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SOUBHAGYA. L. BILAGI, INFLUENCE OF YOGA DARSHANA ON CHARAKA SAMHITA AN ANALYTICAL STUDY, DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN AYURVEDA SIDDHANTA, GOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGE, MYSORE. 2008

SOUBHAGYA. L. BILAGI, INFLUENCE OF YOGA DARSHANA ON CHARAKA SAMHITA AN ANALYTICAL STUDY, DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN AYURVEDA SIDDHANTA, GOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGE, MYSORE. 2008

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    • “INFLUENCE OF YOGA DARSHANA ON CHARAKA SAMHITA-AN ANALYTICAL STUDY”ByDr. SOUBHAGYA. L. BILAGI, B.A.M.S.,Dissertation submitted to theRajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, BangaloreIn partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree ofDOCTOR OF MEDICINE (AYURVEDA)InAYURVEDA SIDDHANTAUnder the Guidance ofDr. BALAKRISHNA. D. L, M.D. (Ayu)ProfessorDepartment of Post-Graduate Studies in Ayurveda SiddhantaG.A.M.C, Mysore.CO-GuideDr. ANAND. KATTI, M.D. (Ayu)Lecturer,Department Of Post Graduate Studies InAyurveda SiddhantaGOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGEMYSORE.2008
    • RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKADEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES INAYURVEDA SIDDHANTAGOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGEMYSORE.DECLARATIONI hereby declare that this Dissertation “INFLUENCE OF YOGA DARSHANA ONCHARAKA SAMHITA-AN ANALYTICAL STUDY” is a bonafide and genuineresearch work carried out by me under the guidance of Dr. Balakrishna. D. L, Professor,Department of Post Graduate Studies in Ayurveda Siddhanta, Government AyurvedaMedical College, Mysore.Date : Signature of the CandidatePlace : Mysore Dr. Soubhagya.L.Bilagi
    • RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKADEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES INAYURVEDA SIDDHANTAGOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGEMYSORE.CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that the dissertation entitled “INFLUENCE OF YOGADARSHANA ON CHARAKA SAMHITA-AN ANALYTICAL STUDY” is abonafide research work done by Dr. Soubhagya.L.Bilagi in partial fulfillment of therequirement for the degree of Doctor of Medicine (Ayurveda).Date : Signature of the GuidePlace : Mysore Dr. Balakrishna. D. L, M.D. (Ayu) ProfessorDepartment of P. G. StudiesIn Ayurveda Siddhanta,Govt Ayurveda Medical College, Mysore.
    • RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKADEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES INAYURVEDA SIDDHANTAGOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGEMYSORE.CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that the dissertation entitled “INFLUENCE OF YOGADARSHANA ON CHARAKA SAMHITA-AN ANALYTICAL STUDY” is abonafide research work done by Dr. Soubhagya.L.Bilagi in partial fulfillment of therequirement for the degree of Doctor of Medicine (Ayurveda).Date : Signature of the Co-GuidePlace : Mysore Dr.Anand. Katti, M.D (Ayu) Lecturer,Department of P. G. StudiesIn Ayurveda Siddhanta,Government Ayurveda Medical College,Mysore.
    • RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKADEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES INAYURVEDA SIDDHANTAGOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGEMYSORE.ENDORSEMENT BY THE HOD, PRINCIPAL /HEAD OF THE INSTITUTIONThis is to certify that the dissertation entitled “INFLUENCE OF YOGA DARSHANAON CHARAKA SAMHITA-AN ANALYTICAL STUDY” is a bonafide researchwork done by Dr. Soubhagya.L.Bilagi under the guidance of Dr. N. Anjaneya. MurthyM.D (Ayu)Professor and HOD,Department of Post Graduate Studies in Ayurveda Siddhanta,Government Ayurveda Medical College, Mysore.Seal & Signature of the HOD Seal & Signature of the PrincipalDate : Date :Place : Mysore Place : Mysore
    • RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKADEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES INAYURVEDA SIDDHANTAGOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGEMYSORE.COPY RIGHTDeclaration by the CandidateI hereby declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnatakashall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminate this dissertation / thesis in print orelectronic format for academic / research purpose.Date : Signature of the CandidatePlace : Mysore Dr. Soubhagya.L.Bilagi© Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka
    • Dedicated to…Lord Shri Guru DevaDatta&Goddess ShriChamundeshwari
    • iACKNOWLEDGEMENTAt this moment of submitting this dissertation in this Post Graduate study, myhead bows down with great humility in the feet of almighty “Shri Guru Deva Datta” &Goddess “Shri Chamundeshwari” without whose inspiration; I would not have beenable to attain these stages in my life.I owe my deep sense of gratitude and I also express my special thanks to mybeloved HOD, Dr. N. Anjaneya. Murthy, M.D (Ayu), Professor, H.O.D. Department of PGstudies in Ayurveda Siddhanta, GAMC, Mysore, for his inspiration and suggestionsduring my P.G. studies.I express my heartfelt and profound sense of gratitude to my guideDr. Balakrishna. D.L, M.D (Ayu), Professor, Department of PG studies in AyurvedaSiddhanta, GAMC, Mysore, for his constant guidance, continuous supervision and help atevery stage of this study.I would like to acknowledge with grateful thanks the help given to me by my Co-Guide Dr.Anand. Katti, M.D (Ayu), Lecturer, Department of PG studies in AyurvedaSiddhanta, GAMC, Mysore, for his constant support and encouragement during thecourse of this work.I wish to place my sincere gratitude to Dr Shantala Priyadarshini, M.D (Ayu),Dr V.A.Chate M.D (Ayu) for his inspiration and constant guidance, continuous supervisionand help at every stage of this study.I am also thankful to Dr. Ashok D. Satpute, M.D (Ayu), Principal, GAMC, Mysore,for his guidance and support that he had provided during the period of my study.
    • iiI owe my deep sense of gratitude to my beloved teachers, Dr Naseem.Akthar, M.D (Ayu)Dr H.M.Chandramouli, M.D (Ayu), Dr Mythreyi, M.D (Ayu), Dr. Lancy D’Souza for theirinspiration and suggestions during my P.G. studies.I also express my special thanks to, Dr. B.K. Dwivedi, M.D (Ayu), H.O.D & Professor,Dept of Basic Principles, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Dr. Rinu Singh, M.D (Ayu)Lecturer, Dept of Basic Principles, B.H.U, Varanasi.I can not forget to express my indebtness towards Dr.Shrivatsa,M.D (Ayu),Asst Professor, PandithaTaranath.Govt.Ayu.Medical.College.Bellary,I can not forget to express my indebtness towards Dr.Madhav.Diggavi, M.D(Ayu),AsstProfessor, PandithaTaranath.Govt.Ayu.Medical.College.Bellary.I am also thankful to Dr. J.R. Joshi, M.D (Ayu), Professor, Dept of Basic Principles,Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Hubli, Dr. Venkat Shivudu, M.D (Ayu), Asst Professor, Dept ofBasic Principles, J.S.S.Ayurveda College, Mysore, Dr. Sudhakara Reddy, M.D (Ayu), AsstProfessor & H. O. D., Dept of Swasthavritta, J.S.S.Ayurveda College, Mysore for thehelp offered to me for my dissertation.I thank Dr. Ashok. H. Medical Officer, Kundapur for his moral support.I would like to thank all my senior colleagues for their help during my study.I express my enormous amount of thanks to my colleagues & fabulous classmates,Dr.Savitha, Dr.K.S.D.Sharma, Dr.Yogesh, Dr.H.D.Vijayalakshmi, Dr.Abdul.Patel,Dr.Naveen, Dr.Pushpalatha, Dr.Beena, Dr.Savita, Dr.L.N.Shenoy & Dr.Musabearywho made my stay in college very joyful and educative.
    • iiiI convey my thanks to my junior P.G. Colleagues Dr.Aparna, Dr.Annapoorani,Dr.Rajesh, Dr.Kavitha, Dr.Pankaj, Dr.Guled, Dr.Geetha, Dr.Ranjith,Dr.Rameshkumar, & Dr.Kalyani for their help and overall support.At the same time, it gives me immense pleasure to remember my respectedparents with a great dedication towards them with whose blessings, & my beloved sisters& brothers, Siddu, Mohan, Savita, Chandru, Madhuri, Suma And Shivaraj withwhose inspiration and proper healthy moral support; I have been able to reach this height.I convey my special thanks to my brother Manju for offering his helping handand over all support given to me during my PG studies.I place my special heartfelt thanks to my husband Dr. Nagaraj. B. Koulagi forhis selfless co-operation, affection and care through out the course of my PG studies.I acknowledge thanks to all persons who have helped me directly or indirectlywith apology for my inability to identify them individually.Small things make perfection but perfection is not a small thing. I seek pardon &apologize for any errors which might be remained in the work.Date :Place : Mysore Dr. SOUBHAGYA. B
    • ivAbstract:Background & objective:To keep with ever changing, ever growing field of research in modern medical sciences,and the Ayurvedic concepts need to be analyzed and updated in relevance with thedevelopments in the contemporary sciences. The updating is better effected by co-relational studies. In this background, the study on the Tattvas of Yoga Darshana, theinfluence of Tattvas of Yoga Darshana on Charaka Samhita and the applied aspects ofTattvas of Yoga Darshana with special reference to Charaka Samhita formed theobjectives.Method:Collections, compilations sorting and analysis of various documentations from CharakaSamhita, Yoga Darshana, their commentaries, journals and websites on Tattvas of YogaDarshana and their application in Charaka Samhita.Results:After screening through all the literatures collected on the matter, it was revealed thatthere exists the influence of Yoga Darshana on Charaka Samhita. Yoga Darshana andCharaka Samhita are two contemporary sciences; hence the Tattvas advocated by YogaDarshana are applied in Charaka Samhita.
    • vInterpretation & Conclusion:Though there exists the influence of Yoga Darshana on Charaka Samhita, the applicationof Tattvas of Yoga Darshana in Charaka Samhita is different in some of the contexts.Some of the Tattvas have maximum impact on Charaka Samhita and some have lesser.Yoga Darshana gives more importance for Moksha; where as Charaka Samhita givesmore importance for prevention and cure of diseases. Therefore the application of Tattvasof Yoga Darshana in Charaka Samhita finds similarity in some contexts & dissimilarityin other contexts.
    • viCONTENTS: PAGE NOAcknowledgement i-iiiAbstract iv-vList of Tables viiiChapter I Introduction 01 Objectives 03Chapter II Review of Literature: Darshana- Introduction 06Derivation 08Definition 08Types 09Importance 11 Yoga Darshana- Introduction 13Historical Background 14Pravartaka 15Kala 15Bhashyas & Bhashyakaras 17
    • viiTattvas 18Importance 49 Charaka Samhita- Introduction 51Authors 52Teekas 55Kala 52Chapters & Divisions 53Importance 57Chapter III Materials & Methods 58Chapter IV Discussion 61Chapter V Conclusion 96 Summary 98Chapter VI Bibliographic Reference 100
    • viiiTABLES : PAGE NOTable 1 = Bhashyakara 17Table 2 = Types of Chitta 20Table 3 = Chitta Avastha 22Table 4 = Chitta Vritti 27Table 5 = Chitta Antaraya 33Table 6 = Klesha 35Table 7 = Ashtanga Yoga 41Table 8 = Content of Charaka Samhita 52Table 9 = Chatushkas of Charaka Samhita 53Table 10 = Teekas of Charaka Samhita 55Table 11 = Period of Charaka Samhita & Patanjali 56
    • INTRODUCTIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita1INTRODUCTION
    • INTRODUCTIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita2Introduction:Ayurveda being the science of life not only deals with “ Svasthasya SvasthyaRakshanam, Aturasya Vikara Prashamanam”, but also throws considerable light onphilosophical aspect with its main object as the attainment of Dharma, Artha, Kama andMoksha. These are the Chaturvidha Purusharthas. Out of these four, Moksha isconsidered to be the highest goal of life, and that of Yoga Darshana is “Dukha Nivruttiand Moksha prapti”.The siddhantas explained in Ayurveda are eternal. Charaka Samhita is one of theauthentic book in Ayurveda. As both Ayurveda and Darshana have been evolved fromthe same source, the Veda, so there is possibility of influencing each other, because bothwere the contemporary sciences.Ayurveda and Yoga Darshana are said to be contemporary. There is darshanikaprushtabhumi in Ayurvedic classics. So in depth study of siddhantas of Yoga Darshanacan give better clue of their influence on Charaka Samhita. For eg; Sage Patanjali andAcharya Charaka both have advocated Aushadhi, Mantra, Japa, and Samadhi as themeans of achieving their objectives. Similarly besides Aushadhi, Ahara, Vihara,Ayurveda also teaches the practice of Yoga.Ayurveda siddhantas are the conclusions based on observations and experiments whichwere made to suit the prevalent environment during that time. Now the life style ischanging, accordingly, even the Ayurveda siddhantas are to be adapted to suit the presentscenario. To apply these siddhantas in present era, it is necessary to know themethodology, by which these siddhantas were postulated. The emphasis of siddhantas ofYoga Darshana on Charaka Samhita is well known.
    • INTRODUCTIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita3By studying the siddhantas of Yoga Darshana, a better understanding of Ayurvedasiddhantas to facilitate the present era is need of hour.Hence a sincere effort is made by a conceptual study to fulfill this need. In short thepresent research is intended to study the influence of Yoga Darshana on Charaka Samhitawith special reference to the methodology how these siddhantas have been arrived at.Objectives: To review the literature on influence of Yoga Darshana on Charaka Samhita. To compile the scattered matter in Charaka Samhita relevant the Principles ofYoga Darshana. To know the applied aspects of Principles of Yoga Darshana with specialreference to Charaka Samhita and to study its importance.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita4REVIEWOFLITERATURE
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita5CHAPTER – 1DARSHANA
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita6INTRODUCTION:Maharshis in ancient India imparted knowledge to the common people about the do’sand don’ts as the layman in those days had no idea about why he is born, how heshould lead his life and what he must follow to get Dharma, Artha, Kama andMoksha. These teachings helped the common man to get free from the Dukha and toattain Atyantika Sukha. The compiled matters of these teachings later were called as‘Darshana’.Drushtjagat Jnana is by the eyes and other indriyas. But there are some things whichare not perceived by the bahya-indriyas, e.g.; Manas, Atma, Brahma, Punarjanma,Moksha etc. The shastra which gives knowledge about all these and similar ones iscalled as the Darshana Shastra.Darshana means ‘Philosophy’. Philosophy is composed of two words, Philos whichmeans Love and Sophia means Knowledge. Therefore the word meaning ofphilosophy is ‘Love for Knowledge’ I.e. interest to beget knowledge. Later on thisphilosophy meaning was given as ‘Search for Knowledge’Darshana is called as Shastra, which means, 1“vÉÉxÉlÉÉiÉç vÉÇxÉlÉÉiÉç zvÉÉx§ÉÇ zvÉÉx§ÉÍqÉirÉÍpÉSÏrÉiÉå |zvÉÉxÉlÉÇ Ì²ÌuÉkÉÇ mÉëÉå£Çü vÉÉx§É sɤÉhÉ uÉåÌSÍpÉ: |vÉÇxÉlÉÇ pÉÔiÉuÉxiuÉåMü ÌuÉwÉrÉÇ lÉ Ì¢ürÉÉmÉUqÉç | ||”Shastra is derived from two words, Shas means ‘To Follow the Order’ and Shamsmeans ‘To explain’. Shamsaka shastra is the bodhaka shastra by which the satswarupa of an object is known. So the word Darshana is more related to Shamsakashastra.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita7Darshana is not merely seeing or watching but it is the ‘Prakrushta Ikshana’according to Panini. Darshana is the tool or the sadhana for Prakrushta Ikshana andfor its phala prapti.‘Rute jnananna mukti’ means the prapti of mukti or the avapti of eshanas of ihalokaand paraloka are got by the knowledge of Darshana. In this shastra, there is a detailedexplanation of Siddhantas, Tattva Jnana Parampara, Brahmavidya, Atmavidya,Adhyatmavidya etc. Thus the Darshana Shastra enlightens the person and quenchesthe thirst for knowledge. So there is a need of hour to study the Darshana Shastra.The aim of Darshana is,“rÉSè AprÉÑSÌrÉMÇü cÉæuÉ lÉæ´ÉårÉÍxÉMÇü LuÉ cÉ |xÉÑZÉÇ xÉÉkÉrÉiÉÑÇ qÉÉaÉïÇ SvÉïïrÉåiÉç iÉ̬ SvÉïïlÉqÉç ||” 1The aim of Darshana is the true path to reach the samsarika and paraloukika sukhaeasily. 2Thus Darshana help in attaining Atyantika Sukha and to get free from Atyantika Dukha.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita8DERIVATION: According to Vachaspatya (5thVol),SØvÉç-pÉÉuÉMüUhÉÉSÉæ srÉÑOèû û|which means to see, to observe, to understandNetre, Svapne, Buddhou, Dharme, Darpane, Shastre- iti Medini.SvÉçrÉiÉå rÉiÉÉjÉïiÉrÉÉ ¥ÉÉrÉiÉå mÉSÉjÉï AlÉålÉ MüUhÉåå srÉÑOèû | CÌiÉ AÉkrÉÉiqÉuÉåSMåü| According to Shabda Kalpa Druma (2ndVol),(SvÉçrÉiÉåÅlÉålÉåÌiÉ| SØvÉç + MüUhÉå srÉÑOèû)SØvÉçrÉiÉå rÉiÉÉjÉïiuÉÇ AlÉålÉåÌiÉ vÉÉx§ÉÇ || iti MediniChakshusha jnanam | iti BhashaTat paryayah- Nirvvarnam, Nidhyayanam, Alokanam, Ikshanam- iti AmarahDEFINITION:SØvÉççrÉiÉåÅlÉålÉåÌiÉ SvÉïïlÉqÉç || 3Darshana is defined as through which one can see or perceive the knowledge. HereDarshana explains or shows the svarupa of srushti .e.SØvrÉrÉÇÌiÉ xÉ×̹xuÉÃmÉÇ CÌiÉ SvÉïlÉqÉç || 3
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita9CLASSIFICATION OF DARSHANAS:The ultimate aim of every Darshana is to attain Moksha, but each one of them has its ownpath to reach the goal. So based on the different ideas they have, Darshanas have beenbroadly classified into three categories as follows, 4, 5 Astika Darshana Nastika Darshana Astika Nastika DarshanaAstika Darshana:AÎxiÉ mÉUsÉÉåMüÈ CÌiÉ qÉÌiÉrÉïxrÉ xÉ: AÉÎxiÉMü: | 4Astika Darshana is the one which has belief in Veda, Punarjanma, Ishwara, Paraloka etc.This classification includes six Darshanas. They are as follows, Nyaya Darshana Vaisheshika Darshana Samkhya Darshana Yoga Darshana Meemamsa Darshana Vedanta Darshana
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita10Nastika DarshanalÉÉÎxiÉMüÉå uÉåSÌlÉÇSMüÈ|4Concepts of Nastika Darshana are just opposite to that of Astika Darshana. That is thisgroup of Darshana does not have belief in Veda, Punarjanma, Paraloka etc. Thisclassification includes only one Darshana, which is Charvaka Darshana.Astika Nastika Darshana:According to this classification the group of Darshanas has faith on Atma, Moksha,Paramatma, but not in Vedas.5 Jain Darshana Bauddha DarshanaBased on the similar concepts the Darshanas explain, another classification of Darshanasis as Yugma Darshana and it is as follows, 5 Nyaya-Vaisheshika Samkhya-Yoga Purva Meemamsa-Uttara Meemamsa
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita11Importance of Darshana:It is the human nature to have the curiosity and doubts about the srushti, its utpatti,atma etc. All these doubts made the sages to think, work over for many years and theresults are framed in the form of Darshanas, which guide us to know the truth and toget the ultimate happiness i.e. the Moksha.Darshanas can be said as ‘the mirror image of an object’ because they give us theactual form of an object regarding its past, present and future.Darshana shastra makes the person to get knowledge about good and bad or real andfalse, or happy and unhappy. Its study makes the person to find the causes of misery(Dukha) and to find permanent solution to get free from the Dukha.It also makes person to get Tattva Janna or Veda Jnana and thus helps the person tomove in right path.Both Darshana shastra and Ayurveda have originated from the same source i.e. fromVedas. Both of them aim to relieve the Trividha Dukha (Adi daivika, Adi bhoutika,Adhyatmika). Ayurveda has accepted the health concerned discussion of Darshanas.There fore it is the need of hour to study the Darshana shastra.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita12CHAPTER – 2YOGA DARSHANA
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita13INTRODUCTION:Darshana can be defined as the media or instrument through which the reality of theworld can be viewed. Darshanas help to overcome ajnana, which is said to be the causefor Dukha, and to attain the absolute happiness or Moksha. To attain Mokshadarshanakaras have proposed many ways such as Dhyana yoga, Karma yoga, Bhakti yogaand Jnana yoga.Yoga Darshana is one among such darshanas which is placed in Astika Darshana. Yogacontrols the Manas from the objects and stimulates it to combine with Atma. By this theperson attains Mukti or Moksha, which is eternal, the utmost goal and ultimate solutionfor absolute happiness.In this context, the Raja yoga has been dealt. It is compiled by Maharshi Patanjaliconsisting of 195 Sutras and is explained under 4 divisions namely Samadhi pada,Sadhana pada, Vibhuti pada and Kaivalya Pada.Similar Tattvas are seen in both Yoga & Ayurveda. Therefore in this chapter thePravartaka, historical background and Tattvas of yoga Darshana are explained.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita14DERIVATION:It is derived from the root rÉÑeÉ- pÉuÉÉSÉæ bÉlÉç which means, xÉÇrÉÉåaÉå, qÉåsÉlÉå, EmÉÉrÉå,i; e, union, connection, unite together, connectDEFINITION:rÉÉåaÉͶɨÉuÉ×ΨiÉ ÌlÉUÉåkÉ: || (Yog.Dar.1/2)The nirodha of Chitta Vruttis is called Yoga. 6, 7, 8, 9YOGA DARSHANA UDBHAVA:Eagerness of man made him to think over the unrevealed truth of universe. Veda is theadigrantha in Bharatiya Vangmaya, which reveals the ultimate knowledge. In ancienttimes, Vedas were in shruti-rupa. Later on they were documented. But in later timespeople were unable to understand the Vedas. At that time the sages who had knowledgeof Vedas, started to teach it to common people in a simpler way. These processes ofthoughts were documented. These documented thoughts of processes in later times werecalled by the name ‘Darshana’. So it can be said that Veda is the adisrota for theDarshana. So at that time, there was udbhava of Darshana. These Darshanas wereexplained in simple languages, which could be understood easily by common man.10
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita15KALA OF YOGA DARSHANA:The kala of Yoga Darshana is divided into two phases as Sutrakala and Vrittikala. Duringthe Sutrakala, the Sutras were written. And during Vrittikala, the Vartikas, Bhashyaswere written.Sutrakala is considered from 400 Vikrama Purva (342B.C) to 200 Vikrama Purva (142B.C) and Vrittikala are considered from 300 Vikrama (242 A.D) to 1500 Vikrama.(1442A.D) 11AUTHORS:Pravartaka/ Vakta:Hiranyagarbha is the person who is considered as the Vakta or Karta of Yoga Darshana.Hiranyagarbha is the name for ‘Brahma’. It is supported even in Mahabharata as,“xÉÉÇZrÉxrÉ uÉ£üÉ MüÌmÉsÉÈ mÉUqÉÌwÉïÈ xÉ EcrÉiÉå |ÌWûUhrÉaÉpÉÉåï rÉÉåaÉxrÉ uÉ£üÉ lÉÉlrÉ mÉÑUÉiÉlÉÈ|||” (Maha.Bha.12/349/65)It explains that the Vakta of Samkhya is Kapila Maharshi; likewise the Vakta of Yoga isHiranyagarbha.12In Rigveda, the explanation about Hiranyagarbha is dealt in brief. Therefore by seeing allthis, it can be said that Hiranyagarbha was the Pravartaka of Yoga Darshana.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita16Pracharaka/ Samshodhaka/ Anushasaka:Maharshi Patanjali is considered as the Anushasaka of Yoga Darshana. He collected andcompiled the Yoga Sutras. But there arises a doubt, who is Patanjali who did anushasanaof Yoga sutras because there were many persons named Patanjali as follows,In Shatapatha Brahmana, there is mention of similar Kavya called as Patanjala.Another person named Patanjali is the one, who wrote Vartika on Vyakarana, which isfound in one of the Vartika of Katyayana.The teekakara of 11thcentury namely Chakrapanidatta in the teeka on Charaka Samhitaopines that Patanjali is Shesha-avatara, who is related with Yoga Shastra, Mahabhashyaand Charaka Samhita,Some Sanskrit scholars explain that,“rÉÉåaÉålÉ ÍcɨÉxrÉ mÉSålÉ uÉÉcÉÉÇ qÉsÉÇ zvÉUÏUxrÉ cÉ uÉæ±MåülÉ |rÉÉåÅmÉÉMüUÉå¨ÉÇ mÉëuÉUÇ qÉÑÌlÉlÉÉÇ mÉiÉleÉÍsÉÇ mÉëÉÇeÉÍsÉUÉlÉiÉÉåÅÎxqÉlÉç||” 2By this, one comes to know that the praneta of Charaka Samhita, Mahabhashya and YogaShastra is the same person.According to Wood’s, Patanjali who wrote Yoga, is different from Patanjali who wroteMahabhashya and Charaka Samhita.According to Dasgupta, Patanjali who wrote Yoga and Mahabhashya are same becausethe writing style in both of them is same. For ex: Mahabhashya begins with ‘AthaShabdanushasanam’ and Yoga begins with ‘Atha Yoganushasanam’.Later on he might have written even Charaka Samhita.Therefore the karta of all the three is the same Patanjali. These all evidences suggest thatPatanjali is the Pracharaka or Samshodhaka or Anushasaka of Yoga Darshana.13
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita17BHASHYAKARAS: 14SI.NO BHASHYAKARA BHASHYA1 Bhoja Rajamartanda (Bhojavritti)2 Bhavaganesha Vritti3 Ramanandayati Maniprabha4 Ananta Pandita Yoga Chandrika5 Sadashivendra Saraswati Yoga Sudharaka6 Nagoji Bhatt Laghvi & Brihati7 Vyasa Vyasa Bhashya Vachaspati Mishra Tattva Vaisharadi Vijnanabhikshu Yoga Vartika Nagesh Chaya VyakhyaVachaspati Mishra & Vijnanabhikshu have written above mentioned Bhashyas tounderstand the Yoga Bhashya and Chaya Vyakhya written by Nagesh in 17thcentury isthe Vyakhya to understand the Bhojavritti.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita18TATTVAS OF YOGA DARSHANA: Chitta Ashtanga Yoga Klesha Abhyasa Vairagya Ashta Siddhi Srushti Utpatti by 26tattvas
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita19Chitta:Derivation:( cÉåiÉirÉlÉålÉåÌiÉ| ÍcÉiÉç+MüUhÉå £üÈ | )Which means to detect, to monitor, to know.Definition:Chitta is the one which is trigunatmaka in nature and which is one of theantahkarana.15Types:Chitta is of three types. They are Prakhyasheela Sattva, Pravruttisheela Sattva andSthitisheela Sattva.Prakhyasheela Sattva:It is a type of chitta which has predominance of sattva guna and it indicatesprasannata, laghuta, etc. when this comes in contact with rajas and tamas, then it getsattracted towards aishwarya, when comes in contact with tamas, then attracts towardsadharma, ajnana, avairagya, anaishwarya. When there is ksheenata of tamas in thissame chitta, even though there is little rajas in it, then also it is enlightened withdharma, vairagya and aishwarya.Pravruttisheela Sattva:It is a type of chitta which has the predominance of rajo guna and it indicatesparitapa, shoka etc and it gets attracted towards aishwarya.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita20Sthitisheela Sattva:It is a chitta which is opposite to that of Pravruttisheela Sattva, it has thepredominance of tamoguna. It indicates Avarana, guruta etc.The prakhyarupa sattva indicates vikshipta avastha. Pravrutti and sthiti rupa sattvaindicate kshipta and mudha avastha.When chitta has diddling of tamas, rajas, then it acquires the state of SamprajnataSamadhi. This needs the sattva guna. It is the chitta avastha of prajnajyoti.This chitta, when it has no rajas and when it gets the knowledge about its swarupai;e, the difference between Prakruti and Purusha, then it attains ‘Dharma MeghaDhyana’. That is it spreads the knowledge like the cloud showers the rain. It is calledas ‘ParamaPrasankhyana’ParamaPrasankhyana is shreshtha unnati or utkarsha. This is the chitishakti(Chetanashakti). It has no Parinama, does not mix with anything. It is shudha andananta. This nirudha avastha of chitta depends on samskara. It is called as ‘NirbijaSamadhi’SI.NO TYPES GUNABHUYISHTA LAKSHNA1 Prakhyasheela Sattva Prasannata, Laghuta, Dharma,Jnana, Vairagya2 Pravruttisheela Rajas Aishwarya, Paritapa, Shoka3 Sthitisheela Tamas Adharma,Anaishwarya,Avairagya,Avarana, Guruta
