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  • 1. “A COMPERATIVE, PHARMACEUTICAL AND EXPERIMENTALSTUDY OF VRANARAKSHASA TAILA & LAJJALU MOOLA TAILA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS VRANAROPANA PROPERTY.” BY Dr. SHUKLA DAS B.A.M.S. (Rajiv Gandhi University) Dissertation submitted to the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore In partial fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree of Ayurveda Vachaspati M.D. [Ayurveda] In BHAISHAJYA KALPANA GUIDE CO-GUIDES Prof. Dr. Dinesh Kumar Mishra M.D. (Ayu) H.O.D.,Professor, Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN BHAISHAJYA KALPANA A.L.N.RAO MEMORIAL AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE KOPPA - 577126 CHIKMAGALUR DISTRICT, KARNATAKA, INDIA NOVEMBER - 2010 Dr. H. Abdul Kareem M.D.(Ayu) Lecturer,Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana Dr. Roshy Joseph M.D.(Ayu) Lecturer,Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana
  • 2.   AROOR LAXMINARAYANA RAO MEMORIAL AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, KOPPA – 577 126 AFFILIATED TO RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, BANGALORE, GOVT. OF KARNATAKA & CCIM, NEW DELHI INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL ETHICAL COMMITTEE REGISTRATION NO. 191/CPCSEA IAEC Approval No: A.E.B.K. 02/07 Date: ……………                 CERTIFICATE  This to certify that Dr. SHUKLA DAS, final year PG Scholar of Bhaishjya kalpana Department had completed her experimental study on Wound healing activity as a part of her Dissertation work titled,“ “ A COMPARETIVE PHARMACEUTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF VRANARAKSHASA TAILA & LAJJALUMOOLA TAILA W.S.R. TO ITS VRANA ROPANA PROPERTY”in the Animal House attached to the PG faculty of A.L.N. Rao Memoria Ayurvedic Medical College & PG Centre. The animal model used for the experimental study was Wister strain Albino rats, maintained under standard hygienic conditions, fed with standard, regular diet & sufficient water. Experimentation was carried out on Albino rats after making incision & excision wounds. The observations & Parameters for evaluation were accurately recorded for statistical evaluation. Dr. Hari Venkatesh. K. R. MD (Ay) Prof.Sanjaya.K.S.B.Sc.,MD (Ay) Scientific Incharge – Animal House Principal / Chairman, IAEC  
  • 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In the beginning, thousands of Pranams at the sacred feet of Sri Ganpati who had showered his blessings in each and every stage of my life and for the successful completion of this work. The thesis work was completed successfully by the mental support of my beloved husband Dr.Pankaj Prasad Shriwastava who is always with me, giving all support and guidance whenever I need his motivation and encouragement in my studies is unforgettable, which definitely inspires me in each and every step on my life. I am also too much thankful to my lovely daughter Bhoomika who is so much of understanding, co-operative, adjesting herself throughout my postgraduate studies. Mere words cannot express my feelings of gratitude towards my beloved Father Shri Ganga Narayan Das and mother Smt. Bani Das who were always giving all types of support and without them all this will just be a dream. It is very difficult to find appropriate vocabulary to express my sincere and hearty gratitude to my Father in –law Sri Dinesh Kumar Shriwastava and Mother in- law Smt. Susheela Devi who has always been there with me with their constant support, encouragement and inspiration. I Remain Grateful Forever to My Respected Guide, Prof.Dr. Dinesh Kumar Mishra, H.O.D, Dept. of “Bhaishajya Kalpana” for his Valuable Guidance, Meticulous Supervision and timely given advises. I am Overwhelmingly Thankful to my Co-Guide,Dr. Rosy Joseph, ,Lecturer,& Dr. H. Abdul Karim, lecturer , Dept. of “Bhaishajya Kalpana” for their ever encouraging constant indefeasible guidance, critical suggestions and overall supervision throughout the course, especially in completing my practical, experimental and dissertation works.  
  • 4. I am grateful forever indebted to Sri Aroor Ramesh Rao, President, A.L.N.Rao Ayurvedic Medical College Koppa, for giving me an opportunity to do my P.G.Studies. I render my heart full thank to Principal DR. Sanjaya K.S. M.D.(Ayu) A.L.N.Rao Ayurvedic Medical College Koppa, for his help and support in completing my work. I would like to extend my heartfelt gratitude towards Prof.P.K.Mishra M.D.(Ayu), H.O.D Dept. of KC and Prof.M Vidyasagar M.D.(Ayu) Ph.D (Ayu), H.O.D. Dept.of DG of our college. I would like to submit my heartfull thanks to Our Senior Guru’s Prof. Dr. Damodar Pandey, A;M.B.S., H.P.A., Ph.D.(Ayu), Prof .Dr .C.B. Jha M.D.(Ayu) BHU, Dr. Vilas Dole M.D. (Ayu) Pune, Dr. Sarashetty M.D.(Ayu) Bijapur, Dr. Unnikrishnan M.D.(Ayu) Trivandrum, Prof. Ramesh Harwalkar M.D.(Ayu), Prof. Siddhi Nandan Mishra Sir M.D.(Ayu) for their indefatigable guidance which had molded and enriched my research work of its fulfillment. I am glad to express sincere thanks to DR.B.I.Mathpathy, Dr. Harikrishna, Dr. Milind Hukeri, Dr.Abdul kareem, Dr. Sandeep Sarode,Dr. Roshy Joseph, Dr.Subha &Dr.Prashant Math - Lecturers, Post Graduate Studies, Dept. of R. S. & B.K. for their kind assistance and guidance through out the course. My special Thanks to Dr. Prashant kumarJha [M.Sc. Ph.D.] Who Helped Me for Confirming the Genuinity and Purity of Crude Drugs along with the analytical study of the prepared formulations. I am thankful to Dr. H.R Pradeep, Dr.T.K Mohantha, Dr.Resmi rekha misra, Dr. Basavaraj hiremanth, Dr.Mohrer, Dr.Srinivas, Dr.C.B. Singh, Dr.Reta, Dr. Harivenkatesh ,Dr.D.Bhattacharya, Dr.Sushma, and many others for their timely support.   I am ever Gratefull for to Dr. Shyamalan, and Dr. Suhas Shetty For their complete guidance in statistical work.
  • 5. I am extremely thankful to Dr.Mithun, and Dr.Vikram for their great help during my Experimental studies. I am extremely thankful to my batchmets Dr.Prafulla, Dr.Kiran, Dr.Jagdeesh mayya, Dr.Narappa Reddy, Dr.Deepa, Dr.Anupama, Dr.Sriparvati, Dr.Vidyavati, Dr. Sunanda,Dr. Pallavi, Dr. Bijoy, Dr. Sri Krishana, Dr. Krishnaveni, Dr. Tulya, Dr. Lovelin for their help during my studies. I am extremely thankful to my seniors Dr.Prasanth math, Dr.Noble.T.M, Dr.Mahesh.M.Madalagiri, Dr.S.N.Gotur Dr. Jayaraj, Dr. Vibhu, Dr. Roopesh, Dr. Yashoda, Dr. Ram kumar, Dr. Dhanya, Dr. Sumam, Dr.Sunil and Dr. Dinesh for their help during my studies. My junior friends like Dr. Asha, Dr.Kanchan, Dr.Arun, Dr.Karthik and others who I cannot forget for their help during my studies. I am thankful to my sister Sudipta &Smt. Sonali and all the family members who really helped and supported me during my P.G studies. I submit my thanks to staff members of the pharmacy Mr. Mathew, Mrs Ganeshwari, Mrs. Veda, and Mrs. Ponnamma for their assistance in practical works. I thank librarians, Mr. Satheesh, Mr. Basheer, Miss. Manjula and Miss. Ameena Yasmin and all office staffs for their help through out the course. And last, but not least, I am thankful to my beloved relatives, UG students , lecturers& all my friends and well wishers who have directly or indirectly helped me during the course. Date: Place: Koppa Dr. Shukla Das PG. Scholar, Dept.of Bhashajya Kalpana   A.L.N .Rao memorial,Ayurvedic Medical College,Koppa
  • 6. I here By Declare that This Dissertation Entitled “ A COMPARETIVE PHARMACEUTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF VRANA RAKSHASA TAILA & LAJJALU MOOLA TAILA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS VRANA ROPANA PROPERTY” is a Bonafide and Genuine Research Work Carried Out By Me Under The Guidance Of Dr. Dinesh Kumar Mishra Professor, Department of Post Graduate Studies in Bhaishajya Kalpana, A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College P. G. Centre, Koppa. Date: Place: Koppa Department of Post Graduate Studies in BHAISHAJYA KALPANA A.L.N.Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College Koppa – 577126 Dist: Chikmagalur Karnataka Declaration Dr. SHUKLA DAS P.G.Scholar, Dept. of Bhaishajya Kalpana A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa – 577 126
  • 7. This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “ A COMPARATIVE PHARMACEUTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF VRANARAKSHASA TAILA& LAJJALU MOOLA TAILA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS VRANA ROPANA PROPERTY” is a Bonafide research work done by Dr.SHUKLA DAS, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspati (MD) in Bhaishajya Kalpana of Rajiv Gandhi University of health Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka. Guide: Date: Place: Koppa Department of Post graduate Studies in BHAISHAJYA KALPANA A.L.N.Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College Koppa – 577126 Dist: Chikmagalur Certificate Prof. Dinesh Kumar Mishra M.D (Ayu) H.O.D.,Dept. of Bhaishajya Kalpana A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa – 577 126
  • 8. This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “ A COMPARATIVE PHARMACEUTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF VRANARAKSHASA TAILA& LAJJALU MOOLA TAILA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS VRANA ROPANA PROPERTY” is a Bonafide research work done by Dr.SHUKLA DAS, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspati (MD) in Bhaishajya Kalpana of Rajiv Gandhi University of health Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka. Co-Guide: Date: Place: Koppa Department of Post graduate Studies in BHAISHAJYA KALPANA A.L.N.Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College Koppa – 577126 Dist: Chikmagalur Certificate Dr. H. ABDUL KAREEM M.D (Ayu) Lecturer, Dept. of Bhaishajya Kalpana A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa – 577 126
  • 9. This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “ A COMPARATIVE PHARMACEUTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF VRANARAKSHASA TAILA& LAJJALU MOOLA TAILA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS VRANA ROPANA PROPERTY” is a Bonafide research work done by Dr.SHUKLA DAS, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspati (MD) in Bhaishajya Kalpana of Rajiv Gandhi University of health Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka. Date: Place: Koppa Department of Post graduate Studies in BHAISHAJYA KALPANA A.L.N.Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College Koppa – 577126 Dist: Chikmagalur Endorsement Prof. Dr. Sanjaya K.S MD (Ayu) Principal, A.L.N.Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa –577126, Dist: Chikmagalur.
  • 10. COPYRIGHT I here by declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminate this dissertation in print or electronic format for academic/research purpose. Date: Place: © Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka Dr.SHUKLA DAS P.G.Scholar, Dept. of Bhaishajya Kalpana A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa – 577 126
  • 11. ABBREVIATIONS A.Ni - Ashtanga Nigantu M.Ni - Madhava Nidana A.P. - Ayurveda Prakasha Ma - Madyama Khanda A.P.I - Ayurvedic Pharmacopia of India mm2 - Millimeter Square A.S - Astanga Sangraha Ni. - Nidana Sthana Acc. - According Pu - Purva Khanda AH - Astanga Hridaya ROM - Range of Movement AT - After Treatment R.Chu - Rasendra Chudamani Ayu. - Ayurveda R.Cha. - Rasa Chandanshu B.P.N - Bhavaprakasha Nighantu R.D. - Rasa Darpan BT - Before Treatment R.T. - Rasatarangini B.R. - Bhaishajya Ratnavali R.J.N - Rasa Jala Nidhi BNR - Brihat Nighantu Ratnakara S.D. - Standard Deviation C - Control S.E. - Standard Error CCRAS - Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha S.Y. - Sahasra Yoga C.S. - Charaka Samhita Sa.Ka.Dru - Shabda Kalpa Druna Chi. - Chikitsa Sthana Sam - Samhita D.G.V. - Dravya Guna Vijnana. Sha.Sa - Sharangadhara Samhita D.N. - Dhanwantari Nighantu Sl. No. - Serial Number Diff. - Difference. Su. - Sushrutha Samhita Eg/e.g. - Example Sut. - Sutra Sthana Gm - Grams Ut. - Uttara Sthana i.e., - That is V.P.P - Vaidyaka Paribhasha Pradeepa K.N. - Kaiyadeva Nighantu Vol. - Volume Kg. - Kilograms Y.R. - Yoga Ratnakara Ks - Kalpa Sthana. % - Percentage Ltr. - Liter & - And
  • 12.                                                                                              Abstract      ABSTRACT Background and objectives: Vrana is defined as “Discontinuity of skin” Ayurveda explains Vrana as the one which occupies the skin or any area of the body, which doesn’t disappear and forms a scar which even after healing remains in the body. Ayurveda has classified Vrana as of two types Nija and Agantuja. Agantuja vrana is commonly occurring due to the exogenous factors. Ayurveda has mentioned number of effective remedies for Vrana, Vranarakshasa tailam & Lajjalumoola tailam are mentioned for their shodhana and Ropana properties. During healing of wound, many complications such as infections and scarring will occur. An attempt has been made to evaluate the wound healing property of Vranarakshasa Tailam & Lajjalumoola Tailam through experimental models. Methods: Practical Study: • Preparation of Moorchita Tila Taila. • Preparation of Moorchita Sarshapa Taila. • Preparation of Moorchita Go- Ghrita. • Preparation of Vranarakshsa Tailam. • Preparation of Lajjalumoola Tailam.      
  • 13.                                                                                              Abstract      Experimental Study: • The experimental study contains two wound models. Excision and Incision wound is made on albino rats. 36 rats are selected and grouped in to 3 of 12 each. • The trial drugs Vranarakshasa Tailam and Lajjalumoola Tailam are applied over the wound models. • In excision wound the percentage of wound contraction and period of epithelization was studied. In incision wound tensile strength or breaking strength of the wound was studied. Results: It consists of both Analytical and Experimental results. • In analytical results, the results of the parameters like Acid value, Saponification value, Iodine value, Loss on drying at 1100 C, Ester value and Refractive index at 400 C etc. were included. • The result obtained in 6 sub groups (Trial I and control, Trial II and control, Trial I and Trial II – Excision and Incision) were recorded, tabulated and analyzed. Statistical analysis was done by applying appropriate statistical tests and significance noted. The result shows that the trial drugs Vranarakshasa Tailam and Lajjalumoola Tailam is statistically significant than the control group and Vranarakshasa Tailam having more effect in all the parameters analyzed, with respect to the two wound model viz, Incision and Excision.    
  • 14.                                                                                              Abstract      Conclusion: • Both the Trial drugs showed significant wound healing effect when compared with control group. • Both the Trial drugs exposed asimilar wound healing effect when statistically compared with each other and Vrana rakshasa Tailam had better efficacy in wound healing than Lajjalumoola Tailam. Key Words: Wound healing, Vrana rakshasa Taila, Lajjalumoola Tailam, Wound contraction, Epithelization, Tensile strength.    
  • 16.                                                                                                       Experimental study  EXPERIMENTAL STUDY STAGES OF EXCISION STAGES OF INCISION TESTING TENSILE STRENGTH    
  • 17.                                                                                                       Experimental study    Graph No: 1 showing the % closure of original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 4th Post wounding day 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1st Rat 2nd Rat 3rd Rat 4th Rat 5th Rat 6th rat controll Trial 1 Trial 2 Graph No: 2 showing the % closure of original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 8th Post wounding day.   0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100  
  • 18.                                                                                                       Experimental study  Graph No: 3 showing the % closure of original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 12th post Wounding day. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1st Rat 2nd Rat 3rd Rat 4th Rat 5th Rat 6th Rat Controll Trial 1 Trial 2 Graph No: 4 showing the % closure of original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 16th post wounding day. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1st Rat 2nd Rat 3rd Rat 4th Rat 5th Rat 6th Rat contoll Trial 1 Trial 2    
  • 19.                                                                                                       Experimental study  Graph No: 5 showing the % tensile strength in gm of incision wound on 10th post Wounding day: 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 1st Rat 2nd Rat 3rd Rat 4th Rat 5th Rat 6th Rat Controll Trail 1 Trial 2 Graph No 6: Showing period of epithelization (in no. of days): 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 1st Rat 2nd Rat 3rd Rat 4th Rat 5th Rat 6th Rat Series1 Series2 Series3    
  • 20. LIST OF TABLE Table No. Contents Page No. 1. The source of Sneha 13 2. The Ratio of Kalka Depends on Nature of Drava Dravya. 15 3. The Ratio of Water To Prepare Sneha Kashaya Depends Upon The Nature of Dravyas Used. 18 4. The Ratio of Water Depends Upon The Quantity of Dravyas. 18 5. The Preparation Of Sneha Kashaya According To Various Authors 19 6. Ingredients in Tila Taila murchana 24 7. Ingredients in Sarshapa Taila murchana 25 8. Ingredients in Go-Ghrita murchana 26 9. Sneha paka kala With Various Drava Dravyas 28 10. Number of Pakas According To Different Acharyas 29 11. Uses of Different Pakas 30 12. References Regarding The Number of Avarthana. 34 13. Number of Avarthys in Present practice 34 14. Difference Between Fixed and Volatile Oils 39 15. Showing the Fatty acid composition of Sesame oil 46 16. Showing the composition of Ghee 51 17. Characters of each variety - Manashila 68 18. Showing bhavana dravyas by different acharyas for the shodhana 70 19. Showing swedana dravyas by different acharyas for shodhana 70 20. Synonyms of Gairika Acc. To different classics 86 21. Types of Gairika acc to different classics 87 22. Karmas of suvarna Gairika according to different classics 88 23. Gairika shodhana according to different classics 89 24. Nija Vrana Classification. 100 25. Classification of Agantuja vrana. 101 26. Classification of vrana by Acharya Susrutha 101 27. Classification of vrana by Acharya Charaka and Vaghbata. 102 28. Seven Principles of Upakarma Acc. to Acharya Susruta. 108 29. Measures Advised by Acharya Charaka. 108 30. Measures Advised by Acharya Vagbhata. 108 31. The Loss of Murchita Go-Ghrita in Practical No. 7 ,8, &9 136 32. The Loss of Murchita Tila Taila in Practical 10, 11, &12 139 33. The Loss of Murchita Sarshapa Taila in Practical 13, 14, &15 142 34. The Loss of Lajjalu moola Tailam prepared in practical 16, 17&18 144 35. The Loss of Vrana rakshasa Taila prepared in practical 19,20 &21 146 36. Grouping of Albino Rats 149 37. % closure of original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 4th post wounding day With the results of Students t test and f test (ANOVAs test). 164
  • 21. 38. Comparative % closure of excision wound area on 4th post wounding day. 165 39. % closure of original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 8th post wounding day With the results of Students t test and f test (ANOVAs test). 166 40. Comparative % closure of excision wound area on 8th post wounding day. 167 41. % closure of original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 12th post wounding day With the results of Students t test and f test (ANOVAs test). 168 42. Comparative % closure of excision wound area on 12th post wounding day. 169 43. % closure of original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 16th post wounding day With the results of Students t test and f test (ANOVAs test). 170 44. Comparative % closure of excision wound area on 12th post wounding day. 171 45. Tensile strength in gm of incision wound on 10th post wounding day. 172 46. Comparative tensile strength of incision wound on 10th day in between the groups. 173 47. Period of epithelization (in no. of days) 174 48. Comparative epithelization between the groups: 175 49. Benefits of murchana samskara 179 50. The results of Analytical study. 185 51. Showing the results of qualitative test 186 52. General properties of trial drug I 190 53. General properties of trial drug II 191
  • 22. LIST OF GRAPH SL. No GRAPH 1. Mean closure of original excision wound on 4th post wounding day. 2. Mean closure of original excision wound on 8th post wounding day. 3. Mean closure of original excision wound on 12th post wounding day. 4. Mean closure of original excision wound on 14th post wounding day. 5. Mean tensile strength of incision wound in gm on 10th postwounding day. 6. Number of days taken for scar formation LIST OF PHOTOS SL. No Photos 1 Raw drugs used for the preparation of Trial drug I&II 2. Preparation of trial drugs & Finished Product 3. Experimental study photos 4. Stages of excision wound healing 5. TLC Plates
  • 23. Introduction INTRODUCTION Ayurveda is a holistic system of natural health care that originated in the ancient Vedic civilization of India. It is also known as science of life. Ayurveda is the Upaveda of Atharvaveda. It is a compiled form of knowledge of health which were scattered in Vedas. It not only deals with the medicines but also the way of life, code of conduct and other factors which are necessary for the disease free life. Therefore Ayurveda is regarded as the foundation of many medicinal sciences existing then and even today. ‘’Ayurveda’’ based upon Panchamahabhoota, Tridoshas and trisutras viz. Hetu, Linga, & oushadha. Oushadha is one among them, which is based upon formulations and their practical application and alleviation of diseases, maintenance and promotion of health. The drug, which may be plant, animal or mineral origin. The main aims and objectives of Ayurveda are maintaining the positive health and curing the disease. In Ashtanga Ayurveda, Bhaishajya kalpana was not mentioned as an independent branch. However, no branch of ayurveda can exist independently without the aid of Oushadha or Bheshaja. The word ‘’Bhaishajya kalpana ‘’ comprises of two words –Bhaishajya means drug and Kalpana means modification .The kalpana is to be carried out in an order to potentiate therapeutic properties of the drugs. This branch aids the physicians to utilize the Bheshaja in various formulations and forms, to get maximum benefits by curing or subsiding the disease. It helps in increasing the shelf life and palatability of drugs. But the base of all these formulations was embedded in five basic kalpanas i.e. Swarasa, Kalka, Kwatha, Hima and phanta. In addition to these, other preparations like Avaleha kalpana, vati kalpana, sneha kalpana etc. are also mentioned in our classics. Page 1
  • 24. Introduction Sneha kalpana is the upakalpana of both Kashaya and kalka kalpana. It plays an important role in our therapeutics. In sneha kalpana, the fat soluble active constituents of the drugs are transferred into sneha by Snehapaka Vidhi. Researches proven that Ghrita is one among the very few substances which crosses the blood brain barrier and also proven that oil is good for wound healing, since on external application the oil soluble toxic principles are attracted sesame oil molecules and can be washed with warm water. It has also been proved an active anti bacterial against staphylococcus and streptococcus. For Susruta health was not merely a freedom from disease but a normal state of mind, body and soul.1 . Susruta conceived of a total management of the disease from the earliest stage of the vitiation of Humors, to total recovery in which he insisted on bringing back the site of the lesion to normalcy in all respects. Thus, it may well be said that Susruta, s management was more thorough than even conceived today. Now adays wound is said to have healed when epithelization is complete. How ever, Susruta would employ “Vaikritapaham2 measures which will bring back to normal colour, surface and hairs3. Because of that only Susruta can be rightly called the originator of plastic surgery. In Susruta samhita, Vranitopsaneeya Adhyaya Vrana and its management has been explained. He mentioned that “if the raksha karma of vrana is proper then the Nishacharas leave the patient, same as the Mrugaas run away from the jungle terrified by a lion.” As the man is prone to have non-dietetic factors in his life style, he has of necessity to experience certain unpleasant events at certain times. Many factors including endogenous and exogenous causes, directly or indirectly effect on the condition and function of the body. The exogenous factors include trauma, various agents as physical, chemical and microbiological etc, which leads to exogenous Page 2
  • 25. Introduction disorders. Wound is one of them. Centuries ago, injury in the battle field due to hit by arrows was one of the common problem. Falling from trees, height, crushing against stone or hard materials, animal bites was the causes for injury. Various micro- organisms delayed the process of wound healing, due to that contamination of wound taken place. Wound is characterized by pain bleeding and some time oedema. Though healing of the wound is natural phenomenon. It possesses problems in clinical practices. Many factors interfere in the healing of wound, out of these some established factors are local factor like surgical technique, bandaging, malignancy, anemia, growth hormone etc. Wound healing can be defined as replacement of destroyed tissue by living tissue. In the classics various healing measures have been mentioned in the management of wound. Vrana Ropana and Vrana Shodhana are one of them. We find that today in the world of practice of Ayurveda, Sneha kalpana is the most popular dosage form due to its wide spectrum of application and also due to its palatability. Wounds which occur due to any form of trauma was treated right from the Samhita period with the help of snehas predominantly taila Kalpanas. The necessity of Sneha kalpana being selected was that; it is an easily available organic form of medicine. According to Aadhmala, Taila increases its potency throughout and has no shelf life. Tailas are Vata kaphaharam Srestam and as such all the Sadya vrana in due course is Vata Kapha Peedita Modern advance in molecular biological research techniques have increased the gap between our understanding of the mechanisms of wound healing and the clinical application of this knowledge. A number of factors besides the expansion of new knowledge have contributed to this distance. Medicine is also known as the art of Page 3
  • 26. Introduction healing while curative methods are being refined and developed at a rapid pace and healing remains the prime objective of the physicians. Usage of various types of leaves or soil was the treatment to arrest bleeding. Quest for knowledge by ancient people led to many investigations and assumptions. Gradually things with better results were selected and tried with different forms. The mission of the wound healing is to increase our basic understanding of the molecular and cellular events of the cellular repair and wound healing processes, and to use this information as the basis for developing new therapies that minimize the adverse consequences of wound injuries. Such novel therapies could enhance cellular repair, promote rapid wound closure, and minimize hypertrophic scarring. A close study of Ayurveda reveals that a number of plants and minerals were used to achieve the goal Vrana-Ropana. A vast scope of research exists in the field of Ayurveda for the benefit of the science and humanity at large. Now a day, single drug therapy is becoming popular and many plants are screened to understand their pharmacological actions. Single drug medications are easy to prepare, economical, with minimum side effect, they produce specific action. Hence in this study single drug Lajjalu moola is selected to evaluate its wound healing property. From Vedic period to Samhita period there was less use of Herbo-mineral drugs but, from the period of Nagarjuna compounds of Herbo-mineral drugs are used profusely. Rasa aushadhies are appreciated for their smaller dosages, quick effectiveness and long durability. Hence in this study a Herbo-mineral drug is also selected to evaluate its wound healing property. Page 4
  • 27. Introduction Any dosage form in Ayurveda though proved by our ancient seers can be accepted but modern world only after experimental study. So, in the present study, an attempt has been made to compare the wound healing property of Lajjalu moola Tailam and Vrana rakshasa Tailam experimentally. The experimentation is done on animals (Albino rats) to find out the drug having better healing properties. Outline of proposed dissertation work: Chapter I - Introduction Chapter II - Objectives Chapter III - Review of literature • Pharmaceutical review • Drug review • Disease review Chapter IV - Methodology • Pharmaceutical study • Analytical study • Experimental study Chapter V - Results Chapter VI - Discussion Chapter VII - Conclusion Chapter VIII - Summary References I. Introduction: A brief review of the proposed research work is presented in this chapter. Page 5
  • 28. Introduction II. Objectives: The objective of the present study along with the hypothesis is mentioned. III. Review of literature: The review of literature is done under three sub headings – 1. Pharmaceutical review: Under this title, various Samhitas are browsed for information regarding Sneha Kalpana. 2. Drug review: Here the detailed description of the drugs used in the preparation is described. 3. Disease review: Here the detailed description of Vrana and its modern co relation is dealt. PREVIOUS WORKS ON WOUND HEALING: A) Gujarat Ayurveda University, I.P.G.T. & R.A., Jamnagar. 1. Role of Karanjadi Ghrita in Dusta Vrana with special reference to chronic infected wound by Dr. Chovatiya N.M. 2. Role of Sodhana and Ropana Ayurvedic drug in special reference to Dusta Vrana by Dr. Chowdhary A.R. in 1990. 3. Clinical and Experimental Studies of Yastimadhvadi Compound in Vrana Ropana by Dr. Gupta, R. in 1995. B) I.M.S., Banares Hindu University; Varanasi. 1. Studies on Vrana Ropana by Dr. Mishra, S.N. in 1969. 2. Studies on Vrana Sodhana by Dr. Sharma, S.K. in 1971. Page 6
  • 29. Introduction C) Ayurvedic Collage, Bangalore. 1. Effect of Ksara Taila in Dusta Vrana by Dr. Shetty, Narayana in 1987. 2. Study of action of “Bandhana Karana” through “Patradana” in Vrana Chikitsa by Dr. Huvin, S.V. in 1988. 3. Effect of “Kasisadi Taila” in Dustavrana by Dr. Mashetti, N.B. in 1989. 4. Effect of “Triphala Guggulu” in the management of Vrana by Dr. Sinha, R.K. in 1989. 5. An experimental study of the effect of “Ksudra Seventika” in “SadhyoVrana” by Dr.Narsimha in 1990. D) Government Ayurvedic Collage, Thiruvanthapuram. 1. Effect of “Murivenna” in healing of Dusta Vrana by Dr. Anitha, O. in 1989. 2. Clinical study in Dusta Vrana with “Ras Karpooradi Dhupanam” and Rasa Sinduram by Dr. Sanjeev, L.B. in 1990. 3. Management of Dusta Vrana with Karkaradi Ghritam by Dr. Bindu, B. in E) Ayurvedic Collage, Nagpur. 1. Role of “Udumbara Kshara” in treatment of Dusta Vrana by Dr. Qureshi, F. in 1993. F) Ayurvedic Collage, Hyderabad. 1. Study of Vajraka Tailam in Dusta Vrana by Dr. Sarangpani, S. in 1985. 2. Management of Dagdha Vrana with “Swatha Malhar” by Dr. Prasad K.M. in 1987. 3. Svarna Kshiri in the management of Dusta Vrana by Dr. Najraj, N. in 1990. 4. Management of Dusta Vrana with “Karanjadi Tailam” by Dr. Rao, P. in 1991. Page 7
  • 30. Introduction G) A.L.N.Rao Ayurvedic medical college Koppa 1. A study on Saptaparna with refferance to its wound healing property(2001)- Dr.Pankaj P surve 2. A comparative study on wound healing properties of Durvadi tailam and Ghritam –Dr. Binu alappat.A-2003 3. Standardization of Samangadi taila w.s.r. to its vrana ropana property an experimental evaluation-Dr.Harihara Prasad -2004 4. An experimental evaluation of Varna ropana action of Hamsapadi and Mayurashika-A comparative study.(2007)-Dr.Nisha babu 5. An experimental evaluation of Varna ropana action of Apamarga and Asvatta - A comparative study-Dr. K.Vijoy. 6. A pharmaceutical and experimental evaluation Bhallatakadyam tailam w.s.r to its wound healing property-Dr.Anuradha-2009 H) S.D.M. Ayurvedic college Udupi 1. Efficacy of Triphal guggulu and Gandhaka Rasayana in post operative wound management.-Dr. Nagaraj.S 2. The study of Triphala kwatha parisheka in the management of Dusta vrana,Bhat manjunath IV. Methodology: This chapter is sub divided into:- 1. Practical study: It includes the pharmaceutical description of Parada, Gandhaka,Hartala, Manahashila, Gairika shodhana, Moorchana of ghrita, tila taila, sarsapa taila, preparation of Lajjalumoola Taila and Vrana rakshasa taila. Page 8
  • 31. Introduction 2. Analytical study: Both formulations were analyzed by using physico- chemical perameters. 3. Experimental study: It deals with the animal experimentation for the wound healing action of Lajjalumoola Tailam and Vranarakshasa Tailam. V. Results: It deals with the results of the above-mentioned animal experimental model. VI. Discussion: This chapter deals with elaborate discussion regarding each step of pharmaceutical study of the prepared drugs and the experimental study. VII. Conclusion: The outcome of the present study is included in this chapter. VIII. Summary: The whole dissertation work is summarized under this heading. Page 9
  • 32. Objectives  Page 10                                     Objectives The study is based on the following aims and objectives: • To experimentally evaluate the efficacy of the Trial drug I “ Varna rakshasa Tailam” and Trail drug II “ Lajjalu moola Tailam” for their wound healing properties • To prepare the Trial drug I and II as per the textual references and to analyze its properties. • To experimentally evaluate the wound healing properties of Trial drug I and II in comparison to control group. • To experimentally evaluate the efficacy of the Trial drugs on the sate of contraction in excision wound model by following the technique developed by Morton and Mallone in Albino rats, which will recorded once in 4 days by taking the impression of the wounded area on a thin plastic plate. • To experimentally evaluate the period of epithelization in the excision wound model on albino rat, measured by observing the falling of the scar leaving no rare wound area behind. • To evaluate experimentally, the effect of the Trail drugs on the tensile strength of the granulation tissue in the Incision wound model developed by Hunts-et- al in Albino rats, which will be measured by the Tension-Meter or constant water flow technique developed by Lee-et-al.
