daradasayani sevan nuth / tat sutavat sarvh kuryat shanthiprati kriya // 13/41”Shuddha gandhaka should be administered till the complication subsided.Marana: - Most of the Rasagranthas have not described mrana for hingula.very list 62, 63, & 64reference available about marana Hingula bhasma is red sulphide ash is prepared by taking Hingula (Red Sulphide) 4 Part Haratala (Orpiment) 1 Part Lavanga (Cloves) 4 Part 19
  26. 26. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATAThe Powder of Shodhita Hingula, Haratala and Lavang all these are mixed and making abolus in the Juice of fresh ginger, After drying kept in the crucible subjected to puta.Hingula Bhasma Matra: - 1/3 – ½ grainUpayoga65: Atyanta Agni deepaka with Tambul swrasa anupana. Kamottejaka, Medhya,Atyanta Rasayan, 66, 67, 68, 69&70Satwapatana : Extracted Parada from Hingula has considered as Satwa of HingulaThis Satwa can be extracted by different methods1. Urdvapatana Yantra Vidhi2. Adhapatana Yantra Vidhi3. Kanduka Yantra Vidhi4. It is also extracted by Candle method according to Siddh Bhaishajya Manimala.Preparations 71 Anandha Bhairava Rasa, Hingulehsawar Rasa, brihat hinguleshwara rasa.Tribhuvana Kirtirasa, Kanak Sundar Rasa, Atisara Haravati 72Kasturi Bhairava Rasa Jwaramurari Rasa , Vasanth Malik Rasa 74Rasa Garbha Potali73iDarada Vati 75Darada Sudha Bhasma, HinguladhigutikaHingula rasasindoor, Srisiddhadaradamritarasa, Hingulia Manikya Rasa 76Hinguladyamalahara, Hingulamrutamalahara, Srisiddhahinguleshwar rasa 77Dradeshwar rasa . 20
  27. 27. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATA Modern aspect of Hingula78&79Cinnabar is only important ore of mercury, it is, massive or oarthy, it some times occursbeautifully crystlised in small complex and highly modified hexagonal crystals; usually thecrystals are rhombohedral or prismatic in habit. it is also transparent, translucent or opaque,sometime cochineal red in colour often inclining to brown its streak is scarlet to reddishbrown. Adamantine to luster prefect prismatic cleavage. Sometimes with an earthycoatings.VarietiesThe varieties are made according to colour and percentage of HgS in it.1. Cinnabar native – This is one of the most important ore of mercury. As mentionedpreviously, chemically it is contain 95% mercury sulphide. It is bright and dark red incolour it contains other impurities like Carbon, Silica, Quartz etc. are present.2. Hepatic cinnabar – When percentage of carbon impurities are higher in cinnabar, itscolour becomes darker like liver colour such, an ore is called as hepatic cinnabar.3. Meta cinnabar – This type contains muddy dust is more percent and that makes itscolour still darker almost to a black shade.4. Coral ore – This ore especially occurring in Germany and Italy. This ore in the form ofrose colour earthen material, when mercury sulphide in coral ore is separated. it is rosy incolour, it contains about 5% of mercury..5. Idrialate – The variety called idrialate, always occurs cinnabar at Idria, as white andcrystalline in structure when toward and it is found in impure with clay, pyrite, gypsum as abrownish black earthy material because of its combustibility and presence of mercury it iscalled inflammable cinnabar.Physico chemical property1. Cinnabar is a red or whitish red coloured mineral. This ore is a red crystalline mass thatis easily distinguishable from all other red minerals by its peculiar shade of colour and itsgreat weight.2. It is heavy and its specific gravity is 8.01 to 8.9.3. Hardness of this mineral is 2-2.5.4. It is insoluble in water and acids but dissolve in aquaragia (mixture of HCl and HNO3)and forms mercuric chloride. 21
  28. 28. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATA In the presence of a strong oxidizing agents like potassium chlorite formingmercuric chloride5. Roasting – usually the unconcentrated ore is roasted in air cinnabar is oxidized tomercuric oxide and sulphur dioxide is released at the temperature of the furnace andmercuric oxide so forms decomposes to give mercury and oxygen. 2HgS + 3O2 2SO2 + 2HgO 2HgO 2Hg + O2 The mercury obtained by above method is the purest mercury.6. Mercury Sulphide reacts with concentrated potassium sulphide solution to give acomplex thio salt. HgS + K2S K2HgS2 On sublimation mercuric sulphide becomes red. 22
  29. 29. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATA DISCRIPTION OF BHAVANA DRAVYA 80& 81 MESHI DUGDHA Varga-Dugdha Varga Synonyms- Dugdha Ksheera Vernacular names-English-milk, Hindi, Guja, Moha-Dudh Tamil Telgu –Palu, Malyali-Musu, Kannada- Halu. Source-Mammary glands of eves Description: white emulsive faintly alkaline fluid little more viscous than water tastes is sweet land blond, odour faint) and peculiar specific gravity-1.027-1.034 under microscope, numerous minute fat globules are seen floating in the form at emulsion milk because spoiled after 10-12 hours, after which it is indigestible and harmful and acts as poison to the system such milk should be avoided milk contains all the elements necessary for the growth and nutrition of bones nerves muscle and other tissue milk contains also vitamins which are natural antidotes to rickets, scurvy and other results of defective nutrition. According to Astanga Sangraha- Ushna Vata Vyadhinashaka the milk of eve which is supposed to resemble cow (metria indica) Pharmaco dynamics –Rasa-Madhura, Guna-Snigdha, Guru. Veerya-Ushna, Doshaghna-Vataghna. Uses: eves or sheeps milk is bone ficial in obesty flatulence and gonorrhoea is a good diet in rheumatism and hectic cough milk of red eve increases too much both the bile and phlegma. 82, 83& 84 NIMBUKA Botanical Name-Citrus Limon (Linn) Family-Rutaceae Gana-Charaka-Phala Varga, Amla Varga, Susruta and Vagbhata-Phala Varga Synonyms-Nimbu-Nimbuka, Dantsatha 23