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita21Chittabhumi/ Avastha: 16, 17 18The avastha of chitta is called as chitta bhumi. There are five chitta bhumi. They are1. Kshipta2. Mudha3. Vikshipta4. Ekagra5. NirudhaKshipta: - It means chanchala. In this avastha, the chitta has the dominance of rajoguna, so it is asthira and chanchala. And it becomes pravrutta towards the dukhadivishaya.Mudha: - In this the chitta has the dominance of tamo guna. So it is vivekashunya.There is no vivechana of karya akarya during this avastha. It becomes pravrutta forthe opposite bhavas of krodha. In this avastha, there is no conclusion or decisionabout what to do or what not to do, as it is atyanta tamasika.Vikshipta: - This avastha has sattva guna dominance. So the chitta becomes devoidof dukhadi sadhana and gets pravrutta towards Sukha sadhana such as shabdadivishaya. This chitta has sthirata for some time.In kshipta avastha, as chitta has rajo guna adhikata, it is always asthira. The vikshiptaavastha has sattva guna predominance and it is different from kshipta avastha. Tohighlight this visheshata of vikshipta avastha, the prefix ‘Vi’ is added.Ekagra: - This avastha of chitta is that, in which the Chitta concentrates on only onevishaya.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita22Nirudha: - This is the avastha in which chitta is in nirodha avastha. In this avasthachitta does the nirodha of all the vruttis.When there is nirodha of bahya vruttis, the chitta gets concentration on only onevishaya. It is called as ‘Ekagra’, but when there is laya of samasta vruttis andsamskaras, it is the ‘Nirudha’SI.NO AVASTHA GUNABHUYISHTA LAKSHNA1 Kshipta Rajas Asthira, Chanchala, Pravrutta towardsdukhadi vishaya2 Mudha Tamas Vivekashunya, no vivechana of karyaakarya, Pravrutta for the oppositebhavas of krodha etc. Unable to takedecision/conclusion about right &wrong3 Vikhipta Sattva Devoid of dukhadi sadhana, Pravruttasadhana, has sthirata4 Ekagra Sattva Concentrates only on one vishaya5 Niruddha Sattva Nirodha of all the vrittisAmong these five avasthas, the first three are not useful for Samadhi, the last twoavasthas of chitta has more of sattva guna, so for this reason itself, these two avasthasare useful for Samadhi state. In the last two avasthas, there is yogodaya.According to this avastha, there are four types of parinamas seen in the chitta. Theyare, ‘Vyutthana’ is seen in kshipta and mudha avastha. ‘Samadhi’ starts duringvikshipta avastha. ‘Ekagra’ is seen in ekagra avastha and ‘Nirodha’ LakshanaParinama is in the nirudha avastha. Therefore the last two avasthas are useful forSamadhi.19
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita23Four types of Parinama according in different avastha.SI.NO AVASTHA PARINAMA1 KshiptaMudhaVyutthana2 Vikshipta Starting stage ofSamadhi3 Ekagra Ekagra4 Niruddha Nirodha LakshanaParinamaChittavritti: 20, 21, 22, 23Chittavritti is composed of two words,Chitta + VrittiVritti is derived from the root (uÉ×iÉç + Ì£ülÉç |) Vritti means pravartana. So Chittavrittiis the propulsion of chitta for the action to attain either Sukha or Dukha.There are five types of Chittavritti,“iÉÉÈ ÎYsɹɶÉÉÎYsɹÉ: mÉÇcÉkÉÉ uÉרÉÉ: |mÉëqÉÉhÉ ÌuÉmÉrÉïrÉ ÌuÉMüsmÉ ÌlÉSìÉ xqÉ×iÉrÉÈ|| (Yog.Dar. 1/6)Pramana, Viparyaya, Vikalpa, Nidra and Smruti are five types of chittavrutti. Vruttiswhich give pain are klishta and opposite to the above are aklishta.Klishta vruttis are because of avidya, and these are responsible for karmashesha. Thevishaya of aklishta vrutti is Viveka Jnana.20, 21, 22, 23
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita24 Pramana:-Derivation: It is derived from the root,(mÉëqÉÏrÉiÉå ÌuÉμÉÇÅlÉålÉåÌiÉ | mÉë + qÉÉ + srÉÑOèû)mÉëirÉ¤É AlÉÑqÉÉlÉÉaÉqÉÉ: mÉëqÉÉhÉÉÌlÉÉ|| (Yog.Dar. 1/7)Pratyaksha, Anumana, Agama are the pramanas accepted Yoga-Darshana, as that ofSamkhya Darshana. 24, 25, 26, 27Pratyaksha: - Prati (opposite, against, behind, brought something) + Aksha (organ of thesenses, eye).CÎlSìrÉmÉëhÉÉÍsÉMürÉÉ ÍcɨÉxrÉ oÉɽuÉxiÉÑ EmÉUÉaÉɨÉ̲wÉrÉÉ xÉÉqÉÉlrÉ ÌuÉvÉåwÉÉiqÉlÉÉå AjÉïxrÉ ÌuÉvÉãåwÉÉuÉkÉÉUhÉmÉëkÉÉlÉÉ uÉ×̨ÉÈ mÉëirɤÉÇmÉëqÉÉhÉÇ || (Yog.Dar. 1/7)The changes that can occur in the chitta leading to some interpretation of the object,through the indriyas, when it comes in contact with bahyavastu. This vritti isPratyaksha Pramana.Anumana: - Anu (behind, together) + Māna (evidence, demonstration),AlÉÑqÉårÉxrÉ iÉÑsrÉeÉÉÌiÉrÉå¹lÉÑuÉרÉÉå ÍpɳÉeÉÉÌiÉrÉåprÉÉå urÉÉuÉרÉÈ xÉÇoÉÇkÉÉå rÉxiÉ̲wÉrÉÉ xÉÉqÉÉlrÉÉuÉkÉÉUhÉ mÉëkÉÉlÉÉuÉ×̨ÉUlÉÑqÉÉlÉqÉç | (Yog.Dar. 1/7)Every object of samanyajati has one type of relation and the objects which belong toother jatis do not have any relation. The vrutti which indicates the relation and mainlythe samanyarupa is Anumana Pramana.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita25Agama: - Aa means towards here. Gam means t go.AÉmiÉålÉ SعÉåÅlÉÑÍqÉiÉÉå uÉÉÅjÉïÈ mÉU§ÉxuÉoÉÉååkÉ xÉÇ¢üÉÇiÉrÉå zvÉoSålÉÉåmÉÌSzrÉiÉå zvÉoSɨÉSjÉï ÌuÉwÉrÉÇ uÉ×̨ÉÈ´ÉÉåiÉÑUÉaÉqÉÈ | (Yog.Dar. 1/7)The person who is fit for belief is apta. This apta explains whatever he has seen or hasinferred such, that the person who is hearing gets the apt knowledge. The vritti ofattaining apt knowledge is Agama Pramana. Viparyaya:-Derivation: - It is derived from the root,(ÌuÉ + mÉËU + C + LUcÉç | CirÉcÉç | )Which means to go,to flow, circular. It is misconception, error, incorrect understanding.ÌuÉmÉrÉïrÉÉåÍqÉjrÉÉ¥ÉélÉqÉiÉSìÓmÉmÉëÌiɹqÉç || (Yog.Dar. 1/8)The mithyajnana about an object is called as viparyaya. It gets badhita by pramana.For example seeing two moons, this knowledge ( mithyajnana ) when we see onemoon.28, 29, 30, 31This viparyaya is the panchaparvayukta avidya. The panchaparva avidya are thepanchakleshas.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita26 Vikalpa:-Derivation: - It is derived from the root( ÌuÉ娂 MüsmÉlÉÇ CìiÉ | ÌuÉ+ M×ümÉqÉç + bÉlÉç | )Which means match, adapt, agree, be appropriate or useful. From a knowledge of words thatdo not correspond with a real object and which may include.zvÉoS¥ÉÉlÉÉlÉÑmÉÉÌiÉ uÉxiÉÑzvÉÔlrÉÉå ÌuÉMüsmÉÈ || (Yog.Dar. 1/9)No object becomes vishaya for vikalpa. Vikalpa is the bhavana expressed byshabdajnana. It can not be incorporated in Pramana nor in viparyaya, because a realobject is not the vishaya of vikalpa, and it depends on the bhavanas expressed by theshabdajnana.32, 33, 34, 35 Nidra:-Derivation: - It is derived from the root,(ÌlɱiÉå CÌiÉ + ÌlÉÌS MÑüixÉrÉqÉç + ÌlÉÇSålÉïsÉÉåmÉÇ cÉwhich means down, penetrateApÉÉuÉ mÉëirÉrÉÉsÉÇoÉlÉÉ uÉ×̨É:ç ÌlÉSìÉ || (Yog.Dar. 1/10)The one which becomes responsible for the abhava of samanya jnana is nidra. It isdue to tamadhikya. Nidra is a special type of jnana because after waking up, theperson remembers it. If person has mana prasannata, then there is sattva along withtamas.35, 37, 38
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita27 Smruti:-Derivation: - It is derived from the root,(xqÉ× + Ì£ülÉç ) which means to recallAlÉÔpÉÔiÉ ÌuÉwÉrÉÉxÉÇmÉëqÉÉåvÉÈ xqÉ×ÌiÉÈ || (Yog.Dar. 1/11)Not forgetting about the anubhuta vishaya is Smruti.It is of two types- Bhavita Smruti, Abhavita Smruti.The Smruti, which is remembering whatever has happened in the dream is bhavitaSmruti.Remembering the vishaya in jagruta avastha is abhavita Smruti.39, 40SI.NO VRITTI1 Pramana PratyakshaAnumanaAgamaThere is change in the chitta through theindriyas by the bahya vastu. This vritti is thePratyaksha. The bahya vastu becomesvishaya for the vritti.This vritti has samanya & vishesha rupa.Whatever the purusha comes to know by thisvritti is because of Pratyaksha.Every object of samanajati has one type ofrelation & the objects which belong to otherjatis do not have any relation. The vrittiwhich indicates the relation & mainly thesamanyarupa is the Anumana.The person who is fit for belief is Apta. ThisApta explains whatever he has seen orinferred such that the person who is hearinggets the exact correct knowledge. The vruttiof attaining the exact knowledge is Agama.2 Viparyaya The mithyajnana about an object isViparyaya.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita283 Vikalpa Vikalpa is the bhavana expressed byshabda Jnana. It can not be incorporatedin Pramana nor in viparyaya, because areal object is not the vishaya of Vikalpa,and it depends on the bhavana expressedby the shabda Jnana.4 Nidra Tamadhikya The one which is responsible for the abhavaof samanya jnana is nidra. It is a specialtypeof jnana because after waking up theperson remembers it. If person has manaprasannata, then there is sattva along withtamas.5 Smruti Not forgetting about the anubhuta vishaya isSmruti.Types:Bhavita: Remembering whatever is seen indream.Abhavita: Remembering the vishaya injagruta avastha.Nirodha of these Chittavritti is possible by Abhyasa and vairagya. Abhyasa:-Derivation: - It is derived from the root,( AÍpÉ + AxÉ + uÉlÉçç| )Abhi (through or through something) + āsa (dedication, seat), so abhyasa means engage insomething, sit in stillness.iÉ§É ÎxjÉiÉÉæ rɦÉÉæ AprÉÉxÉ: || (Yog.Dar. 1/13)Trying to be in the sthiti of chitta is abhyasa. The chitta which is vrittirahita, that stateof chitta is the sthiti. Vruttirahita here refers to the chitta which is free from rajas andtamas. To get this state, the prayatna is necessary and it is in the form of virya andUtsaha.41
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita29The sadhana to get the state of sthiti is called abhyasa. Yama, Niyama etc are itssadhanas.The abhyasa must be for dirghakala and must be associated with tapas, brahmacharya,jnana and shraddha. Vairagya:-Derivation: - It is derived from the root,(ÌuÉUaÉxrÉ pÉÉuÉÈ| ÌuÉUaÉ + urÉgÉç |), rāga (passion, love, desire),Vairagya is detachment.SعÉlÉÑ´ÉÌuÉMü ÌuÉwÉrÉ ÌuÉi§É×whÉxrÉ uÉvÉÏMüÉU xÉÇ¥ÉÉ uÉæUÉarÉqÉç| (Yog.Dar. 1/15)Abstaining from the vishayas which are drushta and shruta is the vashikara in thename of vairagya. Vitrushnabhavi in the vishayas such as stree, annapana, aishwarya,svarga, videhasthiti etc. This person even though he is in contact with Loukika vastu,he sees doshas in them. Then his mana, by yatharthajnana of the vastu, it does notgrasp them. So there is no need for him to get or reject anything. This is thevairagya.20
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita30 Chitta Antaraya:Chitta antaraya is made of two words chitta and antaraya.Antaraya is derived from the root,AÇiÉUÇ urÉuÉkÉÉlÉÇ CÌiÉ (AÇiÉ + ClÉç + AcÉç),antar (between) + aya (go, flow, circular);Antaraya are the impediments, obstacles that disrupt the mind.Antarayas are the obstacles to chitta in the path of yoga. These are nine in number.urÉÉÍkÉ xirÉÉlÉ xÉÇzÉrÉ mÉëqÉÉS AÉsÉxrÉ AÌuÉUÌiÉ pÉëÉÇÌiÉSvÉïlÉ AsÉokÉpÉÔÍqÉMüiuÉ AlÉuÉÎxjÉiÉiuÉÌlÉÍcɨÉÌuɤÉåmÉÉxiÉåÅÇiÉUÉrÉÉ || (Yog.Dar. 1/30)Vyadhi, Styana, Samshaya, Pramada, Alasya, Avirati, Bhrantidarshana,Alabdhabhumikatva, Anavasthitatva are the antarayas. As these are obstacles in thepath of yoga, they create difficulty for doing yoga. 43, 44, 45, 46These antarayas come when there are Chittavritti. If there are no Chittavritti, thenthese are not seen. Vyadhi:-iÉ§É urÉÉÍkÉÈ kÉÉiÉÑ UxÉMüUhÉ uÉævÉqrÉqÉç | (Yog.Dar. 1/30)Imbalance in the dhatu, rasa, and indriyas is vyadhi. (Dhatu- As Vata, Pitta, Shleshmado the dharana of sharira, they are dhatus. Rasa- Ahara Parinama vishesha is rasa.) Styana:-xirÉÉlÉÇ AMüqÉïhrÉiÉÉ ÍcɨÉxrÉ|| (Yog.Dar. 1/30)If mana does not do any karma, it is styana.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita31 Samshaya:-xÉÇvÉrÉÈ EpÉrÉMüÉåÌOûxmÉ×Mçü ÌuÉ¥ÉÉlÉÇ xrÉÉÌSSqÉåuÉqÉç lÉæuÉÇ xrÉÉiÉç CÌiÉ | (Yog.Dar. 1/30)The opposite bhavana about the same thing is samshaya. Pramada:-mÉëqÉÉSÈ xÉqÉÉÍkÉ xÉÉkÉlÉÉlÉÉqÉpÉÉuÉlÉqÉç | (Yog.Dar. 1/30)Not thinking or not practising about samadhi sadhana is pramada. Alasya:-AÉsÉxrÉÇ MüÉrÉxrÉ ÍcɨÉxrÉ cÉ aÉÑÂiuÉÉSmÉëuÉ×̨É: | (Yog.Dar. 1/30)Due to guruta, not doing work by sharira and manas is alasya. Avirati:-AÌuÉUÌiÉÈ ÍcɨÉxrÉ ÌuÉwÉrÉ xÉÇmÉërÉÉåaÉÉiqÉÉ aÉkÉï: || (Yog.Dar. 1/30)Trushna about vishaya vastu by manas is Avirati.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita32 BhrantidarshanapÉëÉÇÌiÉSvÉïïlÉÇ ÌuÉmÉrÉïrÉ ¥ÉÉlÉÇ | (Yog.Dar. 1/30)Bhranti means false and Darshana means observation, therefore it is confusion, vision falseperception wandering; that perception can not be maintained at a certain point, that vague fromone object to another; which produce mental destabilization. Alabdha bhumikatva:-AsÉoSpÉÔÍqÉMüiuÉÇ xÉÉqÉÉÍkÉ pÉÔqÉåUsÉÉpÉ:|| (Yog.Dar. 1/30)Not acquiring the Samadhi bhumis is Alabdha bhumikatva Anavasthitatva:-AlÉuÉÎxjÉiÉiuÉÇ rÉssÉokÉÉrÉÉqÉç pÉÔqÉÉæ ÍcɨÉxrÉÉmÉëÌiÉ¹É || (Yog.Dar. 1/30)Even after getting Samadhi bhumi, the chitta does not stay there, is the anavasthitatva.Dukha, Dourmanasya, Angamejayatva, Shvasa, Prashvasa are the entities which supportchitta antarayas to create difficulty in the path of yoga. 47 Dukha:-rÉålÉÉÍpÉWûiÉÉ: mÉëÉÍhÉlÉÈ iÉSÒmÉbÉÉiÉÉrÉ mÉërÉiÉÇiÉå iÉiÉç SÒZÉqÉç | (Yog.Dar. 1/31)Trying to avoid the miseries is called Dukha.SÒZÉqÉɱÉÎiqÉMüqÉÉÌSpÉÉæÌiÉMüqÉÉÌSSæÌuÉMüqÉç cÉ|| (Yog.Dar. 1/31)Dukha is of three types, Adidaivika, Adibhoutika and Adhyatmika.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita33 Dourmanasya:-SÉæqÉïlÉxrÉÇ CcNûÉÌuÉbÉÉiɶÉçåiÉxÉÈ ¤ÉÉåpÉÈ | (Yog.Dar. 1/31)Chittakshobha due to not fulfilling the ichchas is Dourmanasya. Angamejayatva:-rÉSÇaÉÉlÉåeÉrÉÌiÉ MÇümÉrÉÌiÉ iÉSÇaÉqÉåeÉrÉiuÉÇ| (Yog.Dar. 1/31)By which there is sharira kampana is the angamejayatva. Shvasa:-mÉëÉhÉÉårÉSè oÉÉ½Ç uÉÉrÉÑqÉcÉqÉÌiÉ xÉμÉÉxÉ:| (Yog.Dar. 1/31)Prana takes in the vayu from out is shvasa. Prashvasa:-rÉiMüÉæwPû uÉÉrÉÑÇ ÌlÉ:xÉÉUrÉÌiÉ xÉ mÉëμÉÉxÉ: || (Yog.Dar. 1/31)Prana gives out the vayu from sharira is prashvasa.These appear when there is chitta antaraya.1 Vyadhi Imbalance in dhatu, rasa, indriyas.2 Styana If mana does not do any karma, it is Styana3 Samshaya The opposite bhavana about something4 Pramada Not thinking/Not practicing about Samadhi sadhana.5 Alasya Due to guruta not doing work by sharira & mana.6 Avirati Trushna about vishaya vastu by manas7 Bhrantidarshana The perception can not be maintained at a certain point, thatvague from one object to another; which produce mentaldestabilization8 Alabdabhumikatva Not getting the Samadhi bhumi9 Anavasthitatva Even after getting Samadhi bhumi, the chitta does not staythere, is the Anavasthitatva.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita34KLESHA:Derivation: - It is derived from the root,(ÎYsÉzÉç+ pÉÉuÉå bÉgÉç |)Which means distress, causing pain.Klesha is the viparyaya. It is the cause for karmaphala. Kleshas are of type prasupta,tanu, vichchinna and udara.AÌuɱÉÅÎxqÉiÉÉ UÉaÉ ²åwÉ AÍpÉÌlÉuÉåvÉÉÈ mÉÇcÉYsÉåwÉÉÈ || (Yog.Dar. 2/3)There are five types of kleshas, namely, Avidya, Asmita, Raga, Dvesha andAbhinivesha. Avidya is the prasavabhumi for further ones.48, 49, 50, 51Avidya:-AÌlÉirÉÉçvÉÑÑÍcÉ SÒ:ZÉÉlÉÉiqÉxÉÑ ÌlÉirÉ vÉÑÑÍcÉ xÉÑZÉÉiqÉZrÉÉÌiÉUÌuɱÉ| (Yog.Dar. 2/5)Seeing nitya in anitya, shuchi in ashuchi, sukha in dukha and atma in anatma isavidya.Asmita:-SØaSvÉïçlÉ zvÉYirÉÉåUåMüÉiqÉiÉå uÉÉÅÎxqÉiÉÉ|| (Yog.Dar. 2/6)Seeing drukshakti (purusha) and darshanashakti (buddhi) in one or as one is asmita.Raga:-xÉÑZÉÉlÉÑvÉÉÌrÉ UÉaÉÈ|| (Yog.Dar. 2/7)The one which is experienced in sukha is raga. The man remembers the experience ofsukha. The asha, trushna, lobha which are seen in the sadhana when the experience ofsukha is remembered is termed as raga.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita35Dvesha:-SÒ:ZÉÉlÉÑvÉÉÌrÉ ²åwÉÈ || (Yog.Dar. 2/8)Experience of dukha is dvesha. When the person remembers the experience of thedukha, there arises virodha, krodha, ichchanasha, which are termed as Dukha.Abhinivesha:-xuÉUxÉuÉÉÌWû ÌuÉkÉÔwÉÉåÅÌmÉ iÉiÉÉ ÃRûÉåÅÍpÉÌlÉuÉåvÉ:|| (Yog.Dar. 2/9)Abhinivesha is desire for continuity; tendency toward something, attachment to life,will to live; fear of death, instinct for self, fear, sense of insecurity, anxiety in front ofthe future.1 Avidya Seeing nitya in anitya, shuchi in ashuchi, Sukha in Dukhais Avidya.2 Asmita Seeing Drukshakti (Purusha) & Darshanashakti (Buddhi)in one/as one is Asmita3 Raga The experience of Sukha is Raga. The man remembers theexperience of Sukha. Asha, Trushna, Lobha which areseen in the path of sadhana are remembered by the personwhen he has that experience is termed as Raga.4 Dvesha Experience of Dukha is Dvesha. When the manremembers the experience of Dukha, there arises virodha,krodha, ichchanasha which are termed as Dukha.5 Abhnivesha It is a strong belief or faith of the person