  • 33. Objectives  Page 11 Hypothesis: Null Hypothesis:- Vranarakshasa Tailam and Lajjlumoola Tailam do not have wound healing effect in experimental models. Alternate Hypothesis:- VranarakshasaTailam and LajjlumoolaTailam both are having wound healing effect and among them Vranarakshasa tailam having more effect.
  • 34. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 12 PHARMACEUTICAL REVIEW INTRODUCTION Historical Background: The word kalpana is familiar from the Vedic period onwards. Various Ahara kalpanas like Saktu, Parivapa, Karambha, Amiksha, Laja, Mamsa rasa, Parisruta etc, and Aushada kalpanas like somarasa, swarasa, etc. have been mentioned. From the various references of yajurveda, Satapata bhramana, Aithareya brahmana, we can assume that the people in Vedic era were well versed with Sneha kalpana1 In Samhita kala, Brihathrayees Such as Charaka Samhita, Kalpasthana 12th chapter, Susrutha Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana 31st chapter, Ashtanga Sangraha, Kalpasthana 8th chapter and Laguthrayees except Madhava Nidana such as, Sarangadara Samhita, Madhyamakhanda 9th chapter, Bhavaprakasha Samhita Uttarakhanda 2nd chapter gives a detailed description about Sneha Kalpana. Other descriptions about Sneha Kalpana are available from Bhaishajya Ratnavali 5th chapter, Vaidyaka Paribhasha Pradeepa, Pradhama Khanda 3rd chapter. Sneha Kalpana: The word Sneha Kalpana is composed of two words ‘Sneha’ and ‘Kalpana’. The root word of Sneha is “Snih Preetau”. Sneha means fat or fatty materials or oily fraction extracted from jangama or Sthavara sources. The root word of ‘kalpa’ Shabda is ‘krup samarthye’ ♦ MüsmÉrÉiÉå ÌuÉÍkÉrÉiÉå AÉxÉuÉÌuÉÌSÌWû:|” (zÉ.Mü.SìÓ.) ♦ “mÉëMüsmÉlÉÇ xÉÇxMüUhÉÇ CÌiÉ|” (cÉYëmÉÉÍhÉ) ♦ “MüsmÉlÉÉÇ rÉÉåeÉlÉÉÇ CirÉjÉï:” (A.S.)
  • 35. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 13 That means a process; modification or plan of preparation of medicines, using either a single drug or several drugs is called Kalpana. According to Shabda kalpa druma and Apte’s Sanskrit English dictionary, Kalpana means preparation, making, manufacturing etc. In Amarakosha, it is mentioned as vidhi karma. Sneha is obtained from two sources2 , (1) Sthavara (2) Jangama. Table No. 1 : showing the sources of sneha: Source Sthavara Jangama Tila, Priyala, Vibhitaki, Danti, Haritaki, Eranda, Madhuka Sarsapa, Kusumbha, Bilwa, Shigru etc Mamsa, Medas, Asthi, majja, Vasa etc. of quadruped animals, birds and fishes. According to Acharya Vagbhata, the sneha dravyas have the properties guru, sheeta, sara, snigdha, manda, sukshma, mrudu and drava3 . Acharya Charaka mentions pichila guna in addition to the above-mentioned gunas4 . Sneha is the vishesha guna of jala mahabhoota. The bhoota sangadha of sneha is jala and prithwi5 . Karmas of sneha6 1. Snehakrut 2. Mardavakrut 3. Bala krut 4. Varnakrut Sneha chatushta7 : 1. Sarpi 2. Taila 3. Vasa 4. Majja.
  • 36. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 14 Medicated sneha is to be used for panam, abhyangam, vasti and nasyam. Among the above-mentioned snehas, ghrita is best because of its power to assimilate the properties of the substances without losing its own properties8 . Sneha kalpana: Sneha kalpana means pharmaceutical processing of sneha. Sneha kalpana can be classified into two, 1. Taila kalpana 2. Ghrita kalpana. Advantages of sneha kalpanas are: 1. To extract the fat-soluble and water-soluble active principles of plants and minerals. 2. To obtain extra benefits of specific oil/ghee used. 3. To preserve the drug/drugs for longer time. 4. To enhance and hasten the absorption of drugs. There are four basic constituents required for processing of sneha kalpana. They are9 1. Sneha Dravya - Oil or ghee (1 part) 2. Kalka Dravya - Fine paste of drugs (1/4 part) 3. Drava Dravya - Liquid part of water/kwatha, swarasa etc. (4 part) 4. Gandha Dravya - Perfuming agents, not in all preparations (1/16 part) General rule for preparation of sneha kalpana: According to Acharya Charaka, Sushrutha, Vagbhata and Sarangadhara, if the ratio or proportions of Kalka and dravadravya are not mentioned, the kalka should be taken ¼ of snehadravya and dravadrvya should be four times of snehadravya. In Bhaishajya Ratnavali, it is mentioned that the Gandha dravyas should be taken 1/16 of sneha dravya.
  • 37. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 15 Sneha dravya: Usually oil or ghee are used as Sneha dravya. In Taila kalpana usually Tila taila is used and in the case of Ghrita kalpana, cow’s ghee is used as Sneha dravya. The ghrita for the purpose of snehapaka should be preferably old one (purana ghrita). On storage, ghrita becomes unsuitable for food purposes, but on the other hand, it attains some pharmacodynamic properties and values for therapeutic use. The taila for the purpose of snehapaka should be preferably new one and the sneha dravyas should be free from rancidity. Kalka dravya: According to Sarangadhara, Kalka is a soft paste (of wet or dry drug) prepared by grinding wet drug without adding water and dry drug with a little quantity of water. In general, kalka should be taken ¼ of snehadravyas10 . This ratio of Kalkadravya varies according to the; 1. Nature of liquid media and 2. Nature of kalka dravya Nature of liquid media11 If the Drava dravya is jala, kwatha or swarasa, then the kalka should be taken 1/4 or 1/6 or 1/8 part of sneha dravya respectively. If the Drava dravya is ksheera, dadhi, mamsa rasa, takra etc, then the kalka should be taken 1/8 of sneha dravya. Table No. 2: showing ratio of kalka dravya Acc. to the nature of liquid media: Sl. No. Drava dravya Ratio of Kalka Ratio of Sneha 1 Jala 1/4 part 1 part 2 Kwatha 1/6 part 1 part 3 Swarasa 1/8 part 1 part
  • 38. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 16 4 Ksheera 1/8 part 1 part 5 Dadhi 1/8 part 1 part 6 Mamsa rasa 1/8 part 1 part 7 Takra 1/8 part 1 part While preparing sneha with ksheera, dadhi, mamsa rasa, takra etc for the proper extraction of kalka 4 times of water should be added additionally12 . Nature of kalka dravya13 : If the kalka is pushpa, then it should be taken 1/8 of sneha. “MüsMüxrÉ AÉkrÉiuÉÉiÉç”| means the potency of this kalka is more and is soft (mrudu). In Sharangadhara samhita’s Deepika commentary it is clearly mentioned that any pushpa’s (flowers) like Nagakesara, Kumkuma, Lavanga, Damanaka, Surapushpa, Champaka, Utpala, Pundareeka, Ketaki, Sati, Kusumbha etc are to be taken in 1/8th part to sneha during the process. If the kalka dravyas are not mentioned and only the kwatha dravyas are told, then the kwatha dravya’s are to be taken to prepare kalka for the preparation of sneha kalpana. Drava dravya13 : The main aim of addition of Dravadravya to sneha is to procure more active components into the sneha. The main dravadravyas using for sneha preparations are swarasa, kwatha, ksheera, dadhi, takra, and mamsa rasa etc. Generally the dravadravya should be four times of sneha. When specific liquid or dravadravya is not mentioned in a sneha kalpana then water should be taken four times of sneha as drava dravya.
  • 39. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 17 When the numbers of dravadravyas are more than five, then each dravadravya should be taken in the same quantity as that of sneha. If the dravadravyas are less than five, then the total quantity of all liquids should be four times to that of sneha dravya. While using ksheera, dadhi, takra, mamsa rasa, etc as dravadravya, then water should be added four times in addition to the dravadravya in order to extract more active components into the sneha. Preperation of Sneha Kashay14 : The word Sneha kashaya for the first time found in Susruta samhita and later in Bhoja tantra. According to Vaidyaka paribhasha pradeepa, some specifications are mentioned for the preparation of kwatha used in sneha kalpana, such as; yavakuta churna of kwathadravya should be mixed with eight times of water and reduced to 1/4th quantities. The ratio of water to be taken for preparation of Snehakashaya varies according to the nature of Sneha dravya’s. 1. If the drug is mrudu (soft), the water should be taken four times and reduce to 1/4. Eg. Guduchi. 2. If the drug is madhyama (medium), then the water should be taken 8 times and reduce to 1/4. Eg. Aragwadha 3. If the drug is Katina (hard), then water should be taken 8 times and reduced to 1/4. Eg. Dashamoola
  • 40. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 18 4. If the drug is Atyanta Katina, then water should be taken 16 times and reduce to 1/4. Eg. Padmaka, Devadaru. Table No. 3 : showing quantity of water to be used to prepare sneha kashaya based on nature of dravya: Sl. No. Nature of drug Water to be added Reduction part 1 Mrudu 4 parts ¼ part 2 Madhyama 8 parts ¼ part 3 Katina 8 parts ¼ part 4 Atyanta katina 16 parts ¼ part The ratio of water to be added also depends on the quantity of drugs used for the preparation of kwatha. 1. If the quantity of drugs is in between karsha to pala, 16 parts of water is to be taken and reduced to 1/4. 2. If the quantity of drugs are in between, pala to kudava water should be taken 8 times and reduced to 1/4. 3. If the quantity of drugs are in between, prastha to khari water should be taken 4 times and reduced to 1/4. Table No.4: showing the ratio of water based on quantity of drugs: Sl. No. Quantity of drugs Ratio of water Reduction part 1 1 karsha (12g) to 1 pala (48g) 16 Parts 1/4 2 1 pala (48g) to 1 kudava (192g) 8 Parts 1/4 3 1 prastha (768g) to 1 khari (196 kg) 4 Parts 1/4
  • 41. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 19 Table No. 5 : showing preparation of Sneha kashaya according to various authors: Sl. No. Author % of Drug to be taken water to be added Reduction part 1 Sushrutha 1 part 1 part 1 tula (4.8 Kg) 8 parts 16 parts 1 Drona ¼ ¼ ¼ 2 Bhoja 1 part 4 parts ¼ 3 Sarangadhara Mrudu (1 part) Madhyama (1 part) Katina (1 part) Atyantakatina (1 part) 4 part 8 parts 8 parts 16 parts ¼ ¼ ¼ ¼ Ksheera grahana vyavasth15 : When ksheera only is mentioned as drava dravya, then ksheera should be taken four times of sneha. If other dravadravyas are also mentioned along with ksheera, then Kheera should be taken equal to the Sneha and all the remaining Drava dravya should be taken in such a quantity that it should be three times of sneha. If kalka is prohibited in sneha kalpana then it should prepared with kwatha dravyas alone. Gandha dravyas16:  Certain gandha dravyas are added in the sneha in order to improve the flavour of the compound. Gandha dravyas are added in the sneha as patrapaka or gandha paka. Drugs like Samanga, Nakli, Kankola, Nalika, Jati, Twak, Kunturu, Karpura, Lavanga, Kasturi, Usheera, Ela, Kushta, Mustha, Srigandha, gandhaphiroja, Usturuk,
  • 42. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 20 Kesara etc are Gandha dravyas. These drugs are usually containing volatile principles, which may be burned or lost if they are directly placed over fire. Hence, at the end of sneha paka, the required drugs are taken in equal quantities and made in to fine powder form (should be 1/16 part of sneha in general) and the drugs are kept in pottali then suspended in the prepared oil for ten days. After that, the Pottali is taken out from the oil and the oil is stored in airtight containers. While adding gandha dravyas, taila should be taken in warm condition. 1. Snehapaka patra (vessel) In preparation of medicated oils, ancient sages used iron, copper and earthen vessels. Now a day stainless steel vessels are being used in many pharmacies. 1. The vessel must be wide mouthed with proper depth, in order to avoid spilling out of the oil during preparation 2. The vessel should be dried, cleaned and sterilized. 3. The vessel should be strong enough to withstand the changes of temperature and pressure associated with heat and sterilization methods. 4. It should be suitable for repeated uses. 5. It should be easy to clean. 6. The vessel should not alter the physical and chemical properties of the formulation. 2. Darvi (ladle) It is used to stir the mixture constantly and carefully to make sure that the kalka does not stick to the bottom, which results in carbonization.
  • 43. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 21 3. Agni (heat source) Mrudu or madhyama agni is to be followed during snehapaka. Bhrastri was used as heat source in olden days. Now steam jackets, thermo fluids, hot plates, electrical devices, gas stoves etc are used. Types of Snehapaka: According to the source of heat Sneha paka can be classified as 1. Niragni Sneha paka, 2. Sagni Sneha paka. Niragni snehapaka: It is also termed as bhanu paka, surya paka or aditya paka. This is a specific paka of sneha kalpana mentioned by some of the ancient Ayurvedic scholars, where taila is heated with mild temperature by exposure to sunlight for a specific time. This method is commonly used to prepare taila paka from the drugs, which are volatile in nature and sensitive to heat. Eg: Surya paka - Kasisadi ghrita (Sha.sam) Stree Kutaja patra taila (anubhoota) Sagni SnehaPaka: General method of preparation of sagni snehapaka according to Bhaishajya ratnavali17 is as follows, (1) The oil has to be subjected to murchana process. (2) Specific quantity of drava dravya is added to the murchita sneha and mild heat is applied. (3) A specific quantity of kalka is to be added to the mixture of sneha and moderate heat is applied.
  • 44. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 22 (4) After completion of sneha paka filter the sneha and suspend the pottali containing the powder of gandha dravyas in the sneha filtered, if it is mentioned. In the context of sneha paka krama, Acharya Susruta and Acharya Vagbhata had the same opinion i.e. kalka, dravadravya and sneha dravya are taken at a time for snehapaka18 According to Vaidyas of Kerala, the kalka dravyas are mixed in dravadravya, then this mixture is poured in to slightly heated sneha and snehapaka is to be done. This will facilitate uniform distribution of active principles of kalka and enhances the efficacy. While doing snehapaka, kalka is made into a bolus form, and then sneha is heated slightly in a vessel. Then the vessel is taken out from the fire and the pieces of bolus are added little by little into the sneha and stirred continuously with darvi. This is the method followed by the physicians of Rajasthan, to avoid burning of kalka and over-flowing of foam with sneha. Thus, after doing bharjana of the kalka, appropriate amount of drava dravya is added to the vessel and subjected for mild heating. Sneha murchana There are no references about murchana in Brihatrayees and Laghutrayees. Author of Bhaishaja ratnavali 19 Acharya Govinda das is the first person who mentioned about murchana. Before doing sneha sidda kalpana, Sneha is supposed to undergo one particular samskara called sneha murchana. The main aim of this process is to remove the durgandha, amadosa, ugrata and bad characters of sneha. The murchana samskara is applicable for both ghrita and taila. According to the Navaparibhasha text by Upendranatha, murchita sneha specially indicated for the preparation of sneha sidda kalpana.
  • 45. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 23 Advantages of sneha murchana: To remove the durgandha (bad odour), amadosha (unrefined) and ugrata (sharpness) of sneha. Sneha attains good smell and colour. Sneha will get special capabilities to attain more principles that are active during sneha sidda paka. The virya (potency) of the sneha is improved. Sneha will get the active principles of murchana dravyas. Specifications for sneha murchana: ♦ Sneha murchana should be done over mandagni. ♦ Usually sthoola churna is used for the sneha murchana.( Some scholars advices sukshma churna). ♦ To avoid excessive burning of medicine, churna is to be made in to wet form before adding. ♦ In the ghrita murchana, Go-ghrita is advised. In taila murchana Tila taila, Sarshapa taila and Eranda taila murchana are mentioned.
  • 46. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 24 Tila Taila murchana: Table No. 6 : showing ingredients of taila murchana. Apparatus Drugs Quantity Manjishta 1/16 part Haridra 1/64 part Lodhra 1/64 part Nagaramotha 1/64 part Nalika 1/64 part Amalaki 1/64 part Haritaki 1/64 part Vibhitaki 1/64 part Kethaki pushpa 1/64 part Kumari 1/64 part Netra bala 1/64 part Tila taila 1 part Wide mouthed vessel, Spatula, Cloth, Khalva yantra, Heat source, weighing machine Water 4 parts Procedure: Tila taila is heated over mandagni till the foam and sound is subsided, above mentioned drugs are made into course powder form and then converted in to kalka form by adding little amount of water, then this kalka and mentioned quantity of water is added to tila taila and heated till it attains taila siddha lakshanas, after that vessel is taken out from the fire and taila is filtered. By this process, oil becomes free from all the doshas mentioned above and it is ready for further processing.
  • 47. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 25 Table No.7 : showing ingredients of Sarshapa taila murchana. Apparatus Drugs Quantity Manjishta 100 gm. Amalaki 15 gm Haridra 15 gm. Musta 15gm. Bilwa twaka 15 gm. Dadima twaka 15 gm. Naga kesar 15 gm. Krishna Jeeraka 15 gm. Usheera 15 gm. Nalika 15 gm. Vibhitaki 15 gm. Sarshapa taila 1 part Wide mouthed vessel, Spatula, Cloth, Khalva yantra, Heat source, weighing mine Water 4 parts Procedure: Sarshapa taila is heated over mandagni till the foam and sound is subsided, above mentioned drugs are made into course powder form and then converted in to kalka form by adding little amount of water, then this kalka and mentioned quantity of water is added to Sarshapa taila and heated till it attains taila siddha lakshanas, after that vessel is taken out from the fire and taila is filtered. By this process, oil becomes free from all the doshas mentioned above and it is ready for further processing.
  • 48. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 26 Grita murchana Table No. 8 : showing the ingredients of Ghrita murchana: Apparatus Drugs Quantity Haritaki Procedure: One prastha of ghrita is taken in a vessel and heated slightly over mandagni until the evaporation of water content and disappearance of foam. The course powder of above-mentioned drug is made into kalka form by mixing with matulanga swarasa. (it is not mentioned in moola grantha to add water, but in practice four times of water is added into ghrita along with kalka).While adding kalka it should added little by little and mixed well and ghrita paka done till it gets the sneha sidda lakshanas, after that vessel is taken out from the fire and ghrita is filtered. Precautions to be taken for Sneha paka: Before the process (1) Sneha should be pure, clear and without slurry. (2) It should be taken after murchana samskara. (3) In the case of ghrita, preferably old one should be taken. (4) In case of taila, preferably new one one should be used. 1 pala (48 gm) Vibhitaki 1 pala (48 gm) Amalaki 1 pala (48 gm) Wide mouthed vessel, Spatula, Nagaramoda 1 pala (48 gm)Cloth, Haridra 1 pala (48 gm) Madulanga swarasa 1 pala (48 gm) Ghrita 1 prastha (768 gm) Khalva yantra, Heat source, weighing machine. Water 4 prastha(3kg73gm)
  • 49. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 27 (5) Taila patra should be wide mouthed otherwise sneha may spill out during the process. (6) The size of Snehapatra should be depending upon the quantity of sneha. (7) Vessel should not affect the physical and chemical properties of the formulation. During the process (1) Maintain the intensity of fire throughout the process in order to get desirable grade of temperature. (2) Gentle boiling of sneha is to be maintained continuously. (3) In very hot taila, kwatha should not be suddenly poured, if done taila will spill out from the vessel. Hence, while stirring only kwatha has to be added gradually. (4) The mixture should be stirred constantly and carefully to ensure that the kalka should not stick to the bottom of the vessel resulting in carbonization (5) Care should be taken to determine the proper stages of sneha paka. After the process (1) Perfuming agents, if mentioned, should be added gently with stirring the oil, when the oil is in warm condition. (2) The prepared oil should be preserved in moisture free containers. Duration of Sneha paka: Acharya Sharangadhara’s opinion is that preparation of Ghrita, Taila or Guda Kalpanas should not be completed with in one day. Longer the duration of preparation gives better acquisition of properties of drugs into them20 .
  • 50. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 28 Bhaishajya ratnavali mentioned, duration of Snehapaka according to the nature of liquid media used. When snehapaka is doing with ksheera it should be completed in two night’s swarasa and takra or aranala, it should be completed in three and five night respectively. If the kwatha prepared with valli or moola the process should be completed in 12 nights and in vrihidhanya and Mamsa rasa 1 night21 Here depending upon the nature of dravadravya, the duration of snehapaka is specifically mentioned because each dravadravya has its own concentration and releasing capacity of active ingredients into the sneha. Table No.9 : showing sneha paka kala with various dravadravyas: Sl. No. Nature of Liquid media Duration 1 Mamsa rasa and Vreehi dhanya 1 night 2 Ksheera 2 nights 3 Swarasa 3 nights 4 Takra and Aranala 5 nights 5 Kashaya of moola and valli 12 nights Sneha siddha lakshanas22 : 1. Kalka can be rolled into varti in between two fingers. 2. Sneha should be free from moisture. It should not produce any sound on fire. 3. Kalka should be free from moisture. It should not produce any sound when put it on fire. 4. Oil should yield good amount of foam when kept for boiling and in case of ghee the foam should subside when subjected for boiling. 5. Smell, colour and taste of the prepared oil/ghee emerge from the drug used.
  • 51. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 29 Types of Snehapakas: Charaka and Susruta mentioned these types of snehapaka viz, mrudu, madhyama and khara. Harita mentioned four types of snehapakas viz, khara, chikkana, madhyama and visosi. Vagbhata, Sarangadhara, Sodhala and Govinda Acharya mentioned five types of Snehapaka namely ama, mrudu, madhyama, khara and dagdha. Among the above-mentioned pakas mrudu, madhyama and kharapakas are using for therapeutic purposes. ama, dagdha and visosi are therapeutically inactive. Table No.10 : showing number of pakas according to different Acharyas: Sl. No. Acharyas No. of Pakas Name of paka 1 Charaka and Susrutha 3 1. Mrudu, 2.Madhyama, 3. Khara 2 Harita 4 1.Khara, 2.Chikkana, 3.Madhyama, 4.Visosi 3 Vagbhata, Sarangadhara, Sodhala and Govindacharya 5 1.Ama, 2.Mrudu, 3.Madhyama, 4.Khara, 5.Dagdha Therapeutic uses of Sneha Paka23 : 1. Mrudu paka According to Acharya Charaka, Vagbhata, Sharangadhara, Sodhala, Vangasena, Bhavamishra and Govindacharya, mrudu paka is advised for nasya karma. However, Susruta mentioned it for internal administration. 2. Madhyama Paka Acharya Charaka, Vagbhata and Sodhala advised this for Vasti and internal adminstration. According to Sharangadhara and Bhavamishra, it can be used for all purposes. Harita’s opinion is that it is tridoshaghna and can be used for vasti and internally. Susruta mentioned it for nasya and abhyanga.
  • 52. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 30 3. Kharapaka Acharya Charaka, Vagbhata, Sharangadhara, Sodhala, Vangasena and Bhavamishra advised it for abhyanga. Harita had the opinion that it is vata shamana and can be used for abhyanga. Acharya Susruta recommended it for vasti and eardrops. 4. Amapaka It is guru and causes agnimandyam. So it cannot use for therapeutic purposes. 5. Dagdha and Visosi Paka It does not possess any properties and contraindicated in therapeutic purposes. Table No.11: Showing uses of different pakas: Sl. No. Name of Author Ama Mrudu (chikkana) Madhyama Khara Dagdha (visosi) 1. Charaka - Nasya Vasti, Abhyantara Abhyanga - 2. Harita Samhita No use - Pana, Vasti Abhyanga No use 3. Sushrutha Samhita - Pana Nasya Abhyanga Vasti, Karna- Purana - 4. Ashtanga Hrudaya No use Nasya Pana, Vasti Abhyanga No use 5. Gada Nigraha No use Nasya Pana, vasti Abhyanga No use 6. Vangasena No use Nasya Pana, Vasti Abhyanga No use 7. Sarangadhara No use Nasya Sarva- Karma Abhyanga No use 8. Bhavaprakasha No use Nasya Sarva- karma Abhyanga No use 9. Bhaishajya Ratnavali No use Nasya Sarva- karma Abhyanga No use 10. Yoga Ratnakara Nasya Sarva- karma AbhyangaNo use No use Patra paka: It is the process by which a pleasant flavour or odour is imparted to the sneha. Certain gandha dravyas such as Samanga, Nakhi, Kankola, Nalika, Jati, Twak,
  • 53. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 31 Kunduru, Karpura, Lavanga, Kasturi, Usheera, Ela, Kushta, Musta, Srigantha, Gandhaphiroja, Usturuk, Kesara etc. among this, required drugs are taken in equal quantities, made in to fine powder form, and added in to the patra to which the sneha is filtered in warm condition. Preservation: Usually narrow mouthed glass bottles are used for sneha preservation. The bottles should be sterilized and moisture less, this restricts growth of microbes. Shelf life of Sneha24 : Acharya Sarangadhara mentioned the shelf life of Sneha as 16 months. According to the pharmacopoeia of India, ghrita and taila preparations for internal and external use maintain their potency for about16months. Probable causes of less shelf life: (a) Many of the Ayurvedic preparations are manufactured with herbal drugs, which contain phytochemical principles. It helps in microbial growth. These may act as free radicals in the preparation. (b) Various factors like moisture, oxygen, carbon dioxide, light, trace elements, pressure, temperature etc also act as free radicals, which initiates the deterioration process. (c) Sometimes, the plastic containers attracts dust particles and it also act as free radical. (d) Sometimes, the product may act with packing material. Dose25 (matra): In Bhaishajya Ratnavali the matra of Sneha is mentioned as, Uttama Matra - 1 pala (48gm). Madhyama Matra - 3 tola (36gm). Heena Matra - 2 tola (24gm).