  30. 30. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATAVerncular Names-Hindi-Nimbu, Kannada-Nimbe Hannu, English-Lemon, Telgu- Nimma Chettu.Description: a strangling, bussy, small tree 3-4 meter high with thorny branches, Leaves- ovate, Petiole margined or winged flowers –small white or pinkishsweet scented fruit-oblong or ovoid, usually with a nipply shaped extremely brightyellow rind thick pulp acid pale yellow.Distribution: cultivated/grown in U.P. Maharashtra Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, foundwild in the North West regions of India.Phyto chemistry: citric richer juice 90% and the average amount of citric acid available 3.7% from 100 cc lemon juice (chopra I,D of I pp 123/124 a paleyellow volatile oil derived either by distillation or by sample expression from the fresh outer part of the pericarp.Pharmaco dynamics: Rasa-Amla, Katu. Guna-Laghu, Tikshana, Virya-Ushna, Vipaka_AmlaDoshakarma_Vala kaphaharaKarma- Dipana, pachana chaksusya Agnimandya, gulya sheel amlapitta visuchi vataroga vatashlesma vibandhagna.Uses-agnimandya,Aruchi,Netra roga,amlapitta,Vataja roga,Vibandha,etc.According tomodern science,Medicinal claims includes uses for treatmentforHighbloodpressure,Dyspepsia,Anemia,Acne,Arthritis, lemon juice used for makingvit C concentration.Vit C is essential for the normal functioning of living cells and isinvolved in many enzymatic reaction.It is required for the development of cartilage,bone and teeth. It also help for wound healig, for absorption of iron from the intestine.It has reducing and antioxidant properties, the Vit C are utilized in the food industries,& in the formulations formulation of some pharmaceutical preparation. Part used – fruit Dosage – fresh juice 10-20 ml Formulation – Jambiradi Panaka, Nimbuka tail 24
  31. 31. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATA RASONA85 & 86Botanical Name – Allium sativa linaFamily – LiliaceaeSanskrit name –Rasona, Lasuna, Yavanesta UgragandhaVernacular names- English –Garlic Hindi –Lasuna Marathi –lasuna Punjabi- Thum Thum Malayalam - LahasanDescription Glabrous bulbous herb with pungent odour.Leaves radical some times sheathing the scape. Scapes erect bearing a terminal umbelof small flowers surrounded by an iguolucre of 2 or 3 thin membranous bracts. sometimes united to from a spathe perianth bell shaped or rotate 6 parted stamens, 6 at thebase of the segments, ovary 3 shelled 3 angled, style straight stigma, minute terminalovule, few capsule 3 valved seeds 1-2 inches, 5 black bulbils bulb covered with white orlight pinkish papery layer or covering consisting 5-12 bulbils or cloves.Distribution – Plant is cultivated widely throughout the country.Photochemistry - Bulb contains an acrid yellow volatile oil which is the activeprincipal consisting organic sulphur compounds (allyl, propyl disulphide and other). Italso contains starch mucilaginous matter (29% carbohydrate) albumin (56% protein,0.1% fat) and calcium, vitamin C and iron, copper.Pharmaco dynamics Rasa – Pancharasa Katu (Dominating taste) Amla rahita,Root – Katu, Leaves – Tikta, Stalk –kashaya, stalktop (valagra)-lavana Seeds –madhura Guna – Snigdha, Tikshna, Picchila, Guru, Sara. Veerya – Ushna Vipaka – KatuDoshakarma –Vata Kaphashamaka 25
  32. 32. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATAProperties – Vedana, Sthapaka, Vataghna, Shothahara, Depan, Pachana, Anulomuna,Yakrduuejaka, Hridayottejaka, Mutrajanana, Rasayana Kothaprashamana, SvedajananaJvaraghna,Rogaghnata – Vatavyadhi, Sandhivata, Gradhrasi, Ardita, Manystambha, Shotha,Vedanayuktavikar, Agnimandhya, Aruchi, Ajirna, Vibhandha, Asthibhagna JvaraJeernajvara etc.Therapeutic uses – Vedana sthapana (Analgesic), Uttejaka (stimulates), vatahara, It is allayingprovoked vata and kapha dosha. It is appreciated as rasayana and medhya, speciallyincreasing or promoting functional power of indriya.Much used for cardiac disorders, chronic fever, gout, ossification of fractured bones.Anathematic: Aphrodisiac cardiac stimulant and atherosclerosis, High blood pressure. Itis used in anorexia cough, Consumption. Rasona is internally administered as a singledrug and a major ingredient of several formulations and recipes recommended in anumber of disease. The drug is effective in several disease of nervous. Circulatory,Respiratory, Urinary reproductive, Digestive system and whole body. Rosona is a majorrasayana drug used in geriatricsParts used- Bulbis, Tuber. OilDose paste -3-5gm oil 1-2 dropsFormulations - Lasonacdi vati, Rosona panda, Lasunastaka votiyoga,Rasona staka yoga, Rasona vati Rasonadi kashaya, Rasona pinda Lasunadya ghrta,Lasuna tail Rasona vataka, Lasona KsheerapakaCurrent research1. Allin – A change in the mucoprotien levels & ESR was observed by (SreenivasaMurthy at 1962)2. Allisatin (200mg / 100gm / day) showed inhibitory activity against formalin inducedarthritis. (Prasad at 1966)3. Anti-inflammatory activity (Bhakumi at 1969)4. Diallyn trisulphide showed antimicrobial activity (Chem. Abst 1981)5. Ajoehe showed strong inhibition of plateht aggeration ()6. Allicin inhibited human platelet aggregation in vitro without affectingcyclooxyginase. 26
  33. 33. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATA 87, 88 & 89 PALANDUBotanical name: Allium cepaFamily: LiliaceaeSanskrita name: Palandu Durgandha.Ulli, Tikshnakandha: Yuvanesta, Mukhadusaka,Visvagandha: Sukanda, Durdruma, Rochana Sudrapriya,Vernacular Name:- Hindi : Pyaja, Piaj, English : Bulb Onion Kannada: Ullagaddi, Telugu : Niruli Marthi : Kandha Konrha, Tamil : SInrulli Arabic: Vasi, Panjabi : PiyajDescription:A glabrous bulbous herb possessing a strong pungent aromatic odour.Leaves: Subdistichous fistular shorther than the inflated scape head bearing. Flower:Pedicels shorter than the stellate flowers. Sepal’s linear oblong filaments exerted simpleof the linear two tooth at the base, bulb free solitory. Sometimes bulbils along withflowering on spadix.Fruit: Tri cellular with small block seeds.Distribution: It is cultivated throughout India. Farming on wide scale commonly forproducing onion having dictory utility.Verities: Palandu has two kinds of bulbs viz. Red and WhiteBulb of bigger size and white in colour is known as sveta palandu.Rajapalandu and ksira palandu (Nighantu)phyoto chemistry: Bulb contains protein 1.2% carbohydrate 11.6% Calcium, Iron,Vitamin A, B&C. Bulb and green fresh herb yield a pungent volatile oil with unpleasantsmell fixed oil contains Allyl propyldisulphate.Pharmaco dynamics: Rasa: Madhura, Katu Guna: Guru, Snigdha, Tikshna Virya: Isat ushna (Isadusna) Vipaka: MadhuraDoshakarma: Vata kaphahara pittavardhaka 27