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita36Chitta Parikramas:-qÉæÌ§É MüÂhÉÉqÉÑÌSiÉÉåmÉå¤ÉÉhÉÉÇ xÉÑZÉ SÒ:ZÉ mÉÑhrÉÉmÉÑhrÉ ÌuÉwÉrÉÉhÉÉÇ pÉÉuÉlÉÉͶɨÉmÉëxÉÉSlÉqÉç |(Yog.Dar. 1/33)There is chitta prasada by developing maitri, karuna, harsha, upeksha with sukhi,dukhi, punyatma, papatma respetively. Maitri in the samasta pranis experiencingsukha, karuna in the dukhi, harsha in punyatma, upeksha in papatma are the chittaparikramas. By maitri, there is avoidance of irshya, by karuna, there is nasha of paraapakara, and by harsha, there is avoidance of asuya.52, 53, 54Therefore these are said to be developed by the person to keep him happy.Ashtangas of Yoga:rÉqÉ ÌlÉrÉqÉÉxÉlÉ mÉëÉhÉÉrÉÉqÉ mÉëirÉÉWûÉU kÉÉUhÉ krÉÉlÉ xÉqÉÉkÉrÉÉå A¹ÉuÉÇaÉÉÌlÉ || (Yog.Dar. 2/29)Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi arethe ashtangas of yoga.55, 56, 57, 58Yama: -AÌWÇûxÉÉ xÉirÉ AxiÉårÉ oÉë¼cÉrÉï AmÉËUaÉëWûÉrÉqÉÉÈ || (Yog.Dar. 2/30)Ahimsa, Satya, Asteya, Brahmacharya, Aparigraha are considered as yama.Ahimsa: -iÉ§É AÌWÇûxÉÉ xÉuÉïjÉÉ xÉuÉïSÉ xÉuÉïpÉÔiÉÉlÉÉÇ AlÉÍpÉSìÉåWûÈ|| (Yog.Dar. 2/30)All types of anabhidroha to sarva pranis in all the time, in all the places is the ahimsa.Yama niyamadi are dependent on ahimsa itself.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita37Satya: -xÉirÉÇ rÉjÉÉjÉåï uÉÉfqÉlÉxÉå|| (Yog.Dar. 2/30)Yathartha of manas & vak (speech) is the satya. Satya is one which is same as likeexactly how the person has spoken, how he has imagined, how he has thought of.While giving jnana to others, it must not be cheating, should not give rise to bhranti,and must not be arthahina. It must be pravrutta for well being of samasta pranis. If thetalk/ speech is Asatya, if it becomes pravrutta for the pranihimsa, then it becomessatyarahita & mithyarupa. So while he is talking, he must think of sarva pranihita &then he must talk.Asteya: -xiÉårÉÇ AvÉÉx§ÉmÉÔuÉïMÇü SìurÉÉhÉÉqÉç mÉUiÉ: xuÉÏMüUhÉÇ iÉiÉç mÉëÌiÉwÉååkÉ: mÉÑlÉUxmÉ×WûÉÃmÉqÉxiÉårÉÍqÉÌiÉ ||(Yog.Dar. 2/30)Getting money against the ajna of shastra is Steya. Nishedha of such money & notkeeping interest in such money is Asteya.Brahmacharya: -oÉë¼cÉrÉïÇ aÉÑmiÉåÇÌSìrÉÉåmÉxiÉxrÉ xÉÇrÉqÉÈ|| (Yog.Dar. 2/30)Having samyama over guptendriya is the Brahmacharya.Aparigrha: -ÌuÉwÉrÉÉhÉÉqÉç AeÉïlÉ U¤ÉhÉ ¤ÉrÉ xÉÇbÉ ÌWÇûxÉÉ SÉåwÉ SvÉïlÉÉSxuÉÏMüUhÉÇ AmÉËUaÉëWû:|| (Yog.Dar. 2/30)Rejecting the vishayarjana, rakshana, nasha and their Himsa is Aparigraha. It is notpossessing, not to acquire, possess the right and necessary, lack of greed, not receive oraccept gifts; voluntary poverty.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita38Niyama: -zvÉÉææcÉ xÉÇiÉÉåwÉ iÉmÉÈ xuÉɱÉrÉåμÉU mÉëÍhÉkÉÉlÉÉÌlÉ ÌlÉrÉqÉÉÈ|| (Yog.Dar. 2/32)Shoucha, Santosha, Tapa, Sva-adhyaya, Ishwara Pranidhana are the niyamas.Shoucha:-iÉ§É vÉÉææcÉÇ qÉ×Sè eÉsÉÉÌS eÉÌlÉiÉÇ qÉåkrÉÉprÉuÉWûUhÉÉÌS cÉ oÉɽÇ|AprÉÇiÉUÇ ÍcɨÉqÉsÉÉlÉɤÉÉsÉlÉqÉç | (Yog.Dar. 2/32)It is of two types, Bahya and Abhyantara. Having shudha ahara, washing with mrit,jala etc is bahya shudhi. Purification of chitta malas in Abhyantara Shoucha.Santosha:-xÉÇiÉÉåwÉÈ xÉͳÉÌWûiÉ xÉÉkÉlÉÉSÍkÉMüxrÉÉlÉÑmÉÌSixÉÉ | (Yog.Dar. 2/32)Satisfying with whatever we have, and not wishing to get more other than whateverwe have is Santosha.Tapah:-iÉmÉÉå ²Ç²¶É ÎeÉaÉÑixÉÉÌmÉmÉÉxÉå zvÉÏiÉÉåwhÉå xjÉÉlÉÉxÉlÉå MüɸqÉÉælÉÉMüÉUqÉÉælÉå cÉ| uÉ×iÉÉÌlÉ cÉåvÉÉÇ rÉjÉÉrÉÉåaÉÇM×üNíûcÉÉÇSìÉrÉhÉxÉÉÇiÉmÉlÉÉÌSÌiÉ| (Yog.Dar. 2/32)Control of kshut, trushna, shita, ushna, Sthana, asana, practice of kashtha mouna, akaramouna, krichra chandrayana and santapana are Tapas.Sva-adhyaya:-xuÉɱÉrÉÉå qÉÉå¤ÉvÉÉx§ÉÉlÉÉqÉkrÉrÉlÉÇ mÉëhÉuÉeÉmÉÉå uÉÉ | (Yog.Dar. 2/32)Moksha Shastra adhyayana & Pranava japa are considered as Sva-adhyaya.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita39Ishwara Pranidhana:-DμÉUmÉëëÍhÉkÉÉlÉÇ iÉÎxqÉlÉç mÉUqÉaÉÑUÉæ xÉuÉïMüqÉÉïmÉïhÉÇ | (Yog.Dar. 2/32)Sarva karma samarpana in the Param Guru is Ishwara Pranidhana.Benefits: - when the person gets the pravrutti of ahimsa, then he has no vairatva bhava.The karmaphala depends on the person when the person starts speaking truth. The persongets sarvaratnas when he follows Asteya. There is virya labha by followingBrahmacharya. So that there is Siddhi to the yogi without any obstruction & he can givejnana to his disciples without any difficulty. When the person follows Aparigraha, thenhe comes to know about his janma, why he is born, what he was in his past janma, whathe will be in the next janma. All the above is possible after following the yama in aproper way.There is jugupsa about his own sharira & there is asamparka with others by followingShoucha. By this there is sattva shuddhi, soumanasyata, ekagrata, indriyajaya & atmadarshana. There is shreshtha sukha labha by Santosha. This sukha is due to trushnakshaya. There is Siddhi of kaya & indriya by tapa which leads to ashuddhi kshinata.Asana:-iÉ§É ÎxjÉUÇ xÉÑZÉqÉÉxÉlÉqÉç | (Yog.Dar. 2/46)The one which is Sukha and Sthira is asana. By prayatnashaithilya & by Dhyana, theasana becomes easy. If the person overcomes all these, & if he has jaya, then he has nopeeda from shita ushna etc.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita40Pranayama:-iÉÎxqÉlÉç xÉÌiÉ μÉÉxÉ mÉëμÉÉxÉrÉÉåÈ aÉÌiÉÌuÉcNûåS:û mÉëÉhÉÉrÉÉqÉÈ| (Yog.Dar. 2/49)Shvasa means to inhale the vayu from out; Prashvasa means to exhale the vayu fromsharira. When there is abhava of both of these, it is called Pranayama.Pratyahara:-xuÉÌuÉwÉrÉ xÉÇmÉërÉÉåaÉå ÍcɨÉxrÉ xuÉÃmÉÉlÉÑMüÉU CuÉåÇÌSìrÉÉhÉÉÇ mÉëirÉÉWûÉUÈ| | (Yog.Dar. 2/49)When there is no contact of indriyas with their vishayas, they become similar to thenirudha manas. It is Pratyahara.When the person follows all these in a proper manner, then indriyas are under person’scontrol, so that the yogi does not need other’s help.The above five, i,e; Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama & Pratyahara are termed asBahiranga Sadhana.Dharana:-SåvÉ oÉlkÉÍcɨÉxrÉ kÉÉUhÉÉ|| (Yog.Dar. 3/1)To stop or to concentrate the chitta on one particular nishkrushta sthana is dharana.Keeping the chitta or holding the chitta on the nabhichakra, hritkamala, nasikagra,murdhnijyoti & jivhagra. Stopping Chittavritti is dharana.Dhyana:-iÉ§É mÉëirÉrÉæMüiÉÉlÉiÉÉ krÉÉlÉqÉç | (Yog.Dar. 3/2)Focused/ Retained concentration on particular devata by chitta is Dhyana.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita41Samadhi:-iÉSåuÉÉjÉïqÉɧÉÌlÉpÉÉïxÉqÉç xuÉÃmÉzvÉÔlrÉÍqÉuÉ xÉqÉÉÍkÉ: || (Yog.Dar. 3/3)There is swarupashunyata of the focused object by chitta is Samadhi.SI.NO1 Yama AhimsaSatyaAsteyaBrahmacharyaAparigrahaAll types of anabhidroha to sarvapranis in all the time, in all theplaces is Ahimsa.It is the one which is same as likeexactly how the person has spoken,how he has imagined, hoe he hasthought of, while giving Jnana toothers, it must not be cheating,should not give rise to bhranti,must not be arthahina. It must bepravrutta for well being of samastapranis.Getting money against the Ajna ofShastra is Steya. Nishedha of suchmoney & not keeping interest insuch money is Asteya.Having samyam over guptendriya.Rejecting the vishayarjana,rakshana, nasha & their Himsa isAparigraha.2 Niyama Shouchaa) Bahyab) AbhyantaraHaving shudha ahara, washing withmrit, jala etc is called as BahyaShoucha.Purification of chittamala isAbhyantara Shoucha.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita42SantoshaTapasSva-adhyayaIshwara PranidhanaSatisfying with whatever we have,and not wishing to get more, otherthan whatever we have is Santosha.Control of kshut, trushna, shita,ushna, Sthana, asana, practice ofkashtha mouna, akara mouna,krichra chandrayana and santapanaare Tapas.Moksha Shastra adhyayana &Pranava japa are considered as Sva-adhyaya.Sarva karma samarpana in theParam Guru3 Asana The one which is Sukha and Sthira.4 PranayamaTypes:Bahya (Rechaka)Abhyantara (Puraka)Shvas means to inhale the vayufrom out; Prashvas means to exhalethe vayu from sharira. When thereis abhava of both of these, it iscalled Pranayama.Exhaling out koshtha vayu & beingin that position for a while.Inhaling the out side air throughnasa randhra & holding it for awhile.5 Pratyahara When there is no contact ofindriyas with their vishayas, theybecome similar to the nirudhamanas. It is Pratyahara6 Dharana To stop or to concentrate the chittaon one particular nishkrushtasthana is dharana. Keeping thechitta or holding the chitta on thenabhichakra,,hritkamala,nasikagra,murdhnijyoti & jivhagra Stopping
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita43Chittavritti is dharana.7 Dhyana Focused/ Retained concentration onparticular devata by chitta isDhyana.8 SamadhiTypes: Samprajnata:a) Vitarkanugatab) Vicharanugatac) Anandanugatad) Asmitanugata Asamprajnata:a) Bhavapratyayab) UpayapratyayaThere is swarupashunyata of thefocussed object by chitta isSamadhi.Sthula anubhava of an objectSukshma anubhava of an objectAhladakara anubhavaAikya jnanaIt is for Ashariris and forPrakrutilayasIt is for Yogis
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita44Ashta Siddhi:Siddhi means achievement, accomplishment, fulfillment, consummation, perfection;extraordinary powers, magical or supernatural power;Ashta Siddhis are the ashta-aishwaryas by which a yogi can perform his duties withoutany obstacles. They are Anima, Laghima, Mahima, Prapti, Prakamyam, Vashitvam,Ishitrutva and Kamavasayitva.iÉ§É AÍhÉqÉÉ pÉuÉirÉhÉÑ: | sÉÍbÉqÉÉ sÉbÉÑpÉïuÉÌiÉ | qÉÌWûqÉÉ qÉWûÉlpÉuÉÌiÉ | mÉëÉÎmiÉ: AlaÉÑsrÉaÉëåhÉÉÌmÉ xmÉëÑvÉÌiÉcÉlSìqÉxÉqÉç | mÉëÉMüÉqrÉqÉç CcNûÉlÉÍpÉbÉÉiÉ:, pÉÔqÉÉuÉÑlqÉ‹ÌiÉ lÉqÉ‹ÌiÉ rÉjÉÉåSMåü | uÉÍvÉçiuÉqÉç pÉÔiÉpÉÉæÌiÉMåüvÉÑuÉÍvÉçÉpÉuÉÌiÉ AuÉzrɶÉÉlrÉåzÉÉqÉç | DÍvÉiÉÚiuÉqÉç iÉåvÉÉqÉç mÉëpÉuÉÉmrÉrÉurÉÔWûÉlÉÉÍqÉzOåû | rÉ§É MüÉqÉÉuÉxÉÉÌrÉiuÉqÉçxÉirÉxÉÇMüsmÉiÉÉ rÉjÉÉ xÉÇMüsmÉxiÉiÉÉ pÉÔiÉmÉëM×üiÉÏlÉÉqÉuÉxjÉÉlÉqÉç || (Yog.Dar. 3/45)By anima, yogi becomes anu, by laghima, he becomes laghu, by mahima he becomesmahan, by prapti, he can reach the moon, by prakamya, there is no obstruction to theichchas of yogi, by vashitva, yogi possesses commanding over materialistic things, byishitrutva, he becomes the master of utpatti, nasha and rachana of bhutabhoutikas. Bykamyavasayitva, the sankalpa of yogi becomes true. 59, 60, 61, 62
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita45Srushti Utpatti Krama:Yoga Darshana follows the Srushti Utpatti Krama as that of Samkhya Darshana. Butone more tattva included by Yoga Darshana is Ishwara. I.e, Srushti Utpatti takes placeby the ichcha of Ishwara. Thus they have accepted 26 Tattvas as follows, 63IshwaraPrakruti+ PurushaMahatAhamkaraSattvika Rajasika Tamasika5 Gnanendriya, 5 Karmendriya, 1 Ubhayendriya TanmaatraChakshu Vaak ManasGraana PaaniRasana Paada Prthvi Ap Teja Vayu AkashTwak Paayu ( Pancha mahabhoota)Shrotra Upastha
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita46 Ishwara-YsÉåzÉ MüqÉï ÌuÉmÉÉMüÉzÉrÉæUmÉUÉqÉ×¹È mÉÑÂwÉ ÌuÉzÉåwÉ DμÉU | (Yog.Dar. 1/24)The one who is free from klesha, karma, vipakas and their ashayas is Ishwara. Heis the vishesha purusha.The difference between Kevali & Ishwara is, Kevali has attained kaivalya aftergetting disconnected from Bandhanatraya, but Ishwara is Bandhanarahita inBhutakala and in Bhavishyatkala. Prakruti -The material nature underlying the shown world, i.e. the worldperceived through sense organs.The most subtle potentiality that is behindwhatever is created in the physical universe, also called "Primordial Matter". It isalso a state of equilibrium amongst the Three Gunas. Purusha - The Primary Essence created in the image and likeness of Virat-Purusha; it has Viveka (discerning); spiritual essence of the person; aspect ofKnowledge in two-uniform essence "Knowledge-energy": macrocosm: nitya-Maya (eternal-illusory), or Shiva-Shakti, macrocosm: Purusha-Prakruti Mahatattva - Great essence, first product of evolution from Prakruti, purepotentiality. Mahat is also considered to be the principle responsible for the rise ofBuddhi or intelligence in living beings. Ahamkara - A principle of individuality; ego, personal, individual "I";conception about itself as about the separate person detached from the world,Ahamkara or ego-sense - second product of evolution. It is responsible for theself-sense in living beings. It is also ones identification with the outer world andits content.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita47 Sattva - the first of guna of nature that corresponds to good, harmony,cleanliness, light Rajas - the second of guna a nature which corresponds with active action,passion, desire, dynamic movement Tamas - the third of guna a nature that corresponds to ignorance,darkness, stagnation, inertia Jnana-indriyas - five organs of perception, recognition: Shrotra, Chakshu,Rasana, Ghrana and Sparshana. Pancha Jnana indriyas or five sense organsevolve from the Sattva aspect of Ahamkara. Karma- indriyas - working indriyas, organs of action. Pancha karma indriya orfive organs of action - The organs of action are Pani, Pada, Payu, Upastha andVagindriyya. They evolve from the rajas aspect of Ahamkara. Manas - sensual or feeling mind, a guide of the supreme reason (buddhi); a plan;desire, intention. Manas or "Antahkaran" evolves from the total sum of the Sattvaaspect of Pancha Tanmatras or the "Ahamkara" Tanmatras - Tanmatras are the subtle form of Pancha Mahabhutas. Each of theseTanmatra is made of all three gunas but they are evolved from Rajasika andTamasika aspect of Ahamkara. They are, Shabda Sparsha Rupa Rasa Gandha
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita48 Mahabhuta – These are the basic elements of a nature. They evolve from the"Tamas" aspect of the "Ahamkara". This is the revealed aspect of the physicaluniverse. They are, Prithvi – Earth Jala - water (as an element of a nature) Tejas - beams, radiation, an enlightenment, irradiation Agni - fire. The god of fire; from the psychological point of view activeforce of true consciousness, the Divine will inspired with Divine wisdom Vayu - a wind, air, one of five elements; the God of the Wind; in Veda -the inspirer of vital energy, prana Akasha - an ether, space, the fifth of five elements of a nature
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita49IMPORTANCE OF YOGA DARSHANA:Yoga Darshana gives the Yathartha Jnana by which a person can overcome AtyantikaDukha and can attain Atyantika Sukha. The Tattvas explained by Yoga Darshana help theman to lead into the right path of life.By knowing about Chitta, one can try to avoid Antarayas, Kleshas etc, which causeobstacles for doing Yoga. He can develop Parikramas, so as to keep his Chitta in stablecondition. Abhyasa helps the person to overcome the obstacles like Antarayas, Kleshasetc. Ashtanga is one of the Tattvas of Yoga Darshana.As the aim of Yoga Darshana is to attain Moksha, the Ashtanga of Yoga Darshana isconsidered as a step wise method which can be followed easily and understood easily.This is because Ashtanga help to prepare the body and mind, so that the person getsinitiated towards Mokshamarga.Thus Ashtanga help the person to get control over his Manas as well as on his Shareera.The knowledge about Srushti Utpatti by 26 Tattvas help the person to know abouthimself and thus help him to move in the right path. Therefore the knowledge of TattvaJnana makes the person to achieve or reach his goal very fast.Thus the Tattvas of yoga Darshana remain evergreen and never fade.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita50CHAPTER – 3CHARAKA SAMHITA