  • 54. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 32 AVARTANA Avartana means repeating the process several times .This is done in order to potentiate the final product, to achieve the maximum result of the drug .When the process is repeated several times the dose can be reduced, for example Ksheera Bala Taila 101- the dose given in practice is 8-10 drops, but whereas the dose of Sneha according to Acharya Sharangadhara is 1 Pala, approximately 48-50ml internally. HISTORY There are references regarding Avarthy of both Ghrita and Tailas in Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, Astanga Hridaya, but a clear cut method of the Pharmaceutical Procedure is not mentioned. Ratnaprabha Teeka on Chakradatta is the classical book which explains the pharmaceutical process of Avarthy in the context of Dasha Paka Bala Taila. Method of Preparation The basic ingredients are Kalka, Sneha, Drava Dravya and the ratio of above ingredients are 1:4:16. All the procedures are similar to that of Sneha Kalpana whether it is a Ghrita Kalpana or Taila Kalpana. After Sneha paka, the Sneha is filtered and measured. The quantity of Kalka and Drava Dravya for second Avarthy is calculated and added to the above filtered Sneha and paka is done. Likewise continuously the Sneha paka is done by adding the calculated Kalka and Drava Dravya every time and paka should be continued. After each Sneha paka the quantity of Sneha obtained will be less i.e. there will be loss in each paka. It is sure that the consistency, the colour and odour of the product changes in each Avarthy.
  • 55. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 33 Different Opinions Regarding the Method of Preparation of Avartana 26 • Acharya Gayadas’s Opinion In the context of the pharmaceutical process of Sahasarapaka Bala Taila in the 4th chapter of Sushruta Samhita, Gayadas mentions the method of preparation is similar to the general method of Sneha Kalpana and the process should be repeated every time by adding the Drava Dravya. • Acharya Jejjata’s Opinion On commenting Acharya Gayadas opinion, Acharya Jejjata says if the process is repeated for 100/1000 times the loss will be more and the final yield will be very less. So the process should be done by adding 100/1000 parts of Drava Dravyas at a single stretch. Here again Acharya Gayadas substantiates by saying that the Ksheera which is added during the process of Avartana will compensate the loss to some extent. So the process is repeated for 100/1000 times. • Acharya Nischalakara’s Opinion In ‘RatnaPrabha’ Teeka on Chakradatta, Acharya Nishchalakara mentions the method of preparation of Dashapaka Bala Taila. According to the reference the ratio of ingredients is 1:4:16 and the method to be followed is similar to Sneha Kalpana .This process is repeated for 10 times then it is called as Dashapaka Bala Taila. This Dashapaka Bala Taila is taken and the pharmaceutical process of Sneha Kalpana is repeated for another 10 times, then it is said to be Sathapaka Bala Taila .If this Taila is processed for further 10 times it is called Sahasrapaka Bala Taia.
  • 56. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 34 Table No. 12 : Showing references regarding the number of avarthy Name of the product No of Avarthy Reference Amalaka Ghrita 100 times C.S.Chi 2/4 Amalaka Ghrita 1000 times C.S.Chi 2/4 Ksheerabala Taila 100 times A.H.Chi 22/ 45-46 Ksheerabala Taila 1000 times A.H.Chi 22/ 45-46 Bala Taila 10 times Chakradatta22/35-36 Bala Taila 100 times C.S.Chi 29/119 Bala Taila 1000 times C.S.Chi 29/ 120 Trivrta Sneha 100 times S.S.Chi.18/31 Yastimadhuka Taila 100 times C.S.Chi.29/117-118 TABLE No. 13: SHOWING NO OF AVARTY’S IN PRESENT PRACTICE Sl.no. Name of the Product Number of the Avarthy 1 Ksheera Bala Taila 3 7 14 21 41 101 2 Sahacharadi Taila 3 7 3 Dhanvantari Taila 3 7 21 41 101 Modern Review of Oils Since ancient time man had used many natural oils not only for food purposes but also for other different purposes. The term oil can be used for substances, which are greasy or oily in touch, insoluble in water and usually inflammable. They are liquids at ordinary room temperature. Oil constitute primarily glycerides which are esters formed by the reaction of fatty acids and glycerol.
  • 57. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 35 The term oil can refer 1. To the individual fatty or fixed oils such as olive oil or soybean oil. 2. To the hydrocarbon or mineral oils and derivatives such as petroleum fuel oils and lubricating oils. 3. To the odoriferous and volatile essential oils. 4. To the synthetic materials that possess the characteristics of oiliness and lubricity. Types: A. According to the source oils and fats can be divided into 1. Animal fats and oils. Eg: Pork fat, Beef fat, Butter, Ghee. 2. Vegetable fats and oils. Eg: Coconut oil, Olive oil, Sesame oil, Soybean oil. 3. Marine fats and oils. Eg: Shark oil, Whale oil 4. The oils and fats can be classified according to their degree of unsaturation. It is measured by their ability to absorb Iodine at the double bonds. They are, ♦ Drying oils. Oils having Iodine values higher than 150(high degree of unsaturation) are generally called as drying oils and are used in protective coatings. Eg: Linseed oil. ♦ Semi drying oils Oils having Iodine value in between 100 and 150 are considered as semidrying oils. It can be used, either food or as protective coating. Eg: shark liver oil, Cod liver oil, Soya bean oil, Sesame oil.
  • 58. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 36 ♦ Non drying oils The oils and fats having Iodine values below 100 are said as non-drying oils and used mainly in foods, soaps etc. eg: coconut oil, Lard, Butter. Physical and chemical properties: Fats and oils are greasy or oily in touch. It is insoluble in water, soluble in cold alcohol, ether, carbon disulphide, chloroform etc and sparingly soluble in hot alcohol. Specific gravities of oils and fats ranges from 0.913 to 0.975.They have no distinct melting points or solidifying points. On exposure to air, oils and fats gradually undergo certain changes. The drying oils absorb oxygen easily and polymerize readily forming a thin layer or protective film on the upper surface. The semidrying oils absorb oxygen more slowly. In addition, sufficient oxygen is absorbed in time to produce some film formation. The non-drying oils do not oxidize easily on exposure to air, although changes take place gradually including slow hydrolysis. By that, they split into fatty acid, glycerol, and subsequent oxidation. This slow process of oxidation causes disagreeable smell and taste. It can be said as “rancidity’. Most of the oils and fats have characteristic odour and flavor. At high temperatures i.e. in between 175°c to 250°c these oils and fats lose their flavors to become deodorized. Oils of any viscous material include fixed oils and essential oils.
  • 59. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 37 Fixed oils: The term fixed oils are generally confined to esters of fatty acids with glycerol, including some fat-soluble and water insoluble substances and it is grouped under the term lipids. They are also called as non-volatile oils. Most of the fixed oils are used for edible purposes. Some of the fixed oils are using in therapeutic purposes also. Eg: (i) castor oils as cathartic agent. (ii) Cod liver oil as a source of vitamin A and D. These oils are using in industries such as manufacturing of soaps, candles, paints, varnishes, detergents etc. Majority of fixed oils are of vegetable origin and a few are obtained from animal sources. These oils are generally obtained by three methods with varying degree of mechanical processes. They are as follows (i) Rendering (ii) Pressing (iii)Solvent extraction Nature of fixed oils: Fixed oils and fats are mixtures of olein (liquid), palmitini (semi solid) and stearin (solid) with a small amount of other bodies. The differences between fat and fixed oil are fats have more palmitin and stearin making them semisolid or solid, and oils have more of liquid olein. Essential oils: The volatile oils of the plant kingdom are called as essential oils. They are so called because they were considered to be representing the very essence of odour and flavors. The essential oil can be defined, as “essential oil is a more or less volatile
  • 60. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 38 material isolated by a physical process from an odoriferous plant of a single botanical spice.” The oil is called by the name of the plant from which it is derived. Eg: rose oil, peppermint oil Volatile constituents collected from different aromatic plants are used both in perfumes and in pharmaceutical industry. Usually essential oils extracted by the following methods. (i) Distillation (ii) Enfleurage (extraction by using fat) (iii)Maceration (iv)Solvent extraction (v) Mechanical pressing Nature of volatile oils: Volatile oils are light, highly odoured liquids, which can be distilled easily. These are obtained from different plants and widely differ in their chemical composition. The most common and important component is in the form of hydrocarbon and is called “terpenes”. Individual oils may contain appreciable quantities of aromatic and heterocyclic compounds. Both hydrocarbons and oxygen compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acids, esters, oxides, lactones, phenols etc. are responsible for the characteristic odour and flavour of the oils. In some oils, one or only a few components predominate. Eg: about 98% methyl salicylate present in winter green oil About 90% of d-limonene present in orange oil
  • 61. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 39 In volatile oils, there is a mixture of a few dozen to several hundred individual components present. Trace components are also very important, because they give the oil a characteristic natural odour to the oil. Table No. 14 : showing differences between Fixed and Volatile oils: Fixed Oil Volatile Oil Rancid and Leaves a greasy spot Volatile, inflammable and lighter than water Form soaps and alkalis. Do not form soaps. Insoluble in water Partly soluble in water, to impart some of the physical properties. Do not explode with oxidizing agents May explode Completely oxidized in the body and excreted as co2 and H2O Excreted by the kidneys as conjugated glycorunates. Role of oils in clinical usage: In modern pharmacy, the fixed oils are being in usage for internal and external purposes. The application of fixed oils is as an emollient or as a constituent of ointment and emulsified cream. When used as a base of ointment, the fixed oils mix with wax that is esters of monohydric alcohol and fatty acids of high molecular weight. The main uses of wax are to impart hardness to the ointment. As volatile oils, these are soluble in bodily fluids. They have ready penetrating power through the dermal layers and can exert systemic action, which makes them effective counter irritant and anti-inflammatory agents. Some of these essential oils acts as carminative, when give internally. Oil preparations mentioned in therapeutics: Semisolid preparation includes therapeutic ointments, creams, slaves, etc that are intended for application over the skin. They may serve as vehicles for topically
  • 62. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 40 applied drugs or as protective dressing over the inflamed areas. The efficacy of various types of vehicles in aiding penetration can be reasonably predicted by the way, in which the vehicles alter the activity of water in the stratum corneum and influence the co-efficient of stratum corneum. A large number of oily preparations formulated under various trade names by the pharmaceutical firms. Some examples of official oily preparations are mentioned below. A. OINTMENTS: 1. Linimentum album (white liniment) –contains ammonium chloride, water, turpentine oil, oleic acid and dil. Ammonia solution 2. Lotio acid Salicylici (Salicylic acid lotion) contains salicylic acid, castor oil and alcohol. 3. Turpentine liniment- contains turpentine oil, camphor along with other material. 4. Camphor liniment- contains camphor and archis oil B. INJECTIONS Fixed oils may be used as vehicle for non-aqueous injections. Eg: Phenol injections, Iodized oil fluid injections. C. LOZENGES AND MOUTH WASHES Fixed oils are useful in preparing Lozenges and mouth washes. Eg: Benzalkomium lozenges, Formaldehyde lozenges, Mouthwash solution. D. SPIRITS Eg.Lemon spirit, Peppermint spirit, Surgical spirit
  • 63. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 41 E. SUPPOSITORIES Eg: Bismuth subgallate suppository compound F. TABLETS 1. Magnesium carbonate tablet compound 2. Magnesium trisilicate tablet compound 3. Aluminium hydroxide tablet G. CONCENTRATED WATER 1. Concentrated caraway water 2. Concentrated cinnamon water H. VITAMIN SUPPLEMENTS 1. Malt extracts with cod liver oil 2. Malt extracts with halibut liver oil
  • 64. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 42 SHODHANA Shodhana is the pharmaceutical procedure in which all the metals and minerals are subjected, before subjecting them to Marana or before administration in case of some Rasa Dravyas like Malla, Shilajatu, Gairika, Kasisa etc.The literary meaning of shodhana is purification. But in Rasashastra, Shodhana is not merely purification, but is a Samskara, which essentially brings out modifications or alterations in properties along with purification28,29,30 . Historical Background: We don’t find reference regarding special Shodhana for metals and minerals in Samhithas. It was only in Rasashastra and Nighantu period when the Shodhana of minerals and metals as well as herbal drugs specifically evolved. Most of the raw materials in Rasashastra are extracted from earth. So the every chance of impurities, toxicity, heterogeneous qualities, mixing of other substances and unwanted qualities to a large extent. Nowadays some of the Rasa dravyas are artificially prepared. So shodhana is indicated to eliminate all such toxic qualities and to induce certain qualities, which are essential for the easy assimilation of the material in the living body. Definition: • The process, which eliminates the blemishes, is called Shodhana. 31 • When a substance is subjected to trituration etc with required medicine for removal of unwanted materials or impurities is known as shodhana. 32 • Subjecting the Loha, Dhatu, Rasoparasas etc to the procedures like Swedana, Mardana etc with the prescribed medicines, Dhalana in tailadi dravadravyas to remove the Doshas is termed as Shodhana. 33 The concept: The raw drugs generally possess lots of impurities, which are visible or invisible toxic substances in nature and with heterogeneous qualities, which are
  • 65. Pharmaceutical Review  Page 43 unwanted in therapeutic use. So many Rasagranthas suggest the process of purification of metals and minerals before administration in the therapeutic use for alchemical purpose. The meaning of shodhana can be: To Clean, To Dehydrate, To Distil, To Polish, To Peel, To Dehusk, To Clarify, To Filter, To Wash, To Purify, Types of shodhana: Samanya shodhana and Vishesha shodhana. Samanya shodhana: The common method used to purify a group of drugs is known as Samanya shodhana. This process eliminates general impurities of metals and minerals and converts them into powder, which is essential for further process. Vishesha shodhana: It is done specifically for a particular drug with the view of purifying it with the help of particular or specific shodhana material as well as procedure. Objectives of Shodhana: With the help of shodhana we can achieve the following objectives. Elimination of impurities, Separation of admixtures, Elimination of harmful matters from the drug, Metals are made free from blemishes, Reduce or minimize toxic effect, Make metal or mineral soft and brittle, Reduction in particle size, Make substance suitable for further processing, Attributes or imbue organic qualities to inorganic substances, Increasing the potency of the drugs, Modification of undesirable physical properties of the drug, Conversion of some of the characteristics of the drug to different stages, Enhancement of therapeutic action, Conversion of drugs from heterogeneous state to homogenous state, Corrects the imperfections.
  • 66. Drug Review  DRUG REVIEW Introduction: ÍpÉwÉaSìèurÉÉhrÉÑmÉxjÉÉiÉÉ UÉåaÉÏ mÉÉScÉiÉѹrÉqÉç | aÉÑhÉuÉiÉç MüÉUhÉÇ fÉårÉÇ ÌuÉMüÉUurÉÑmÉzÉÉliÉrÉå |- (cÉ. xÉ. xÉÑ. 9/3) “Drug” the armor of the physician has been placed next to him amongst the quadruples of treatment (chikitsa chatushpada). The comprehensive knowledge of the drug is of prime importance to physician “at par with the knowledge of the disease and its diagnosis. “For it is said that the effort of a physician who has the sound knowledge of pathology and pharmacology with due consideration of place, time and quantum will never be fruitless. TILA TAILA Latin Name : Sesamum indicum Linn. Family : Pedaliaceae Vernacular names: Hindi: Til English: sesamum seeds Telugu: Nuvvulu Tamil: Ellu Kannada: Elldu Classical categorization: Charaka : Swedopaga, Purishavirajaniya Distribution : It is mainly cultivated in the temperate regions of India: About the plant : It is an annual herb growing up to 1 m bearing white or light pink flowers Page 44
  • 67. Drug Review  Properties1 - Guna : Guru, Snigdha Rasa : Madhura Vipaka : Madhura Veerya : Usna Dosha karma : Vata Shamaka, Pitta KaphaVardhaka. Karma : Snehana, Vedanasthapana, Sandhaaniya, Vranashodhana. Formulations : Kseerabala Taila, Aswagandha Taila Extraction method of oil: The extraction of sesame oil from the sesame seed is not a completely automated process. The sesame fruit serves as a symbol for wealth. When the fruit capsule opens, it releases a real treasure: the sesame seeds. However, a great deal of manual work is necessary before this point is reached. That is why sesame is hardly ever cultivated in Western industrialized agricultural areas. The sesame seeds are protected by a capsule, which does not burst open until the seeds are completely ripe. The ripening time tends to vary. For this reason, the farmers cut plants by hand and place them together in upright position to carry on ripening for a few days. The seeds are only shaken out onto a cloth after all the capsules have open. About oil: It is considered as Shershta among all oils. Used for both Internal and External administration. There are many variations in the colour of sesame oil: cold-pressed sesame oil is pale yellow, while Indian sesame oil (gingerly or til oil) is golden, and Chinese and Korean sesame oils are commonly a dark brown colour. This dark colour Page 45
  • 68. Drug Review  and flavour are derived from roasted/toasted sesame seeds. Cold pressed sesame oil has a different flavour than the toasted oil, since it is produced directly from raw, rather than toasted seeds. Composition of Tila Beeja: Moisture – 4.1-6.5% Oil – 43.0-56.8% Protein – 16.6-26.4% Fiber – 2.9-8.6% Carbohydrate – 9.1-25.2% Minerals – 4.1-7.4% Calcium – 1.06-1.45% Phosphorus – 0.47-0.62% Vitamin A, B, C – Traces. Table No. 15 : Showing the Fatty acid composition of Sesame oil Fatty acid Nomenclature Minimum Maximum Palmitic C16:0 7.0 % 12.0 % Palmitoleic C16:1 trace 0.5 % Stearic C18:0 3.5 % 6.0 % Oleic C18:1 35.0 % 50.0 % Linoleic C18:2 35.0 % 50.0 % Linolenic C18:3 trace 1.0 % Eicosenoic C20:1 trace 1.0 % SARSHAPA TAILA Botanical Name : Brassica compestris Family : Cruciferi About mustered oil: Mustard Oil has contrary reputations in different parts of the world. It is very- very popular oil in the Indian Subcontinent, more precisely in the Eastern parts of Page 46
  • 69. Drug Review  India and in Bangladesh, as edible oil and is considered very healthy, whereas in the rest of the world, it is considered toxic, irritable and not suitable for edible purposes. In some parts of Europe, there is ban on selling of this oil and in some other; it is sold as massage oil only for external application. Mustard Essential Oil is totally different from Mustard Oil, in terms of process of extraction, chemical composition and medicinal properties. Both of these are extracted from the seeds of Mustard which bears a scientific name Brassica Nigra (Black Mustard) or Brassica Hirta (White Mustard). While Mustard Oil is extracted by cold compression of mustard seeds, its essential oil is extracted by steam distillation of mustard seeds soaked in water, and here is where the difference occurs. Mustard Seeds (Black or White) contain an enzyme called Myrosinase and a glucosinolate called Sinigrin. These two remain isolated in mustard seeds under normal conditions, but react when the seeds are subjected to pressure or heat. In presence of water, these two components react to form Allyl Isothiocyanate (in case of Black Mustard) and normal Isothiocyanate (in case of White Mustard), a toxic compound. Chemical Composition: Seed contains 35-45% stable oil, Sinalbin, Sinapin, Sulphocyanide, Lecithine, Myrocine, Protein, Potassium, Magnesium, and Calcium Phosphate. Properties2 - Guna : Guru, Usna. Rasa : Katu Vipaka : Katu Veerya : Usna Page 47
  • 70. Drug Review  Doshakarma : Kaphavatashamaka Karma : Raktapittakopaka, Kushtaghna, Kandughna, Pleehavriddhihara Formulations : Arka taila, Marichadi taila Benefits of mustered oil: The health benefits of Mustard Essential Oil can be attributed to its properties like stimulant, irritant, appetizer, anti bacterial, anti fungal, insect repellant, hair vitalizer, cordial, diaphoretic, anti rheumatic and tonic. GO - GHRITA History: In Shatapatha Brahmana three words are used as synonyms for ghrita namely Aajya, Ghrita and Sarpi.Similarly four different words are denoted to Ghrita in Aaitareya Brahmana that is – Navanita, Aajya, Ghrita, and Aayuta which definetly tells that Ghrita was in use since Vedic period. Properties3 - Guna : Guru, Snigdha, Mridu, Picchila Rasa : Madhura Vipaka : Madhura Veerya : Sheeta Doshakarma : Vatapittashamaka. Karma : Medhya, Deepaniya, Snehana, Anulomana, Hridya, Vrishya, Garbhasthapana, Jwaraghna, Dahaprashamana, Balya Formulations : Phala ghrita, Shatadhouta ghrita, Kalyanaka ghrita Page 48
  • 71. Drug Review  GHEE [Modern review]: Ghee is a very important traditional milk product of India and neighboring countries including those of the Himalayan area. Its main use is for frying of food and its main advantage over butter from which it is traditionally prepared is its superior keeping quality derived from the almost complete removal of water during the making process. The boiling process drives off moisture and reduces the water content to well below one per cent so effectively preventing microbial growth. At the same time the boiling process destroys spoilage bacteria, all pathogens and inactivates some of the enzymes resulting from bacterial growth in the milk and butter. For example in India ninety per cent of the ghee is produced by the traditional method of making unsalted butter (makkhan) first and then converting it into ghee. About 650,000 metric tons of ghee are produced in India annually. Methods for the Preparation of Ghee in India: Makkhan (traditional unsalted butter made by hand churning whole milk dahi at room temperature) is placed in a metal vessel and heated to about 110 to 120°C with constant stirring over a low fire to evaporate the moisture. When practically all the moisture has been removed, further heating is avoided by removing the vessel from the fire. After the residue has settled down on cooling, the clear fat is decanted into suitable containers. At factory-scale modern processing equipment is used. Ghee is made either (i) from creamery butter or (ii) directly from cream. Unsalted creamery butter (commonly known as white butter) is heated in a ghee boiler which consists of a stainless steel jacketed pan provided with a manual stirrer. The pan has an outlet in the bottom for emptying the content as required. Butter is first melted at low heat and then the steam pressure in the jacket is increased so that the mass begins to boil. The contents are constantly agitated throughout the Page 49
  • 72. Drug Review  process to prevent scorching. Usually there is profuse effervescence accompanied by a crackling sound in the early stages of boiling which decreases as the moisture evaporates. When practically all the moisture has been removed the temperature of the liquid mass suddenly shoots up and the heating at this time has to be carefully controlled. The end point is indicated by the appearance of a second effervescence, which is much finer than the first, together with the browning of the curd particles. At this stage the characteristic ghee flavour develops. The final temperature of heating generally ranges from 110 to 120°C depending upon the practices in different regions. In some parts of India it is heated to higher temperatures resulting in a burnt or overcooked flavour which is relished in those parts. After cooling and sedimentation the ghee is filtered through a muslin cloth to remove the sediment known as ‘ghee residue’ which consists mostly of burnt co- precipitates. The product acquires the characteristic granular texture on cooling and is generally packed in tin containers, glass bottles and plastic pouches. The colour of cow ghee is deep yellow while that from buffalo milk is white with a characteristic yellowish or greenish tinge. It has a pleasant cooked and rich flavour. The taste is usually characteristic of the milk fat; slightly acidic flavours are sometimes preferred. Nutritional benefits: Ghee forms an important source of fat in the vegetarian diet. Ghee and makkhan are important sources of vitamins A, D, E and K. They also contain small amounts of essential fatty acids such as arachidonic and linoleic. Considerable losses of Vitamin A and carotene can occur during cooking, the latter being more rapid. Page 50
  • 73. Drug Review  Below 125°C, Vitamin A is fairly stable, but above this temperature it is rapidly destroyed. Some 10-20 percent of carotene is lost during the normal cooking operations. Table No. 16 : Showing the composition of Ghee Constituents Percent Moisture 14.4% Fat 32.4% Protein 36.0% Lactose 12.0% Ash 5.2% Triglycerides 97-98 Diglycerides 0.25-0.4 Monoglycerides 0.016-0.038 Keto Acid Glyceride 0.015-0.018 Glycerylesters 0.011-0.015 Free Fatty Acids 0.1-0.44 Phospholipids 0.2-1.0 Sterols 0.22-0.41 Vitamin A 2500 I.U.per 100gms Vitamin D 8.5×10-7 gm per 100 gm Vitamin E 24×10-3 gm per 100 gms Vitamin K 1×10-4 gm pre 100 gms. Page 51
  • 74. Drug Review  LAJJALU4 Botanical name : Mimosa pudica Family : Mimosaceae Synonyms : Namaskari, Samanga, Anjalikarika Vernacular names:    English – Sensitive plant Malyalam – Tottavati Hindi – Lajjavanti Sanskrit – Lajjalu, Samanga Kannada – Nachikediga Tamil – Tottalvati Telegu – Manugumaramu Classical categorization: Charaka : Sandhaniya, Purisha sangrahaniya Susruta : Priyangvadi, Ambashthadi Vagbhata : Priyangvadi gana Distribution : Through out India in hot, moist localities. About the plant: A diffuse prickly under shrub, 45-90cm in height leaves bipinnately compound, pinnae 2-4, digitately arranged c 10-20 pairs of leaf lets, rachis clothed c ascending bristles, flower pink, in globes heads, peduncles priestly pods, flat, straw coloured, consisting of 3-5 one seeded segment. Chemical constituents: Mimosine, Orientin, Isoorientin Properties:4 Rasa : Kashya, Tikta Guna : Laghu, Ruksha Veerya : Sheeta Vipaka : Katu Karma : Kapha pittahara, sandhaniya, Pureesha sangrahaniya Parts used : Roots, leaves. Dose : 10-20 ml (fresh juice) Page 52
  • 75. Drug Review  BHURJA PATRA5 Botanical Name : Betula Utilis D, Don Family : Betulaceae Synonyms : Bahu valkala, Sucarma, Carmi, Lekhya patraka Vernacular names: Hindi : Bhoja patra Sanskrit : Bhurjha bahulvalkalha Kanada : Bhurja mara English : Himalayan silver brich Malyalam : Bhurjamaram Classical categorization: Susruta : Salsaradi gana Vagbhata : Asnadi gana Chemical constuents: Betulin, Lupeol, Oleanolic acid, Betulic acid, Karachic acid Distribution: Himalayas, in area upto 420 m. elevation About the plant: A medium sized deciduous tree upto 20m in height with white bark having horizontal lenticles and pink inner layers peeling off in large papery layers, young shoots, petioles and leaves silky, leaves simple ovate, acute, sharply irregularly serrate, base cuneate or rounded, sticky when young with yellow resinuous scales, flowers in catkins, male catkinsate the tip of the long shoots, female spikes solitary on the top of the dwarf shoots, fruits narrower than the bracts, the wings narrower the nut. Properties: Rasa : Kashaya Guna : Laghu Veerya : Ushna Vipaka : Katu Karma : Tridosha hara, Medohara, Vishaghana Page 53