  34. 34. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATAProperties: - Vedanasthopana shothara Dipana pacana Rochana. Anulomana.Rogaghnata: Vatavyadhi Nadisula vranasotha Ekangika sotha. Agnimandhya Aruchivibhandha, Hridourbalya sotha, Mutrajanana sukrodourbaly klaibya, DourbalyaOjaksaya.Therapeutic uses: The blub are used in various vatavikara such as neuralgia, sciatic joints,swelling, convulsions, hysteria other ailments caused by provocation of vata dosa. In various gastro intestinal disease. It is given frequently. It is take in piles,prolaps of rectum jaundice and constipation. Palandu is specifically indicated invisucika (Siddhbhaisajya manimala 4-273)Palandu is aphrodisiac, diuretic, expectorant, and stimulant. It is used in anorexia, andAnasarca. It is a cardiac depressant.Palandu is an effective vatahara, drug as indicated by vrddha vagabhata.Palandu is useful in impotency, Jaundice nervine neurological diseases.The drug is vedanasthapana and vatahara.Parts used: - Bulb, Seeds, and Leaves.Dose: Bulb juice 10-30ml. Seed powder 1-3gm.Current research1. Essential of oil of onion-decrease in coagulation time and fibrinolitic activity(Bordia-1974)2. Antitumer effect (Chem abstr 1961) 28
  35. 35. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATA 90, 91 TAMBULABotanical Name: Piper betel LinnFamily : PipcraceaeClassical Name : TambulaSanskrit Name : Tambula, Saptasira, Tambulavalli Nagini, Tambulavallari.Vernacular Names: Hindi : Pan, English : Betel Marati: Nagbel, Gujarathi: Nagarbel Tamil : Vittilai, Kannada: VilydeleDescription: A perennial dioeciously creeper. (Probably native of Malaysia andcultivated in India since ancient times) its leaves for tambula charvan bhakshanbelonging to I heritage) stems semi woody climbing by short adventitious roots.Leaves: 5-20 cm long broadly ovate. Slightly cordate and often unequal at the base.Shortly acuminate acute entire with an undulate margin glabrous yellowish or brightgreen shining on both sides. Petiole stout 2.0-2.5cm long. Flower: Male spikes dencecylindrical. Female spikes 2.5-5.0 cms long pendulous.Fruits: Rarely produced oftensunk in the fleshy spike forming nodule like structure.Distribution: Plant is grown in warm and moist regions especially Southern India.Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Srilanka.Varieties: There are many betal types which are grown in various regions throughoutthe country under highly specialized cultivation practice. There are more than 35cultivated types of betel in different zones of India. In classical texts of India medicine Tambula or nagavalli is well describedcovering different aspect of tambula patra and its utilisation as medicine as well asmasticatory aromatic. Several classical names of varieties are mentioned. Eg. Srivatiamlavati. Satsa Saptasira Amlasara Patulika Hresaniya Parna Sira, Sirnatumbala. Krsnasulohra parna (Raja Nighantu Amradivarga 249-255)Phyoto chemistry: Analysis of sample of fresh leaves. Moisture: 8.54mg, Protein: 3.1mg Carbohydrate 6.1mg Fat: 0.8mg 29
  36. 36. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATA Fibre: 2.3mg , Mineral matter 2.3mg, calcium230mg phosphorous 40mg, Iron 7mg, Potassium Nitrate 0.26-0.42%,A light aromatic and volatile oil known as betel oil and chavicol a very volatile paleessential oilLeaves yield an aromatic pungent and sharp taste essential oil about 0.7-2.6% whichcontains phenol and teprene and sesquiterpene.Pharmacodynamics: Rasa - Katu tikta Guna - Laghuruksh tikshna Veerya - Ushna Vipaka - KatuDosakarma - KaphavataShomaka, pitta vardkakaPropertiesHridayottejaka, Balya, Mukha Vishuddhkaraka, Durgandhahora, Dipana, Pachana,Anulomana, Kamoddipana, Vajakarana, Kaphaghna, Jvaraghna Katupoustika,VedhanasthapanaRogaghnata: Mukharoga. Asyavairasya, Mukhadourgandhya, Aruci,Agnimandya.Vibandha, Krimi, Pratishya, Swarabedh, kasa, swasa, parshva shoola,Hriddorbalya,Hridayarasada,Granthi, Shotha,Vrunshotha,Stamshotha, Dhvaja bhang,Klaibya, Dourbalya.Therapeutic uses: The drug Tambula is aromatic anthelmintic & aphrodisiac. It is used in AnorexicDyspepsia foul smell of mouth & intestinal worms.acording to Vrindamadhava 12-31medha prakarsana leaf with 10gm maricha/day up to 2 months. Bhavaprakashamadhyam 45-120 in slipada. Tambula is suggested to be used regularly in the form ofleaves paste mixed with salt along with water. Sharangadhar & Gadanigraha forexternal application particularly prescribed for use in skin disease and conjunctivitis.Tambula patra posses an antioxidant action. The essential oil and extracts of the leavespossess an antimicrobeal activity against several gram positive and negative bacteria. 30
  37. 37. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATAAntiseptic activity is probably due to the presence of chavicol. The essential oil and leafextracts also showed antifungal activity.Parts Used - LeavesDosage - Juice 5-10mlFormulation - Tambulasava, tambula Savarasa Ardraka92, 93Botanical Name: Zingiber officinale RoseFamily: ZingiberaceaeGana Charaka-Triptighna, Dipaniya, Shulaprashamana, Trishnanigrahana, Sushruta,-Pippalyadi, Trikatu, Vagbhata- Pippalyadi,Classical Name: ArdrakaSanskrit Name: Ardraka Vishvabhesaga Sringvera Mohoushrada.Vernacular names: Hindi : Sonth Sounth, English: Ginger Telgu : Ardrakama, Allaem, Tamil : Chukku, Inzi Marathi: Ale, Gujarati: Sunth, Urdu : Adraka, Arab : Zingabil Persi : Janjabl Kannada: Shunthi.Description:A perennial erect herb with a creeping fibrous rhizome.Root stock horizontal tuberousaromatic stout rhizome with erect leafy stems 0.6-1.4meter high, stem elongated, leafy 15-150cm tall. Leaves narrow, linear sessile sub-sessile on the sheath with an alternative baseacuminate glabrous 10-15cm long lower part surrounding the stem 5-10inches long smoothligulae glabrous, sheaths glabrous.Flowers: - Spike terminating the leafy system up to3inchs long bracts 2.5 x 2 cm greenish. Stalks slender, enveloped by membranous 1mtrlong bracts, corolla greenish yellow. Corolla lobes yellowish lip dark purple often spottedyellow 3 lobed flowers greenish & a small dark purple or purplish black lip in radical spike3.8 - 7.5cm long and 2.5cm on peduncle 15-30cm long lip often 3 lobed orbicular dullpurple with creamy blotches anthers appendage dark purple. Stamens dark purple as longas the lip rather shorter than the corolla. 31