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita51INTRODUCTION:Ayurveda, the ancient science of health, aims at the promotion of health of an healthyindividual and the prevention of diseases. Ayurveda stated that, the healthy body isthe mean to achieve Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha.There are many Samhitas which have dealt about Ayurveda, Sushruta Samhita,Ashtanga Hridaya, Sharangadhara Samhita, Bhela Samhita etc. Charaka Samhita isone among these which has got the utmost importance in Ayurveda. Charaka Samhitahas got a unique position.Though it is Chikitsa pradhana Samhita, other aspects to lead a healthy life arediscussed elaborately. There fore it is not only a Chikitsa Shastra, but also fulfills thefourfold aspects of life (Chaturvidha Purusharthas).HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:Samhita means a collection, compilation. Any systematically arranged or combinedor junction of letters or texts or verses according to the rules of sandhi, is calledSamhita. Charaka Samhita is one such work which deals mainly with Kaya Chikitsa.After Ayurveda avatarana, Ayurveda was taught orally (knowledge was given orally)by Punarvasu Atreya to his disciples before the period of Mahabharata, that is aroundbefore 7thB.C. (In between 1000B.C-1800B.C).This was documented first by Agnivesha in the form of ‘Agnivesha Tantra’.Agnivesha and Punarvasu Atreya are said to be samakalina as Agnivesha is thedisciple of Punarvasu Atreya.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita52Pratisamskarana of Agnivesha Tantra was done by Charaka and then on wards it waspopular by the name ‘Charaka Samhita’. First time pratisamskarana was done in2ndB.CLater on, during 4thcentury A.D, again Pratisamskarana was done by Dhrudabala. Headded few chapters to Chikitsa Sthana and wrote complete Kalpa Sthana and SiddhiSthana.There fore, the present day available Charaka Samhita is the work who’s Upadeshta isPunarvasu Atreya, Karta is Agnivesha and Pratisamskartas are Charaka andDhrudabala. 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69CONTENT OF CHARAKA SAMHITACharaka Samhita has 120 chapters which have been divided into eight sthanas.SI.NO. STHANA NO.OF.ADHYAYA NO.OF.SHLOKA1 Sutra Sthana 30 36252 Nidana Sthana 8 5003 Vimana Sthana 8 10234 Sharira Sthana 8 9495 Indriya Sthana 12 4056 Chikitsa Sthana 30 54917 Kalpa Sthana 12 6758 Siddhi Sthana 12 890TOTAL 120 13558Sutra Sthana is sub-divided into 7 chatushkas which consists of 4 lessons each; andthe last two chapters are grouped as Sangrahadvaya.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita53Chatushka & AdhyayasSi.No Chatushkas Adhyaya1 Aushadha Deerghanjivitiya, Apamargatanduliya, Aragvadhiya,Shadvirechanashatashritiya2 Svastha Matrashitiya, Tasyashitiya, Navegandharaniya,Indriyopakramaniya,3 Nirdesha Khuddakchatushpada, Mahachatushpada,Tisraishaniya, Vatakalakaliya.4 Kalpana Sneha, Sveda, Upakalpaniya, Chikitsaprabhrutiya5 Roga Kiyantashirasiya, Trishophiya, Ashtodariya,Maharoga6 Yojana Ashtounindatiya, Langhanbrumhaniya,Santarpaniya, Vidhishonitiya7 Annapana Yajjahpurushiya,Atreyabhadrakapyiya,Annapanavidhi, VividhaashitapitiyaSangrahadvaya Dashapranayatiya, ArthedashamahamuliyaTotal Chapters 30
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita54Ayurveda↓Dhanwantari Sampradaya Atreya Sampradaya Kashyapa Sampradaya↓Upadeshta ← Punrvasu Atreya → before the period Mahabharata↓Karta ← Agnivsha → before the period Mahabharata↓Pratisamskarta ← Charaka → 2ndB.C↓Pratisamskarta ← Dhrudabala → 4th century A.D
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita55Important Commentators & Commentaries on Charaka SamhitaName of theCommentatorName of theCommentaryPeriod1. Bhattara Harischandra Charakanyasa 6thcentA.D2. Swamikumara Charaka-Panjika 6thcentA.D3. Kshiraswamidutta Charaka vartika --6thcentA.D4. Ashadhavarma Parihara vartika 9thcentA.D5. Jejjata Niranthara pada vyakhya 9thcentA.D6. Gayadasa Charaka Chandrika 10thcentA.D7. Naradatta Brihat Tantra Pradipa 11thcentA.D8. Chakrapani Datta Ayurveda Deepika 11thcentA.D9. Shivadas sen Tattva Chandrika 16thcentA.D10. Gangadhar Roy Jalpakalpataru 19thcentA.D11. Yogendranath sen Charakopaskara 19thcentA.D12. Jyotishchandra Saraswati Charaka pradeepika 20thcentA.D
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita56
    • REVIEW OF LITERATUREYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita57IMPORTANCE:Ayurveda is the ‘science of life’. Some of the ancient texts on Ayurveda are not yetavailable. Among the extant texts, the Charaka Samhita by Agnivesha, Sushruta Samhitaby Sushruta and Ashtanga Hridaya by Vagbhata are recognized as Brihatrayi. Of thesethree, Charaka Samhita is considered to be the most authoritative.The division of Sutra Sthana in Charaka Samhita into eight sections (Chatushka &Sangrahadvaya) is based on the distribution of topics dealing with specific aspects of thefundamental principles and the applied therapeutics.In Charaka Samhita the tradition of describing a topic in the order of Uddesha, Nirdesha,Lakshana etc is also followedThe Charaka Samhita text is presented in three different forms namely, Vada Marga,Sambhasha Vidhi and Upadesha.Ayurveda in general and Charaka Samhita in particular attach considerable importance tothe intimate relationship between the body and mind. Any disturbance in the one affectsthe other and causes diseases. Therefore both for the maintainance of positive health aswell as for cure of diseases, both the mind and body are required to be kept in propercondition. This all is well explained in Charaka Samhita.Charaka Samhita has its own importance among Brihatrayi; hence it has a uniqueposition in Ayurveda.
    • MATERIALS & METHODSYOGA DARSHANA & CHARAKA SAMHITA58MATERIALS&METHODS
    • MATERIALS & METHODSYOGA DARSHANA & CHARAKA SAMHITA59MATERIALS & METHODSMATERIALS:As it is the literary study the materials required are as follows, Charaka Samhita & its commentaries1. Chakrapani2. Gangadhara3. Vidyotini Hindi Teeka4. P. V. Sharma English Translation Charaka Chintana Ayurveda Ka Vaijnanika Itihasa Ayurveda Ka Brihat Itihasa Bharatiya Darshana Sarva Darshana Sangraha Patanjala Yoga Darshana & its Bhashyas1. Vyasa Bhashya2. Shattikopetam Philosophical Material In Charaka & Sushruta Yoga And Ayurveda Indian Philosophy Vol 2 Charaka Muni Kashyapa Samhita Padartha Vijnana
    • MATERIALS & METHODSYOGA DARSHANA & CHARAKA SAMHITA60METHODOLOGYSOURCES OF MATERIALS:The literary sources for the present work are obtained fromLibrary, Govt Ayurveda Medical College, MysoreCity Central Library, MysoreRamakrishna Ashram Library, MysoreMETHODS:Review of literature, analyzing the collected matter and discussion is done using therequired Tantrayuktis, Tatchchhilyas, Tantra doshas etc. For e.g.; Nirvachana,Adhikarana, Uddesha, Padartha, Prayojana, Atitaavekshana, Anagatavekshana are used inthe review of literature. Uhya, Yoga, Samuchchaya are used for the discussion andPrayojana is used for the conclusion.
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita61DISCUSSION
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita62Discussion on Title:The basic aim of Ayurveda is “Svasthasya Svasthya Rakshanam, Aturasya VikaraPrashamanam”, and that of Yoga- Darshana is “Dukha Nivrutti and Moksha Prapti”.Ayurveda Siddhantas are the conclusions based on observations and experiments whichwere made to suit the prevalent environment during that time. Now the life style ischanging, accordingly even the Ayurveda Siddhantas are to be adopted to suit the presentscenario.The Siddhantas which are explained in Charaka Samhita are in sutra form. To apply theseSiddhantas in present era it is necessary to know the methodology by which theseSiddhantas were postulated.Darshanas are the keys to decode these Siddhantas and to interpret them in a correct way.Ayurveda has philosophical background. Yoga Darshana is one of the Astika Darshana. Ithas some Tattvas which are similarly explained in Charaka Samhita. Charaka Samhitathough it has philosophical background, deals with the Chikitsa Tattvas. By studying theYoga Siddhantas, the Siddhantas explained in Charaka Samhita can be understood in abetter manner.The study of Yoga Darshana is one of the methodologies to know how the Siddhantas inCharaka Samhita have been arrived at.By following the foot steps of Yoga, Charaka Samhita can be known in a better way.Yoga Darshana and Charaka Samhita are both relevant to the study of man and his basicproblems. They are primarily the science of man in its various dimensions.Yoga Darshana and Charaka Samhita have many unique features which can enrich thecurrent system of health care. Both not only have similar concepts, but also
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita63complimentary to each other. Therefore it is most appropriate to study the influence ofYoga Darshana on Charaka Samhita.Discussion on Kala and Udbhava:In depth study of Siddhantas of Yoga Darshana and Charaka Samhita can give betterknowledge of influence on each other. Yoga and Ayurveda both are equally ancienttraditions, which developed and flourished in parallel and synchronized manner.Yoga Darshana like other Darshanas is a thought process put forth when the people inancient times were unable to understand the Vedas and Upanishads. Vedas were in shrutiand sutra rupa which were difficult to understand by common man.Darshanas are the simpler form of Vedas, which were written around 400 Vikrama Purva(342B.C) to 200 Vikrama Purva (142 B.C). At first Darshanas were in sutra form. ThenVrittis were written on those sutras to understand them in better and easy way. It wasdone around 300 Vikrama (242 A.D) to 1500 Vikrama (1442A.D). So it can be said, thatDarshanas are the byproducts of Vedas i.e., the theme explained in Vedas is the similar tothe theme mentioned in Darshanas.When Ayurveda is considered, the direct reference is found that, Ayurveda is the upavedaof Atharva Veda.69Therefore it is clear that the Siddhantas of Ayurveda have similaritywith the concepts that are present in Vedas but have different utility. So Ayurveda isconsidered as fifth Veda.Charaka Samhita, one of the authentic books in Ayurveda was first documented byAgnivesha by the name Agnivesha Tantra before 7thB.C. Then it was redacted byAcharya Charaka in 2ndB.C. Then onwards Agnivesha Tantra came to be known as
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita64‘Charaka Samhita’. Once again redaction of Charaka Samhita was done by Dhrudabala in4thcentury A.D.A careful look into Ayurveda Avatarana reveals, that Brahma’s preaching were coupledin by Daksha Prajapati. Daksha Prajapati added many points and transferred to Ashwinitwins who contributed to Ayurvedic science which is relentless process. Patha(Learning), Avabodha (Teaching) and Anushthana (Practice of Siddhantas) wereexplained at all level. So as this developmental history is similar with that of Darshanas,it was very much expected that Ayurveda influenced Darshanas and vice versa, as bothbeing contemporary sciences.At the same time, it appears that these Darshanas were so grown up that the ancient seersof Ayurveda could not keep themselves untouched of the philosophic themes. So the veryphilosophic themes were accepted and developed so as to meet the purpose of Ayurvedicscience.By this it can be said that Yoga Darshana and Charaka Samhita are sister sciences thatdeveloped by one and the same source i.e, by Veda. As both are developed from the samesource, it is possible, that both have similar concepts explained in different ways. Theyare integral parts of Vedic knowledge. Therefore both are complimentary to each other.Another evidence proves that the sutras of the Darshanas were written around 400Vikrama Purva (342B.C) to 200(Vikrama Purva (142 B.C). and Vrittis were writtenaround 300 Vikrama (242 A.D) to 1500 Vikrama (1442A.D). It is explained that theCharaka Samhita was taught to Agnivesha by Punarvasu Atreya around 1000 B.C- 1800B.C. But redaction of Agnivesha Tantra was done first around 2ndB.C. by Acharya
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita65Charaka. Completion of incomplete text due to various reasons was done by Dridhabalain 4thcentury A.D.By this evidence, it can be said that Acharya Charaka and Dhrudabala have explainedsome of the Yoga Siddhantas in different way, while redacting the Charaka Samhita.Discussion on Charaka & Patanjali: 102Maharshi Patanjali is the Anushasaka of Yoga Darshana. He documented the YogaSutras. And from then onwards those sutras came to be known as Patanjala Yoga Sutras.There is a evidence found about Patanjali’s parentage and birth place. The two terms‘Gonika Putra’ and ‘Gonardiya’ are suggestive of Patanjali being an inhabitant of Gondain Oudh. Gonika the daughter of a muni, gave arghya to Sun-God praying for a son. TheShesha made an appearance in the form of sage, and falling from the anjali or cavity ofGonika, he was known as Patanjali.Some other evidence explains that Patanjali was the guru of Vyasa. Vyasa was the guruof ancestors of Kouravas and Pandavas. Charaka and Yajnavalkya were the ancestors ofKouravas and Pandavas. He was also the guru of Vaishampayana, who was the guru ofCharaka and Yajnavalkya.The redaction of AgniveshaTantra was done by Acharya Charaka, by which the nameCharaka Samhita came into existence. Acharya Charaka was a Yayavara Rushi whomoved from place to place.Evidence tells that, Hari narrated Veda in Matsyavatara. That time, Shesha who waspresent there also heard it. Ayurveda which was a part of Atharva Veda was heard byShesha.
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita66Once Shesha was roaming on earth. That time he came across the people suffering fromdiseases. He felt pity for them. To subside this, Shesha was born as a Rushi putra. As hewas moving from place to place, no one knows where he is from. He was a yayavara. Sohe was popular as Charaka, and he was Devacharya. He wrote Charaka Samhita.Charaka was the disciple of Vaishampayana. Some others explain that Charaka wasRajavaidya in the palace of Kanishka of Kushan dynasty.Vishuddha was his father’s name. As he was the disciple of Vaishampayana, his period is3000 years before Christ. Some say that Charaka was from Kashmir. Some others opinethat he might be from North-West region, because in Charaka Samhita more referencesabout North-West region is given. Probably he might have been born in Nagavamshabecause of which the opinion as shesha avatara.Patanjali and Charaka are said to be shesha avatara(incarnation of Shesha), and somesimilarities found in both Charaka Samhita and Yoga Sutras. So based on this somescholars believe that Charaka and Patanjali are same.But there are some facts which prove, both Charaka and Patanjali are different. Thewriting style of Charaka Samhita is in the form of sambhasha or upadeshas, where asYoga Sutras are in sutra rupa. Though both Acharya Charaka and Maharshi Patanjalihave explained similar concepts, their applicability is different. If both would have beenthe same persons, then the applicability of concepts would also be similar.The Prayojana of Charaka Samhita is different that is dhatu samya (Arogya) and that ofPatanjali’s Yoga Sutra is Moksha prapti. Therefore the concepts dealt by them differ. Foreg; Charaka deals separately about Ahimsa, Brahmacharya etc, while Patanjali includesthem under Ashtanga Yoga.