  • 76. Drug Review  Useful part : Bark Dose : 3-6 gm (choorna), 5-10 ml (kwath) Indication : Raktapittahara, Unmada, Apasmara, Vishroga Important formulation: Chandrodaya agada, Ksara taila SARSAPA 6 Botanical name: Brassica campestris Linn. Family : Cruciferae Synonyms : Katusneha, Bhootaghna, Ugragandha, Tantubha Vernacular names: English – Indian Mustard Malyalam - Katuku, cerukatuku Hindi - Rayi, sarson Sanskrit - Sarsapha, Rajika Kanada - Sasive Tamil - Katugu Classical categorization: Charaka : Kandughna, Asthapanopaga, Sirovirechanopaga Susruta : Pippalyadi Vagbhata : Kandughna, Pippalyadi Distribution: Cultivated throughout India. The plant: A glabrous annual with a few bristles at the base upto 1.5 m in height, basal leaves long, broadly ovate, coarsely dentate, persistent middle leaves oblong, 8- dentate , upper leaves broadly linear, entire flowers yellow in racemes, fruits siliqua, breaking away from below up words, seeds attached to the replum. Properties: Rasa : Katu, tikta Guna : Laghu, Snigdha Veerya : Ushna Vipaka : Katu Page 54
  • 77. Drug Review  Karma : Kapha vatahara, Vidahi, Vamaka Indication : Krimi, kushta, Kandu Useful parts : Seeds, oil Dose : 2-4 gm Important formulation: Sarsapadi lepa, ARKA7 Botanical Name : Calotropis procera. Family : Asclepiadaceae Vernacular names: Hindi – Aak, Madar Malayalam – Erikku Tamil – Vellerukku English – Madar Kannada – Ekkegida Synonyms : Alarka, Mandara, Sadapushpa, Tulaphala, Asphota, Vikirana, Ksraparna Classical categorization: Charaka – Bhedaniya, Vamanopaga, Swedopaga. Sushruta – Arkadi, Adhobhagahara. Vagbhata – Arkadi. Parts used : Root bark, Flower, Leaf, Latex & Seeds. About the plant: A shrub up to 2.5m high. Leaves, ovate-obovate, acute. Inflorescence covered with white wooly tomentum. Flowers in axillary Orymbose cymen, purplish red. Fruits-Follicles, 10-14cm long, recurved. Seeds are numerous with silk hair. Page 55
  • 78. Drug Review  Chemical Constituents: Calotoxin,Calotropins,Proceroside,Calotropain,Calotropagenin,Aipha and Beta Amyrins,Procesterole,Calactin,Calotropain,Proceroside,Proceragenin etc. Properties: Rasa- Katu, Thikta. Virya- Ushna Guna- Laghu, Tikshna, Ruksha. Vipaka- Katu Karma- Kapha vatha haram, Medhya, Deepana, Bhedana. Indication- Vrana, Arsas, Kushta, Krimi, Gulma, Grhani, Vathavyadhi. Formulation: Arka lavana, Arka taila, Arka vati, Ravimulaadi vati etc. Chemical Constituents: Calotoxin,Calotropins,Proceroside,Calotropain,Calotropagenin,Aipha and Beta Amyrins,Procesterole,Calactin,Calotropain,Proceroside,Proceragenin etc. Properties: Rasa- Katu, Thikta. Virya- Ushna Guna- Laghu, Tikshna, Ruksha. Vipaka- Katu Karma- Kapha vatha haram, Medhya, Deepana, Bhedana. Indication: Vrana, Arsas, Kushta, Krimi, Gulma, Grhani, Vathavyadhi. Formulation: Arka lavana, Arka taila, Arka vati, Ravimulaadi vati etc. HARIDRA8 Botanical Name: Curcuma longa Linn. Family : Zizeberaceae Vernacular names: English _ Turmeric Kannada _ Harikshna Page 56
  • 79. Drug Review  Hindi – Haldi Telugu _ Pasupu Malayalam – Manjal Synonyms: Nisa, Yoshitapriya, Hattavilasini, Krimighni, Pita, Varavarnini, Gouri, Kanchani Classical categorization: Charaka – Lekhaneeya, Kushtaghna, Kandughna, Krimighna, Sirovirechana. Sushruta – Haridradi, Mustadi, Sleshmasamsamana. Vagbhata - Haridradi, Mustadi. About the plant: Annual herb, root stalk large, ovoid, sessile tubers thick&cylindric, bright yellow inside. Leaves- Long petiole, Oblong, narrow at the base. Flower bracts pale green, flowers during rainy season. Chemical Composition: Curcumene, Curcumenone, curcone, Curdione, Eugenol, Camphene, Camphor, Borneol, Procurcumadeol, Procurcumenol, Curcumins, Curzerenone, Beta sitosterol. Properties: Rasa- Thiktha, Katu Virya- Ushna Guna- Laghu, Ruksha. Vipaka- Katu. Karma: Vishaghna, Krimighna, Kapha vathahara, Lekhana, varnya Indecation: Kushta, Krimi, Prameha, kandu, vrana, pandu, kamala. Parts used: Rhizome Formulations: Haridra khanda, Nisamalaki, Nisakatakadi kashaya , Haridradi dhooma varti, Vrana sodhana tailam. Page 57
  • 80. Drug Review  PARADA Parada forms the base of Rasashastra. Mythologically it is considered as the veerya of Lord Shiva Occurrence:The chief ore of parada is hingula & was found in Himalaya & in Daradadesha. But presently there is no evidence of occurrence of mercury ore in India .It is mainly imported from Spain, Italy & California. Vernacular names: English : Mercury, Quick silver Kannada : Padarasa Sanskrit : Parada, paraja Latin Hydrargyrum Varieties of parada: Depending upon source of origin9 : 1. Rasa - Rakta 2. Rasendra - Shyava 3. Suta - Ishatpeeta 4. Parada - Shweta 5. Mishraka - Mishravarna Depending on colour:10 Shweta White Bramhana Used in shweta karma Rakta Red Kshatriya Used in therapeutics Peeta Yellow Vaishya Used in Alchemy Krishna Black Shoodra Used in maintenance of health. Grahya &Agrahya Parada Swaroopa11 The parada which is liquid in form, looks as bright as midday sun, and appears bright in outer aspects with bluish tinge centrally,such parada is to be utilized for all the purposes. Parada having multiple colours should not be used. Page 58
  • 81. Drug Review  Need for Shodana : As Mercury is a liquid metal, will have great affinity towards most of metals. So chances of impurities are more in it. The classics have mentioned that consumption of doshayukta parada is as fatal as yamaraja. So shodana is essential for parada. Shodana of PARADA: Two types of shodana are mentioned in classics. 1. Samanya shodana - for vyadhiharatwa 2. Vishesha shodana - for Rasayana and Dhatu siddhyartha. Doshas of Parada and its effect on body PARADA DOSHA Naisargika Yougika Aupadika Visha Vahni Mala Naagaja Vangaja (Marana) (Santapa) (Moorcha) (Jadya) (Adman) Parpati Paatini Bhedi Dravi Malakari Andhkari Dwankshi Bhoomija Girija Varija Nagaja Vangaja (Kusta) (Jadya) (Vatavyadhi) (Vrina) (Kusta) Properties of parada:12  Rasa : Shadrasa Veerya : Ushna Guna : Snigdha, Sara, guru Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Yogavahi, rasayana, balya, vrsihya, pushtikara, krimighna etc Vyadhiharatva : Krimi, Kusta, Vataroga, Vali, Palita, Sarvarogahara. Page 59
  • 82. Drug Review  Properties of parada in specific form Parada that is shudda can sustain the heat of the fire i.e. it does not evaporate on heating. Parada which is moorchita, can iradicate all kinds of diseases. Parada which is mruta is not affected even by intensive that heat of such parada can impart health and longevity13 . By the intake of moorchita parada all diseases are eradicated and badda parada makes the person to acquire the power to walk in the sky. Moorchita parada is Ghana parada gives Youthfullness, Divya drishti, Kanti, Veerya, Bala, stree sambhoga ananda, mrityu nashaka, parakramata and samasta roga nashaka14 . In total parada can be used in moorchita (kupi pakwa rasayana), marita (bhasma), and baddha (kajjali) form for the eradication of diseases. Important Formulation: Rasa parpati, Makadhwaja rasayana,Swasakutara Rasa MERCURY History15 : Mercury was one of the metals known to the ancient Chinese and Hindus and is named after the planet by the same name. Aristotle refers to it as Quick silver. Hydrargyrum derived from hydroargyras (Liquid silver) is the Latin name of Mercury. Occurrence: Occurs both in native form and in ores. Different ores of Mercury: Cinnebar - HgS Magesite Meta cinnabar - HgS Telling white Calomel - Hg2Cl2 Calenite, Elge stonite. Montryodite - HgO Liver ore of mercury etc. Page 60
  • 83. Drug Review  Industrial extraction of mercury and its purification16 : Mercury extracted from the cinnabar in following steps. 1) Crushing and concentration : The ore is crushed and finely powdered in ball mills and then concentrated by Froth Flotation process. 2) Combined roasting and distillation : The concentrated ore is placed on the perforated arches and heated by the flames rising from the furnace below. Mercuric oxide first formed by oxidation of cinnabar, decomposes at about 2970 C to give mercury. 2HgS + 3O2 - 2HgO + 2SO2 2HgO - 2Hg + O2. Mercury vaporized and vapours of mercury are condensed in a serial of chambers on either sides of the furnace. Purification: The metal so obtained contains Zinc, Copper, Bismuth and Lead as impurities. This is removed by filtering through a thick canvas, so filtered mercury is then dropped in a long tube filled with dilute nitric acid. The base metal impurities dissolve in dilute nitric acid as their nitrates. Any mercurial nitrate if formed reacts with the impurities forming their nitrates and displacing mercury. Further purification of mercury (if needed) is carried out by vacuum distillation. Properties of Mercury: Physical properties Symbol : Hg Appearance : Liquid silver Page 61
  • 84. Drug Review  Melting point : 35.870 C Boiling Point : 357.250 C Atomic Number : 80 Atomic Weight : 200.61 Atomic Mass : 200.50 Gms / mole Atomic Volume : 14.8 cc Specific gravity : 13.55 Chemical properties Mercury tarnishes slowly in air. When heated at about 297.80 C it forms mercuric oxide. 2Hg + O2 - 2 HgO Pharmacological details: Absorption: Absorption of mercurial compounds depends on the chemical form of metals. The inorganic form i.e. mercuric and mercurial chlorides are freely absorbed from all surfaces like alimentary tract, Skin, sebaceous glands and vapors through respiratory tract. Storage: It is deposited in different organs like kidneys, intestinal wall, and liver in the form of Albuminates. Small amounts are stored in Blood, Bone marrow, Brain, Buccal mucosa and Salivary gland. Organic mercurial compound may pass placental barrier. Excretion: It is excreted through stool, urine, saliva, sweat, milk, gastric juice, bile juice. Page 62
  • 85. Drug Review  Diagnosis of mercurial poisoning 17 : Toxic dose of mercury in liver 1 mg / 100 gm. In kidney 2 mg / 100 gm. Toxic symptom develops when Blood Hg > 20 µg dl Urine Hg > 60 µg dl Fatal dose: 1 – 4 gms. Fatal period: 3 – 5 days. Externally: Blue ointment of mercury and calomel ointment is used for many skin diseases like pruritis ani, psoriasis, and lichen pityriosis of scalp eczema, chancre’s & syphilitic sores. Internally: Mercury is used in the preparation of its alloys with other metals called amalgams. Amalgams of tin, silver and gold are used in dentistry. For local syphilitic use in mouth, vomiting and infantile diarrhoea. Also used in hiccup, dropsy. In ascitis it is used as purgative. It is also used as diuretics. Organic mercurial diuretics given parentrally are reasonably safe and effective diuretics. However they are ineffective orally and sometimes cause renal impairment during parenteral therapy. GANDHAKA In Rasa classics Gandhaka comes under Uparasa varga and is an important dravya next to parada. It is considered as the essential agent in mercurial process and is believed to impart many desirable properties to parada and reduces its toxic effects. Hence the mercurial preparations without gandhaka are considered to be more toxic. It also plays major role in Bhasmikarana process of dhatus. Mythologically it is considered as the Artava of Goddess Parvati. Page 63
  • 86. Drug Review  Vernacular Names English : Sulphur Kannada : Gandhaka Hindi : Gandhaka Latin : Sulphurium Types of Gandhaka:18 I) 1. Shukachunchunibham - Raktavarna - Shreshta 2. Shuka Piccha - Peetavarna - Madyama 3. Shukla Varna - - - Adhama II) According to Colour: 1. Rakta - - - Dhatuvadartha 2. Peeta – Amalasara - Rasayanartha 3. Sweta - Katika - Loha Maranartha 4. Krishna - - - Jaramrutyu Nashanartha Grahya Lakshna of Gandhaka:19 The Gandhaka resembling the shades of Shukapiccha, having the brightness of butter, smooth, hard & unctuous is acceptable for all purposes. Need for Gandhaka Shodana: A)  Shodhana removes 2 types of impurities present in it.  Shila Choorna – Stone powder, Clay Visha – Arsenic etc. B) Using of Ashudha Gandhaka may cases certain diseases   like Kushtha, Bhrama,Tapa and all types of pittaja vikaras.  May cause roopa, sukha, Bala Veerya Hani.  Shodhana is carried out by adopting various methods like. 1) Swedana 2) Dravana, Galana Page 64
  • 87. Drug Review  3) Bhavana 4) Kurma Puta – Bhoodara yantra method 5) Damaru yantra etc., Pharmaco Therapeutic Properties20 : Rasa : Katu, Tikta, Kashaya. Veerya : Ushna Guna : Sara Vipaka : Madhura, Katu Karma : Deepana, Pachana, Rasashoshana, Krimihara, Rasayana, Vishagna, Bala – Veerya vardhaka, Kapha Vatahara. Indication: Kandu, Kusta, Twakdosha, Ama dosha, Krimidosha, Pleeharoga, Kshaya, Jwara, Netra roga etc, Formulations: Gandhaka Druti, Rasa Garbha pottali, Gandhak rasayana SULPHUR History21 : Sulphur was known to the ancients probably due to its frequent occurrence in free state. It was used for fumigation and medicine by Aryans, Greeks and Romans, while fumes of burning sulphur were used for bleaching. The Bible refers to brimstone. The name sulphur is derived from the Sanskrit word sulvert through the Latin Sulphurium. Occurrence : Sulphur occurs in native form in the volcanic regions of Sicily, Italy, Japan etc., Small deposits have been found in India, Pakistan. It occurs in the form of 1) Sulphides (ZnS, PbS), Pyrites – (CuFeS2) 2) Sulphates (CaSO4 . 2H2O, BaSO4 etc.,) Page 65
  • 88. Drug Review  Propeties: Physical properties: Pure sulphur is tasteless, odourless and pale yellow, brittle, solid, crystalline in nature. It is insoluble in water but readily soluble in Carbon disulphide and sparingly soluble in alcohol and ether. Latin Name : Sulphurium Formula : S Colour : Yellow Melting Point : 1190 C Boiling point : 444.80 C Atomic Weight : 32.064 Specific Gravity : 1.9-2.1 Hardness : 1.5 – 2.5 Pharmacological details: Sulphur is a important constituent of protein. Protein forms the building factor of both plant and animal tissue. This also forms constituents of Harmones, Enzymes and Co-enzymes. Internal effects: Sulphur, when it is taken by mouth converted into alkali sulphides in small intestine. Due to their irritant action produce a mild laxative effect83 . It is also useful in Skin diseases Rheumatism. In the scabies both precipitated and sublimated sulphur are used. The scabicidal effect is probably due to its conversion into hydrogen sulphide and parathionic acid. Excessive Consumption causes enlarged spleen22 . Page 66
  • 89. Drug Review  External use: Used in the form of ointments. Contains 10% of sublimated sulphur in a simple ointment base. This ointment is very effective in the treatment of scabies. Excretion: Sulphur is mostly excreted in stool, rest as sulphur in urine. About 10%-40% of sulphur is absorbed as sulphide and excreted through lungs and sweat. It gives offensive smell to breath and blackness to the silver ornaments in touch with the skin respectively. MANASHILA Historical review: Historical use of mineral drugs in therapeutics has been started from the period of Vedas. Description regarding Manashila is found in the samhita kala. First description is found in Charaka Samhita. He describes a few instances of minerals and metallic preparations of which Manashila is one; in combination with herbal drugs, he has prescribed it in kushta, kasa and shwasa. Acharya Sushruta has also explained it in netra roga chikitsa and wider explanation is found in Ashtanga Sangraha as rasayana. With the development of Rasa shastra as an independent branch of learning and therapy from the 8th century A.D, Manashila is considered as Uparasa. Utpatti: When the demon Hiranya Kasipu was killed by Lord Narasimha, then from the vomit of this demon Manashila (realgar) took its origin23 . Page 67
  • 90. Drug Review  Synonyms Manashila Nagajihwika Rasanetrika Rogashila Kunati Shila Nepalika Kulati Manogupta Gola Manojna Nagamata Manohva Kalyanika Vernacular names Bengali : Manchala English : Realgar Hindi : Mainasila. Marathi : Manasila. Sanskrit : Manah sila. Occurrence: Manashila occurs in china, Spain and in India it is found on chitrala kshetra. Types of Manashila:24 Three types of Manashila are explained by all the acharyas. • Shyamangi - Uttama • Kanaveeraka - Madyama • Khandakhya - Adhama Table No: 17: Characters of each variety - Manashila Names R.R.S. A.P. Shyamangi Shyama,rakta,sagourava-reddish black in colour, more weight Hingula sadrusha raktavarna, slightly yellow, shining Kanaveeraka Resembles Tamra in colour, shining Red colour, heavy, in powder form Khandakhya Deep red in colour, more weight, easily powdered. Slightly reddish yellow colour, heavier metal. Page 68
  • 91. Drug Review  Grahya lakshana:25 Manashila that is bright red in colour like lotus, shining, heavy easily powdered and which is devoid of stone and mud is of good quality. Need for Shodhana: When Manashila used as a medicine without proper purification it leads to many doshas like: Mandagni, Malabaddham, Malavishtambakari, Mutrkricchra, Ashmari, Sharkara, Mutra daha. When adviced after shodhana, it can be used as sarvarogahara. Pharmacological and therapeutic properties: 26,27 Rasa - Katu, Tikta. Guna - Guru, Snigdha, Ushna. Veery - Ushna. Doshaghnata - Kapha Vata hara. Karm - Lekhani, Varnakara, Vishaghna, Bhutopadravanasini. Indication - Kasa, Shwasa, Jwara, Kandu, Pandu, Agnimandya, Rasayana, Vajikarana, Bhutavesa, Visharoga,Kushtahara etc. Manashila dosha shanty: Cow’s milk with honey for three days or till the effect is controlled. Shodhana: Shodhana is carried out by adopting various methods like Bhavana Swedana Nimajjana  Page 69
  • 92. Drug Review  Table No: 18: Showing bhavana dravyas by different acharyas for the shodhana: Bhavana dravya R.A R.T R.R.S R.S.S A.P Y.R Agastya patra swarasa + + + - + + Jayanti swarasa - - - + - + Bringaraja swarasa + - - - - - Manogupta rasa - + - - - - Matulunga rasa + - - + - - Ardraka rasa + + + + + + Bijapura rasa - + - - - - Ajamutra - - - - - +   Table No: 19: Showing swedana dravyas by different acharyas for shodhana: Dravyas for dolayantra swedana R.T R.R.S R.S.S A.P Y.R Chagamutra - + + - - Ajamutra - - - + + Jayanti rasa + + - + - Bringaraja rasa + + - - - Sukhodaka nipatita + - - - - Agatsya patra swarasa - + - - - Shodhan by nimajjana procedure:28 Piceses of manashila should be dipped into Choornodaka for three days. Then it should be washed and dried in sunrays. Satvapatana: To 1 part of Manashila, 1/8th of guda, guggulu, sarpi, loha mandura each added, triturated placed in Andha musha subjected to teevragni and satva extracted. Page 70
  • 93. Drug Review  Dose: 1/32 Ratti – 1/16 Ratti Formulations :Shwasakutara Rasa, Kalanala Rasa, Trailokya chintamani Rasa, Kshayakesari Rasa, Rasaraja Rasa, Manashiladi duma etc. ARSENIC DISULPHIDE (As2 S2) Realgar - a soft, light, translucent substance of orange red colour.In Greek realgar called as Sandarach. Realgar, rare and rather unusual arsenic mineral. It is secondary alteration products found in association with native metallic arsenic. In them, arsenic acts like a metal, but the compounds are mainly covalent. The structure of realgar is something like S=As-As=S, though the simple formula AsS gives the relative amounts of As and S29 . Physical properties: Formula - As2S2 Colour - Orange red Appearance - Crystalline solid Molecular weight - 300 At wt - 75 At No - 33 AS - 49% Sulphur - 16% Artificial Preparation: By fusing arsenious acid 5 parts with sulphur 3 parts. Formation of Arsenic di sulphide: It is formed by distilling a mixture of Iron pyrite and Arsenical pyrite FeS2 FeAs2 + 2FeS2 As2S2 + 4FeS Page 71
  • 94. Drug Review  Occurrence: Occurs in nature as Realgar. It is orange red in colour, vitreous, brittle solid, and lighter in weight than yellow arsenic. It is ideo-electric by friction or –ve electricity. It is readily fusible and sublimes unchanged. Heated in air or oxygen it burns with blue flame. It is a product of Burma and Japan. It is common in many parts of Bohemia and Saxony. In America it can be obtained of a very superior quality, also found in volcanic substances at Vesuvius and Solfatara. Body distribution Researchers have shown that, Arsenic derived from the food ingested is found normally in human tissues and excretions and claim to have appreciable qualities of Arsenic in all the organs examined affirm that the body of an adult person contains probably about 0.1 mg of Arsenic. Absorption The absorption depends upon the physical state of the compound if it is coarsely powdered it is less absorbed and eliminated before it dissolves. If Arsenic salt are soluble in water it is better absorbed. The absorption takes place in Gastro intestinal region. Storage It is stored in liver, kidneys, heart and lungs. Smaller amount is stored in muscles, brain, blood & neural tissues (it crosses the placental barrier causing fetal damage). This has high content of keratin, hence high concentration and for longer years is stored in bones & hair. Page 72
  • 95. Drug Review  Excretion Through feces, urine, sweat, milk, lungs and mostly excreted through urine. Half life: For urine excretion it is 3-5 days which is much shorter than those of other metals discovered. Fatal dose : 0.1-0.5 mg Fatal period : 12 – 48 hrs, the shortest period recorded is 45 min. Medicinal use Before the development of antibiotics Arsenic was used for everything starting from skin diseases to Arthritis and bacterial infections. It was used for treating syphilis, trypansomiasis and amoebiasis. Now days it is used only to treat Leukemia. HARATALA History • Charaka mentioned Haratala in the treatment of Unmada, Arshas, Hikka, Kasa and Visha Chikitsa. • Sushruta used Haratala in the treatment of Upadamsha, Arsha and Kshudra Rogas. • In Atharavaveda it is mentioned in the treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Varga: It is placed under Uparasa Varga. The author of Sharangadhara Samhita places it in upaloha and upadhatu Varga. Page 73
  • 96. Drug Review  Mythology 30 • Mythologically it is Seed of Lord Vishnu. • Lord Narasimha killed the demon Hiranya Kashipu in evening. The vomit of the demon became Haratala, which came from axillary fossa. vernacular Names : English - Orpiment, Yellow Arsenic Sanskrit – Haritalam Tamil – Aridaram, Hindi – Haratal Kannada – Haritala Malayalam – Aritaram Telgu – Doddi Pashanam Occurrence: In India it is found in very small quantities in Almora diatrict, Afghanistan, Iraq, Italy and China. Synonyms:31 Haritala, Tala, Talaka, Natabhushana, Natamandanaka, Shailushabhushana, Vidalaka, Chitragandhak, Pinjara, Vamshapatraka, Alam, Peetanaka and Mallagandhaja. Varities: 32 It is of two types; i} Patra Tala ii} Pinda Tala Majority of Rasacharyas have described two types of Haratala as well as the supremacy of Patra Haratala. The author of Rasa Jala Nidhi has mentioned four types of Haratala: i} Patra Haratala ii} Pinda Haratala Page 74
  • 97. Drug Review  iii} Godanta Haratala iv} Vakadala Haratala Grahya Lakshana: 1) Patra Haratala • It is heavy, shiny and yellow in colour is looks like Gold. • Several small and thin layers are attached seen in Patra Haratala. • It is soft and smooth in texture. • Chemically contains arsenic and sulphur. • It has the property of Rasayanam and generally used in medicine. 2) Pinda Haratala • It looks like a Pinda. • Several small and thin layers are not seen in Pinda Haratala. • It is heavy and hard. • It is used as medicine for leucorrhoea. 3) Godanta Haratala • It is heavy and large in size. • It is very smooth and looks like Godanti. At the center yellowish blue lines are seen. 4) Vakadala Haratala • It is very smooth like ice surface, patrayukta and heavy. • This type of Haratala Cures Leprosy Effects of Ashuddha Haratala 33 It decreases life span of human being and produces Kapha Vataja vikara, Prameha, increses Body Temperature, Daha, Snayu sankocha are produced by it. Hence always used after purification. Page 75
  • 98. Drug Review  Antidote • Jeeraka + Sharkara for three days. • One of the juices of Javasa, Kushmanda and Rajahamsa three times a day. Shodhana of Haratala 34,35,36 Following methods purifies Haratala . • Haratala is made into small pieces, and tied in a pottali, and subjected for Swedana in DolaYantra containing either Churnodaka, Kushmanda Swarasa, Tila kshara jala or Triphala Kwatha for three hours. • When Haratala is subjected to seven Bhavana of Churnodaka (Lime water), it is properly purified. • Small pieces of Haratala are bundled in pottali and subjected to Swedana in Dola Yantra containing the ingredient (Lemon juice) for three hours. Also same process is repeated for purification but instead of Lemon juice, grhiha dhuma is used. • Haratala is washed with 10% Tankana solution in Jambira Rasa and in Kanji. Properties 37,38,39 Rasa : Katu, Kashaya and Tikta Guna : Snigdha Virya : Ushna Karma : Kushtahara, Visha Rakta Bhutanat, Stree Pushpahara, Romaharaka, Dipana, Kantikara, Vrushya, Pushtikara, Agnikari, Rasayana. Dosha Prabhava : Vata Sleshmahara, Tridoshaghna Indication : Kandu, Kushta,Vrana, Phiranga, Vatarakta, Visarpa, Vipadika, Vicharchika, Arshas, Vishamajwara, Page 76
  • 99. Drug Review  Apasmara, Bhagandhara, Nadivrana, Visphota, Daruna. Haratala Marana: 40 Shuddha Haratala and Shuktika Bhasma are taken in equal quantity, triturated with juice of Kumari for one prahara and made in to chakrika. They are dried in sunlight. And then subjected to Laghu Puta. Haratala Bhasma pariksha : When Haratala Bhasma is heated over fire it should burn without smoke. Dose : ¼ to ½ Ratti Pathya : Lavana, Amla, Katu Rasa, should not be taken and Exposure to Vanhi and Atapa should be avoided. Indications: 41 Phiranga Vipadika Bhagandara Vicharchika Phirangajanya Roga Vrana Visarpa Different type of Kushta Nadivrana Formulations: • Talakeshvara Rasa • Kasturi Bhairava Rasa • Tala Sindura • Nityananda Rasa • Samira Pannaga Rasa • Rasa Manikya • Vata Gajankusha Rasa Page 77
  • 100. Drug Review  HARATALA (ARSENIC TRI SULPHIDE) Introduction 42,43 Haratala is equated with orpiment or arsenical gold and are chemically known as Arsenic Tri Sulphide. Arsenic trisulphide is a naturally occurring form of trivalent arsenic. As orpiment is one of the major arsenic-containing mineral. It is also manufactured from the reaction of arsenic trioxide with sulphur and is available commercially.It is used as a pigment under the name kings yellow. It is Element from group 5A. Arsenic Trisulphide is insoluble in water and poorly absorbed. It is therefore represents much less of an acute toxic hazard than soluble arsenic compounds. History: 44 • Its name in Greek word Arsenikon meaning Yellow Orpiment • Two sulphides of Arsenic were used in Ayurvedic system of medicine under the names recognized as Realgar and latter as orpiment (corruption of Latin, Auripigmentum gold paint) • A German alchemist Albert, count of Boll stadt (aka Albertus magnus) discovered it in 1256 A.D. Occurrence Arsenic is almost invariably found in small quantities in the sulphide ores of most of the metals e.g. Arsenical iron Fe As2 Arsenical nickel Ni As Cobaltite Co As S Page 78
  • 101. Drug Review  Its most important minerals are; 1. Arsenical pyrites or mispickle, Fe As S 2. OrpimentAs4S6 and Realgar A s4 S4 3. Cobaltite Co As S 4. Nickel glance, Ni A s S Arsenic is not available in India in abundant quantity. It occurs in Czecho- slovakia, Rumania, Macedonia, Asia Minor, Kurdistan, Japan and U.S. A. Basic information of Arsenic Trisulphide 45,46 Origin • As the ore orpiment. • Reaction of arsenic trioxide and sulphur. Synonyms : Kings gold Arsenous Sulphide Arsenic Sequisulphide Diarsenic Trisulphide Arsenic Sulphide Arsenious Sulphides Chemical group: A compound of Arsenic, a group of V A element. Physico-Chemical properties Chemical structure : As2 S3. Molecular weight : 246.04. Physical state at Page 79
  • 102. Drug Review  Room temperature : Solid. Hardness : 1.5-2 Specific gravity : 3.4-3.5 Optic angle : About 70o C ptically +ve strong Dispersion Luster : Pearly elsewhere resinous Colour : Lemon Yellow of several shades Odour : None Streak : Lemon Yellow of several shades but paler sub transparent to sub translucent Solubility : Insoluble in water. Chemical interaction : Aqueous solutions react with active metals to produce arsenic gas. Major products of Combustion : Arsine and hydrogen sulphide fumes are produced. Flammability : Combustible. Boiling point : 7070 C Melting point : 3100 C. Density : 3.43. Composition : As – 60.90%. S – 39.10% Class : Sulfide. Page 80