  38. 38. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATARhizomeThe outer most layer of the rhizome is single cell epidermis. Next is cork with irregularlyarranged tangentially elongated cells and an inner zone of rectangular tangentiallyelongated cells cork cambium is not distinct. Below the cork is the cortex cortical cellsthick walled polygonal parenchyma cells packed with starch grains. Large oil globules areyellowish orange colour oil. Cells are scattered in cortical region. Vascular bundle iscomposed of an outer phloem and inner Xylem. Phloem consists of thin walled polygonalcells with sellve tubes. The cortex is singly layered endodermis with thin walledrectangular cells pericycle consists of thin tangentially elongated cells. The inner steleconsists of parenchyma cells with starch grains and oil globules. There are various varieties categories & qualities of ginger as of market drug.Fresh rhizome in green state is Ardraka. The fresh ginger and dry rhizome is known asSunthi or Sounth the dry ginger.Distribution: Found throughout tropical Asia and India, warm and moist zones. Widelycultivated in India with many rhizome producing regions.Phyto chemistry: Rhizomes contain yellowish colored volatile oil 1-5% and yellow bitter substance,Gingerol and oily resinous substance as main active principle. Ginger in and other resins,starch (40-60%), fat (10%), protein (10%) in organic material (6%) and other contents,Gengerol is not volatile with oil.Phormadymamics: Rasa - Katu Guna - Shunti,-Laghu, Snigdha, Ardraka- Guru Tikshna Veerya- Ushna Vipaka -MadhuraDoshakarma - KaphavatashamakaAction (Karma)Ruchan, Dipana, Pachana, Triptighana, Vatanulomana, Shulaprasamana,. Pittashamaka,Raktashodhaka, Hridayottejaka,. Shothahara, Kaphaghna, Svasahara, Kasaghna, Vrisya,Uttejaka. Balya, Vedhanasthapaka, Nadyuttejaka. 32
  39. 39. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATARogaghnata:-Abhyuntara – Vatavyadhi, Aruchi, Hrillasa, Chardi, Mukhavairasya, Agnimandhya,Ajirna, Adhmana, Andya, Visharoga , Shula, Kostastabdhata, Hriddourbalya, Anaha,Udara, Hricchula, Shoth, Amavata, Dourbalya, Prasavattara dourbalya.UsesThe fresh ginger is cut into pieces and mixed with little common salt is recommended to betaken just before meal or the ginger fresh pieces are chewed before consuming food or anyother time This kind of use is very appetizer. Stomachic and helps to relish the food and also its digestion and silugogue,Stimulant check the bad taste and smell affection of mouth, tongue and throat. The Rhizomes are useful in heart disease. It is given in heart palpitation cardiacpain and as cardiac tonic and also in edema The juice is used in dropsy ascites and. liver enlargements and it also acts as gooddiuretic. It is used in abdominal disease dyspepsiaJaundice and VomitingThe part of ginger rhizomes is a local stimulant and rubefacient in case of headache,toothache.The root skin is considered useful in corneal opacity. Rhizomes are considered useful ineye diseases.The rhizomes powder and infusion are used by mothers after delivering in debility and puraliments.Part used: Rhizomes fresh and dry gingerDoses: Juice 2-5ml, powder 10-20grains, Infusion 8-10ml.Formulation Adrakakhanda. Soubhagya Shunti, Rasnadikwatha, Saindhuvaditaila, Sunthighritama Nayarachurna. 33
  40. 40. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATA Disease Review Historical review Sandhigatavata is one among those diseases that was told in Veda purana and major ayurvedic classics. In Veda Rigveda – one of the mantra describes that “I am removing your disease from each organ hair and joints. Yajurveda- also one of mantra chikitsa destroy the pakshaghata, sandhigata vata, Katishula, Shirubhighata,Vataja shula, Murcha, Atharvaveda- vata vikara are mentioned “Destroy the Balasa created on the organ and joints which is responsible for loosing bones and joints”. In Purana: Agnipurana -total no of joints in human body and treatment for Sandigatavata is mentioned. In Samhita:1. Charaka mentioned about Sandigatavata as sandhigata anila in chikitsa sthana942. Sushruta under Vatavyadhi Nidana. He has mentioned about Sandigatavata95.3. Astang Sangarah & Hridaya same view of Charaka & Susruta96.4. Bhela under Asthimjjaghata vatavyadhi a description sandhivichyuti is available97.5. Hareeta also mentioned the treatment aspect of Sandigatavata. Madhyam Kala & Adhunika kala some of the Acharyas mentioned about this disease.Madhava supposed to be the best in Nidana aspect has clearly explained this disease98.Bhavaprakash: Under Vatavyadhi chapter Sandigatavata lakshan are explained with its treatment 99. In other Ayurvedic granthas like Yogaratnakar, Gadanigraha, Vangasena, etc11. Both the treatment aspect and clinical entity has been found100 Now days, in ayurvedic field lot of research studies were conducted on this disease in various research centers and post graduates research centers. 101, 102 Modern aspects of disease history Sandhigatavata can be correlated with osteoarthritis in modern science. This is due to the nature of disease & similarity of cardinal symptoms. Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease in human beings and other vertebrates.In early ages Hippocrates 34
  41. 41. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATAthe Father of modern medicine observed the prevalence of osteoarthritis in agedindividuals (Benard 1944) due to the detailed study of this disease by Heberden (1803),the osteoarthritis nodes on the fingers was named after him Osteoarthritis wasdifferentiated from rheumatoid arthritis and named as degenerative arthritis by Nicholasand Richardson (1909) on morbid anatomical grounds. The appearance of Herberdons nodes in relation age sex & hereditary factors wasmentioned by Strecher 1940. Intermitted claudication in the osteoarthritis of lower limbincluding hip knee and ankle was observed by Byod (1949) The term osteoarthritis was used due to the absence of synovial thickening orinflammatory infiltration in uncomplicated condition by Kellgrem (1961). The termOsteoarthritis, Hypertrophic arthritis are mentioned under degenerative arthritis bySamuel .L. Turek (1989) Etymology of SandigatavataSandhigatavata is one among the vatavadhis explained by acharyas. Its word meaning isthe disease which originates when vata resides in sandhi. The term Sandigatavata iscombination of 3words ie Sandhi + Gata + Vata. 103Sundhi: - this is formed by Sam+ Dha + KihiNirukti – “Sandhinaam Samyoga” “Asthidwya Samyogasthana”According to Sushruta there are various type of sandhi in the body like those of Peshi,Snayu, and Sira. Sandhi etc. but in this context we have to consider asthisandhi as the 104meaning of sandhiSandhi can be correlated as junction, joint, connection, combination, union, withcontaining, conjunction, transition; from one to another is the term for junction.Gata: The word formed by the combination of GUM+KTHA. The meaning of thisword indicates the movements. 105Vata: The term is derived from the root “Va-Gati Gandhanayo” ie to move 106Bhela – States that so long as vata lasts as long does life exists vagbata - vata has itscontrol over the functions of the body swift actions, strength, capacity to vitiate otherfactors independent movement and large number of disease produced due to its 107vitiation . 35