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita67Patanjali was the teacher of Vaishampayana. Charaka was disciple of Vaishampayana.Therefore by looking into their history etc, it can be said that both Charaka and Patanjaliare different persons. And Patanjali was before Charaka.Discussion on Tattvas:Discussion on Ashtanga YogaYama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dhyana, Dharana and Samadhi are theAshtangas of Yoga Darshana. It explains Ahimsa, Satya, Asteya, Brahmacharya andAparigraha as the Yama. Yama are the rule that are to be followed. By following Yama,the person keeps his mana under his control.Ahimsa in Yoga Darshana is explained as maitribhava in all the pranis, in all the time, atall the places. It is given importance here because by following this, the mana is notprovoked for doing cruel or bad deeds. Like wise Acharya Charaka also emphasizesAhimsa as mitrata bhava in all the pranis. He also explains that the sadyohata mamsasevana is not against Ahimsa, because it is for the roga prashamana, the hitakaritva andahitakaritva of mamsa has been dealt. It is not the Himsa vidhana. And killing or makinginjury to the animal purposely is the Himsa. In Ayurveda mamsabhakshana for rogaprashamana is not Himsa because, the prayojana of Ayureda is Chikitsa for mankind.There fore due recognition for Ahimsa is given by Acharya Charaka.The next entity in Yama is the Satya. Yoga Darshana describes the Satya as it is onewhich is like exactly how the person has spoken, imagined or thought of while givingjnana to others, it must not be cheating, should not give rise to bhranti and it must not bearthahina. It must be used for the well being of samasta pranis. Totally it is the
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita68yatharthata of vak (speech) and manas. Acharya Charaka emphasizes Satya as one of theupakrama for manas. The person must not tell lie. He has explained it in sadvruttabecause; it must be followed by the person. 71, 72In the context of rogi guna, Acharya Charaka explains that rogi must have the ability indescribing the disease as it is. By this the Chikitsa given to him becomes effective. If rogitells lies about the symptoms, it may lead to failure of Chikitsa. There fore it is necessaryfor the rogi to tell the Satya.73, 74Satya as described in Yoga Darshana is exactly the same explained by Acharya Charakaas Satya is yatharthabhuta like Ayurveda upadesha, Chikitsa for Sadhya rogas, gettingphala for the work what is done. In the context of Apta gunas he explains that the Aptavachana is fit to be believed by every one as it is Satya. That is Apta does not tell lie.There is Yatharthata of vak and manas. It gives the correct knowledge, does not give riseto controversy. So Satya is the Apta guna. Usually Dharmashastra, Purana, Veda,Upanishat are considered as Aptopadesha.75, 76While explaning kala akala mrutyu, Charaka tells that “Sa tasya niyato mrityu kaalah, sasarva bhutanam satyah samakriyatvat iti” (Cha.Sha6/28) which means, the kala is Satyafor all the pranis because it is samakriya. Here Satya is raga and dvesha shunya becausekala neither leaves to kill any prani due to raga nor it kills due to dvesha. In the context ofexplaning Moksha upaya, Acharya Charaka tells, the person must speak Satya. It is oneof the upayas which has to be followed if the person wants to attain Moksha. If personwants to get more benefits of Rasayana, then he must talk Satya while he is followingAchara Rasayana.80,81
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita69Therefore Acharya Charaka has given equal importance for Satya as that of YogaDharshana. Asteya is the next thing coming under Yama. Earning or getting moneyagainst the ajna of Shastra is Steya. Nishedha of such money and not keeping interest insuch money is Asteya. Acharya Charaka in the context of Sadvritta tells that the wishingto have others property is not good. It causes more greed in the person. In Ayurvedamoney is taken for the Chikitsa given, so as to find their livelihood.Here taking money for the Chikitsa given is not against the Shastra, because the money isto be taken from the patients who can afford it. This money must be used to bringoushadhis etc, so this is not Steya. Money is one of the peripheral benefits to thephysician. Ayurveda strictly forbids the physician from going behind money. ThereforeAcharya Charaka gives importance for Asteya also. Brahmacharya in Yoga Darshana isthe having control over the guptendriyas, which leads to viryalabha. Acharya charakaconsiders Brahmacharya as one of the upastambha for life. Upastambha means-upa is suband stamba is the pillar. There are two types of pillars which hold the home, first type arethe main ones which bear the weight directly; second ones are supporters of the mainpillars. This sharira is like a home where vata, pitta, kapha are the main stambas which dodharana of this home, Ahara, Svapna and Brahmacharya are the upastambas. By the wordBrahmacharya, it is understood that indriya samyama, soumanasya and Brahmacharya areconsidered. But in the context of Yoga Darshana, Brahmacharya indicates only theindriya samyama.That is shukraraksha. It is explained that for shukraraksha, one should avoid ashta vidhamaithuna viz Smarana, Keertana, Keli, Prekshana, Guhyabhashana, Sankalpa,
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita70Adhyavasaya and Kriya nivritti. If a person avoids these, then it is considered that he isfollowing Brahmacharya. 77, 78Acharya Charaka considers Brahmacharya as one of the sadvrutta to be followed by theperson. “Brahmacharyam Ayushyanam” (Cha.Su.25/40) means Brahmacharya is ayuvardhaka. In another context Acharya Charaka opines that “Viryam Balavardhananam”(Cha.Su.30/15) which means virya is balavardhaka. Therefore he explains byBrahmacharya the virya is protected. Hence the person’s bala and ayu increases.Niyama is the rule to be followed by the person. It is the second step in the path ofAshtanga Yoga. Shoucha, Santosha, Tapas, Sva Adhyaya and Ishwara Pranidhana are theniyamas of Ashtanga Yoga. Acharya Charaka explains “Na Niyamam Bhindyat”(Cha.Su.8/25), means Niyamas must not be broken, and they should be followed.Shoucha in yoga Darshana is of 2 types viz Abhyantara and Bhaya Shoucha. AbhyantaraShoucha is purification of chitta malas. When the person over comes the chitta malas, theperson’s chitta is free from the doshas. There by he possesses Abhyantara Shoucha.Having shudha ahara, bathing with jala, mrit is bahya Shoucha. It is one among Niyamas,which indicates it should be followed by the person who is on the path to achieve yoga.Charaka Samhita explains the sadvrittas as the Niyamas to be followed by the person.Here Charaka emphasizes on cleanliness. Daily the person must have bath for two times,he must wear clean clothes daily, he must always keep his feet clean, he must cut hisnails, hair etc regularly. Acharya Charaka also explains the Shoucha as one of thequalities that is to be present in vaidya and paricharaka. If vaidya follows Shoucha guna,it becomes Adrushta prabhava kalyanakari for him.
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita71While explaining the Acharya pariksha, Charaka mentioned shuchi as one of the qualityof Acharya. Shoucha which indicates sharira Shoucha, is one of the mokshopayaexplained.Santosha means happiness. Satisfied with whatever we have and not wishing to get more.Not being greedy results in santosha. This is because, if person wishes to get more andmore, he will not be satisfied. So it creates disturbance to the person in the path of yoga.If he is satisfied, he will not get disturbed and it leads to enhanced concentration.Therefore Yoga Darshana emphasizes on Santosha as one of the Niyama which must befollowed by the person. .82,83Santosha is Swasthya as per Charaka Samhita. When the person is healthy, he is satisfiedand vice versa. The person is said to be swasthya, if his dhatus are in sama avastha. Dhatuis that entity which does the dharana of sharira. In this context, prakruta vatadi doshas,rasa raktadi dhatus and svamanasthita,svasamakriya sveda, mala, mutra are alsoconsidered as dhatus. Yoga Darshana considers vata, pitta, and kapha as dhatus. Here heis meant to tell that the vata pitta kapha do the dharana of the sharira so they are called asdhatus.By Santosha, the person gets sukha. This is because the person when satisfied with whatever he has he experiences sukha. Like wise when the person is svastha, he has sukha.Therefore svasthya is explained as “Sukhasamjnakam Arogyam” (Cha.Su.9/4). Shariraand sattva are the ashraya for the sukha that is arogya. Samayoga of kala, buddhi,indriyartha is the karana for sukha. So it can be said that the person is Santosha when hehas sukha. And this is got when buddhi, indriya, indriyartha are properly working. SoYoga Darshana has included Santosha in Niyama and Charaka also emphasizes the
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita72person to be swastha. In the context of pariksha done through Anumana it is explainedthat “…..Pritim Toshena” (Cha. Vim.4/8) means love is assessed on the basis ofSantosha. If the person is happy, then he has love.Tapa is the next in order which comes under the Niyama. Control of kshut, trushna, shita,ushna etc, practice of krichra chandrayana, etc is Tapas as explained by Yoga Darshana.Charaka explains that among his disciples, Agnivesha was important and he wrote thebook before other disciples. This is because Agnivesha was always doing Tapas.82,83Acharya Charaka in another context explains that one whose ayu is hitayu is Tapasvi.Tapa is one of the lakshana explained in hitayu. Apta is one who is free from Rajas andTamas. Apta gets this quality because of Tapas. “Rajastamobhyam nirmuktatapojnanabalenaye” (Cha.Su.11/18) that is as Tapobala increases, Rajas & Tamas aredecreased. So his Mana has Sattva Guna adhikata, because of this he becomes Apta.While following Achara Rasayana, it is observed that one who follows this must do Tapa.Tapa is one of the entities which is included under Achara Rasayana. This is because theperson gets more benefits of Rasayana. All the above explanation suggests that Tapashelps to increase the Sattva Guna and decrease the Rajas & Tamas, which makes him tolead hitayu & sukhayu.82,Sva Adhyaya is the Moksha Shastra adhyayana and Pranava japa. This finds similaritywith the Atma Jnana that has been dealt by Acharya Charaka in the context of manasaroga Chikitsa. By following Dharma, Artha, Kama in a correct manner and getting AtmaJnana, Desha Jnana, Kula Jnana, Kala Jnana & Bala Jnana the manasa rogas get cured.Atma Jnana refers here to know the person himself. Yoga Darshana explains MokshaShastra adhyayana is Sva Adhyaya. Moksha Shastra is one which enlightens the person to
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita73know why he is born, what is the purpose of life, how to lead life, how to over comeAtyantika Dukha and how to attain Atyantika Sukha. This knowledge comes to theperson when he knows himself perfectly. So it is Atma Jnana. 83Pranava Japa is also considered as Sva Adhyaya according to Yoga Darshana. Charakaexplains trividha oushadha as Daivavyapashraya, Yuktivyapashraya and Sattvavajaya.Yuktivyapashraya is that Chikitsa where physician administers oushadha, ahara etcaccording to his yukti. Sattvavajaya is that Chikitsa in which mana is obstructed in doingbad events.Daivavyapashraya is that Chikitsa which includes Mantra, Oushadhi, Manidharana,Mangalakarma, Bali, Homa, Niyama, Prayaschitta, Upavasa, Svastyayana,Pranipatagamana. Among these Daivavyapashraya Chikitsa Mantra can be considered asPranava japa.Ishwara Pranidhana is sarva karma samarpana in the Parama Guru. Bali, Homa,Prayaschitta, Upavasa, Pranipatagamana are done by the person as sarvakarma samarpanain the Devata who is Parama Guru. Charaka’s this version of Daivavyapashraya Chikitsacan be considered as the Ishwara Pranidhana.The above are the Niyamas of Yoga Darshana, by following which the person’s mindgets more of Sattva guna. By this it becomes easy for the person to achieve the next step.Acharya Charaka emphasizes these under Sadvrutta and Daivavyapashraya Chikitsa, asthese are helpful in purifying both body and mind. There fore Charaka also emphasizesthese Niyamas should not be broken and also should be followed by the person regularly.Asana is that by which the person feels sthira and Sukha. These Asanas are givenimportance in Yoga Darshana as these help the person to concentrate properly. If the
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita74person feels comfortable with the position, he can concentrate or can easily perform thesuccessive procedures. And also the Asana must be sthira so as not to change frequently,which helps the person in the same as explained above.Acharya Charaka has mentioned about the Asanas, while explaining aboutgarbhopaghatakara bhavas as “ Garbhopaghatakarastvime……Utkatavishamakathinasanasevinya” (Cha.Sha.8/21) which means if the pregnant lady sits in Utkatasana, kathinasanaor vishamasana it leads to the destruction of the garbha. He has not dealt elaboratelyabout the Asanas, as these Asanas in Yoga Darshana gained more importance in laterperiods. Yoga as a philosophy that gives more importance for Tattvas. Asana eventhough it is one of the Tattvas, finds its applicability more in Hatha Yoga than in RajaYoga. The applicability of jnana mimamsa of Yoga Darshana is more in CharakaSamhita.Pranayama is the next in order among Ashtanga Yoga. Regulation of Shvasa, Prashvasaprakriya, i.e.; Puraka, Kumbhaka and Rechaka done in a particular manner is Pranayama.There is a particular time for Puraka, Kumbhaka and Rechaka explained. The longer theKumbhaka is done; it is good for the person.While explaining the vata karma, Charaka describes that vata is niyanta, praneta of all thekarmas in the sharira. It regulates the shvasa, prashvasa kriya. In normal conditions whenthe person is breathing, heart does its function without any problem. The ratio betweenshvasagati and hridayagati is 1:4. As the person’s shvasagati reduces, proportionately thehridayagati also reduces. Slower the shvasagati, further slower is the hridayagati. Therefore Pranayama not only regulates the shvasa prashvasa kriya but also regulates the othersystems of the body.
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita75In the context of Na-VeganDharaniya, Charaka explains not to control some of the vegaslike jrumbha, kshavathu, vamana, udgara, parishramajanya shvasa etc. Here Charakadescribes not to control the shvasa which is because of parishrama. In this condition dueto parishrama the person’s body needs more rakta and prana vayu. So the shvasagati &hridayagati are increased. The person feels breathlessness. This condition can be called asparishramajanya shvasa. If this shvasa is controlled then prana and udana vata getincreased which may produce diseases in lungs and heart. There fore this shvasa shouldnot be controlled. So it can be said that Pranayama that has been explained in YogaDarshana is not the opposite of what Charaka has explained.Pratyahara is the next in the order of Ashtanga Yoga. When there is no contact ofindriyas with their vishayas, the state becomes similar to the niruddha manas. That is, inthis the mana is in shudha swarupa. Here indriyas will lose contact with their vishayas,which leads to the shudha chitta.Acharya Charaka while explaining Moksha upaya tells that mana becomes shudha i.e;Raja Tama rahita and it shines with Sattva guna. This shudha mana gets sthita in Atma,which leads to the Nivrutti of indriya from their vishayas. So in this avastha, there is nochanchalata of manas. And person becomes pravrutta for the yoga abhyasa. When theperson possesses the shudha mana, he gets satya buddhi. When there arises satya buddhi,it leads for the bhedhana of moha swarupa tama, which enablea the person to getknowledge about the utpattidharma of all the bhavas. This buddhi makes the person to getSiddhi over yoga. It also makes the person to over come his Ahamkara. This helps theperson to over come Raga, Dvesha, Kama etc. Therefore satya buddhi is told as Nitya,
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita76Shanta and Akshara Brahma. So it is also called as Vidya, Siddhi, Mati, Medha, Prajnaand Jnana.79The above five namely Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama and Pratyahara are called asBahiranga Sadhana among Ashtanga Yoga. These are so called because in these stepsthe person gets himself ready mentally and physically for the path of Yoga. So they arecalled Bahiranga Sadhana.Acharya Charaka has explained these in similar way but in different form. Ahimsa, Satya,Asteya, Aparigraha, Shoucha, Santosha, Tapas, Sva Adhyaya and Ishwara Pranidhanahave gained much importance in sadvrutta where as Brahmacharya alone is considered asone of the Traya Upastamba.The next step in Ashtanga Yoga is Dharana. To hold or to concentrate the chitta on oneparticular Nishkrushta Sthana is Dharana. Holding the chitta on the Nabhichakra,Hritkamala, Nasikagra, Murdhnijyoti and Jivhagra, stopping chittavritti is Dharana.Dharana has similar meaning in Charaka Samhita. Acharya Charaka while explainingatmaja bhava, describes that Sukha, Dukha, Ichcha, Dvesha, Chetana, Dhriti, Buddhi,Smruti, Ahamkara, Prayatna, holding of mana, indriya, prana, apana vayu or holding ofany vishaya in the mana and indriya is Dharana. Here Dharana gives the similar meaninglike holding the Chitta.In another context, Acharya Charaka explains many ways to attain Moksha. Here hedescribes, to attain Moksha; Dharmashastra Dharana is one of the ways. In this contextDharana means retention of knowledge, as it leads man on to the perfect path.