  • 103. Drug Review  • The Mineral is non –conductor of electricity. • When sublimated in the closed tube yellow gas is formed. • When heated to 1000 C it becomes red, it however resumes its original colour on cooling but when heated to 1500 C the change is permanent. Extraction: • By heating strongly arsenical pyrites in the absence of air, the Vapours of arsenic are obtained and condensed in water-cooled condenser. 4 Fe AsS 4 FeS + As4 • It is commercially obtained by roasting its Sulphide ores & subsequent reduction with carbon of the arsenious oxide As4S6 + 902 As4O6+6Co As4O6 + 6c As4+6Co Pharmacology 47,48 Externally : Arsenic is a local irritant acting slowly on tissue Producing inflammation. Internally it acts on: Gastro intestinal tract: In small therapeutic dose it increases the vascularity of gastro intestinal tract by dilating the capillaries. Where as in large dose it is a powerful gastro –intestinal irritant. Heart and circulation : Affect on mammalian heart is minimum but on poisoning the muscles they are directly depressed. The capillaries dilate enormously and the blood pressure falls. Blood : Arsenic increases the vascularity of the bone Page 81
  • 104. Drug Review  Marrow and alters the cellular composition of lood. Kidney : Arsenic in toxic doses may produce severe renal damage. The urine contains albumin, carts and red blood cells. Nervous system : Actually no special action on the nervous system is elicited by arsenic in acute poisoning. In chronic poisoning, symptom of peripheral neuritis develops with limited areas of paralysis. Skin : Arsenic has a presumed effect on the nutrition of the skin. It improves the complexion and cutaneous nutrition and increases the subcutaneous fat. It is eliminated with the sweat and causes itching and eruptions. In chronic poisoning skin rashes are common and are due to direct action on the skin. These effects may be due to cutaneous vasodilatation. The most characteristic action is the darkening of the skin “Arsenical Melanosis”. Absorption On an average daily intake of arsenic by human being is half to one mg through food and water. On absorption of arsenic bounds to protein portion of the Haemoglobin. Absorption of arsenic is either orally (pentavalent arsenic), dermally (arsenite), by inhalation (arsine), or parenterally. Page 82
  • 105. Drug Review  Distribution Absorbed arsenic is distributed to all body tissues. High concentrations would be expected in keratin rich tissue such as hair, skin and nails due to sulphydryl group binding. Excretion It is eliminated mainly by the kidney, in the form of mehthylated arsenic but also in feaces, bile, sweat, milk and other secretions. Antidotes Antidotes of arsenical poisoning are; • Chelating agent used against arsenic poisoning is dithiol compound, which can remove arsenic from endogenous sulphydryl groups, the targets of arsenic poisoning. • Traditionally, dimercaprol (British anti lewisite, BAL) has been recommended chelator in arsenic intoxications. Giri sindoora Girisindoora is well known in ancient day, most of Rasagranthas mentioned as a Sadharana rasa,but Bhavaprakasha, Rasataranginikara included in Upadhatu.Some Authors are called it is a red oxide of mercury,but Rasataranginikara clearly mentioned that it is lead oxide and addition to it by seeing the synonyms it is originated from Naga. Origin: 49 A reddish powder is found in between the rocks of big mountains. It is dry and red in colour.The same is known as Girisindoora in Ayurveda. Page 83
  • 106. Drug Review  History: As such it is not found in Vedic kala and samhita period .for the first time it is mentioned in Rasa Granthas after 8th century. Vernacular names: Hindi: Girisindoora English:Red lead,Red oxide of lead Sanskrit: Girisindoora Occurrence – It is mentioned in ayurvedic texts that rasa is also found in between the big mountains in very little quantity. Color is red, on drying the same is known as girisindoora . It is probably a compound of mercury and oxygen which occours rarely in mineral form mixed with other minerals.”Montradoite”the mineral of mercury closely resembles with it. It contains few particles of mercury and the color is red. Synonyms: Sindoora, raktenu, Naga garbha, Seesaka, nagaj, mahilabhal abhooshan Ganesh bhooshana, Mangalya, Bhala soubhagya etc. Types: 50 It is of two types. • Swabhavaja ‐  Girisindoora  • Kritrima - Naga sindoora Grahya lakshana: It having good colour, stable in fire, Smooth, fine powder,clean , heavy in nature , Soft to touch , That which we can get from mines are pure and effective. Page 84
  • 107. Drug Review  Shodhana: 51 Most of the Authors are not mentioned Shodhana and Marana because it is in oxide form.Few Authors are mentioned about Shodhana by bhavana with go-dugdha and Amladravya. Properties: Rasa: katu, Tikta Guna: Ruksha, ushna Veerya: Ushna Karma: Vrana shodhana, ropana, netrya, Bhagna sandhankara, Deha lohakara etc. Dosha prabhava: tridosha shaman Indication: Visarpa, Kushta, Kandu, Vrana, bhagna etc. Important Formulation : • Sindooradya malhara • Paddari malhara • Gandhakdya malahara • Sindooradya taila Gairika After 8th A.D the gairika has included in uparasa varga & is one of the best raktavardhaka dravya. Gairika is occurs independently & deposits on accessory mineral in many rocks or miners. According to rasaratna samucchaya it is available in all over India especially in Bihar. Latin Name - bole rutra Page 85
  • 108. Drug Review  Vernacular names Sanskrit- Gairika Hindi – geru English- ochre & red iron oxide Marathi- Geru , sonakav Kanada- jaju, hejaju Chemical formula - Fe2 o3 Specific Gravity- 4.5-5 Synonyms- Table No.20: synonyms of Gairika Acc. To different classics Sl No Synonyms A.P RA B.P R.R.S R.T A.K 1 Gairika + + + + + + 2 Raktadhatu + + + + + + 3 Gaireya + - + - + - 4 Girija + + + - - - 5 Dhatu - + - - - - 6 Girimruthy - - - - - - 7 Girimrittika - - - - + - 8 Lohadhatu - - - - + - 9 Girimridbhak - - - - + - 10 Giridhatu - - - - - + 11 Gaveduka - - - - - + 12 Raktak - - - - - - 13 Swarn - - - - - - 14 Rakta pashanka - - - - - - Page 86
  • 109. Drug Review  Table No 21: types of Gairika acc to different classics Sl No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Types Suvarna Pashan Rakta Hema Samanya Kewala R.D. + + - - - - R.K. + + - - - - R.R.S. + + - - - - R.T. + + - - - - B.R.S. + + - - - - A.R.S. + + - - + - R.A. - - + + - + A.P. + + - - + - R. chu. + + - - - - R.M. + + - - - - R .chi. + + - - - - R.D.P. + + - - + - B.RP. + - - - + - R.P. + + - - - - Most of the authors in rasashastra have mentioned two types of Gairika. 1. Suvarna Gairika- mrudu, marruna, sniggdha, Raktavarna 2. Pashan Gairika- hard in consistency and reddish from in colour. Shri Madhava of Ayurveda praksh has mentioned one more type of Gairika. 3. Samanya Gairika- Rasembles the physicsl properties of suvarna Gairika but less red in colour. Page 87
  • 110. Drug Review  Table No 22: karmas of suvarna Gairika according to different classics Sl No Karmas Raktapradaragna RRS - A.P - R.A - R.T - R.chu - B.P - A.k. - 1 Netrya + + - + + + + 2 Vrishya - - - - - - + 3 Dhaagna - + + + + + - 4 Raktapittagna + + + + + + + 5 Kaphahara - + + - - - + 6 Hiccahara + + + + - + - 7 Vishahara + + + + + + + 8 Jwarahara - - - + - - + 9 Vamanahara + - + + + - - 10 Visphotahara - - + - - - - 11 Arshogna - - + + - - - 12 Agnimandahara - - + - - - - 13 Kanduhara - + + + - - - 14 Shotahara - - + + - - - 15 Vrunaropa - - + + - - - 16 Udaradashotahara - - - - - - - 17 Visarpahara - - + + - - - 18 Kamalahara - + - - - - - Shodhana of Gairika52 :- Shodhana is the purificatory method. Aimed to remove harmful impurities in the drugs, minerals are obtained from earth. They are prone to be mixed with impurities either physically or chemically. In order to get red these impurities & to get desired effect of the drug in the body. Various shodhana processes have been dealt in ayurvedic texts. Page 88
  • 111. Drug Review  Table No 23: Gairika shodhana according to different classics Dravyas Go -dugdha Go-ghrita Takra Raktavarga Dravya kwath R.R.S + - - - A.R.S + - - + R.D. + - + + R.K. + + - - R.P. + - - - R.A. + - - - R.J.N + - - - R.T + - - + B.R.P - - - + R.D.P + - - + P.R - - - + R.S + - - - Gairika satvapatana53 To extract the satva from swarna Gairika the gairika is being subjected swedana & mardana samskara with ksharavaraga & amla varag Dravya with the help of musha as per the classical reference. Properties54 : Rasa: Madhura, Kashaya Veerya: Sheeta Guna: Snigdha Karma:Netrya, Kanduhara, raktapitta shamaka Indication: yoni kandu, karna-mula shotha, sheeta pitta, Rakta pitta, visarpa Gairika matra : 2-4 Rathi Anupana- Dugdha, jala, ghrita. Formulations: kamdudha Rasa, irimedadi Taila, krimighatini gutika, Jatyadi Taila Gairikadya pralepa Page 89
  • 112. Drug Review  Gairika (haematite) Human culture have long associated haematite with blood because of the deep red colour of its streak. The ancient egyptions used haematite in the creation of their magical amulets such as the carpenter stone & head rest amulets & several heat amulets. In the derives its name from the greek word harm ( blood) in allusion to its red colour. It is heavy and relatively hard oxide mineral ferric oxide (Fe2 o3) that constitutes the most important iron are because of high iron content 70% & its abundance harmatite was belives that as the symbol of the roman god of war. Harmatite is the stone of protection a belif originating from the roman belief that it it could protect & strengthens warriors going into a battle. In American culture red ochere is a pigment created from haematite that was used forfacement. Many of the various forms of hematite have separate names. The steel- grey crystals & coarse grained varieties have a brilliant metallic luster & are known as specular from are thin scaly types are micaceous hematite. Much hematite occours in soft fine grained earthy form called red ochre or ruddle. Intermediate between these types are compact varieties often with a reniform surface (kidney are) or a fibrous structure (pencil are). Red ochre is used as a paint pigment; purified form rouge is used to polish plate glass 55 Widely distributed over the world it occours in rocks of all ages as rhombohedral crystals called specula iron in mass in formations & red ochre in earthy forms, the larger crystals are opaque ranging in colour from dark gray to black. Generally have brilliant metallic luster. As the crystals become smaller, they become translucent. When they are less then 2-5 microns in size the light passing through gives them the appearance are sometimes referred to “ rouge”& can be used as polishing abrasive for jewelry or a corrosion inhibitive additive for pain. Page 90
  • 113. Drug Review  Forms & occurrence: Hematite appears in many forms in nature such as kidney are a bumpy are that has an appearance likened to a kidney; hematite rose a formation with crystals in the shape of petals; tiger iron a sedimentary rock with hematite mixed into its multiple layers; oolitic, sedimentary deposits of small, circular hematite grains; & micaceous hematite scaly, shiny stone valued for decorative uses. Its saft earthy, form is called red ochre. Hematite often appears within other crystals such as aventurine or as phantom crystals. Deposits of hematite exist in South American, in Brazil; in eururpe, in Sweden, Germany, Norway, England & Spain; in the pacific in newzealand; in the US in Midwest & west. The sedimentary deposits in the Lake Superior region of the US are the world’s largest producing 150,000.0001 Rs annually. Physical character: Colour- Is steed gray or brown red in earthy forms sometimes tarnished with iridescent colour when in a hydrated form called targite Luster- Is metallic or dull in earthy an oolitic form. Transparencey- Varies from opaque to translucent depending on size. Hardness- 5.5 to 7.5 Specific gravity- anerages a fit over 5 Cleavage – Is abs tent however there is a parting & two planes. Fracture- conchoidal, uneven, fibrous. Refractive index – 2.94 to 3.22 (very high) Chemical composition – Fe2o3 (ferric oxide). Fe2o3- oxygen 30% iron 70% sometimes containing titanium and magnesium. Page 91
  • 114. Drug Review  Pyroclastic properties- It is fusible under blowpipe with borax it gines iron reactions. Slowly soluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid. Distinguishing features- distinguished from magnetite by the red srteaks from limonite by the same means as well as by it is not containing hematite has several varieties each with their own unque names & mainly classified into two types- 1. Specular iron ore: This resembles pashana Gairika in its physical properties. These are hexagonal & rhombohedral in form & have brilliant metallic luster & steel grey in colour. 2. Kidney ore: Resembles samanya Gairika in its physical properties which id made up of aggregates of imperfect crystals in compact columnar, fibrous & radiating masses. This variety is dull red in colour with a sun metallic or dull luster. Red ochre; which resembles with swarn Gairika having more quantity of clay along with iron content which is red in colour & soft touch. Contents of Gairika It contains loha (iron) amlajnoka (oxygen) mrittika (soil), while in modern chemistry chemically the mineral in the fe2o3, corres ponding to 30% 0 (oxygen) & 70% (iron). In addition to this hematite often contains some carbon, arsenic, phosphorus, silicon, manganese impurities Physical: Mruttika Chemical: Gairika consists impurities like carbon, arsenic phosphorus, silicon, manganese & alluminium. Page 92
  • 115. Disease Review Page 93  DISEASE REVIEW Introduction: History is a root of knowledge in any scientific research. The Envelopment of knowledge is known only when one has the Comparative knowledge of the past and the present in a particular Subject. In the initial stage of planning in any scientific work, it is very important to know the evolution of the present knowledge, origin of the present knowledge and the basic idea given by ancient scientists. Our ancestors had a crystal clear view of health and disease of the Body; this is applicable to the wound as well. The history of wound care spans from prehistory to modern medicine. As wounds naturally heals by themselves, regardless of whether recovery from the scar or the recovery form the lost body tissue. Hunter gatherers have noticed several factors and certain herbal remedies would speed up or assist the process. In ancient history this was followed by the realization of the necessity of hygiene and the halting of bleeding, where wound dressing techniques and surgery developed. Eventually the germ theory of disease also assisted in improving the wound care. Historical background: In vedakala: In Rig-veda, References of transplantation of head of Yajnya (Madhu vidya and Kakshaya vidya) and in Sama veda, Vrana Ropana karma in the case of injured prince are available. Similarly references of some drugs for vrana ropana and vrana sodhana are available in Atharva veda1 . Few of them are, Laksha for vrana ropana, Mamsarohini for vrana ropana, Rakshokhna dravyas, Use of Gomootra in vrana, Exploration of ripened vrana and use of salt for unripened vrana.
  • 116. Disease Review Page 94  In Purana kala: The Ramayana gives reference of Sanjivani, which is described as Vrana Sandhanakara and Vrana savarnakara by Tulasidas. The reference in Mahabharatha is during the battle of Kurukshetra, the soldiers used to carry the first aid kits along with them. For this purpose the authorities stored drugs and other materials for war. In Samhitakala: In Charaka Samhita, Dvivraniya adhaya of chikitsasthana, explanation regarding vrana and its management is available. In Susruta Samhita, a detailed review of vrana and its management has been discussed, but during this time, the knowledge of wound was at its peak level and being a good surgeon Acharya Susruta knew the importance of wound in the practice. In Kashyapa Samhita, Nija and Agantuja type of vrana and their management was available. Different diseases leading to wound formation like Phiranga, Niloha, Masurika, Adhipidana, Adhanjali, etc with different medicines for its management has been mentioned. In Bhela Samhita, the management of vrana explained. In Astanga sangraha, the knowledge of wound and its healing was edited and classified on stage basis by Acharya Vagbhata. He advocated preparation and application of ghee-based ointment for local use. In Astanga hridaya, description of types of vrana and its management have been clearly mentioned. . In Budhakala drugs used for vrana ropana was Tila kwatha, Dhupana taila, Vrana ropanaartha taila etc. In Mouryakaala, the management of vrana was by Malahara and Kshara prayoga. In Madhava nidana, type, character and classification of vrana were described in chapter 41 and agantuja (Sadyo Vrana) in chapter 42. In Sharangadhara Samhita, application of Nimba kalka was described for the management of vrana and dusta vrana. In Purva Khanda, taila for vrana was described under taila kalpana. In
  • 117. Disease Review Page 95  Bhavprakasha Chikitsasthana 47th chapter description about vrana, vrana-shotha, and vrana shodana and vrana ropana are available. In Rasa Ratna Samuchaya, vrana ropana taila and other preparations for wound healing have been described. In Vrinda Madhava, Jatyadi grita is mentioned for the management of Aganthuja vrana. In Bhaishajya Ratnavali, description of Karpoora ghrita and many other preparations for Nija and Agantuja vrana have been explained in Sadhyo vrana chikitsa adhyaya. In Rasatarangini, 19th chapter explanation about management of vrana with Yasadamruta malahara especially in Dagdha vrana is given. IN ADHUNIK­KALA: French army surgeon “Dr. Ambroise pare” rediscovered gentle methods during the battle of violence. Dr. pare was forced to apply mild treatments to the amputation wounds and to his surprise, these wound healed much faster and with lesser complication. From this, the beginning of modern era of wound evolved. John Hunter, William Stewart, Alexin Carrel and many other great clinical biologists emphasized and demonstrated that minimizing the tissue injury produces rapid and effective healing. The ethics of wound healing is based on “Minimal Interference” concept. If a surgeon can remove all impediments, normal wound healing processes produce the best results. In 18th century, John Hunter brought out that, a wound heals fast if suppuration is sutured. However, he could not find out the actual organism responsible for suppuration. This was later discovered by Louis Pasteur (1822-1895). Main event of 20th century was World War I and II, during which the greatest difficulty was the curing of wound and their protection from infection, from outside factors like skin, clothing, missiles, and dirty soil, which have serious repercussions like streptococcus, tetanus etc, which spread rapidly, convert the muscles into a mass
  • 118. Disease Review Page 96  of putrefying flesh distended with stink. The wounded were given first aid and brought in ambulance to nearest hospital for treatment. Even if the wound was surgically treated, the chances of infection were still there. Once Penicillin was invented, the above problem was solved. It was used for both prophylaxis and cure of cross contamination. Alexis Correl et al first did the scientific study towards wound healing. He evaluated the observation on the surface of wounds and watched the process of healing in laboratory animals and patients to demonstrate the effect of age, temperature, infection and other conditions of wound healing. AYURVEDIC REVIEW Derivation: According to Paninis Ashtadyayi, the word vrana which literally means ‘to hurt’. The word vrana is derived from the root ‘O Brashch’ meaning ‘chedane – to cut’, which is further suffixed by the ‘Krut’ Pratyaya. Any break in the continuity of the body can be called as vrana. In ayurvedic classics this term vrana is used in a very wide aspect such as a cut, laceration, burns ulcers or even surgical incision can be termed under vrana. Definition: ÌuÉuÉ×hÉÉåÌiÉ CÌiÉ uÉëhÉ : | Vivrunoti has the meaning that which causes vivruthatwam. uÉëhÉ aÉɧÉÌuÉcÉÔhÉïlÉå,uÉëhÉrÉÌiÉ CÌiÉ uÉëhÉ : | ( xÉÑ ÍcÉ 1/4) Gathra vicurnana has a grammatical meaning i.e., a particular type of pain like cutting in to small pieces. Word Vicurnane has the other meaning with reference to
  • 119. Disease Review Page 97  this disease like destruction, break, rupture, discontinuation etc. Therefore, vrana gatra vicurnane means phenomenon complex causing destruction, rupture, or discontinuation of tissue in a particular part of the body leading to discolouration. uÉëhÉÉåÌiÉ rÉxqqÉÉiÉç ÃRåûÅÌmÉ uÉëhÉuÉxiÉÑ lÉ lÉzrÉÌiÉ | AÉSåWû kÉÉUhÉÉiÉç iÉxqÉÉiÉç uÉëhÉ CirÉÑcrÉiÉå oÉÑkÉæ: || (xÉÑ.xÉÔ 21/44) According to the Dalhana Vyakha of Susrutha Samhitha the term Vrana is used in the following sense: i.e. That which persist throught out the life and covers the affected part,(The scar of the wound). rÉÉuÉSÉrÉÑuÉ×ïhÉÏiÉå ÌuÉuÉ×hÉÉåÌiÉ uÉÉ zÉÉUÏUÍqÉÌiÉ uÉëhÉÉÈ || (A.xÉÇ.E 21/2) According to Ashtanga samgraha, the wound is the one that makes the person pray to God until his life exists or it persists through out the life as a scar. Nidana of vrana: All the Acharyas of respective Samhitas had same opinion about the Nidana of the vrana. They had quoted those exogenous factors as trauma and innate doshas as agantuja vrana and nija vrana respectively. This ‘Nija Vrana’ is caused by the vitiation of the Doshas of the body i.e. due to the endogenous factors. iÉrÉÉå: zÉUÏU mÉuÉlÉÌmɨÉMüTüzÉÉåÍhÉiÉ ÌlÉÍqɨÉ: | (xÉÑ.ÍcÉ.1/2) Aganthunja vranas are caused by either internal or external injuries due to living or non living objects. The living cause of Aganthuja vranas are bites of men, birds animals etc. The nonliving cause may be classified as physical, mechanical, chemical, and toxic. Fall, hit, blow etc can be considered as physical causes. Injuries
  • 120. Disease Review Page 98  inflicted due to piece of wood, weapons, bones etc are mechanical factors. Wound caused by Kshara and Agni can be considered as chemical factors. …………....AÉaÉliÉÑoÉÉï½WåûiÉÑeÉ: || oÉ®oÉlkÉmÉëmÉiÉlÉÉSÇ·íÉ SliÉ lÉZÉ ¤ÉiÉÉiÉç | AÉaÉliÉuÉÉåuÉëhÉÉxiɲiÉç ÌuÉwÉxmÉzÉÉïÎalÉzÉx§ÉeÉÉ|| (cÉ.ÍcÉ.25/6-7) Sushruta2 had mentioned soldier, pet animals, birds, wild animals, snakes etc., causes the exogenous wound; wooden piece or stone may cause throne of animal; or it caused by various weapons. Vagbhata3 mentioned by Sushrutas view that the happening of the vrana is due to external agents. Poorva roopa: The prodromal symptoms of vrana is shotha (a lokalised swelling) which is due to dosa vitiation which is seen only in nija vrana. Madavanidana has described the prodromal symptoms as “Ekadeshotthitha Shotha’’. Rupa: 4 Two types of lakshana has been seen in Nija vrana 1. Samanya Lakshana. 2. Vishesha Lakshana. Samanya Lakshana: Pain (Ruja) and Gatra vichoornana(discontinuity) are present in all types of vrana in accordance with the dosha.
  • 121. Disease Review Page 99  Vishesha Lakshana: Lakshana are seen according to the dosha involved in the manifestation of the vrana. Vataja vrana - Picchila, Alpa sravi, Ruksha, Catacataayana sila, Nirmamsa, Toda etc Pitaja vrana - Kimsukodakavat and Usna srava, Daha,Paka, Raga etc. Kaphaja vrana - Sthulaushta, Stabda sira-snayujaala, Katina, Pandu varna, Manda Vedana etc Raktaja vrana - Pravaladala nicaya prkasa, Turanga stana Gandhi, Krishna sphota pidaka, Dhoomayana seela, Vedana etc Lakshanas of Agantuja vrana 5 are, Chinna - Extensive cut injury, oblique/straight separation of parts of body. Bhinna - Perforation of Ashaya with mild discharge. Vidda - Deep injury without perforation of ashaya. Kshata - Neither a cut injury nor a perforation but exhibit the nature of both uneven shaped Piccita - Crushed injury, extended, filled with blood and bone marrow. Ghrishta - Rub injury, skin gets peeled off, burning sensation, discharge. Samprapthi: 6 The Samprapthi is also divided in to two depending upon the type of vrana. 1. Nija Vrana Samaprapyhi 2. Aganthuja Vrana Samprapthi In Nija Vrana Tridosa by their respective etiological factors get vitiated and getting lodged in the Vranaadishtana produce vrana. Aganthuja vrana is caused due to the direct external injury to the local structures like twak, mamsa, siraa, snayu, asti, marma, etc., here structural derangement occurs first followed by vitiation if dosas.
  • 122. Disease Review Page 100  This stage if not treated progress in to Dushta vrana. Every Aganthuja vrana becomes Nija vrana within a period of seven days. Classification of vrana: In Ayurvedic texts the vrana is mainly classified in to two category 7 , i.e. 1) Nija vrana (due to vitiated doshas) 2) Agantuja vrana (due to external causes) Classification of Nija vrana: • 15 subtypes, 8 • 3 subtypes, 9 • 7 subtypes 10 Table No. 24 Nija Vrana Classification: 15 types Vataja, Pithaja, Sleshmaja, Sonitaja, Vatapittaja, Vatasleshmaja, Pittasleshmaja, Vatasonitaja, Pittasonitaja, Sleshmasonitaja, Vatapittasonitaja, Vatasleshmasonitaja, Pittasleshmasonitaja, Vatapittasleshmaja, Vatapittakaphasonitaja. 3 types Vataja, Pittaja, Kaphaja. Nija Vrana 7 types Vataja, Pittaja, Kaphaja,Vatapittaja, Vatakaphaja, Pittakaphaja, Vatapittakaphaja Classification of Agantuja Vrana: 11
  • 123. Disease Review Page 101  Agantuja vrana is classified into, • 6 types • 3 types • 8 types Table No.25 showing classification of Agantuja vrana: Other classification of vrana: Acharya Susrutha12 also classified the vrana according to management, Shape, Sabda Vikruti, Sparsa vikruti, and Dushta vrana. Table No. 26 showing classification of vrana by Acharya Susrutha: Sa-upacara (4) Ayata, Caturasra, Vritta, Triputaka.Based on Management Durupacara (10) Sukti, Dwaja, Ratha, Kunta, Jaji, Vrana, Gho, Vrisha, Prasadakritya,Curnita. Based on shape (9) Ayata, Caturasra, Tryasra, Mandala, Ardacandrapratikasa, Visala, Kutila, Sarvasadrsa, Yugmadhya. Based on Shabdavikruti (4) Ksveda, Ghurgura, Jualantiva, Pavana sashabdam. Atyartha vedana --- 6 types Chinna, Bhinna, Viddha, Kshata, Piccita, Ghristha Chinna(5) Grishta, Avakrita,ViccinnaVilambi,Patita. Vidda (8) Anuvidda, Uttundita, Ativida, Nividda, Anubhinna, Bhinnothundita, Atibhinna, Nirbhinna.3types Piccita(2) Savarna,Avarna Agantuja Vrana Ghrishta, Avakrita, Viccinna, Pravalambita, Patita, Vidda, Bhinna, Vidalita. 8 types Avikrita, Vilambita, Chinna, Bhinna, Pracalita, Ghrishta, Vidda, Nipatita.
  • 124. Disease Review Page 102  Sparsha vikruti Dahante (2) Bhahiratyartha, Antyartha. Based on Dushtavrana (6) Vataja, Pittaja, Kaphaja, Raktaja, Sannipataja, Agantuja. Acharya Caraka13 also classified vrana according to shape and management, colour, Adhishtana, prognosis, and state of vrana. Acharya Vaghbata14 also classified vrana according to prognosis, and Dushtavrana. Table No.27 showing classification of vrana by Acharya Charaka and Vaghbata: Based on shape and management (20) Kritya, Akritya, Dushta, Adushta, Marmasritha, Marmanasritha, Samvrita, vivrita, Daruna, Mridu, Sravi, Asravi, Savisha, Nirvisha, Vishama, Sama, Utsangi, Anutsangi, Utsanna, Anutsanna. Based on colour (12) Sveta, Avasannavartma, Athisulavartma, Atipinjara, Nila, Syava, Atipidaka, Rakta, Krishna, Atiputika, Ropya, Kumbhimukha. Based on adhishtana (8) Twak, Ksheera, Mamsa, Meda, Asthi, Snayu, Marma, Antarasraya Based on Prognosis (3) Sukhasadhya, Krichrasadhya, Asadhya. Based on State of vrana (2) Shudda, Asudda. Based on prognosis (4) Dusadya, sukhasadya, Kashtasadya, Asadya. Based on Dushtavrana (5) Vataja, Pittaja, Kaphaja, Raktaja, Sannipataja Acharya Sarangadhara 15 also classified vrana according to cause and state. 1.Agantu, 2.Dehaja, 3.Sudda, 4.Dushta and based on dushtavrana i.e., 15 types of vatadi doshas. Shudda vrana16   According to Acharya Susruta, vrana that is of recent origin, unaffected by three vitiated doshas, edge with a slight blackish colour, having
  • 125. Disease Review Page 103  granulation tissue, absence of pain and secretion with an even/equal elevation of the surface through out its length. • Wound, which is slimy like surface of tongue, less pain, regular and without discharge. • According to Acharya Charaka, wound which is neither reddish nor whitish/black without much pain and elevation/depression. • According to Ashtanga hridaya, wound resembling like surface of tongue, soft, unctuous, smooth with normal surface, absence of pain and secretion. • According to Madava nidana, properties like the resemblance of the surface of tongue, smooth, very soft, slimy, no pain or having less pain, regular, not having too much discharge. Dushta vrana: 17 • According to Harita, All vranas are dushta vrana due to the involvement of doshas • Even though the vrana is manifested first on the skin, later it extends to the deeper structers such as meda, asti etc and lastly results in dushta vrana destructing considerable amount of dhatus. • Dushta vrana lakshanas- Puti gandha, associated with puya and dusta raktha, elevated, chira kalasthita vrana, and opposite characters of sudha vrana are the lakshanas of dushta vrana. Sadhyasadhyata of Vrana: Sukha sadhya vrana lakshanas18 - Different views: • Vrana arising in only Tvak adhishtana.