  42. 42. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATA 108The chalatva (mobilises) has been qualified to be very swift Chakrapani explains vata 109is Amurta (Adrashya) and Anavasthita (Unstable) 110 Normal functions enthusiasm, inhalation, exhalation, movement of body parts etcAccording to Vagbhata vata is located on the asthi with relation to Ashrayashrayisambandha. Generally the doshas & dathus are inter related when doshas are increasedparticular dathu related with it also increases and viceversa. But in case of vata and 111asthi, when vata increases asthi decreases Osteoarthritis: It is the combination of 3 words Osteon, Arthron and Itis, meansbone joints inflammation. The meaning of the word is inflammation of bony joint and itis the most common form of arthritis. The cartilage lining the end of the bones formingthe joint or the shock absorber gradually erode over a period of time. The bone endsthickens and over grow. This process occurs primarily in weight bearing joints and isassociated with inflammation.Definition: In almost all Ayurvedic treatises Sandhigatavata is mentioned in Vatavyadhi adhyaya. Charaka has mentioned that when vitiated vayu reaches in one or more sandhi it iscalled as Sandhigatavata. In this disease the joints gets vitiated by vayu & palpation is 112felt like a bag filled with air. There will be pain during extension and flexon. 113Sushruta: When vata dosha is vitiates in the joints it produces shoola & shotha. otherssupport same Madhavacharya adds one extra symptoms “Atopam” than other . 114symptoms. This can be considered as the classical symptoms of SandhigatavataOsteoarthritis: is defined as a degenerative non inflammatory joint diseasecharacterised by destruction of articular cartilage and formation of new bone at the jointsurface and margins.115steoarthritis also anonymously called degenerative joint diseaserepresents failure of diarthrodial joint. In primary Osteoarthritis at the most commonform of the disease no predisposing factor is apparent. Secondary Osteoarthritispathologically indistinguishable from idiopathic but is attributed to an underlying 116cause 36
  43. 43. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATAEpidemiology:Sandhigatavata (Osteoarthritis) is the most common joint disease of human among theelders. Knee Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of chronic disability. Under the age of55yrs the joint destruction at Osteoarthritis in men & women is similar. In olderindividuals hip Osteoarthritis is more common in men while Osteoarthritis ofinterphalangeal joints & the thumb base are more common in women. The racial difference exists in both the prevalance of osteoarthritis & the pattern ofjoints involvement. The Chinese in HonKong have a lower incidence of hip than thewhites & osteoarthritis is more frequent in Native Americans than in whites.Interphalangeal joint osteoarthritis especially hip osteoarthritis is much less common in 117South Africans blacks than white in the same populationAnatomy and PhysiologyAs mentioned earlier this study was given more importance concentration to knee jointosteoarthritis for that detailed information about this particular joint is very muchessential. Acharys Sushruta was the first person to dissect the human body and became theauthority of early anatomy. All these aspects can be well discovered from his works. Hein his classic has described each and every point of the human body anatomy in detail. In Sushruta Sharirasthana he has classified the joints into eight divisions named as theobjects which they respectively resemble in shape. The knee joint was described underKora types of Sundhi hinged or lap shaped118 Acharaya vagbhata in Astanga hriudaya while describing about the divisions of kuphahas mentioned about the properties and functions of sleshaka kapha. The kapha whichresides in sandhis which gives firmness to it is called as sleshaka kapha119 Acharya sushruta has described about the sleshaka kapha. He states that the kaphasituated in the joints keeps them firmly united protects their articulation. It opposes theirseparation and disunion and also nourishes the sandhi120 37
  44. 44. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATAKnee Joint 121Anatomy and PhysiologyThe knee joint is a synovial joint of the condylar variety. It is a compound joint havingtwo distinct articular surfaces on the medial and lateral condyles of femur forarticulation with corresponding surface on medial & lateral condyles of the tibia. Theanterior aspect of the lower end of the femur articulates with the posterior surface of thepatella. Knee joint is complex because its cavity is partially divided into upper andlower parts by plates, cartilages called the medial and lateral menisci. The proximal articular surface covers the anterior, inferior and posterior aspects ofmedial and lateral condyles of femur. Anteriorly the medial and lateral articulatessurfaces are continuous with each other but posteriorly they are separated byintercondylar notch. The part of the femural articular surface situated on the anterioraspects of its lower end, articulate with the patella. It is concave from side to side and issubdivided by a verticular groove in too larger part and a smaller medial part. A smallpart of the inferior surface of the medial condyle adjacent to the interior part of the intercondular notch comes in contact with the patella in extreme flexion of the joint. The distal articular surface of the knee joint is present on the upper surface of themedial and lateral condyle of tibia. These surfaces are slightly concave centrally and flatat the periphary where they are covered by corresponding menisci. The posterior surface of the patella bears a large articular area for the femur. It isconvex and is subdivided by a ridge into a large lateral part and small medial part. Theattachment of capsule of the facet that anteriolrly the capsule bends in distinguishablywith the lower tendinous part of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Anertiorly below the patella, the capsule is replaced by the ligamentum patella. Thisligament is attached above to the non articular lower part of the posterior surface of thepatella and below to the upper smooth part of the tibial tuberosity. Posterior aspect ofthe capsule is strengthened by the oblique popletial ligament. The anterior cruciateligament is attached below the anterior part of the intercondular area of the tibia. Theposterior cruciate ligament is attached below to the posterior part of the intercondulararea of the tibia. Medial and lateral menisci of the knee joint are intra- acrticular discmade of fibro cartilage. They have a thick peripheral border and a thin inner border. 38