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita77Yoga Darshana implies – Dharana to mean better concentration, where as in CharakaSamhita, Dharana means better retention. It may be either retention of knowledge orretention of Vishayas in the indriyas.Retained concentration on a particular Devata is Dhyana. In the context of Mokshopaya,Dhyana is one of the ways to attain Moksha. Charaka opines Yogaabhyasa is necessary todo Dhyana. While explaining about the Purvarupa of unmada Vyadhi, Dhyana isexplained as Chintana. That is when person gets unmada; Dhyana in Adhyana vishaya isthe purvarupa that has been explained by Charaka. In another context Charaka explainsthat, Rushis got the knowledge to subside rogas which were the obstacles in the path toattain Dharma, Artha, Kama, and Moksha. Rushis got this knowledge by Indra throughDhyana. In this context Divya drushta or Dhyanachakshu is considered as Dhyana byCharaka.84The last step among the Ashtanga Yoga is Samadhi. The swarupa shunyata of the focusedobject by Chitta is Samadhi. In this stage, the Yogi becomes unaware of his surrounding.Even the object of his concentration becomes swarupashunya. Sattva guna becomespredominant over Rajasika and Tamasika guna. Samadhi is divided into Samprajnata andAsamprajnata. When vruttis of chitta have been brought under control through the twomeans viz Abhyasa and Vairagya, Samprajnata Samadhi is achieved.Samprajnata is subdivided into Vitarka, Vichara; Ananda and Asmita. The purpose ofsuch realization at these various levels in Samprajnata Samadhi is that at each level onefeels that the next subtler level is purer. And it is found that the purity is only relative. InSamprajnata Samadhi, the Chitta Vruttis are brought under control and Yogi is aware ofthe appearances of gross thought (Vitarka), subtle thought (Vichara), ecstasy (Ananda)
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita78and I-am-ness(Asmita). Where as in Asamprjnata Samadhi, the chitta which is already innirudha avastha that is when the Chitta vruttis have been controlled, and in this avastha,the Chitta depends upon only the Samskara. This stage is called as Nirbija Samadhi. Asthere is no appearance of any object in this avastha, it is termed as AsamprajnataSamadhi. Samadhi in Charaka Samhita is explained as one of the Manasa roga Chikitsa.Charaka explains the line of treatment for Sharirika roga is Daiva Vyapashraya andYuktivyapashraya Chikitsa. And that for Manasa roga is Jnana, Vijnana, Dhairya, Smrutiand Samadhi. Manasa rogas subside by Jnana which refers to Atmajnana, Vijnana refersto Shastrajnana, Dhairya refers to Dhirata, Smruti refers to smarana shakti and Samadhiwhich refers to Manas detaching from vishayas and to merge itself in Atma.When Mana detaches from vishayas, the person is unaware about his externalsurroundings and when Mana merges in the Atma, the person knows himself and gets thetrue knowledge, so the person in this state has the correct knowledge and he knows whatis right and wrong. This helps the man to get control over his Mana which helps him tostop doing bad deeds. So Samadhi in Charaka Samhita is considered as Manasa rogaChikitsa. As person has control over his Mana, in this stage, it is included in SattvavajayaChikitsa.Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi mainly help the person control Mana. Therefore thesethree are called as Antaranga Sadhana. As these are specially concerned with the Manas,their applicability in Charaka Samhita is mainly seen in Sattvavajaya Chikitsa. But itsbenefits extend to the body as well. Antaranga Sadhana reduces the complication of thedisease process, to some degree. Hence these Antaranga Sadhana have effect on bothbody and mind. The Antaranga sadhana viz Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi are to be
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita79practiced well to get Siddhis. The Siddhi obtained after the Dharana, Dhyana andSamadhi is called as Jnanayoga by Charaka.85Thus the Ashtanga Yoga helps the Yogi for decreasing ashudhata. By following theAshtangas, Yogi wins over Viparyaya and ashudhis there by gains correct knowledge.The above same Ashtanga have been explained by Charaka in a similar way but indifferent manner. He includes some of them as Sadvruttas, some under SattvavajayaChikitsa and Brahmacharya is one of the Traya Upastamba.Acharya Charaka mainly concentrates on ‘Svasthasya Svasthya Rrakshanam’ and‘Aturasya Vikarprashamanam’. So the Ashtanga are explained and applied accordingly.All of them help in the prevention of diseases as explained above. So there isapplicability of these in Charaka Samhita.Discussion on SrushtiYoga Darshana accepts the Srushti-Utpatti as per Sankhya-Darshana, but Ishwara is theentity which has been included by Yoga–Darshana. According to it by the will ofIshwara, Srushti Utpatti or Laya takes place. What ever to happen, the will of Ishwara isnecessary. Therefore srushti utpatti explained as per Yoga Darshana, is by the will ofIshwara, Prakruti and purusha are produced. Then union of Prakruti and Purusha leads tothe Utpatti of Mahat Tattva. Ahamkara is of three types that is Sattvika, Rajasika andTamasika. Sattvika and Rajasika Ahamkara together produce Panchajnanendriya,Panchakarmendriya and Manas. Rajasika and Tamasika together producePanchatanmatras. Later on Panchamahabhutas are produced from their respectiveTanmatras. Ishwara is that entity who is bandhanarahita in bhutakala and bhavishyatkala.
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita80Kevali and Ishwara differ as follows, that is Kevali has attained Kaivalya after gettingdisconnected from bandhanatraya but Ishwara is bandhanarahita. Prakruti is the mostsubtle potentiality that is behind whatever is created in the physical universe. Purusha isthe primary essence created in the image of virat purusha; it is spiritual essence of theperson. Mahat is the first product of the evolution from Prakruti and purusha. It is alsoconsidered to be the principle responsible for the rise of buddhi in living being.Ahamkara is the second product of evolution which is responsible for the self sense inliving being. It is also ones identification with the outer world. Sattvika Ahamkara is thefirst guna of nature that corresponds to good, harmony, hygiene and light. RajasikaAhamkara is the second guna, a nature which corresponds to action, passion desire, anddynamic movement.Tamasika Ahamkara is the third guna, a nature that corresponds to ignorance, darkness,stagnation. Sattvika and Rajasika together produce Panchajnanendriya,Panchakarmendriya and Ubhayendriya Manas. Panchajnanendriyas are five organs ofperception, recognition namely Shrotra, Chakshu, Rasana, Ghrana and Sparshana.Panchakarmendriya are the working indriyas that is organs of action. They are Pani,Pada, Payu, Upastha and Vagindriya. Manas is the antahkarana which is a guide of thesupreme reason i.e.; Buddhi.Tanmatras are the subtle form of Pancha Mahabhutas which result from the grossificationor Panchikarana of the Tanmatras. Each of these Tanmatras is made of all three gunas butthey are evolved from Rajasika and Tamasika aspect of Ahamkara. They are ShabdaTanmatra, Rupa Tanmatra, Rasa Tanmatra and Gandha Tanmatra.
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita81From these Tanmatras the Pancha Mahabhutas are formed. Pancha Mahabhutas are thegross substances of the nature. They are Prithvi, Jala, Teja, Vayu and Akasha. All theother objects whatever are found in the universe are formed by the combination of thesePancha Mahabhutas.The Srushti Utpatti as explained by Acharya Charaka differs from Yoga Darshana.Charaka describes Avyakta is the reason to produce all other. From Avyakta, Mahat isproduced. Ahamkara is produced from Mahat. From Ahamkara tattva, directly the PanchaTanmatras are produced. Then Pancha Mahabhutas are produced from Pancha Tanmatras.Indriyas and other rest of the materials result from the combination ofPanchamahabhutas.In the context of Srushti Utpatti, Avyakta represents both Prakruti and Purusha. In theprocess of Srushti Utpatti actually Purusha does not do any work. But Prakruti isachetana, so it is unable to do the work. There fore samyoga of Purusha with Prakruti isnecessary as Purusha is chetana. Like Pangu Andha Nyaya, Prakruti-Purusha samyogahelps in Srushti utpatti. Charaka called Avyakta for the union of Prakruti & Purusha.From Avyakta, Mahat is produced. This is the Buddhi tattva. Further Ahamkara isproduced from Buddhi tattva. From Ahamkara Pancha Tanmatras are produced. PanchaTanmatras are called as Sukshma Pancha Mahabhutas, and from them respectively thePancha Mahabhutas are produced. Indriyas are produced from the Pancha Mahabhutas.Hence they are bhoutika in nature according to Charaka.86,89The Panchajnanendriya as explained by Acharya Charaka are Chakshu, Shrotra, Ghrana,Rasana and Sprashana. As these are the tools to grasp vishayas, they are called asindriyas. Chakshu is the indriya to grasp the rupa, Ghrana is the indriya to grasp gandha,
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita82Rasana is the indriya to grasp the rasa, Sprashana is the indriya to grasp sparsha andShrotra is the indriya to grasp shabda. According to Charaka indriyas are bhoutika. Eachjnanendriya has its own dravya namely Akasha, Vayu, Jyoti, Ap and Prithvi for Shrotra,Sprashana, Chakshu, Rasana and Ghrana respectively.87, 88As these are more useful in the formation of indriyas, hence they are called as dravya ofthat indriya. For eg; shabda gunatmaka Akasha dravya is more useful in the formation ofShravanendriya which grasps the shabda. So they are called as dravya of that particularindriya. Acharya Charaka explained adhishtana for the panchajnanendriyas. They areAkshi, Karna, Nasika, Jiwha and tvacha. These above mentioned are not indriyas but theyare the adhishthana for indriyas. The vishaya or indriyartha of jnanendriyas are shabda,Sparsha, Rupa, Rasa and gandha. Panchendriya buddhi are Chakshu buddhi, Sparshabuddhi etc. this buddhi is produced when there is union of indriya, Indriyartha, Manasand Atma. This buddhi here refers to jnana. It is momentary. The pancha Karmendriyasas explained by Acharya Charaka are Hasta, Pada, Guda, Upastha and Vagindriya. Thefunction of hand (Hasta) is to catch, the function of Legs (pada) is to Walk, the functionof Guda and Upastha is to excrete Mala, Mutra, the function of Jiwha is to talk.In context of Pancha Mahabhutas, firstly the Mahabhutas are explained and then guna,swarupa of indriyarthas are explained by Charaka. This is because; the Guna and swarupaof indriyarthas are panchabhoutika and they are under the control of PanchaMahabhutas. So the Gunas are explained later. This is based on uddesha and Nirdesha.Mana is ubhayendriya. Yoga Darshana explains Mana as Chitta. It is trigunatmaka innature. It is one of the antahkarana. Based on the predominance of Sattva, Rajas andTamas, chitta is classified into Prakhyasheela, Pravruttisheela and Sthitisheela
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita83respectively. As Prakhyasheela chitta has predominance of Sattva guna, so it is prasannaand laghu. Pravruttisheela chitta due to Rajas predominance is attracted towardsaishwarya and so it is paritapayukta and shokayukta. Sthitisheela chitta due topredominance of tamas guna, it is avaranayukta and guru. Depending on the dominanceof trigunas, the chitta has five avasthas that is Kshipta, Mudha, Vikshipta, Ekagra andNirudha.Kshipta, Mudha, Vikshipta have dominance of Rajas, Tamas and Sattva gunarespectively. Ekagra and Nirudha avasthas indicate the concentration of chitta on vishayaand nirodha of all the vruttis respectively. Among these five avasthas, the last twoavasthas have more of Sattva Guna, so for this reason itself these two avasthas are usefulfor Samadhi. Yoga Darshana gives more importance for chitta. If chitta is under thecontrol, then it becomes easy for the person to practice yoga. If chitta has dominance ofSattva guna, then it is attracted for doing good things. There are some entities whichbecome obstacles in the path of yoga and they distract the mind from yogi’s aim. Theseobstacles are in the form of vruttis, antarayas. Vrutti means pravartana. Chitta vrutti is thepravartana of chitta which is responsible for either Sukha or Dukha. Pramana, Viparyaya,Vikalpa, Nidra and Smruti are the five chitta vruttis. Among these which give pain areklishta vruttis and opposite to the above are aklishta vruttis. Yoga Darshana acceptsPratyaksha, Anumana and Agama as the Pramana. The mithyajnana about an object iscalled as Viparyaya. Vikalpa is the bhavana expressed by shabdajnana. The one whichbecomes responsible for the abhava of samanya Jnana is nidra. It is due to tamadhikya.Nidra is a special type of Jnana because after waking up, the person remembers it. Ifperson has mana prasannata, then there is Sattva along with Tamas. Not forgetting about
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita84the anubhuta vishaya is Smruti. By these vruttis chitta is unable to concentrate, so theybecome hindrance in the yogic path.Acharya Charaka also considers the chitta as Mana, which is one of the antahkarana. Hehas used the word Cheta, Sattva as synonym for Manas. It is produced along with otherindriyas from Pancha Mahabhutas. It is atindriya. As per Charaka indriyas are bhoutikabut Manas is not bhoutika. It is called as atindriya because Manas along with its vishayasalso helps in grasping the vishayas of other indriyas. Therefore it is called as atindriya.Acharya Charaka further explains that Manas is one not many, it is anu. Due to thisquality it can grasp different vishayas very fast, but it appears that Manas is doingdifferent karmas at a time. This is interpreted by Suchipatra Vyadha Nyaya. When theleaves of lotus are kept one upon another and then when they are pricked by needle, itappears that the needle pricks all the leaves at a time. But in reality it is not. Needlepricks the leaves one by one but it takes so less time that it appears that all the leaves arepricked at a time. 90Like Yoga Darshana, Acharya Charaka on the basis of predominance of Sattva, Rajas andTamas gunas classified the Manas as Sattvika, Rajasika & Tamasika respectively. Manais responsible for the jnana to occur or for its absence. By the union of Atma, Indriya,Indriyartha and Manas jnanotpatti occurs. Even though there is union of Atma, Indriya,Indriyartha, if there is no union of Manas, then there is no jnanotpatti. Here it is describedthat there is necessary of union of Manas for the jnanotpatti to happen. The union ofMana with the particular indriya gives knowledge of that indriyartha. Getting jnana ofone vishaya or not getting jnana at a time is the lakshana of Manas. By this it is explainedthat Anutva and Ekatva are the gunas of Manas. Chintya, Uhya, Sankalpa and others
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita85which are experienced as Sukha, Dukha are considered as vishayas of Manas. Chintyahere refers to doing Chintana about which are good. Vicharya here refers to what work tobe done and what happens by doing that, Uhya refers to the possible outcome if work isdone like this, Dhyeya is bhavana jnana vishaya and Sankalpa here refers to nischaya.These are done without the help of any other indriyas.Indriya abhigraha, Svasya nigraha, Uha, Vichara are the karmas of Manas. Indriyaabhigraha means controlling the other indriyas, Svasya nigraha is having control overoneself by doing good deeds and avoiding bad deeds, Uha & Vichara are the karmas ofManas. By the above explanation it can be said that Mana is the indriya which is verymuch essential in grasping the vishaya.Discussion on Vrutti:The vruttis of Yoga Darshana are explained by Charaka in different way. First amongchitta vruttis is the Pramana. In Yoga Darshana Pramanas are explained under chittavrutti. Here in this the chitta gets pravrutta to know something. Therefore Pramanas areconsidered as chitta vruttis. Acharya Charaka has used the word ‘Pariksha’ for Pramanaand has explained Pariksha in three different contexts viz; in the context of Punarjanma,he has used Pratyaksha, Anumana, Aptopadesha and Yukti. To know about Rogavishesha jnana he has used Pratyaksha, Anumana, and Aptopadesha. In another context toknow about Indriya Pratyaksha and Manasa Pratyaksha, he has explained Pratyaksha.Anumana is explained to assess pachanashakti, bala, vyayamashakti etc. Aptopadesha isthe upadesha swarupa of Veda, Dharmashastra, Smruti, Purana etc. Upamana is
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita86explained to know about the roga by looking at similar things. Charaka emphasizes thatthe Parikshas are the tools to get knowledge.Pratyaksha according to Charaka is the buddhi or jnana got when there is union of Atmawith Indriya, Indriya with Manas & with their Vishayas respectively. Atmendriyetyadirepresents Pratyaksha lakshana. Union of Atma, with Indriya, Indriya with Manas & withtheir Vishayas is of six types viz;1. Samyoga Sannikarsha2. Samavaya Sannikarsha3. Samyukta Samavaya Sannikarsha4. Samyukta Samaveta Samavaya Sannikarsha5. Samaveta Samavaya Sannikarsha6. Vishesha Visheshyaabhaava SannikarshaPratyaksha is the Jnana produced at that moment, so it is called as Tatkala NischayaBuddhi.Anumana as explained by Charaka is the inferred knowledge based on Pratyaksha. Theinference can be done in three kala namely Vartaman, Atita & Anagata kala. For eg; byseeing dhooma inference of nigoodha agni, by seeing garbha inference of maithunahappened in past, by seeing bija, inference of phala which is yet to come. AcharyaCharaka Explains the Apta gunas as, Apta is one who is free from Rajas & Tamas, this isachieved by Tapa, he has traikalika jnana which is abadhita, samshayarahita, nirmala, healways speaks truth & never tells lie. He is called by other names as Shishta, Vibuddha.
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita87“The explanation of Pratyaksha, Anumana, and Aptopadesha pramanas of YogaDarshana is similar to that found in Charaka, and Charaka adds Yukti, Upamana are alsothe tools to get knowledge”.Viparyaya is the next vrutti which makes mithyajnana to the chitta. Charaka whileexplaining about upalambha, explains about hetvabhasa. Upalambha is that in whichdoshas are shown in hetu, like swarupa of ahetu is hetvabhasa. In this context, the personis getting mithyajnana i.e., the person sees something which is not in reality. So hereviparyaya finds similarity with hetvabhasa.The next vrutti is nidra. Charaka considers nidra as one of the traya upastambas. Nidrahas been given second importance among the traya upastamba. If person does not sleepproperly after his work, then it may lead to get some diseases and some times even death.This is due to after the work, the person needs rest. If no rest is given to the body, thenmany diseases are produced due to anidrata.Charaka defines nidra as, when manas & indriyas are tired, even mana is tired. So theperson sleeps in order to give rest for both mind & body. By proper sleep the person willbe healthy, the nutrition process will be in proper condition, and there is increase ofshukra, bala & ayu. If person doesn’t sleep properly, he will suffer from roga, krushata,balahani, napumsakata and even he may get death. There should not be Atiyoga, Ayogaor Mithyayoga of nidra. Following any one of this is not proper.If there is proper sleep, it gives arogya & ayu. When satyabuddhi is with yogi, then yogican achieve Siddhis, like wise if person sleeps well & proper, then his life cycle moveseasily with health. This means the person’s dhatus are in sama avastha, there is balavriddhi & his body gets nourished by Shleshma.