  • 126. Disease Review Page 104  • Patient who is having good satva, good strength, equilibrium of agni, wound which is circular/elliptical/triangular /rectangular in shape and not at the site of buttock, anus, penis, lips, back, inner side of buccal cavity, throat (A.H). • Vrana which is rectangular, square, circular and triangular in shape • Patient of vrana who follows the pathyapathya sincerely. • Early age of patients, strength of body, mental power, vitality of dhatus. • Vrana situated at such a place where dressing, application of medicaments etc are easier and availability of healing tissue is better (Su.) • Wound occurring in the skin and the flesh, in the region which is easy to approach, which is of recent in origin, which occurs in favorable season also in young(Ch). • Vrana having kapota varna, edges dry and stable (A.S). Krichra Sadhya Vrana Lakshanas19 -Different views: • Varna of bone, teeth, nose, lateral angle of eye, srotas, umbilicus, stomach, suture, buttock, flanks, abdomen, thorax, breast, joints, etc, those secreting frothy blood /pus with a gurgling sound or containing any foreign matter embedded inside. • A wound appearing in the neither region of the body and pointing upward or at the root of the hair or about the end of the nails or in any of the vulnerable parts of the body, on the tibio-fibular joint, pelvis, and bhagandara which has got the opening inward • Wound of Leprotic, Diabetes Mellitus, Tubercular, Poisonous one, and reoccurrence of pre-existing wound (Su.). • Vrana which is having smell, associated with 16 complications and 24 vrana doshas.
  • 127. Disease Review Page 105  • Lacking the lakshanas told for sukhasadya vrana (Ch) Yapya Vrana Lakshanas 20 - • Only susrutha has mentioned, characteristic of yapya vrana as in avapatita, niruda prakasa, sanniruda guda, jatara granthi, krimi, pratishyaya, koshtagata worms, sarkara meha, sikata meha, vatakundalika, ashtila, dantasarkara, upakusha, kanthasaluka, dushita gums, visarpa, bone fracture, urakshata, and vrana granti. Without treatment in proper time, curable wound can be converted in to yapya. Asadhya Vrana Lakshanas21 - Different views: • Wound without taking treatment • Wound which grows like a fleshy mass, painful, containing pus and copious secretion, with its edges raised like genitals of mare, horn of a cow which are soft/ hard, elevated at its base, exudates, blood/ thin slimy secretion/ fat/ marrow/ coagulated blood/brain matter embossed, heaped up at center, dipped at its extremity, covered with shreds of ligaments, bad appearance and koshtagata. Wound having yellow/black discharge, urine/faces/air exudation from mouth or anus. Wound itself, multi spreading, narrow mouthed, wound of an emaciated patient, narrow mouthed from where air bubbles come out, passing air with sound from head/neck etc, pus and blood discharge from wounds of emaciated patients, wound with complications such as anorexia, indigestion, cough and dyspneoa, brain injury from which brain matter exudates and all doshas are vitiated. • A wound which exudates fat, marrow, or cerebrospinal fluid, may prove incurable to medical treatment.
  • 128. Disease Review Page 106  • If a wound does not heal, even without involvement of vein/joint/bone / vital parts of body. • Shape of wounds other than those explained in sukha sadya lakshanas. • Wound having secretion like pulakodaka from large intestine, discharge like alkaline water from raktasaya, peya or yusha like exudates from stomach and sacral joint.(Su) • Lacking of all conditions of Sukasadhya vrana.(Ch) • Wound associated with the diseases like erysipelas, fever, diarrhea, cough, thirst, insomnia, dyspnoea, indigestion.(A.H) • Wound which having smell of wine/ghee/chameli /red lotus / champa /divya /extra ordinary smell. • Wound which is painful even without involvement of vital parts, which is hot externally and cold internally, “wound of patients who have emaciation, dyspnoea, cough, anorexia, which exudes too much muco-purulent blood stained discharges and wound of vital parts is incurable even after taking treatment. • Wounds of patient where koshta is filled with blood, coldness of hands, legs and mouth, respiration becomes cold, eyes become red and having anaha(M.Ni). Vrana pareeksha:22 According to Susrutha the vrana pareeksha includes the examination of wound in detail.ie the examination of Vrana akriti,Vrana gandha,Vrana srava,Vrana varna and Vrana ruja. Vranopadrava: • Upadravas of vrana are the complications prodused due to vrana.
  • 129. Disease Review Page 107  • Charaka has mentioned 16 upadravas such as Visarpa, Pakshaghata, Sirastambha, Apatanaka, Moha, Unmada, Vrana ruja, Jwara, Trishna, Hanugraha, Kasa, chardi, Atisara, Hikka, Swasa and Vepadhu. 23 • Susruta has not described such types of diseases as upadravas. According to him they are 5 in number. They are Vrana gandha, Varna srava, Vedana and Akriti. He has also described the upadravas of Vranitha (Patient).They are Jwara, Atisara, Murcha, Hikka, Chardi, Aruchi, Swasa, Kasa, Avipaka and Trishna.24 • Atopa and Anaha according to Madhava nidana.25 Vranopakrama: A detailed explanation is available in Ayurvedic text books regarding the treatment of vrana. The management of vrana explained in the classics can be broadly classified under two headings ie Management of Nija vrana and Management of Aganthuja vrana. Management of nija vrana: Nija vrana chikitsa includes Poorva karma, Pradhana karma and Paschat karma. Mailny the treatment involves saptopakramas26 (seven principles of upakrama). They are, • Vimlapana - Resolving the vrana shopha with finger. • Avasechana - Resolve the vrana shopha by draining the dosha. • Upanaha - To resolve the vranashopha. • Patana - Surgical measures to drain out decomposed substances. • Sodhana - Debriding • Ropana - to heal
  • 130. Disease Review Page 108  • Vaikrutapahanana- to remove the scars. TableNo. 28 Seven Principles of Upakarma Acc. to Acharya Susrut27 : Vimlapana 1.Apatarpana, 2.Alepa, 3.Parisheka, 4.Abhyanga, 5.Sveda, 6.Vimlapana Avasechana 1. Visravana, 2.Snehana, 3.Vamana, 4.Virechana. Upanaha 1.Upanaha, 2.Pacana 1. Chedana, 2.Bhedana, 3.Darana, 4.Lekhana, 5.Eshana, 6.Aharana,7. Vyadhana, 8.Visravana, 9.Sivana Patana Shodana Ropana 1. Sandhana, 2.Pidana 3.Sonithasthapana, 4.Nirvapana, 5.Utkartika, 6.Kashaya, 7.Varti, 8. Kalka, 9.Sarpi, 10. Taila, 11.Rasakriya, 12.Avacurnana, 13.Dhupana. Vaikruta- paharana 26 cosmetic measures. Table No. 29 Measures Advised by Acharya Charaka28 , Caraka 1.Shodana, 2.Patana, 3.Vyadhana, 4.Chedana, 5.Lekhana, 6.Pracchana, 7.Sivana, 8.Avapidana, 9.Nirvapana, 10.Sandhaniya, 11.Svedana, 12.Samana, 13.Esana, 14.Sodhana kashaya, 15.Ropana kashaya, 16.Shodana lepa, 17.Ropana lepa, 18.Sodhana taila, 19.Ropana taila, 20.Sodhana ghrita, 21.Ropana ghrita, 22.Patrachadana (bhahya), 23.Patrachadana (abhyantara), 24.Bandhana, 25.Pathyhara, 26.Utsadana, (36measures) 27.Daha agnikarma, 28.Daha ksharakarma, 29.Avasadana, 30.Kathinyakara lepa, 31.Katinyanahara lepa, 32.Mridukara lepa, 33.Dhupa lepa, 34.Varnya lepa, 35.Ropana, 36.Loma praharana Table No. 30 Measures Advised by Vagbhata 29 Vagbhata52 (26measures) 1.Vamana, 2.Virechana, 3.Upachara, 4.Raktamokshana, 5.Seka, 6.Abhyanga, 7.Sophahara lepa, 8.Sveda, 9.Sthira sophahara lepa, 10.Upanaha, 11.Darana, 12.Pidana, 13.prakshalana, 14. Vrana sodhana lepa, 15.Varti, 16.Dhupa, 17.Utsadana,
  • 131. Disease Review Page 109  18.Avasadana, 19.kshara karma, 20.Agnikarma, 21.Vrana ropana taila, 22.Vrana ropana grita, 23. Vrana ropana lepa, 24. Avacurnana, 25.Savarnkarna 26.Roma sanjana lepa. Management of Aganthuja vrana30 : • aganatuja vrana after seven days, if not healed is considered as sharirika and the treatment remains like that of Doshaja vrana. • Immediate general treatment pacifying the heat released due to pitta aggravation at the site of injury by special cooling measures. • Snehas processed by vata alleviating drugs are advised for loss of blood due to vitiation of vata followed by sudation. • Irrigation of drugs having cold properties for excessive burning sensation followed by suppuration. • Re-approximation of exulted edges with the help of honey and ghee along with cooling measures. • Vamana, virechana, fasting, pathya, repeated blood letting are indicated for red and inflamed vranas. • Some specific treatments are, Ghrishta vrana – dusting powder after subsiding of pain. Avakrita vrana – use of kalka, kashaya Viccinna/pravilambitha – bandaging and avapidana after suturing. Site wise management. Viddavrana – shalyaaharana Vidalita vrana - bhanga pradisheda.
  • 132. Disease Review Page 110  MODERN REVIEW Definition of wound: A wound is defined as the forcible solution or disruption of continuity, by mechanical force, of any tissues of the body including the skin, mucous membrane or cornea. “The term Wound is break in the continuity of soft parts of body structures caused by violence of trauma to tissues”.31 “The Disruption of normal anatomical relationships as a result of injury or more specifically by trauma”. 32 Classification of Wounds: 33 Different classification of Wound has been explained in Modern books .Some are according to the severity, others are based on the tissues involved and some others according to the factors causing the wound. Some of the important classifications are, According to the depth of wounds, • Superficial wounds - Here only the epidermis is damaged. The true skin – corium - is intact. Thus, the tensile strength of the tissue remains unchanged. Continuity is restored by growth of epithelium from the wound edges or from hair follicles, sebaceous or sweat glands. Healing occurs without scar formation. However, changes in skin pigmentation may appear. • Deep wounds - In deep wounds, healing will differ depending on whether there is loss of tissue or not. • Deep wounds without loss of tissue:
  • 133. Disease Review Page 111  In these wounds, the wound edges can be adapted by sutures/surgical tape. Both continuity and strength must be restored. Continuity is restored in the deeper layers by formation of connective tissue and on the surface by epithelial overgrowth. During the inflammatory phase, there is redness and swelling in the wound area and the patient may initially have pain. The wound feels stiff at the end of proliferative phase the scar will be a narrow red line. During maturation, the scar turns white but often it also becomes broader. Uncomplicated healing of a wound of this type is called healing by first intention. • Deep wounds with loss of tissue: As in other wounds, the inflammatory phase lasts a few days. During the proliferate phase, the wound gradually fills with granulation tissue when vessels and fibroblasts invade the coagulum. Replacement of lost tissue and restoration of continuity requires formation of a fair amount of new tissue. This will take time. As previously described, deep wound without loss of tissue, the granulation tissue is rapidly covered and protected by epithelium. In wounds with loss of tissue, the granulation tissue is only slowly covered by epithelium advancing from the wound edges. Even under favorable conditions, the epithelial border advances only about one millimeter a day. The area to be covered by epithelium diminishes by wound contraction caused by certain cells within the granulation tissue-myofibroblasts. The unprotected granulation tissue is associated with increased risk of complications, i.e. infection during healing. During the proliferative phase, the wound is weeping and often covered by light yellow fibrinous coagulum. Beneath this fibrin, the granulation tissue appears as
  • 134. Disease Review Page 112  a grainy, easily bleeding, red surface. Advancing thin epithelium may be seen as a light grayish red brim at wound edges. When finally the surface is covered by epithelium, there is a continuous maturation of the granulation tissue with remoulding of the collagen structure and reduction of the number of blood vessels. The newly formed epithelium is thin and has low resistance to trauma of any kind. This type of healing is called as healing by second intention, which takes longer and gives a proper result in appearance and strength than healing by first intention. According to the stage of wound, Stage 1 - Wounds are characterized by redness or discoloration, warmth and swelling or hardness. Stage 2 - Wounds partially penetrate the skin. Stage 3 - Describes full-thickness wounds that do not penetrate the tough white membrane (fascia) separating the skin and fat from the deeper tissues. Stage 4 - Wounds involve damage to muscle or bone and undermining of adjacent tissue. They may also involve sinus tracts (red streaks indicating infected lymph vessels). According to the factors causing the wound: 1. Excoriations (Abrasion), 2. Incisions and cuts (vulnus incisum), 3. Stab wounds (vulnus punctum), 4. Laceration, 5. Amputation, 6. Avulsion, 7. Contusion injury (vulnus contusum), 8. Missile wounds, 9. Bites (vulnus morsum),10. Injection injuries, 11. Burns, 12. Arterial ulcers, 13. Venous
  • 135. Disease Review Page 113  ulcers, 14. Diabetic ulcers, 15. Pressure ulcers, 16. Electrical injuries, 17. Cold injuries, 18. Chemical injuries. According to the severity of the wound, • Lacerations – Injury where tissue is cut or torn. • Abrasions – Injury where a superficial layer of tissue is removed, as seen with 1st degree burns. • Contusions – Injuries resulting from a forceful blow to the skin and soft tissue, however leaving the outer layer of skin intact. These injuries generally require minimal care as there is no open wound. However, contusions should be evaluated for possible hematoma deep to the surface or other tissue injuries that may indicate more severe morbidity. • Avulsions – Injuries where a section of tissue is torn off, either partially or in total. In partial avulsions, the tissue is elevated but remains attached to the body. A total avulsion means that the tissue is completely torn from the body with no point of attachment. Major avulsions describe amputation of extremities, fingers, ears, nose, scalp or eyelids and require treatment by a replant team. WOUND HEALING: Mechanism of wound healing: 34 In normal skin, the epidermis (outermost layer) and dermis (inner or deeper layer) exists in a steady-stated equilibrium, forming a protective barrier against the
  • 136. Disease Review Page 114  external environment. Once the protective barrier is broken, the normal (physiologic) process of wound healing is immediately set in motion. The classic model of wound healing is divided into three or four sequential, yet overlapping, Phases: (1) Hemostasis (2) Inflammatory (3) Proliferative (4) Remodeling. • Hemostasis: Within minutes post-injury, platelets (Thrombocytes) aggregate at the injury site to form a fibrin clot. This clot acts to control active bleeding. • In the inflammatory phase, bacteria and debris are phagocytized and removed, and factors are released that cause the migration and division of cells involved in the proliferative phase. • The proliferative phase is characterized by angiogenesis, collagen deposition, granulation tissue formation; epithelization, and wound contraction. In Angiogenesis, new blood vessels are formed by vascular endothelial cells. • In fibroplasia and granulation tissue formation, fibroblasts grow and form a new, provisional extracellular matrix (ECM) by excreting collagen and fibronectin. • Concurrently, re-epitheliazation of the epidermis occurs, in which epithelial cells proliferate and 'crawl' atop the wound bed, providing cover for the new tissue. • In contraction, the wound is made smaller by the action of myofibroblasts, which establish a grip on the wound edges and contract themselves using a mechanism similar to that in smooth muscle cells. When the cells' roles are close to complete, unneeded cells undergo apoptosis. • In the maturation and remodeling phase, collagen is remodeled and realigned along tension lines and cells that are no longer needed are removed by apoptosis.
  • 137. Disease Review Page 115  • However, this process is not only complex but fragile, and susceptible to interruption or failure leading to the formation of chronic non-healing wounds. Factors which may contribute to this include diabetes, venous or arterial disease, old age, infection etc Types of wound healing: 35 Although various categories of wound healing have been described, the ultimate outcome of any healing process is repair of a tissue defect. Primary healing, delayed primary healing, and healing by secondary intention are the 3 main categories of wound healing. Even though different categories exist, the interactions of cellular and extracellular constituents are similar. A fourth category is healing that transpires with wounds that are only partial skin thickness. Category 1 : Primary wound healing or healing by first intention occurs within hours of repairing a full-thickness surgical incision. This surgical insult results in the mortality of a minimal number of cellular constituents. Category 2 : If the wound edges are not approximated immediately, delayed primary wound healing transpires. This type of healing may be desired in the case of contaminated wounds. By the fourth day, phagocytosis of contaminated tissues is well underway, and the processes of epithelization, collagen deposition, and maturation are occurring. Foreign materials are walled off by macrophages that may metamorphose into epithelioid cells, which are encircled by mononuclear leukocytes, forming granulomas. Usually the wound is closed surgically at this juncture, and if the "cleansing" of the
  • 138. Disease Review Page 116  wound is incomplete, chronic inflammation can ensue, resulting in prominent scarring. Category 3 : A third type of healing is known as secondary healing or healing by secondary intention. In this type of healing, a full-thickness wound is allowed to close and heal. Secondary healing results in an inflammatory response that is more intense than with primary wound healing. In addition, a larger quantity of granulomatous tissue is fabricated because of the need for wound closure. Secondary healing results in pronounced contraction of wounds. Fibroblastic differentiation into myofibroblasts, which resemble contractile smooth muscle, is believed to contribute to wound contraction. These myofibroblasts are maximally present in the wound from the 10th-21st days. Category 4 : Epithelization is the process by which epithelial cells migrate and replicate via mitosis and traverse the wound. This occurs as part of the phases of wound healing. In wounds that are partial thickness, involving only the epidermis and superficial dermis, epithelization is the predominant method by which healing occurs. Wound contracture is not a common component of this process, if only the epidermis or epidermis and superficial dermis are involved. Phases of wound healing: The human adult wound healing process can be divided into 4 distinct phases: the inflammatory phase, the Proliferative phase, Fibroblastic phase and the Maturation phase.
  • 139. Disease Review Page 117  Inflammatory Phase The body responds quickly to any disruption of the skin’s surface. Within seconds of the injury, blood vessels constrict to control bleeding at the site. Platelets coalesce within minutes to stop the bleeding and begin clot formation. Platelets also release factors that attract other important cells to the injury. Neutrophils enter the wound to fight infection and to attract macrophages. Macrophages break down necrotic debris and activate the fibroblast response. The inflammatory phase lasts about 24 hours and leads to the proliferation phase of the healing process. Proliferation Phase On the surface of the wound, epidermal cells burst into mitotic activity within 24 to 72 hours. These cells begin their migration across the surface of the wound. Fibroblast proliferates in the deeper parts of the wound. These fibroblasts begin to synthesize small amounts of collagen which acts as a scaffold for migration and further fibroblast proliferation. Granulation tissue, which consists of capillary loops supported in this developing collagen matrix, also appears in the deeper layers of the wound. The proliferation phase lasts from 24 to 72 hours and leads to the fibroblastic phase of wound healing. Fibroblastic Phase Four to five days after the injury occurs, fibroblasts begin producing large amounts of collagen and proteoglycans. Collagen fibers are laid down randomly and are cross-linked into large, closely packed bundles. Proteoglycans appear to enhance the formation of collagen fibers, but their exact role is not completely understood. Within two to three weeks, the wound can
  • 140. Disease Review Page 118  resist normal stresses, but wound strength continues to build for several months. The fibroblastic phase lasts from 15 to 20 days and then wound healing enters the maturation phase. Maturation Phase During the maturation phase, fibroblasts leave the wound and collagen is remodeled into a more organized matrix. Tensile strength increases for up to one year following the injury. While healed wounds never regain the full strength of uninjured skin, they can regain up to 70 to 80% of its original strength. Management of wound: 36 Wound management includes topical agent as well as dressing. A topical agent is that which is applied to a wound. A dressing is a covering on a wound, which is intended to promote healing and provide protection from further injury. There are four basic steps to follow in caring for any wound. Perhaps the most important factor in wound healing is compliance or in other words, caring for the wound consistently and correctly. Dressings: The dressing over a wound should, • Prevent traumatization and soiling of the wound • Immobilize the wound area • Counteract oedema • Protect clothes and linen from blood and discharge General principles:
  • 141. Disease Review Page 119  • Operative wounds are usually made in such a way that tension and traumatization are minimized. Routine for dressings can therefore easily be developed. • The operative wound is adequately protected against traumatization and soiling by porous tape, which also helps to keep the wound edges together. An absorbing pad can be suitably applied over the tape. The pad can be removed after the first day. The tape then offers sufficient protection and is left in place until the sutures are removed. After removal of sutures, the wound is protected with new tape. Porous tape has good adhesiveness to clean and dry skin. The adhesion can be further improved if plastic glue is applied on the skin around the wound. If spray-solutions are used it is important to make sure that neither the plastic material nor the propulsive gas is exposed to the wound. Spray-plast solution should never be used in the face. • It is not proven that a longer period of relief of tension results in a narrower scar. However, the combination of relief of tension and pressure by tape may decrease the incidence of scar hypertrophy, for example over the deltoid and over the sternum. Tension must then be relieved for 2-3 months, i.e. until the scar tissue has reached a certain degree of maturation. • Oedema in operative wounds is usually small except in areas with very loose skin. In such location, a pressure dressing can counteract oedema. • Movements of a joint means continued traumatization of nearby wounds. Immobilization will therefore provide better conditions for healing. Sometimes an elastic bandage can achieve this, but splinting is often preferable.
  • 142. Disease Review Page 120  • Bleeding from a sutured wound is hardly influenced by a dressing. An important effect of a dressing is to protect clothing and bed linen from blood and discharge. Factors delay wound healing: The treatment of wounds requires vigorous care about the general condition of the patient. It also demands meticulous operative technique. The general and local factors that delay wound healing does so by prolonging the time required for removal of nonviable tissue or by preventing or retarding tissue regeneration, or both. Systemic and Local factors delaying wound healing are described below. A) Systemic Factors • Wound healing is rapid in young and slow in aged people. • Nutritional deficiency of vitamin C and zinc delays healing. • Diabetics are more prone to infection and hence delay healing. • Administration of Glucocorticoids (anti-inflammatory) delays healing. B) Local factors: • Infection by tissue organisms delays healing. • Poor bloods supply which shows healing. • Movement to ionizing radiation delays healing. • Exposure to ultraviolet light facilitates healing. • Foreign bodies including sutures interfere in healing Complications of wound healing: During the course of healing, following complications may occur:
  • 143. Disease Review Page 121  • Infection of wound due to entry of bacteria. • Implantation (epidermal) cyst formation may occur due to persistence of epithelial cells in the wound after healing. • Pigmentation. Healed wounds may at times have rust-like colour due to staining with Haemosiderin. Some coloured particulate material left in the wound may persist and impact colour to the healed wound. • Deficient scar formation. This may occur due to inadequate formation of granulation tissue. • Incisional hernia. A week scar, especially after a laprotomy, may be the site of bursting open of a wound (wound dehiscence) or an incisional hernia. • Hypertrophied scars and keloid formation. At times the scar formed is excessive, ugly and painful. Excessive formation of collagen in healing may result in keloid formation. Hypertrophied scars differ from keloid in that they are confined to the borders of the initial wound while keloids have tumour-like projection of connective tissue. • Excessive contraction. An exaggeration of wound contraction may result in formation of contractures or cicatrisation. • Neoplasia. Rarely, scar may be the site for development of carcinoma later e.g. squamous cell carcinoma in Marjolin’s ulcer i.e. a scar following burns on the skin.   
  • 144. Disease Review Page 122 
  • 145. Pharmaceutical study  Page 122  PHARMACEUTICAL STUDY “Bhaishajya kalpana” is a science as a map of intellectual reality which briefs the principles of compounding drugs as general outlines applicable within all the limitations of time or place while describing the science of Ayurveda. Bhaishajya kalpana, in simple way the science of pharmacy. According to Remington pharmacy is “Art and Science of preparing and dispensing medication and provision of drug related information to the public”. Generally, Ayurvedic medicines are the combination of various drugs selected on some rational basis and are manufactured under different pharmaceutical process in order to get not only their typical form i.e. Swarasa ,Kalka ,Churna , Kwatha, Avaleha, Sneha kalpana, Sandhana kalpana etc. but also to modify and intensify their inherent properties. While manufacturing the drugs one should keep in mind the severity of the diseases and liking of the patient, as Charaka has mentioned that the choice of various types of drug preparation should be made in accordance with the disease and its intensity, the strength and tolerance of the patient and the nature of the drug as such. In this part of the study, the detailed description regarding various practical steps done for the preparation of trial drugs are included, Lajjalu moola Taila and Vrana Rakshasa Taila are prepared according to the reference of Bharta Bhaishajya Ratnakara and Bhaishajya Ratnavali respectively. The ingredients of Lajjalu moola Taila, like Lajjalu was collected from college campus. For Vrana Rakshasa Taila, the mineral drugs were collected from an authentic shop in Udupi, and all the herbal and mineral drugs were identified as genuine sample by the Dravya Guna Department and Quality control department, A.L.N.Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa.
  • 146. Pharmaceutical study  Page 123  Lajjalu moola Taila and Vrana Rakshasa Taila were prepared in the pharmacy of the department of Bhaishajya kalpana A.L.N.Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, Koppa. PRACTICAL NO. 01 Name of practical : Haratala shodhana Reference : R.R.S. 3/70 Date of commencement : 1/08/09 Date of completion : 1/08/09 Equipments : Stainless steel vessel, Iron rod, Thread, cloth, Trey, weighing Machine, gas stove etc. Ingredients Quantity Ashudha Haratala : 100 gm. Choornodaka : Q.S. Principle : Swedana Procedure: At first Ashudha Hartala was made into small pieces, spread on a cloth and made into a Pottali. The Pottali is tied to an iron rod with a thread then placed in a stainless steel vessel, in such a way that it should not touch the bottom of the vessel. The vessel was filled with the media (Choornodaka) and the Pottali immersed so that the Pottali can move freely during the Swedana process like a cradle (Dolayantra) and later it is heated on gas stove. After 3 hrs, Hartala is taken of from the Pottali and washed with hot water and dried well in sun light.
  • 147. Pharmaceutical study  Page 124  Observation: • After Swanga sheeta (self cooling) we find the pieces of Hartala as it is. • The colour of the Hartala becomes dull. Precautions: • Add the Choornodaka from time to time up to the Pottali neck for proper reaction. • We have to keep the Pottali in such a way that it should not touch the bottom or any side of the vessel; or else there will be loss of material as well as chance of mingling with media. Results: Quantity of the finished product : 95 gm. Color : Dull yellow color Shape : Like Layers Smell : Dull Sulphur smell Loss : 5 gm Cause for loss: • Due to some unwanted impurities which are filtered during shodhana. • Some part of Hartala may remain on cloth. • During washing some quantity has been lost.
  • 148. Pharmaceutical study  Page 125  PRACTICAL NO 02 Name of the practical : Gandhaka shodhana Reference : R.R.S.3/20 Date of commencement : 3/08/09 Date of completion : 3/08/09 Equipments : Stainless steel vessel, stirrer, Cloth, gas stove etc. Ingredients: Quantity Gandhaka - 100 gm. Go - Dugdha - 3 lit. Go - ghrita - Q.S. Hot water - Q.S. Principle - Dhalana Procedure : Powdered Gandhaka was taken in a steel vessel and heated with go ghrita over mandagni. Hot Go-dugdha (1 Lt) was taken in another vessel and the piece of cloth was tied on the mouth of the vessel and smeared with go ghrita. When Gandhaka was totally melted it was poured in to the vessel containing Go-dugdha through the cloth. A solid mass granular part of Gandhaka was taken out of the vessel and then washed with hot water. The same procedure was repeated for three times and in each batch fresh milk and ghee was taken. After drying it was powdered, weighted and kept in a glass jar.