  45. 45. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATA The synovial membrane of the knee joint covers all the structure within the jointexcept the articular surface and surface of the menisci. It lies in the inner side of thetendenous expansion of quadriceps femoris and some part of the tibia and femurenclosed within the capsule just above the patella. The synovial membrane forms apouch called the supra patellar bursa. The arteries supplying the joint are the descending genicular. The genicular branch ofpoplitial. The recent branches of anterior tibial and the descending branches of thelateral circumflex, femoral branch of the arteria profunda femors.The nerves are derived from the abturator femoral tibial and common peroneal nerve.Muscle producing the movement of the knee joint.Flexion: - Biceps femoris. Semitendenous and semi membranous assisted by gracilis.Sartorius and popliteus.When the foot is on the ground gastro-nimus and planteris are capable of participatingin the movement.Extension: - Quadriceps femoris with some assistance from tensor fascia late.Medial rotation of the fledged leg- popliteus semi membranous and Semitendenosusassisted by sartorius and gracilis.Lateral rotation of the fledged leg: - Biceps femoris alone.Joints are surrounded by membrane called the synovial membrane (Synovium) whichforms a capsule around the ends of the bone involved. The membrane secretes a liquidcalled synovial fluid. It has many functions all of them are important. Among these itserves as a lubricant, a shock absorber and nutrient carrier.As a lubricant it is without equality when the joint is healthy. It makes the joint slickerthan wet ice. When our body cannot produce enough glucose amine and chondrotin.However the normally thick synovial fluid becomes thin and watery. In this state itcannot do the job it was intended to do as a lubricant as shock absorber. Our cartilageimmersed in the synovial fluid protects our bones from the tremendous compact. Theywould receive when we walk, run, jump etc. This fluid also has a remarkable propertyas a shock absorber or hydraulic fluid. It belongs to a rather unusual group of liquids known as dilatent liquids. These liquidsare characterised by the rare quality of becoming thicker that is more viscous. Whenshear is applied to them. Thus the synovial fluid on our knee and hip assume a very 39
  46. 46. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATAviscous nature at the movement of shear in order to protect the joints and then it turnsout again to its normal viscosity instantaneously. To resume its lubricating functionbetween shock. All this happens again and again very rapidly during the course ofvigorous exercise. Such as during an engagement in sports, dancing, walking etc.When our body cannot produce enough glucose amine and chondroitin. This wholemechanism breaks down. The viscosity is dramatically reduced giving thin waterysynovial fluid which then fails as the shock absorber and lubricant. It normally excels.As this results in the pain stiffness and decreased mobility that characterizedosteoarthritis. Now we will discuss the role of synovial fluid as a nutrient carrier when we takeknee cases. We get the building blocks needed to rebuild cartilage. Now we have to getthose building blocks to the cartilage. So the rebuilding can take place. Cartilage itself isavascular i.e it does not have blood vessels. Hence the synovial fluid is the liquid that must carry the raw material from the bloodto the cartilage. This can happen by a number of mechanisms. First it can be diffusionwhich is a slow process. In this situation, a second and efficient process is convectionwhich is achieved through exercise. One way to visualise what happens in convection isto thicken our cartilage as a sponge immersed in synovial fluid. When we exercise ourknee for eg. It is like repeatedly squeezing that sponge out in a basket of synovial fluid.Another method viewing convection would be as a pumping action produced byexercise in which nutrients containing synovial fluid are constantly washing over thecartilage. In this way our cartilage is constantly getting supplied by nutrients dissolvedin synovial fluid when we exercise our joint. 40
  47. 47. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATA Nidan Panchaka of Sandhigatavata.Nidan:-Sandhigatavata is disease caused by vata and is included under the vata vyadhies by allacharayas. There is a no much difference in the case of nidanas among vatavyadhies.The difference is occurs mainly in the case of samprapti that is in all the vata vyadhiesvata prakopaka karanas are almost same and the different forms of appearance likesandhigatavata gridhrasi. Pakashaghat etc. are only due to the samprapti vishesh ofvitiated vata. 122Aharaja nidan-- Tikta. Katu. Kashaya rasa pradana dravya and Ruksha. Sheeta. 123Laghu guna pradana dravya increases vata. They are Chanaka, Harenu, Uddalaka,Jambu, Tinduka, Mususra, Vatarka, Mudga, and Adhaki. Ahara sevana vidhi isimportant. Abojana Heenabhojana, Sushkabhojana, Trushitabhojana, Kshatitambupana,Adhyasana, Vishamasana, Pramitaasana, etc vitiates vata.Viharajanidana: Ayurvedic classics have given importance to proper vihar likeVyayam, Swapna, Vyavaya, etc. The vihara which vitiates vata are Ativvayama,Ratrijagarna, Ativyavaya, Plavana, Atyuchobhashana, Upavasa, AdharaniyaVegadharana, Vishamopchara and Marmaabhighata, Atiraktsravana, Abhigata.Manasika Karana: Direction of sense organs is one of the functions of vata. Therefore 124vata is said to be the controller and conductor of mind . Therefore mental factors likechinta, shoka, krodha, bhaya etc are the causes for upset of mind and relatively asconsequence of it vataprakopa in the indriya ayatana as well as in the body which 125simultaneously can produce the psychic as well as the somatic disorders .Vayakarana: As per the ayurvedic theories. In the later stages of human life vata will be 126predominant . During this period there will be natural tendency to vitiate vata.Alpavatakara, aharavihara, causes vata prakopa. This causes kaphakshaya in the body.Due to this process the shleshaka kapha situated in the sandhi shows kshaya causingvata prakopa in the particular part. 41