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita88Charaka explains the qualities of sleep as, if the person does not sleep during night, itincreases vata, by which there is sharira rukshata. If the person sleeps during day, there iskapha vriddhi, which causes the increase of snigdhata. If the person sleeps in sittingposture during day time it neither increases rukshata, nor does it increase snigdhata. It isaruksha and anabhishyandi. Therefore nidra has been given more importance and isconsidered as one of the traya upastambas. Niyamapurvaka aharasevana is necessary forsharira dharana; likewise niyamapurvaka nidra is necessary to be healthy. The last vruttiis smruti. Acharya Charaka in the context of Manasa Roga Chikitsa explains that manasarogas can be treated by jnana, vijanan, dhairya, smruti and Samadhi. Smruti here refers tosmarana Shakti.Smruti means remembrance. While explaining the qualities of rogi, he describes thatsmruti; nirdeshkaritva, abhirutva and jnapakatva are the qualities of rogi. Smruti heremeans, due to remembrance of difficult things rogi may leave those. But for this it can beinterpreted that asmruti also becomes the guna of rogi, as in unmada Chikitsa. There foresmruti becomes guna in one place and it becomes dosha in another place.Smruti is also considered as the lakshana of linga purusha that is Atma. As explainedabove, smruti is the Chikitsa for manasa roga. If there is loss of smruti, along with dhi,dhriti, then person does prajnaparadha. So smruti is important for all. Charaka whileexplaining about Moksha sadhana, he opines that the best smruti is necessary which helpsfor the pravrutta of Moksha sadhanas like Dhairya, Dharmashastra Abhyasa etc.Smruti is considered important for the Moksha sadhana, if person follows all the Mokshasadhanas without forgetting, then the smruti helps for the abhava or absence of Dukha.This leads the person towards Moksha marga.91
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita89Charaka defines smruti as remembering the vishaya which is seen or experienced. Thereare eight reasons for smruti; they are Nimitta, Rupagrahana, Sadrushya, Viparyaya,Sattvanubandha, Abhyasa, Jnanayoga and Punah shruta. By seeing the karana,remembering the karya is Nimitta. For eg; by seeing the pot maker, remembering the potand so on. Therefore seeing, hearing, experiencing are interpreted as the lakshanas ofsmruti.92But by comparing both the views, it can be said that jnana is different from smruti. Whenthere is Sannikarsha of Indriya, Indriya with Manas & with their Vishayas, there happenssmruti, and there by jnana but for Yogis without Sannikarsha, he can have smruti. It playsa very important role in the Moksha prapti. The person who has strengthened histattvasmruti by yoga jnana will not take rebirth. To obtain this tattva smruti bala, oneshould follow yoga. After this he should follow dharma. Then he will becomeparamajnani. By this he can attain Moksha.As Charaka Samhita is mainly the Chikitsa Shastra, so Charaka emphasizes smruti is oneof the guna of uttama vaidya. If vaidya has this quality, then he can treat his patientseasily and can become successful vaidya. Therefore smruti is given special importance byCharaka.
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita90Discussion on Klesha:The next Tattva which is included by Yoga Darshana is Klesha. Klesha means viparyaya.This becomes the cause for karma phala. Yoga Darshana explains five types of kleshas asAvidya, Asmita, Raga, Dvesha and Abhinivesha.Seeing Nitya in Anitya, Shuchi in Ashuchi, and Sukha in Dukha is Avidya. AssumingPurusha and Buddhi as one is Asmita. The one which is experienced in Sukha is raga.Trushna, lobha etc which are seen in the sadhana when the experience of Sukha isremembered is raga. Experience of Dukha Dvesha. When the person remembers theexperience of Dukha, there arises virodha, Krodha etc which are termed as Dukha.Abhinivesha is desire for continuity; tendency toward something, attachment to life, willto live; fear of death, instinct for self, fear, sense of insecurity, anxiety about the future.Klesha is the difficulty or hurdle according to Charaka. It is loulya that is greed.Greediness is the main reason for klesha. In the context of sandhaya sambhasha, Charakaexplains that one who withstands klesha; he is able for sandhaya sambhasha. Vidya is oneof the guna of uttama vaidya explained by Charaka. Vidya here refers to knowledgeabout vaidyakashastra. If vaidya doesn’t have the knowledge it becomes difficult for himto treat patients. Vidya also refers to the sahaja shudha mati. In the context of sadvrutta,Charaka opines that the person must sacrifice the reasons which produce raga, dveshabhavas by which others get hurt. 93, 94Abhinivesha is dealt by Charaka in the context of Anumana. Here it means that the workto be done compulsory. Mana shuddhata is examined by the person whether he is movinginto the kalyanakari marga (right path) or no.
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita91Discussion on Antaraya:Yoga Darshana explains the obstacles to the chitta in the path of yoga and calls them asAntaraya. These are nine in number; they are Vyadhi, Styana, Samshaya, Pramada,Alasya, Avirati, Bhrantidarshana, Alabdhabhumikatva and Anavasthitatva. TheseAntarayas come when there are Chittavritti. If there are no Chittavritti, then these are notseen.Imbalance in the dhatu, rasa, and indriyas is Vyadhi. (Dhatu- As Vata, Pitta, Shleshma dothe dharana of sharira, they are dhatus. Rasa- Ahara Parinama vishesha is rasa.)Vyadhi is called as vikara by Charaka. He describes it as ‘Vikaro Dhatu Vaishamyam’,‘Vikaro Dukhameva Cha’. Dhatus here refer to vata, pitta, kapha doshas, rasa to shukradhatus and svedadi mala. Till they do dharana of sharira, they are called as dhatus. Whenthey become vikruta, they cause roga. In the utpatti of Vyadhi, chitta plays an importantrole. Due to Vikruti of manas, the indriyas are unable to grasp their vishayas in propermanner. This is Asatmendriyartha samyoga. It results in the utpatti of Vyadhi,Styana is akarmanyata of manas. If there is no work done by manas, then it is Styanaaccording to Yoga Darshana. Charaka has given importance for manas. It is called asubhayendriya. It is the important factor in the process of jnanotpatti. If mana doesn’tparticipate, then there is no jnanotpatti. Therefore when the person is in sleep, there is nograsping of any vishayas by the indriyas.95The next antaraya is Samshaya. The opposite bhavana about the same thing is Samshayaaccording to Yoga Darshana. Charaka also explained the Samshaya in similar way. Heopines that unconfirmed knowledge obtained when one sees any subject which isdoubtful is Samshaya. He gives the example that if a rogi with favourable conditions of
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita92ayu does not get proper treatment may die and rogi with unfavourable conditions of ayugets proper treatment may survive. Then by seeing these two conditions one may get adoubt whether person has akala mrityu or no. Therefore Samshaya in both Shastra issimilar. Not thinking or not practising about samadhi sadhana is Pramada according toYoga Darshana. Charaka has explained that, person must follow sadvruttas, dinacharya,to follow pathya when person is ill. If person does not follow, he may not lead his lifehealthily and happily. It becomes similar to Pramada. The next obstacle is alasya. Due toguruta, not doing work by sharira and manas is alasya. Even Charaka has similar opinionabout alasya. If there is increase of Shleshma guna in the sharira, then it becomes gurudue to which person feels uneasiness for doing work. This same is called by YogaDarshana as alasya. It is due to kaphadhikyata. Due to kaphadhikyata, the person feelsheaviness, so he can’t do work. Therefore it is considered as an obstacle.The next is Avirati. Trushna about vishaya vastu by manas is Avirati. Trushna meanswant to get more. Charaka explains ichcha, dvesha, trushna as upadha which are thecauses for Dukha. Dukha as explained in Yoga Darshana finds similarity with this.Charaka opines that Dukha is the lakshana of ahitayu. Upadha is the root cause forDukha. It is also the roga. Vedana is in the form of Dukha. Vibhramsha of buddhi, dhritiand smruti, asatmyendriyartha samyoga are the reasons for the vedana i.e., Dukha. Ichchaor dvesha is the reason for trushna which becomes cause for Sukha or Dukha. Trushnaresides both in mana & sharira which produce vedana. Charaka opines for nirodha ofthese. When there is nirodha, there is samabuddhi. By this the person can be healthy.Yoga Darshana & Acharya Charaka both describe to overcome these obstacles. The nexttattva to overcome the obstacles is the chitta Parikrama.
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita93Discussion on Parikrama:Maitri, Karuna, Harsha, Upeksha are considered as chitta parikramas in Yoga Darshana.There is chitta prasada by developing maitri, karuna, harsha, upeksha with sukhi, dukhi,punyatma, papatma respetively. Maitri in the samasta pranis experiencing sukha, karunain the dukhi, harsha in punyatma, upeksha in papatma are the chitta parikramas. Bymaitri, there is avoidance of irshya, by karuna, there is nasha of para apakara, and byharsha, there is avoidance of asuya.Charaka in the context of sadvrutta explains about these. While explaningindriyopakramas, there is description of Ayoga, Atiyoga & Mithyayoga ofpanchendriyas. After this even upakramas for manas are explained. He describes that theperson must be engaged in dana, jnana, daya, harsha and upeksha. Jnana refers toDharmashastra jnana, dana must be given for the suitable person, mitrata must be withknowledgeable persons, daya must be shown to the dukhi, prasannata by seeingpunyatma and upeksha by seeing papatma. By following this person will be happy andleads peaceful life. It can be interpreted even as, maitri in sarva pranis, daya in rogi,harsha in rogarahitavyakti & upeksha for asadhya rogi must be done.The same matter is explained in Khuddaka Chatushpada by Acharya Charaka as thevruttis of vaidya. The vaidya vruttis are Maitri, Karunyam Artheshu, Shakye Prithi &Prakritistheshu Bhuteshu Upekhanam. Here he tells that the vaidya must havemaitribhava with the samasta pranis. Karunyam Artheshu refers to the dayabhava for therogi, Shakye prithi is the sincere Chikitsa given for the Sadhya rogas & PrakritistheshuBhuteshu Upekhanam means the upeksha bhava in asadhya roga and rogi. HerePrakritistheshu Bhuteshu refers to the one who is on the verge of death. Maitri which
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita94refers to maitribhava with the samasta pranis also indicates Ahimsa. This does not meanthat it should be considered while explaining mamsa sevana as a Chikitsa. In Ayurvedathere is explanation about hitakaritva & ahitakaritva of mamsa according to roga. Here itis not Himsa. So it is considered as maitribhava must be there in all the pranis. Thereforefor a person to be Svastha, he must be having prasannata of panchendriyas along withmanas. If manas is Svasthya, it becomes easy for the person to be Svasthya physicallyalso.96, 97According to Yoga Darshana the nirodha of chitta vruttis is Yoga. Here there is nopravrutta of chitta for anything. It is in still state. So when there is no pravrutti, there isyogodaya.Likewise Charaka explains that the Sannikarsha of Atma, indriya, mana & their vishayaslead to the jnana of Sukha or Dukha. When mana becomes atmakendrita and does not getsamyoga with their vishaya, there is no karya at that time. During this, there is Nivrutti ofSukha and Dukha. Atma becomes vashitva with sharira. This avastha is called as ‘Yoga’by yogi. When mana becomes atmakendrita, there is Nivrutti of vishaya by mananaturally. During this the mana becomes sthira, its chanchalata is lost. Here it getscompletely involved in Atma jnana.Charaka also explains that when mana gets completely involved in Atma jnana, there isvashitva of sharira & Atma. When there is vashitva of Atma, the yogi gets ashtavidhaaishwarya. Even in Yoga Darshana the ashtasiddhis are referred as ashtavidha aishwarya.Therefore it can be explained that both in Yoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita the state ofmana which is nivrutta from grasping the vishaya is yoga. As mana, sharira, indriya get
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita95niyantrita by Atma, so there is no contact with their vishayas. Hence there is no SukhaDukha. This avastha is called as Yoga.Yoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita both explain Atyantika Dukha Nivrutti is Moksha.Yoga Darshana describes the main aim is to attain Kaivalya. Kaivalya is the Moksha. Forthis one needs to overcome Dukha which are Adhidaivika, Adhibhoutika & Adhyatmika.So to overcome this one needs to practice Ashtanga Yoga, and one needs to haveknowledge about Tattvas. By this the person attains Moksha. Acharya Charaka explainsthe Atyantika Dukha Nivrutti is Moksha. He tells that mana & indriya are the adhisthanasof vedana. To overcome this, one needs to do yoga. By yoga and Moksha, all the vedanassubside. Moksha is the name for Nivrutti of Atyantika Dukha. Yoga is the one whichgives Moksha.98,99By samyoga of Atma, Indriya, Mana & Indriyartha, there is Sukha and Dukha. Whenmana gets sthita in the Atma, there is no grasping of vishayas by indriyas. At that timethere is Nivrutti of Sukha and Dukha. There is control over sharira, mana and Atma. Thisis called as yoga. In this context, control over sharira and Atma means, after yogasiddhi,even though there is panchabhoutika sthula sharira, Atma does the work whatever itwants on its own. If Atma wishes to experience the vedana, it can or else it need not.When yogi acquires this, he gets the powers like,Avesha- To enter into others body, Chetasa jnana- To know about others mind, ArthanaChandata- If he wants he will have pravrutta of the indriyarthas, Drushti- To see atindriyavastus, Shrotra- To hear the sound which is far, Smruti- To understand the bhavas of allthe Tattvas and Kanti-He gets luster like devatas. Like this yogi attains the power afteryoga Siddhi.100
    • DISCUSSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita96Charaka explains the tools for Moksha, as Vrata, Upavasa, Niyama, and Dharma. Vijnanaetc.101Therefore both Yoga Darshana and Charaka Samhita have given importance for Mokshaas it is the ultimate happiness. The Tattvas of Yoga Darshana are found more in ShaariraSthana, Sutra Sthana and lesser reference about these concepts is present in VimanaSthana and Chikitsa Sthana of Charaka Samhita. So by this it can be said that the Tattvasof Yoga Darshana which are relevant and most essential from the medical perspective areseen in Charaka Samhita.
    • CONCLUSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita96CONCLUSION
    • CONCLUSIONYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita97Conclusion: Yoga Darshana and Charaka Samhita both are originated from the same sourcethat is from Veda. Yoga Darshana and Charaka Samhita are the Astika Darshanas. Charaka Samhitais a Chikitsa Shastra, with philosophical background. The reference about Chitta, Pramana, Nidra, Vyadhi, Smruti, Dukha, Ahimsa,Satya, Asteya, Brahmacharya, Shoucha, Tapa, Sva Adhyaya, Panchajnanendriya,Panchakarmendriya, Panchamahabhuta, and Panchatanmatra is maximum inCharaka Samhita. Viparyaya, Abhyasa, Samshaya, Dourmanasya, Maitri, Karuna, Harsha, Upeksha,Avidya, Asmita, Raga, Dvesha, Abhinivesha, Aparigraha, Pranayama, Dharana,Dhyana, Samadhi, Ashta Siddhi, Santosha, Ishwara, Avirati, Bhrantidarshana,Shvasa, Prashvasa have lesser reference in Charaka Samhita. The impact of concepts of Yoga Darshana is found scattered in the concepts ofCharaka Samhita. The influence of Yoga Darshana is seen in Charaka Samhita.
    • SUMMARYYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita98SUMMARY
    • SUMMARYYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita99Summary:It is the human nature to have curiosity and doubts about Srushti, its utpatti, Atma etc. Allthese doubts made the sages to think, work over for many years and the results wereframed in the form of Darshana, which guide us to know the truth and to get the ultimatehappiness i.e. the Moksha.Both Darshana shastra and Ayurveda have originated from the same source i.e. fromVedas. Both of them aim to relieve the Trividha Dukha (Adi daivika, Adi bhoutika,Adhyatmika). Ayurveda has accepted the health concerned discussion of Darshanas.Therefore the conceptual study of Darshana with its impact on Ayurveda was muchneeded. So this work was restricted to the study of Tattvas of Yoga Darshana in CharakaSamhita.The method followed was to collect and compile all the relevant details on all the abovementioned subjects. Then the collected matter was sorted out to keeping in view theobjectives. Then the compilation in tangent with objectives, maintaining a temporal flowwas done and analyzed.The study undertaken revealed that there is darshanika prushtabhumi in Ayurvedicclassics. In depth study of siddhantas of Yoga Darshana gave better clue of theirinfluence on Charaka Samhita. For eg; Sage Patanjali and Acharya Charaka both haveadvocated Aushadhi, Mantra, Japa, and Samadhi as the means of achieving theirobjectives. Besides spiritual paths, Yoga teaches the use of drugs for chitta shudhi.Similarly besides Aushadhi, Ahara, Vihara, Charaka also teaches the practice of Yoga.As Yoga Darshana and Charaka Samhita are contemporary sciences, the reference aboutChitta, Pramana, Nidra, Vyadhi, Smruti, Dukha, Ahimsa, Satya, Asteya, Brahmacharya,
    • SUMMARYYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita100Shoucha, Tapa, Sva Adhyaya, Panchajnanendriya, Panchakarmendriya,Panchamahabhuta, Panchatanmatra is maximum in Charaka Samhita.Viparyaya, Abhyasa, Samshaya, Dourmanasya, Maitri, Karuna, Harsha, Upeksha,Avidya, Asmita, Raga, Dvesha, Abhinivesha, Aparigraha, Pranayama, Dharana, Dhyana,Samadhi, Ashta Siddhi, Santosha, Ishwara, Avirati, Bhrantidarshana, Shvasa, Prashvasahave lesser reference in Charaka Samhita.In total the conceptual study revealed the influence of Yoga Darshana on CharakaSamhita.
    • BIBLIOGRAPHYYoga Darshana & Charaka Samhita100BIBLIOGRAPHICREFERENCE
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