  • 149. Pharmaceutical study  Page 126  Observation: • Average time taken to melt the Gandhaka was 10 minute. • Crystalline dark yellow Gandhaka turned into granular and dull yellow after Shodhana. • Typical smell of Gandhaka was smelt through out the process. Precautions: • Gandhaka was made into fine powder form. • Cloth was slightly smeared with ghee. • Gandhaka was heated over mandagni. • Go-dugdha was hot during the quenching of melted Gandhaka. • After each quenching, Gandhaka was thoroughly washed with hot water. Results: Quantity of the finished product : 90gm. Colour : Dull yellow colour Shape : Granular Smell : Typical Sulphur smell Loss : 10 gm. Cause for loss: • Due to some unwanted impurities which are filtered during shodhana. • During washing some quantity has been lost.
  • 150. Pharmaceutical study  Page 127  PRACTICAL NO 03 Name of the practical : Manashila Shodhana Reference : R.T., 11/11 Date of starting : 05/08/09 Date of Completion : 15/08/09 Apparatus required : Khalva, Vessel, Nimbu swarasa Extractor, steel spoon cotton cloth. Ingredients : Quantity Manhashila : 100gm. Neembu swarasa : Q.s. Principle : Bhavana Procedure: The Ashoditha Manashila was taken and powdered on the Khalva, and then neembu swarasa was added little by little and triturated for seven days till it attained a bright orange colour. Then Shodita Manashila was taken and kept in sun for drying. Observation: • Shodhita Manashila had a bright Orange colour. • In had a different smell. Precautions: • Make fine powder of Manahshila. • Mix the Lemmon juice little by little.
  • 151. Pharmaceutical study  Page 128  Results: Quantity of finished product : 90gm. Colour : orange Smell : Lemmon smell Shape : solid Weight gain : 5 gm Uses : For analysis and further use in formulation. PRACTICAL No. 04 Name of the practical : Gairika Shodhana Reference : Ayurveda Prakash, 2/272 Date of commencement : 17 /08/09 Date of completion : 17 /08/09 Required equipments : Khalwa yantra, Vessel, Spatula, gas stove etc. Ingredients: Quantity Swarna Gairika : 100 gm. Go –ghrita : Q.S. Principle : Bharjana Procedure: Swarna gairika take in a khalwa yantra and make the fine powder of gairika. Keep the loha Patra on gas stove in mandagni, and put little amount of Go – ghrita in patra. After the melting of the ghrita fine powder of the swarna gairika to be added.Bharjana should be done till the ghrita is evaporated.
  • 152. Pharmaceutical study  Page 129  Observation: • Colour of Gairika become darker during initial stage of Bharjana with Ghrita. • After evaporating Ghrita, it becomes dry and red in colour. Precaution: • Fine powder should be made. • Little quantity of ghrita should be added. Results: Quantity of the finished product: 95 gm. Colour : red Smell : ghrita smell Shape : powder Loss : 5 % Cause of loss: Some part of the Gairika choorna was stick in the khalwa, and vessel. PRACTICAL NO 05 Name of the practical: Parada Samanya Shodhana Reference : R.T. 5/ 36-37 Date of starting : 18 /08 /09 Date of completion : 30 /08 / 09 Equipments : Khalva yantra, Steel vessels, Spatula, Cotton cloth etc.
  • 153. Pharmaceutical study  Page 130  Ingredients Quantity Ashudha parade 100 gm. Sudha choorna 100 gm. Lashuna 100 gm. Saindhava lavana 50 gm. Hot water Q. S. Principle : Mardana, Prakshalana Procedure: • Ashudha Parada and Sudha choorna were mixed and triturated for 36 hour’s. • The mixture was washed with warm water till only Parada remained. • To this Parada equal quantity of Lashuna paste and the half quantity of Saindhava Lavana were added and triturated for 18 hour’s. • Thereafter Parada was collected from this paste by washing with hot water, and squeezed with cotton cloth. Observations: • After one hour of triturating Parada started disintegrating into small globules and started mixing up with Sudha. So lime powder becomes heavy. • When Sudha was triturated with parade for about five hour’s the mixture turned to light grey color. • After triturating for 36 hour’s the mixture of Sudha turned to dark grey color and no free parada globules were seen in the mixture. • When the triturating was over, mixture of Parada and Sudha washed with hot water, it became light grey in color but on repeated washing it gradually become colorless and Parada settled at the bottom of water.
  • 154. Pharmaceutical study  Page 131  • When Parada was triturated along with Lashuna paste and Saindhava lavana , after 30 minutes Parada started disintegrate into small globules and paste turned to light black color . • After 36 hours of trituration, the paste turned into black colour and Parada in small globule form completely mixed with the paste. • On washing this paste with hot water Parada globules started mixing with each other and regained its original state. Precautions: • Mardana should be done very carefully as Parada may spill out of Khalva. • Washing of the paste with hot water should be done with at most care other wise Parada may be lost in Jala-gati and Mala-gati manner. Result: • Number of days taken : 6 days • Total time taken for Mardana With sudha choorna : 18 hours With lasunas + saindhava lavana : 18hour’s Ashudha parade taken : 100 gms • Samanya shodita Parada obtained – 80 gm. • Weight loss : 20 gm. Cause of weight loss: • Impurities removed during shodhana. • Spilling of Parada during Mardana process and during Prakshalana by hot water.
  • 155. Pharmaceutical study  Page 132  PRACTICAL NUMBER NO. 06 Name of the practical : Preparation of kajjali ( Reference : R.R.S 8/5) Date of starting : 1/09/09 Date of completion : 20/09/09 Apparatus : Khalva yantra, Steel plate, Spatula. Ingredients Quantity Samanya shodhita Parada 40 gm. Shuddha Gandhaka 80 gm. Principle : Mardana Procedure: • In a Khalva yantra, Samanya shodhit Parada and Shuddha Gandhaka was taken in mentioned quantity and triturated. • Gradually the white color of Parada and greenish yellow color of Gandhaka disappeared and a black powder was formed. • While triturating, few drops of water was sprinkled over the powder to prevent it from spilling. • Trituration was continued till the powder became black in color and very fine like Kajjal and it fulfilled all the criteria of Kajjali. Observation: • After Twelve hour’s of trituration, the color of Gandhaka started transforming into blackish yellow. • After Forty-eight hour’s of trituration Parada particles almost disappeared and the mixture turned into dark black color. But, when rubbed between the fingers’ small partials of Parada were seen.
  • 156. Pharmaceutical study  Page 133  • But after 96 hour’s of trituration, there was no free Parada practical’s observed when rubbed between the finger’s kajjali attained Nischandratva quality but still this Kajjali was not satisfying the flame test and on rubbing it on Tamra patra discoloration was seen. • After one hundred twenty hours (120) of trituration, the prepared Kajjali fulfilled all the criteria. • This prepared Kajjali was fulfilling the test of Varitara and Rekha- poornatha too. • The entire powder became fine, black, smooth, lusterless and kajjalabhasa. Precautions: • To prepare proper kajjali, Gandhaka should always be taken in fine powder form. • Trituration should be done slowly and cautiously, to check the loss of Parada. • Few drops of water should be sprinkled over kajjali to check its spilling during triturating. • Khalva should be kept covered when the process is not in progress. Results: Number of days taken: 20 days Total time taken for Kajjali : 120 hrs Weight of Prada : 40 gm. Weight of Gandhaka : 80 gm. Kajjali obtained : 115 gm. Weight loss : 5 gm.
  • 157. Pharmaceutical study  Page 134  Quality of the finished product: Consistency : Fine Powder Colour : Black Touch : Smooth Smell : Not specific Cause of weight loss: • Spilling of mixture during trituration. • Some fine particles of kajjali remained adherent to Khalva which were difficult to collect. • Some quantity of kajjali was lost during performing the confirmation test of the product. PRACTICAL No. 07 Name of the practical : Ghrita- murchana Reference : B.R. 5/1285 Date of the starting : 22 /09/09 Date of completion : 23/09/09 Apparatus required : Chullika, Vessel, Cloth, Darvri, Kalva yantra, Grita-Nishpeedana yantra Ingredients: Quantity Go- Ghrita - 1600 gm Water - 6.4 Liter Kalka Dravyas: Haridra - 100 gm Vibhitaki - 100gm
  • 158. Pharmaceutical study  Page 135  Musta - 100gm Amalaki - 100gm Haritaki - 100gm Matulunga swarasa - 100gm Method of preparation: Go- Ghrita placed in a wide mouthed vessel and was kept over the Chullika, which is maintained on mridvagni throughout the process. When the oil was slightly hot, the course powder of Haridra was added along with 1.5 lit. of water and stirred continuously until the water content was evaporated. Then Matulunga swarasa was added along with 1.5 lit. of water, heated until water content was evaporated then the course powder of remaining 4 drugs and remaining quantity of water was added. Then paka was done until Sneha siddhi lakshanas were attained. Then the vessel was removed from the fire and the oil was filter through a clean cloth. Remaining part of the kalka was put into a manual press to obtain the part of ghrita in the kalka. Observation: • The murchita ghrita in the liquid state was greenish yellow in color. • After solidifying it was semisolid and greenish yellow in color. Precautions: • Kalka was added little by little to avoid the spillage of the ghrita. • Continuous stirring was ensured to permanent the adhesion of the kalka to the bottom of the vessel. • Heat was reduced as the process was completed to prevent the charring of the kalka. • Sneha siddhi lakshanas were confirmed by frequent testing of the varthi made out-of kalka. • Flame should be reduced at the time of paka lakshanas.
  • 159. Pharmaceutical study  Page 136  • Care was taken to filter/squeeze the kalka in warm state itself in order to reduce the loss. Quantity of the finished product : 1450 gm. Quality of finished product: Colour : Dark yellow Smell : characteristic odor Uses : for analysis and further use in formulation Shape : liquid Loss : 150gm. Cause of loss: • During preparation & filtration some part of the finished product adheres to the vessel & cloth. • Some of the finished product remained in kalka dravya. The same procedure should be repeated for three times. Table No. 31 Showing the Loss of Murchita Go-Ghrita In Practical No. 7, 8 &9 Date of commencement &complition Amount of ghrita in gms Ghrita obtained in gms Loss In gms Percentage of Loss Average Percentage of Loss 22/09/09 23/09/09 1.6 kgms 1450gms 150gms 9.3 % 24/10/09 25/10/09 1.6kgms 1440gms 160 gms 10% 26/10/09 27/10/09 1.6kgms 1480gms 120 gms 7.5% 8.94%
  • 160. Pharmaceutical study  Page 137  PRACTICAL NO. 10 Name of the Practical : Tila Taila Murchana Reference : B.R. 5/1286-1287 Date of Commencement : 29/09/2009 Date of Completion : 30 /09/2009 Apparatus Required : Weighing machine, wide mouthed vessel, Gas stove, clean cloth, Ladle, Kalka Nishpeedana Yantra Ingredients Quantity Taken Tila Tail : 3.5 liters Water : 14 lt. Kalka Dravyas Manjishta : 220 g Haridra : 50 Lodhra : 50 g Nagara musta : 50 g Nalika : 50 g Amalaki : 50 g Haritaki : 50 g Vibhitaki : 50 g Ketaki puspha : 50 g Vatankura : 50 g Heriberu : 50 g Kumari : 50 g Procedure: Above mentioned quantity of Tila Taila was taken in a vessel, heated slowly over mandagni till the evaporation of water content and disappearance of sound & foam is seen. It was then left to cool down. To this taila sequentially murchana dravyas like Haridra, Manjishta and remaining drugs were added and Taila Murchana was done. During the time of Murchana, above-mentioned quantity of water was also
  • 161. Pharmaceutical study  Page 138  added. Taila Murchana was continued until Taila siddhi lakshanas were found. In the end Taila was filtered. Precautions Taken: Mandagni was maintained throughout the procedure. Kalka was added to the Luke warm oil The chronology of addition of Kalka dravyas was maintained as mentioned in the procedure. Continuous stirring was carried to avoid sticking of Kalka to bottom of pan and carbonization. Sneha Siddhi Lakshanas were observed repeatedly as it was nearing completion. In the end oil was filtered with precaution so as to avoid any possible loss or contamination. Observations: Soon after addition of Haridra, profuse frothing occurred. After the completion of Taila Murchana, aromatic odor was observed. Colour of the Taila changed to Reddish brown. The unpleasant odor of Tila Taila was absent. Quantity of Murchita Tila Taila Obtained: 3.050 liter Quality of the finished product: Colour : yellow Smell : characteristic odor Uses : for analysis and further use in formulation Shape : liquid Loss : 460 ml.
  • 162. Pharmaceutical study  Page 139  Cause of loss: • During preparation & filtration some part of the finished product adheres to the vessel & cloth. • Some of the finished product remained in kalka dravya. Same Procedure has been repeated for Three times. Table No. 32 Showing The Loss of Murchita Tila Taila In Practical No. 10, 11, &12 Date of commencement &completion Amount of Taila in Liters Taila obtained in Liters Loss In ml. Percentage of Loss Average Percentage of Loss 29/09/09 30/09/09 3.5 liters 3040 460 gms 15.13 % 01/10/09 02/10/09 3.5 liters 3200 300 gms 9.375% 03/10/09 04/10/09 3.5 liters 3250 250 gms 7.142% 10.55% PRACTICAL NO. 13 Name of the Practical : Sarshapa Taila Murchana. Reference : B.R. 5/1288-1289 Date of Commencement : 05/10/09 Date of Completion : 06/10/09 Apparatus required : Weighing machine, wide mouthed vessel, Gas stove, clean cloth, Ladle, Kalka Nishpeedana Yantra Ingredients Quantity taken. Sarshapa Taila : 2 liters. Jala : 8 liters.
  • 163. Pharmaceutical study  Page 140  Kalka Dravya Amalaki : 30 g. Haridra : 30 g. Musta : 30 g. Bilwa twak : 30 g. Dadima twak : 30 g. Nagakeshara : 30 g. Krishna Jiraka : 30 g. Usheera : 30 g. Nalika : 30 g. Vibhitaki : 30 g. Manjishta : 200 g. Procedure: Above mentioned quantity of Sarshapa Taila was taken in a vessel, heated slowly over Mandagni till the water content in the taila was completely evaporated and till there was disappearance of sound & foam. Later it was left to cool down, and then slowly mixing of the murchana ingredients like Haridra, Manjishta and remaining drugs were added and Taila Murchana was done. During the time of Murchana, above-mentioned quantity of water was also added. Taila Murchana was continued till Taila siddhi lakshanas were found, at the end Taila was filtered and collected. Precautions taken: Mandagni was maintained throughout the procedure. Kalka was added in the Luke warm oil The chronology of addition of Kalka Dravyas was maintained as mentioned in the procedure. Continuous stirring was carried to avoid sticking of Kalka to bottom of pan and carbonization.
  • 164. Pharmaceutical study  Page 141  Sneha siddhi lakshanas were observed repeatedly as it was nearing completion. In the end, oil was filtered with precaution to avoid any possible loss or contamination. Observations: Soon after addition of Haridra, profuse frothing occurred. After the completion of Taila Murchana, aromatic odor was observed. Colour of the Taila changed to brownish yellow. Quantity of Murchita Sarshapa Taila Obtained : 1.7 liters. Quality of the finished product: Colour : yellow Smell : characteristic odor Uses : for analysis and further use in formulation Shape : liquid Loss : 300 ml. Cause of loss: • During preparation & filtration some part of the finished product adheres to the vessel & cloth. • Some of the finished product remained in kalka dravya. Same procedure has been repeated for three times.
  • 165. Pharmaceutical study  Page 142  Table No.33 Showing The Loss of Murchita Sarshapa Taila In Practical No.13, 14, &15 Date of commencement &complition Amount of Taila in Liters Taila obtained in Liters Loss In ml. Percentage of Lo Average Percentage of Loss 05/10/09 06/10/09 2 liters 1.7 300 15% 07/10/09 08/10/09 2 liters 1.7 300 15% 09/10/09 10/10/09 2 liters 1.8 200 10% 13.33% PRACTICAL NO. 16 Name of the practical : Lajjalu moola Taila Nirmana Reference : Rajmartanda Date of commencement : 12/10/09 Date of completion : 13/10/9 Apparatus required : Weighing machine, wide mouthed vessel Khalwa yantra, clear cloth, ladle, gas stove, Kalka Nishpeedana yantra Ingredient: Quantity Taken Murchita Tila Taila : 1.5 Lit. Lajjalu kalka : 325 gm. Water : 6 Lit. Procedure: Murchita tila taila was taken in the above mentioned quantity in a wide mouthed vessel and heat it then water was added. Then kalka dravya was added little
  • 166. Pharmaceutical study  Page 143  by little with continuous stirring. The Sneha paka was carried out in mandagni and Sneha siddhi lakshanas were observed. The Sneha was taken out from the fire and filtered through a clean cloth, kalka dravya was put into Nishpeedana yantra and taila was collected. Precautions: • Mandagni was well maintained throughout the procedure • The care was taken to observe the Sneha paka siddhi lakshanas at the proper time. Observations: • Pleasant taste and odor was observed in the final product. • The color of the taila obtained is greenish yellow. Quantity of the finished product : 1.3 liters. Quality of the finished product: Colour : yellow Smell : characteristic odour Uses : for analysis and further use in formulation Shape : liquid Loss : 200 ml. Cause of loss: • During preparation & filtration some part of the finished product adheres to the vessel & cloth. • Some of the finished product remained in kalka dravya. Same procedure has been repeated for three times.
  • 167. Pharmaceutical study  Page 144  Table No. 34 Showing the Loss of Lajjalu moola Taila Prepared in practical No 16, 17&1 8. Date of commencement & completion Initial Amount of Taila Taken in Liters. Quantity of Final product in Liters Loss In ml. Percentag e of Loss. Average percentage of Loss 12/10/09 13/10/09 1.5 lit 1.3Lit. 200 ml. 13.33% 14/10/09 15/10/09 1.5 lit 1.35 Lit. 150 ml. 10.0 % 16/10/09 17/10/09 1.5 lit 1.32 Lit. 180 ml. 12% 11.77% PRACTICAL NO. 19 Name of the practical : Vrana rakshasa taila nirmana Reference : Bhaishajya Ratnavali Date of starting : 19/10/09 Date of completion : 21/10/09 Equipments : Khalwa yantra, Juice extractor, wide mouthed big iron Vessel, spatula, clean cotton cloth, Gas stove etc Ingredients: Quantity Taken 1. Murchita Sarshapa taila 1 Lit. 2. Murchita Go- ghrita ½ Lit. 3. Arka patra swarasa 6 Lit 4. Bhoorja patra (kalka) 325 gm. 5. Kajjali 25 gm. 6. Shuddha Hartala 25 gm.
  • 168. Pharmaceutical study  Page 145  7. ShudhaManahashila 25 gm. 8. ShudhaGairika 25 gm. 9. Sindoora 25 gm. 10. Sarshapa choorna 25 gm. 11. Haridra choorna 25 gm. Procedure: • Take a wide mouthed clean &dry vessel; put it on the gas stove. • Then add the mentioned quantity of Sneha’s in the vessel. • After few minutes add Arka patra swarasa and Bhoorja patra Kalka into it and leave it for paka in madhyama Agni, in between stirring should be done. • After getting the paka lakshana remove the vessel from fire place and after some time it should be filtered with a clean cloth. • In a mortar taken kajjali, shodhita Hartala, shodhita Manahashila, shodhita Gairika, Sindoora, Sarshapa Choorna, Haridra Choorna and small quantity of prepared oil and homogeneous mixing should be done. • Add the mixture in rest of the taila in Luke warm condition only. Observations: • Pleasant odor was observed in the final product. • The color of the taila obtained is dark green. Precaution: • Mandagni was well maintained throughout the procedure • The care was taken to observe Sneha paka siddhi lakshanas at the right time.
  • 169. Pharmaceutical study  Page 146  Quantity of the finished product : 1.4 liter. Quality of the finished product: Colour : Dark green Smell : characteristic odour Uses : for analysis and further use in formulation Shape : liquid Loss : 100 ml. Cause of loss: • During preparation & filtration some part of the finished product adheres to the vessel & cloth. • Some of the finished product remained in kalka dravya. The same procedure has been repeated for three times. Table No.35 Showing the Loss of Vrana rakshasa Taila Prepared in practical No19, 20 &21 Date of commencement &completion Initial Amount of Taila& Ghrita Taken in gms Quantity of Final product in gms Loss In gms Percentag e of Loss. Average percentage of Loss 19/10/09 21/10/09 1500gms 1350gms 150gm 10.% 22/10/09 24/10/09 1500gms 1300gms 200gms 13.33% 25/10/09 27/10/09 1500gms 1320gms 180gms 12% 11.77%
  • 170.                                                                                                       Experimental study  Page 147  EXPERIMENTAL STUDY Introduction: “Observation, Hypothesis, Experimentation, Discovery & Law” All these words are the part of one procedure and i.e. “To know the Truth” Observation : To see the nature (Natural process) Hypothesis : To imagine the nature (Natural process) Experimentation : To investigate the nature (Natural process) on scientific basis. Discover : To understand the nature (Natural process) Law : To put the nature (Natural process) in practice. Since the clinical studies have their own limitations due to ethical consideration, it has become necessary to evolve experimental model in animals to undertake drug testing for different types of activities. Experimental studies involving Laboratory animals have came to occupy an important place in experimental medicine due to many difficulties that a clinical investigator faces. The most important among them is the ethical considerations. Experimental studies are carried to find out the veracity of our hypothesis formulated based on observation made in clinical settings or based on the information available in literature. One of the area of research which remained as the focus of attention of pathologists and Surgeons for many years is the search for an agent which would reduce
  • 171.                                                                                                       Experimental study  Page 148  the time required for a wound to heal. Experimental studies on animals form an important component of this endeavor. The present study was designed to asses the wound healing property of Vranarakshasa Taila & Lajjalu moola taila in comparison to the Control Group. For experimental study the materials required are, Albino rats 36 in number, ketamine, Albino rat cages, Scissors, Betadine solution, Mosquito forceps, Artery forceps, Blunt forceps, Needle holder, Silk thread, Surgical cotton, Surgical gauze, Surgical gloves, Scalpels, Suture needle etc. Methods Selection of animals: Healthy albino rats of either sex weighing between 150 - 250 gm were selected randomly for the study. The rats were breed in the animal house of A.L.N.Rao memorial Ayurvedic Medical College. The rats were fed with Amruth brand rat pellets and water ad-libidum. Inclusion criteria: • Healthy Albino rats of either sex. • Albino rats weighing between 150 - 250 gm. Exclusion criteria: • Albino rats which were Infected and pregnant were excluded from the study. • Albino rats showing signs of infection during the course of study. • Albino rats that are under other experiment were excluded. • Albino rats weighing less than 150 gm and more than 250 gm were excluded.
  • 172.                                                                                                       Experimental study  Page 149  Grouping of animals: 36 albino rats of either sex were selected randomly from the animal house and were divided into four groups, each group again was sub divided for excision and incision wound models. The rats were housed in individual cages and kept in a well- ventilated room under hygienic condition. Table No 36: grouping of Albino rats: Grouping Groups Group Group Drugs Used Control Group (Natural Recovery) Trial Group – I Vrana rakshasa taila Trial Group –II Lajjalu moola taila Method Incision Excision Incision Excision Incision Excision No. of rats used 6 6 6 6 6 6 The wound healing property of the Trial drug I Vranarakshasa Tailam and Trial drug II LajjalumoolaTailam can be analyzed in albino rats by two methods. • Excision wound model (technique developed by Morton and Malone) • Incision wound model (technique developed by Hunts et al) These techniques consists of the following stages, 1. Pre-operative stage. 2. Operative stage. 3. Postoperative stage.
  • 173.                                                                                                       Experimental study  Page 150  Pre-operative stage: • The selected albino rats numbering 36 were primarily divided in to 3 groups of 12 rats each, One Group each for Control, Trial I and Trial II. • They where further divided to 2 sub group for Incised and Excised Wound model. Operative stage: Excision wound model: This was conducted according to the technique developed by Morton and Malone. The animals were Anaesthetized using ketamine Intra-peritoneal injection. After the animals were sufficiently anesthetized, they were secured to the dissection plate in prone position. The hairs were removed using fem hair removing cream from the part to be operated and subsequently the area was cleaned with betadene solution. A round seal of 2.5 cm in diameter was impressed on the Dorsal Thoracic Central region 5cms away from the ears of the anaesthetized rats. Full skin thickness from the marked area was excised in circular fashion with the help of forceps, surgical blade and scissors. The approximate area thus formed was 500mm2 . After achieving full haemostasis, the animals were placed in individual cages. Incision wound model: This was conducted according to the technique mentioned by hunts et al. The animals were Anesthetized using Injection Ketamine intra-peritonealy. After the animals were sufficiently anesthetized they were secured to the dissection plate in prone position. The hairs were removed using Fem hair removing cream from the part to be operated and
  • 174.                                                                                                       Experimental study  Page 151  subsequently the area was cleaned with betadene solution. Two Para vertebral incision measuring 6 cm in length of full skin thickness was made then the incision was closed by interrupted sutures at an interval of 1 cm. After achieving full haemostasis, the animals were placed in individual cages. Postoperative stage: External application of Vranarakshasa Tailam and Lajjalumoola Tailam was started in different groups from the day of surgery (0day). Every post-wounding day the wounds were cleaned with normal saline and the trial drugs were applied to the trial groups. The wounds were cleaned daily with normal saline in control groups and left with out applying drug to observe the natural healing process. All the rats were given normal food and water. Observation: Excision wound model: To monitor the changes in the wound shapes, the wound margins were traced on a thin transparent polythene sheet from the day of wounding (0 day) and continued till the complete healing of the wound. This was again retraced on a millimeter scale graph paper. The observations of percentage of wound closure were made on the 4th , 8th , 12th , and16th post wounding days. These wounds were also observed for period of epithelization. Incision wound model: On the 8th day, the stitches are removed and the rats are subjected for its wound breaking strength on the 10th post-wounding day.
  • 175.                                                                                                       Experimental study  Page 152  Assessment criteria: Wound healing can be monitored by physical and mechanical attributes. However, monitoring of any one attribute may not truly assess the healing. There for different wound models have been studied to monitor the phase of healing. Wound contraction and epithelization were the parameters employed to study in excision wound model and this was achieved using planimetry. As the role of collagen in wound healing is well studied, the estimation of tensile strength was employed to study the incision wound model and this was achieved through tensiometry. (A) Wound contraction: The main factors, which contribute wound healing, is contraction. This was done by tracing the wound margins on a thin transparent polythene sheet and subsequently retracing them on a millimeter scale graph paper. This was later calculated as percentage of original wound size for each animal in the group depending on the days taken for complete wound contraction. (B) Period of epithelization: This was measured in terms of days required for the falling of the scar. Falling of scar leaving no raw area behind was taken as the end of complete epithelization and time noted in all Albino rats. (C) Collagenation strength: Here the tensile strength or breaking strength is measured. As per the methods followed, the volume of water required to open the edges of the wound was measured and converted to corresponding weights assuming the density equal to one. Using this
  • 176.                                                                                                       Experimental study  Page 153  Tensiometer, the tensile strength is expressed as the minimum weight of water necessary to bring about the gaping of the wound. As per this method the suture is removed on 8th post wounding day and the breaking strength was determined on the 10th post wounding day by method of Lee. as described below, All the animals were anesthetized before measuring the breaking strength. Each animal was secured to the operation table in its natural position and lines were drawn on either side of the wound, 3mm away from the wound margins on the adjacent normal skin, leaving about 5mm wound towards both ends. Two allies’ forceps was hooked to a metal rod and it was fixed to a light polythene container through a string run a pulley. Water was allowed to flow in constant rate in to the polythene container. To build a gradual pulling forces to disrupt the wound. Tensile strength corresponds to increase in amount of collagen present. The flow of water was regulated by means of an occlusion clamp on rubber tubing connected to a water reservoir, kept at a suitable height. As soon as the gaping of the wound was observed, further gaping of the wound was avoided by releasing the pulling force on the polythene container. The volume of water in the polythene container was increased as weight. After that, the disrupted wound margins were resutured and allowed to heal with out any scarification of the Albino rats.