  48. 48. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATAOther nidanas: 127a) Desha: The desha where vata dosha is predominant is called jangaladesha .Those who live in these deshas will be having the predominance of respective doshas.This is the cause for predominance of vata roga for those who stay in jangaladeshawhen compared to other disease.b) Kala: Kala is an important factor in the production of disease. According to rutusvatachaya in grishmarutu, kopa in vrsharutu and shamana in sharadrutu so more vata 128vikaras can be seen in varsharutu .According to Ayuavasata vriddhavastha is vatapradana.c) Prakruti: Among the seven prakrutis mentioned vataprakurti is considered as 129heenaprakruti . One who is born with vataprakruti will be most susceptible for getting 130vatikaroga. And it will be very difficult for its cure .d) Satwa: Satwa is considered as the capacity of mind to withstand things going 131wrong. A person who is having a good satwabala will be easy for treating. Thereforevatavyadhi will be more in Heenasatwa. According to Charaka pepole who are more 132susceptible to manodoshas like bhaya, shoka, krodha etc will be prone to disease .e) Satmya:-The qualities which are equal to dosha, dhatu, mala, increases and which 133are opposite decreases. This is a general principle of nature . Ruksha, Laghu, Sheeta 134etc are the qualities of vata. Tikta, katu, kashaya are the rasa causes vitiation of vata .One who is satmya with all these definitely vata will vitiation and further causes’ vatavyadhi.According to modern 135Risk factors of OsteoarthritisAge- Age is the most powerful risk factor for Osteoarthritis. Radiological survey ofwomen less than 45yrs old only 2% and 45 to 64yrs the prevalence was 30% and thoseolder than 65yrs it was 68%. In males the figures were similar but some what lower inthe old age group.Sex: It is told that women are at high risk than male. In developing osteoarthritisparticularly after menopause. Most of the epidemiological studies suggest that hormone 42
  49. 49. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATAreplacement therapy confirms a protective on the development of knee and hipOsteoarthritis. The effect of sex hormone on cartilage may vary with menopausal statusand stage of osteoarthritis.Hereditary Factors: The relation of heredity is less ambiguous. Thus the mother andsister of women with distal interphalangeal joint osteoarthritis are respectively twiceand thrice as likely to exihibit osteoarthritis in these joints as the mother and sisters ofunaffected women. Point mutation in the cDNA coding for articular cartilage collagenhave been identified in families with chondrodysplasia and polyarticular secondaryosteoarthritis.Race: Racial difference exists in both the prevalence of osteoarthritis and the pattern ofjoint involvement. The Chinese in Hong Kong have a lower incidence of hiposteoarthritis than hhe whites. Osteoarthritis is more frequent in Native Americans thanin whites Interphalangeal joint osteoarthritis & especially hip osteoarthritis are muchless common in South Africans blacks than white in the same population whether thesedifferences are genetic or are due to difference in joint usage related to lifestyle.yet tobe understoodOccupational Factor: Repetitive movements may lead excessive strain leading toerosion and joint damage. Vocational activities such as those performed by jackhammeroperators, cotton mill and shipyard workers and coalminers may lead to osteoarthritis inthe joints exposed to repetitive occupational use. Men whose jobs require knee bendingand atleast medium physical demand had a higher rate of radiological evidence of kneeosteoarthritis and more severe radiological changes than men.Obesity: Obese persons have a high risk of osteoarthritis. For those in the highestquintile for body mass index at baseline. The relative risk for developing kneeosteoarthritis in above 30yrs was 1.5 for men and 2.1 for women. For severe kneeosteoarthritis the realitive risk factor is 1.9 for men and 3.9 for women suggesting thatobesity play an even larger rule in the etology of the most serious cases of kneeosteoarthritis. 136Traumatic factor : Trauma to the joint seems to enhance the occurrence of arthritis. Itdisturbs the ligaments of the joints and over a period of time. The mal ligament maylead to excessive wear and tear leading to arthritis. In both human and animals modelanterior cruciate ligament insufficiency and meniscus damage lead to knee 43
  50. 50. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATAosteoarthritis. Although damage to the articular cartilage may occur at the time of injurywith the use of affected joint. Even normal cartilage will degenerate. If the joint isunstable a person with a trimaleolar fracture will almost certainly develop ankleosteoarthritis.Abnormal enzyme factors: Though not conclusively proved, it is suspected that someabnormal enzyme released by the cartilage cells may lead to cartilage breakdown andjoint destruction.From all the above nidana factors obesity is aharaja and viharaja factors soundspredominant. So nidana parivarjana should be done before starting the treatment. Evennidana parivarjana helps in relieving the disease in the early stages. 137PathologyThe changes in ostheoarthiritics are usually seen in load bearing of the articularcartilage in the early stages the cartilage is thicken than normal but with progression ofotheoarthitics the joint surface thins. the cartilage softens. The integrity of the surface isbeached and vertical cleft develop deep cartilage ulcers. Extending to bone appears.areas of fibrocartelageneous repair develop but the repair tissue is inferior to pristinehyaline articular cartilage in its ability to withstand mechanical stress. all of thecartilage is metabolically active and the chondrocytes replicate forming cluster later thecartilage become hypocellular.Remodeling and hypertrophy of bone are also major features of OA, appositional bonegrowth occurs in the subchondral region. Leading to the bony sclerosis, seenradiographically. The abraded bone under a cartilage ulcer may take on the appearanceof very. Growth of cartilage and bone at the joint margins leads to osteophytes whichafter the contour of the joint and may restrict movement cular muscle wasting iscommon and may play a major role in symptoms and in disability 138Pathogenesis Current consepts of the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, based on the assumption thatwhatever the provoking cause. The pathway of changes in articular cartilage will beidentical. Two mechanical hypothesis merit consideration. The first suggest that theinifiating event is fatigue fracture of the collagen fibre net work which is followed byincreased hyderation of the articular cartilage with unraveling of the profeoglycans and 44
  51. 51. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATAloss of profeoglycans in to the synovial fluid. There is some tentative supportiveeuidence of augmented natural protease and collagenolytic activity but collagen mayalso be lost simply as a result of mechanical attriation.The alternative hypothesis suggests that the intial leasions are microfractures of thesubchondral bone following repatative loading. healing of micro fracture leads tosignification loss of resilience of subchondral bone which in turn creats a shear stressgardiant in the adjacent articular cartilage. As the process evolves. The cartilage surfacebecomes fibrillated and deep clefts appear with reduplication and proliative changescommence at the joint margins with formations of osteophytes. Eventually articularcartilage is last altogether in areas of maximum mechanical stress and the underlyingbone becomes hardend and eburnate, cysts may form but bony allcylosis does not occur.Table no. 8 shows that pathogenisis of osteoarthritis Rpeatative loadingIncreased hydration of the articularcartilage unraveling of protepglycons Micro fracture of the subchondral bone Significant loss of resilience ofFracture of the collagen fiber network subchondral bone Which in turn creats a shear stressAnd loss of proteoglycons in to synovil gralient in adjacent articular cartilagefluid. The cartilage surface become fibrillatedIncreased natural protease and and deep cletts appearCollagenolyticactivity Reduplication and proliferation of condrocytes within thingsCollagen last simply as a result of Formation of osteophytes due tomechanical attriation. proliferative changes at the joint margins. 45
  52. 52. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATA 139Clinical feutures -The joint most frequently involved are those of the spine, hips,and knee.the disease is confermed to one or onely few joints in the majority of patients.The symptoms are gradual in onset. Pain is at first intrimittent, aching and provoked bythe use of the joint and relieved by rest. As the disease progress. Movement in the jointbecomes increasingly limited, initially as a result of pain and musculars spasm, but laterbecause of capsular fibrosis osteophyte formation and remodeling of bone. They may berepeated effusions in to joints especially after minor twists or injuries crepitus may befelt or even heard. Associated muscle wasting is an important factor in the progress ofthe disease as in the absence of normal musculars control the joint, pain becomes moreprone to injury, pain areas from trabecular microfactures tramatic leasions in thecapsule and particular tissue and a low grade synovitis. Nocturnal aching may beattribuatable to hyperaemia of subchondral bone.Pooravaroopa of Sandhigatavata.Pooravaroopa is the prodromal symptoms of a forthcoming disease which do not clarifythe peculiarity of the dosha taking part in the samprapti of the disease. These symptomsare few and not clear. According to Madhavanidana poorvaroopa are the symptoms which are producedduring the process sthanasamsraya by vitiated doshas. When samprapthi has not beencompleted the disease is not manifested. Sandhigatavata being one of the vata vyadi thepoorvaroopa of vata vyadhi can be considered as the pooraroopa of sandhigatavata.Here archaryas are specifying that the unmanifested symptoms of the particularvatavadhi should be considered as poorvaroopa. From recorded data of the paitents we can say that the poorvaroopa of sandhigatavatais manifested with guruthwa (heaviness) of joints occasional twinkling sensation andpain which is ignored by the patient and finally it turns to roopavastha. 46
  53. 53. PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DARADAVATI & ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY ON SANDHIGATA VATARoopaWhen symptoms in the stage of poorvaroopa become fully or clearly manifested whenthese are called as roopas. Samsthana, Vyanjana, Linga, Lakshana, Chinha and Akruthiare the synonyms of the roopa.The cardinal symptoms mentioned by acharayas for sandhigatavata 1. Sandhisoola (Joint Pain) 2. Sandhishotha (Joint inflammation) 3. Sandhisthabdhata (Stiffness) 4. Vatapurnadrutisparsh (Air filled bag to touch) 5. atop (Crepitation) 6. Gamane ativedana (Pain after excess movement) 7. Prasarna akunchanavedana (Restricted range of joint movement) 8. Sandhi vishleshan (Looseness of joints) 9. Nisha ruk (Nocturnal Pain)Sandishoola: In sandhigatavata joint pain is mentioned by all the acharayas.Sandhishotha: Almost all the acharayas have mentioned about the presence of shotha.Vatapurnadrutisparsha: Charaka, Vagbhata have mentioned the typical characteristic ofShoph. The Shoph resembles like an air filled bag to touch.Atopa: Especially Madhava has mentioned Table No. 9 shows the Laxana of Sandhigata Vata according to different achary. Sl No Samhita Laxana 1 Charaka Vatapoornadrutisparsha. Shopha Prasaranaakunchanapravrathivedhana. 2 Sushruta Sandhisoola, Sandhishopha 3 Ashtanga Vatapoornadrutisparsh. Shopha hridaya Prasarana akunchana pravratti vedhana. 4 Madhavanidan Sandhishoola Atopa 5 Bhavaprakash Sandhisoola, Sandishopha 47