  • 177. Analytical study  Page 154  ANALYTICAL STUDY Pharmaceutics is one such science which is developing every moment by the invention of the newer technologies .These newer technologies can also be adopted in ayurvedic pharmaceutics to understand a formulation more scientifically. The determination of constituent elements of a compound is called analysis. Analysis can either qualitative, in which the nature of the constituents contained in a compound is determined, or quantitative in which the proportions of the constituents are determined. Advanced and sophisticated instrumentation has made it practically possible to give a complete photochemical analysis of most of the ingredients of any formulation. It is possible to give a detailed analysis which is required in Ayurvedic manufacturing is available at door step, which will not only provide scientific basis and credibility to ayurvedic products but will also open doors of international markets in which we are already trailing behind. Quality controll of Ayurvedic drugs is a challenge as these are mainly prepared form materials of plant origin which may be subjected to contamination and deterioration and may vary in composition and properties unlike synthetic chemicals. There for the quality control of ayurvedic drugs is substantially different from those employed for synthetic phrmaceutical products. Since the compound formulations containing large number of chemical constituents in different concentrations, it is highly difficult to check the specific ingredients in finished products. Based on physical properties of substances various analytical methods are employed. The common analytical tests adopted for sneha kalpana are Acid value, Saponification value, Iodine value, Loss on drying at 1100 C, Ester value, Refractive index at 40 TLC &HPTLC studies. Various analytical tests conducted in Quality
  • 178. Analytical study  Page 155  control lab attached with A.L. N. Rao memorial Ayurvedic Medical College, koppa, as a part of study. Acid Value: The Determination of Acid value is carried out on the oil extracted from the sample by continuous extraction with Ether. The Acid value of oil is defined as the number of milligrams of Potassium Hydroxide required to neutralize the free acid in 1 gram of the sample. Method: Mix 25ml ether with 25ml Alcohol (95percent) and 1 ml. of 1% phenolphthalein solution and neutralize with N/10 alkali (few drops) Dissolve about 5 gm. of the oil, accurately weighed, in the mixed neutral solvent, and titrate with N/10 potassium (or sodium) hydroxide, shaking constantly until a pink colour which persists for 15 seconds in obtained. The titration should preferably not exceed about 10 ml. No. of ml, of N/10 alkali used × 5.61 Acid Value = --------------------------------------------- Weight of Sample in Gms. The free fatty acid content is also express as F.F.A. calculated as oleic acid %(1ml.N/10) alkali=0.028gm. Oleic acid) 2. Saponification value: The Determination of Saponification value of oil is carried out on the oil extracted from the sample by continuous extraction with the ether. The Saponification value of oil is defined as the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the fatty acids resulting from the complete
  • 179. Analytical study  Page 156  Hydrolysis of 1 gram of the sample. Alcoholic solution of potassium Hydroxide- dissolve 35-40gms. Of Potassium hydroxide in 20 ml of water and dilute to one liter with alcohol (95%). Allow to stand -overnight and decant off the pure liquid. Method: Weight 29ml of the oil into conical flask and add exactly 25ml. of the alcoholic potassium hydroxide solution. Attach a reflux condenser and heat the flask in boiling water for one hour, shaking frequently. Add 1 ml of phenolphthalein (1%) solution and titrate the excess alkali with N/2 hydrochloric acid (titration = aml carryout a blank at the same time (titration = b ml) (b-a) × 56.1 Saponification value = ------------------------------------ Wt. in grams of the sample. 3.Iodine Value: The Iodine value of oil is the weight of iodine absorbed by 100 parts by weight of the same, when determined by one of the following methods. Method-I (Iodine Monochloride method) (Wij’s method) Place the sample, accurately weighted, in a dry iodine flask of 250ml capacity, add 10ml of carbon tetrachloride, and dissolve. (The approximate weight in gms. of the sample to be taken may be calculated by dividing 20 by the highest expected iodine value). Add 10ml of chloroform and 20 ml. of Iodine monochloride solution insert the stopper, previously moistened with potassium iodine solution and allow to stand in a dark place at a temperature of about 17° c for thirty minutes. Add 15 ml of potassium iodine solution and 100ml of water shake and titrate with N/10 sodium thiosulphate using starch mucilage as indicator. Note the number of ml required (a).
  • 180. Analytical study  Page 157  At the same time carryout the operation in exactly the same manner, but without the sample being tested and note the number of ml N/10 sodium thiosulphate required (b). Calculate the iodine value from the formula. (b-a)×0.01 269×100 Iodine value = --------------------------- Wt. of sample (in gms) If (b-a) is greater than b/2 the test must be repeated using a smaller quantity of the samples. Method-II Iodine Monobromide Method-Hanus Method. Iodo bromide solutions-Dissolve 13.2 Gms of iodine in 1000 ml of glacial acetic acid with the aid of gentle heat, if necessary cool the solution to 75° and determine the iodine content in 20 ml by titration with N/10 sodium thiosulphate. Add to the remainder of the solution a quantity of bromine equalent to that of the iodine present. Store in glass containers, protected from light. Place the sample, accurately weighted in a 250 ml iodine flask, add 10 ml of chloroform and dissolve (the approximate weight in gms of the sample to be taken may be calculated by dividing 20 by the highest expected iodine number) add 25 ml of Iodobromide solution, stopper the flask, and allow it to stand for 30 minutes, protected from light. Then add in the order named 1330 ml of potassium iodine solution, (16.5 percent w/v) and 100 ml of water, and titrate the liberated iodine with N/10 sodium thiosulphate using starch mucilage as indicator. Note the number of ml required (a). At the same time, carryout the operation in exactly the same manner, but without the sample being tested and note the No. of ml of N/10 sodium thiosulphate required (b). Calculate the iodine value from the formula. (b-a)×0.01269×100 Iodine Value = ------------------------- Wt. (in gm) of sample.
  • 181. Analytical study  Page 158  4. Loss on Drying at 1100 C: Loss on drying signifies the amount of residual water in the finished product. Ideally, it should be nil in case of Ghritas and Tailas. Procedure: About 5 gm of sneha is taken in a crucible, heated to liquid consistency and weighed accurately. Then it is put in furnace, heated upto 105 0 C for half an hour. Then it is taken out and weighed again. The percentage of difference before and after subjecting the sample to heat is considered as loss on drying at that particular temperature. 5.Ester value It is defined as number of milligrams of Potassium Hydroxide required to combine with fatty acids which are present in glycerides found in 1 g sample of oil or fat. Difference between Saponification value and acid value is ester value. Ester value = Saponification value – Acid Value. 6. Refractive Index: The refractive index (n) of a substance is the ratio of the velocity of light in vacuum to its velocity in the substance. It varies with the wavelength of the light used in the measurement. It may also be defined as the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction. Refractive indices are stated in terms of sodium light of wavelength 9 8 9 3 A. at a temperature of 20°C unless otherwise specified.
  • 182. Analytical study  Page 159  Refracto meters: Commercial instruments are normally constructed for use with white light but are calibrated to give the refractive index in terms of the sodium D wavelength. The maker’s instructions relating to a suitable light source should be followed. Temperature Control: A suitable device should be used for circulating water at the required temperature through the refractometer. Place a drop of the liquid between the prisms and take the reading after half a minute 7. Chromatographic Techniques: Chromatography represents a group of methods for separating molecular mixtures that depend on the differential affinities of the solute between two immiscible phases. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) • Thin layer chromatography is particularly valuable for the Qualitative Determination of small amount of impurities. • It is a technique used to detect, separate and isolate the different chemical constituents (Active principles) present in a sample. • It has an adsorbent coated on a glass plate, which is the stationary phase and the solvent system used is the mobile phase. Percolation of mobile phase through the adsorbent develops the Chromatogram. Materials: Pre-coated TLC plates (Silica) of thickness 0.20 mm, 20X20 cm, applicator, glass chamber, oven, solvents, spray reagents.
  • 183. Analytical study  Page 160  Method: • The TLC chamber is to be perfectly cleaned and dried before use. • The solvent is poured into the TLC chamber and the glass lid is closed, vacuum grease is smeared on the lid so that chamber becomes air tight. • A piece of Tissue paper is kept immersed in the chamber for Perfect saturation of solvent system. • The chamber was kept undisturbed for an hour to saturate it.Later, the pre- coated TLC plates are taken and spotted with the help of applicator, 1 cm away from sides, and 2 cm away from the base. Space of 2 cm is maintained between each spots. • The spotted plate is then gently immersed in TLC chamber, concentrated with the solvent in such a way that the solvent had uniform Linear contact with the plate. Resolution Factor (Rf value) = Distance traveled by the spot Solvent front High performance Thin Layer Chromatography: It combines the art of chromatography with quickness at moderate cost. HPTLC is a major advancement of TLC principle requiring shorter time and better resolution. The basic difference between TLC and HPTLC is only in particle and pore size of the sorbents. • Plates are similar to conventional TLC plates. • Silica gel of very fine particle size is used as sorbent in HPTLC. • Whatmann HPTLC plates are produced form 4-5 um silica gel with an inert binder to form a 200um layer. • About 3-6 cm solvent front migration is sufficient to effect proper separation .
  • 184. Analytical study  Page 161  • Sample preparation in HPTLC need a high concentrated solution, as very less amount of sample need to be applied. Size of the sample spot must not exceed 1mm in diameter. • The linear development method is most familiar technique in HPTLC. Plate is placed vertically in solvent system in a suitable container. The solvent is usually fed by capillary action and chromatogram can be developed from both sides. • HPTLC is now a days applied to obtain finger print patterns of formulations, Quantification of active ingredients, and also detection of adulteration. • HPTLC has distinct advantages over other types of Chromatography because of its convenience and rapidity, its greater sharpness of separation and its high sensitivity. 8. Carbohydrates - Extracts were dissolved individually in 5ml of distilled water and filtered, the filtrates were used to test the presence of carbohydrates. 9. Benedict’s test: - Filtrate were treated with Benedict reagent and heated on water bath, formation of an orange red precipitate, indicates the presence of reducing sugar. 10. Detection of alkaloids:- Extracts were dissolved individually in dilute HCL and filtered. The filtrates were tested carefully with alkaloid reagent. Dragendroff’s test: - Filtrates were treated with Dragendroff’s reagent (solution of potassium bismuth iodide) formation of red precipitate indicates the presence of alkaloids.
  • 185. Analytical study  Page 162  11. Detection of phytosteroids (Salkowski’s Test): The extract were treated with chloroform and filtered separately. The filtrates were treated with few drops of concentrated H2SO4, shaken and allowed to stand if the lower layer turns red sterols are present; if lower layer turns golden yellow triterpenes are present. 12. Detection of saponins:- (a) Froth’s test :- The extracts were diluted with 20ml of distilled water, shaken in a quad rated cylinder for 15 min; the formation of 1 cm layer of foam indicates the presence of saponines. 13. Detection of phenol and tannins:- Ferric chloride test:- The extract was treated with few drops of neutral ferric chloride solution ,the formation of bluish color indicates the presence of phenol nucleolus. 14.Test for Flavonoids :- Alkaline reagent test: The extract were treated with few drops of sodium hydroxide separately, formation of intense yellow color which becomes colorless on addition of few drops of dilute acid indicates the presence of flavonoids. 15. Test for Anthraquinine glycosides :- Borntrages’s test:- Hydrolysate is treated with chloroform and the chloroform layer is separated, to this equal quantity of dilute ammonia solution is added, color change in the ammonia layer
  • 186. Analytical study  Page 163  16 .Detection of Protien and Amino acids :- Millon’s Test:- The extracts were treated with 2ml of millon’s reagent. The Formation of white precipitate which turns to red upon heating indicates the presence of proteins. 17. Fat Contents:- Weight 2gm of sample +25ml of pet ether and keep it for 48hrs not shaking or refluxing the solution and filter through filter paper, and kept in water for evaporating after evaporation keep in hot air oven for ½ hrs and take weight of the content in the dish.
  • 187. Results  Page 164  RESULTS Table No. 37 Showing % closure of original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 4th post wounding day With the results of Students t test and f test (Annova test). Sl.No Group Control – B.T (Natural Recovery) Trial Group I– A.T Vranarakshasa Taila Trial Group II– A.T Lajjalu moola Taila 1 2 3 4 5 28.3 24.1 31.0 26.5 33.0 6 30.5 64.5 69.75 29.5 75 64.1 72.5 42.0 45.75 56.75 37.4 39.125 64.88 Mean 28.9 62.6 47.6 S.D 3.25 16.8 10.9 S.E 1.32 6.85 1.68 t-value - 4.49 4.39 p-value - P< 0.01 P< 0.01 The mean contraction is seen in the control group on the 4th day was 28.9 ± 1.32 where as in trial I it was62.6 ±6.85, In Trial II it was 47.6±1.68 Day Source of variation Sum of squares d.f Mean squares F Ratio F value 4th day Between error total 3413 2050 5464 2 15 17 1707 136.7 12.49 3.68 The f value for 2df across and 15 df vertically is 3.68. Since the computed F ratio (12.49) is greater than the table F value, the three groups (Control, Trial I and Trial II) differ significantly.
  • 188. Results  Page 165  Table No. 38: Showing comparative % closure of excision wound area on 4th post wounding day: Sl.No Groups t-value P-value Remarks 1 Control &Trial Group vranarakshasa taila 4.83 P<0.001 Highly significant 2 Control & Trial Group Il Lajjalu moola taila 4.04 P<0.01 significant 3 Vrana rakshasa Taila& Lajjalu moola taila 1.82 P<0.10 Insignificant While comparing the control and Trial I the t value obtained was4.83, which is highly significant (p<0.001) i.e, Vrana rakshasa Taila provided better result than control group. While comparing the control and Trial II the t-value obtained was4.04, which is significant (p<0.01) i.e, Lajjalu moola Taila better than control group. While comparing Vrana rakshasa Taila and Lajjalu moola Taila, t-value obtained was 1.82, which is insignificant (P<0.10) which means there is no such significant difference in these two.
  • 189. Results  Page 166  Table No. 39: Showing % closure of original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 8th post wounding day with the Results of Students t test and ANOVAs test. Sl.No Group Control – B.T (Natural Recovery) Trial Group I– A.T Vrana rakshasa Taila Trial Group II– A.T Lajjalu moola Taila 1 2 3 4 5 6 47.1 44.4 49.2 52.4 53.1 51.1 89 89.75 74 78.5 87.75 75 84.5 87.25 84 81.25 62 65.25 Mean 49.6 82.3 77.4 S.D 3.34 7.30 10.94 S.E 1.36 2.97 4.44 t-value - 8.64 5.05 p-value - <0.001 <0.01 The mean contraction is seen in the control group on the 8th day was 49.6 ±1.36 where as in trial I it was 82.3±2.97%. In trial II it was 77.4±4.44%. Day Source of variation Sum of squares d.f Mean squares F Ratio F value 8th day Between error total 3747 913 4660 2 15 17 1874 60.87 30.78 3.68 The f value for 2df across and 15 df vertically is 3.68. Since the computed F ratio (30.8) is greater than the table F value, the three groups (Control, Trial I and Trial II) differ significantly.
  • 190. Results  Page 167  Table No. 40: Showing comparative % closure of excision wound area on 8th post wounding day: Sl.No Groups t-value P-value Remarks 1 Control &Trial Group I Vrana rakshasa Taila 9.98 P<0.001 Highly significant 2 Control & Trial Group II Lajjalu moola taila 5.99 P<0.001 Highly significant 3 Vrana rakshasa Taila& Lajjalu moola Taila 0.93 P>0.10 Insignificant While comparing the control and Trial I Vrana rakshasa Taila the t value obtained was9.98, which is highly significant (p<0.001) i.e., Vrana rakshasa Taila provided better result than control group. While comparing the control and Trial II Lajjalu moola Taila, t-value obtained was5.99, which is highly significant (p<0.001) i.e., Lajjalu moola Taila is also better than control group. While comparing Vrana rakshasa Taila & Lajjalu moola Taila, t-value obtained was 1.45, which is insignificant (P>0.10) which means there is no such significant difference in Trial I and Trial II.
  • 191. Results  Page 168  Table No. 41: Showing % closure of original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 12th Post wounding day with the Results of Students t test and ANOVAs test. Sl.No Group Control – B.T (Natural Recovery) Trial Group II– A.T Vrana rakshasa Taila Trial Group I– A.T Lajjalu moola Taila 1 2 3 4 5 6 74.4 73.0 76.1 78.5 79.1 78.2 96 93 96 96 98 98 82 90 90 92 94 84 Mean 76.5 96.2 88.7 S.D 2.47 1.83 4.68 S.E 1.008 0.75 1.91 t-value - 35.4 6.74 p-value - P<0 .001 P< 0.001 The mean contraction is seen in the control group on the 12th day was 76.5 ±1.008 where as in Vrana rakshasa Taila it was 96.2±0.75, In Lajjalu moola Taila it was 88.7±1.91 Day Source of variation Sum of squares d.f Mean squares F Ratio F value 12th day Between error total 1176 156.6 1332 2 15 17 587.9 10.44 56.30 3.68 The f value for 2df across and 15 df vertically is 3.68. Since the computed F ratio (56.30) is greater than the table F ratio, the three groups (Control, Trial I and Trial II) differ significantly.
  • 192. Results  Page 169  Table No. 42: Showing comparative % closure of excision wound area on 12th post wounding day: Sl.No Groups t-value P-value Remarks 1 Control &Trial Group I Vrana rakshasa Taila 15.6 P<0.001 Highly significant 2 Control & Trial Group II Lajjalu moola Taila 5.61 P<0.001 Highly significant 3 Vrana rakshasa taila &Lajjalu moola Taila 3.66 P<0.01 Highly significant While comparing the control and Trial Group I Vrana rakshasa taila the t value obtained was15.6, which is highly significant (p<0.001) i.e., Vrana rakshasa Taila provided better result than control group. While comparing the control and Trial Group II Lajjalu moola taila the t-value obtained was5.61 which is highly significant (p<0.001) i.e., Lajjalu moola Talia is also better than control group. While comparing Vrana rakshasa taila and Lajjalu moola taila t-value obtained was3.66, which is highly significant (p<0.01) which means Vrana rakshasa Taila is more significant than Lajjalu moola taila.
  • 193. Results  Page 170  Table No. 43: Showing % closure of original excision wound area (sq.mm) on 16th post wounding day with the Results of Students t test and ANOVAs test. Sl.No Group Control – B.T (Natural Recovery) Trial Group I– A.T Vranarakshasa Taila Trial Group II– A.T Lajjalu moola Taila 1 2 3 4 5 6 75 76.4 77.2 79.6 80.01 82 100 98 99.5 97 100 100 91 93 95.5 91.5 93 95 Mean 78.4 99.1 93.2 S.D 2.61 1.28 1.81 S.E 1.06 0.522 0.73 t-value - 17.8 14.4 p-value - P< .001 P< .001 The mean contraction is seen in the control group on the 14th day was 78.4 ± 1.06%where as in Vrana rakshasa taila it was 99.1± 0.522 %. In Lajjalu moola taila it was 93.2±0.73%. The f value for 2df across and 15 df vertically is 3.68. Since the computed F ratio (175.1) is greater than the table F ratio, the three groups (Control, Trial I and Trial II) differ significantly. Day Source of variation Sum of squares d.f Mean squares F Ratio F value 14th day Between error total 1366 58.53 1425 2 15 17 683.1 3.902 175.1 3.68
  • 194. Results  Page 171  Table No. 44: Showing comparative % closure of excision wound area on 16th post wounding day: Sl.No Groups t-value P-value Remarks 1 Control &Trial Group I Vrana rakshasa Taila 17.5 P<0.001 Highly significant 2 Control & Trial Group II Lajjalu moola taila 11.4 P<0.001 Highly significant 3 Vrana rakshasa Taila & Lajjalu moola Taila 6.54 P<0.001 Highly significant While comparing the control and Trial group I, Vrana rakshasa Taila, the t value obtained was17.5, which is highly significant (p<0.001) i.e., Trial I provided better result than control group. While comparing the control and Trial group II, Lajjalu moola taila, the t-value obtained was11.4, which is highly significant (p<0.001) i.e., Trial II is also better than control group. While comparing Vrana rakshasa Taila and Lajjalu moolaTaila, t-value obtained was6.54, which is highly significant (p<0.001) which means Vrana rakshasa Taila is better than Lajjalu moola Taila.
  • 195. Results  Page 172  Table No. 45: Showing tensile strength in gm of incision wound on 10th post wounding day with the Results of Students t test and ANOVAs test. Sl.No Group Control – B.T (Natural Recovery) Trial Group I– A.T Vrana rakshasa Taila Trial Group II– A.T Lajjalu moola Taila 1 2 3 4 5 6 210 265 195 270 265 240 520 525 490 530 510 540 330 345 350 370 345 320 Mean 249 519 343 S.D 37.6 17.4 17.2 S.E 15.34 7.10 7.020 t-value - 25.6 8.29 p-value - P<0 .001 P<0.001 The mean tensile strength seen in the control group was 249 ±15.34 gm, where as in Vrana rakshasa Taila, it was 519 ±7.10 gm. In Lajjalu moola Taila; it was 343 ± 7.020 gm. The f value for 2df across and 15 df vertically is 3.68. Since the computed F ratio (167.8) is greater than the table F ratio, the three groups (Control, Trial I and Trial II) differ significantly. Day Source of variation Sum of squares d.f Mean squares F Ratio F value 10th day Between error total 2.253 1.00 2.354 2 15 17 1.126 671.7 167.8 3.68
  • 196. Results  Page 173  Table No. 46: Showing comparative tensile strength of incision wound on 10th day in between the groups: Sl.No Groups t-value P-value Remarks 1 Control &Trial Group I Vrana rakshasa Taila 16.00 P<0.001 Highly significant 2 Control & Trial Group II Lajjalu moola taila 5.58 P<0.001 Highly significant 3 Vrana rakshasa Taila &Lajjalu moola Taila 17.6 P<0.001 Highly significant While comparing the control and Trial group I Vrana rakshasa Taila, the t value obtained was16.00, which is highly significant (p<0.001) i.e., Trial I provided better result than control group. While comparing the control and Trial Group II Lajjalu moola Taila, the t-value obtained was5.58, which is highly significant (p<0.001) i.e., Trial II is also better than control group. While comparing Vrana rakshasa Taila and Lajjalu moola Taila, t-value obtained was17.6, which is highly significant (P<0.001) which means Vrana rakshasa Taila is better than Lajjalu moola Taila. .
  • 197. Results  Page 174  Table No. 47: Showing period of epithelization (in no. of days) with the Results of Studants t test and Annova test. Sl.No Group Control – B.T (Natural Recovery) Trial Group I– A.T Vranarakshasa Taila Trial Group II– A.T Lajjalu moola Taila 1 2 3 4 5 6 18 17 18 16 16 18 11 11 12 11 12 11 14 13 14 14 15 15 Mean 17.2 11.3 14.2 S.D 0.983 0.516 0.753 S.E 0.401 0.21 0.307 t-value - 12.2 5.81 p-value - P< .001 P< .001 The average period of epithelization in the control group was 17.2± 0.401days, where as in Vrana rakshasa Taila it was 11.3± 0.210 days. In Lajjalu moola Taila it was 14.2±0.307 The f value for 2df across and 15 df vertically is 3.68. Since the computed F ratio (85.09) is greater than the table F ratio, the three groups (Control, Trial I and Trial II) differ significantly. Source of variation Sum of squares d.f Mean squares F Ratio F value Between error total 102.1 9.00 111.1 2 15 17 51.06 0.60 85.09 3.68
  • 198. Results  Page 175  Table No. 48: Showing comparative epithelization between the groups: Sl.No Groups t-value P-value Remarks 1 Control &Trial GroupI Vrana rakshasa Taila 12.9 P<0.001 Highly significant 2 Control & Trial Group II Lajjalu moola taila 5.93 P<0.001 Highly significant 3 Vrana rakshasa Taila &Lajjalu moola Taila 7.60 P<0.001 Highly significant While comparing the control and Trial I, Vrana rakshasa Taila the t value obtained was12.9, which is highly significant (p<0.001) i.e., Trial I provided better result than control group. While comparing the control and Trial II Lajjalu moola Taila, the t-value obtained was5.93, which is highly significant (p<0.001) i.e., Trial II is also better than control group. While comparing Vrana rakshasa Taila and Lajjalu moola Taila, t-value obtained was7.60, which is highly significant (p<0.001) which means Vrana rakshasa taila is better than Lajjalu moola Taila.
  • 199. Discussion  Page 176  DISCUSSION The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of Vrana rakshasa Tailam and Lajjalu moola Tailam on wound healing. As per classical reference Vranarakshasa Tailam is having herbo-mineral property whereas Lajjalummola Taila is totally Herbal preparation. So, here an attempt is made to find out, which is the better formulation among these two. The trial drug I, Vrana rakshasa Taila is discussed in different classics for its wound healing properties. The references for manufacturing of this formulation are available in- Bhaishajya Ratnavalia Bharat Bhaishajya Ratnakar Reference from Bhaishajya Ratnavali is selected for the present study. The trial drug II, Lajjalu moola Taila is discussed in different classics for its wound healing properties. The references to formulate this drug are available in: Bharat Bhaishajya Ratnakar Raja Martandab Gada Nigraha Reference from Raja Martanda is selected for the present study. Conceptual study: The Vrana is the disease entity according to the system of Ayurveda whereas the Allopathic system of medicine may not accept vrana (wound) as a disease. Ayurveda has systematically and scientifically explained the principles of
  • 200. Discussion  Page 177  management of wound healing which are valid even today. According to Ayurveda, health is not merely a freedom from disease, but a normal state of mind, body &soul. Thus it may well said that the management which is told by ayurveda are well thorough than even conceived today. Today wound is said to have healed when epithelisation is complete. But the treatments like Vaikruthapaham can bring back the colour, surface & hairs. Charaka clearly mentioned that dhatus whether in the state of equilibrium or lack of it, always perish in nature without involvement of any other agent. Hence, wound healing is a natural phenomenon and the suggested measures help in hastening the process of wound healing. The wound is defined as a disruption of anatomical structure and function of an organism or its parts. The main purpose of wound healing measure is to minimize tissue damage, remove dead tissue and to ensure blood supply, so that adequate oxygen and nutrition is provided to the tissue. Wound, as a clinical entity is as old as humankind and often posses grave problems in clinical practice. Because of the investigative curiosity of the humankind in promoting healing, considerable information regarding wound healing and the influencing drug had put forward over the past fifty years. Many similarities can be found between Ayurvedic and modern literature regarding wound healing, even though modern medical science is trying to study the complex interaction of wound healing, the stimulus for epidermal proliferation is still unknown (Gerald J Tortora- 1993).
  • 201. Discussion  Page 178  Discussion on Practical study The Trial drugs were prepared according to the principles of sneha kalpana, The pharmaceutical studies involved were • Parada Shodhana • Gandhaka Shodhana • Hartala Shodhana • Manahashila Shodhana • Gairika Shodhana • Preparation of Kajjali • Tila taila moorchana • Sarsapa taila moorchana • Go-Ghrita moorchana • Preparation of Vrana rakshasa Taila • Preparation of Lajjalu moola Taila Murchana of Tailas and Ghrita: Concept of Murchana was first introduced by Govinda Das Sen, author of “Bhaishajya Ratnavali”, in the context of treatment of Jwara. He has explained Murchana Samskara for Tila Taila, Sarshapa Taila, Eranda Taila and Ghrita. He has advised to use this Murchita Sneha for further Sneha Paka to prepare Final Medicament. The purpose of this Murchana is told as;
  • 202. Discussion  Page 179  Table No 49: Showing the Benefits of Murchana Samskara: Sl No. Type of Sneha Special Benefits 01 Tila Taila Removes Unpleasant Odour, imparts attractive Red Colour to the Taila. 02 Sarshapa Taila Removes Ama Dosha of the Taila 03 Eranda Taila Removes Ama Dosha of the Taila 04 Ghrita Removes Amadosha ,imparts special potency to the Ghrita. To impart the above-mentioned special characters into the compound, Tila Taila Moorchana and Sarshapa Taila, Go-ghrita Moorchana were undertaken before the preparation of Vrana rakshasa Taila &Lajjalu moola Taila. Samanya Shodhana of Parada: Samanya shodhana of Parada will be carried out to remove the impurities ,which are inherited due to the various reasons like the incorporation of the various toxic metals by the readily reaction with mercury in the earth crest and some of the toxic material mixed intentionallyby the businessmen to increase the bulk. Parada shodhana with sudha churna, Lashuna and saindhava lavana for 12 days, then wash it with hot water. The process with sudha choorna may be helpful in removing some of the toxic materials by its corrosive nature. Whereas the presence of Sulpher in Lasuna will helpful in removing the doshas may be by converting them into sulphied form. Hence the process of shodhana is helpful for the removal of impurities present with Parada and to ensure further purity, safety and specific activity. The quantity of Parada obtained was 80 gms. Loss of Parada during the Samanya Shodhana might be due to Parada Gati. They are
  • 203. Discussion  Page 180  1. Jala Gati- It means way of loosing through water. During the Samanya Shodhana mercury has to be recovered in original form through repeated washing with Hot water. Due to its liquidity and quickness it is converted in to very small and fine particles. Due to heaviness, though most of the mercury is collected at the bottom of the vessel used in washing, significant amount is lost if Water is not kept steady till all the particles of mercury are sedimentated. 2. Hamsa Gati- Due to quickness of mercury, while transferring it from one vessel to other, or while triturating, small particle bounce off and is lost. 3. Mala Gati- Actual meaning of Mala means impurities. While triturating mercury with Sudha choorna, Lashuna and Saindhava Lavana, the impurities present in Parada may mix with these. Parada thus obtained was brighter compared to the earlier one, which indicates the absence of physical impurities like soot etc. which might have been purified during Samanya Shodhana. After Samanya Shodhana Parada did not stick to the clean glass. Discussion on Gandhaka Shodhana: Gandhaka Shodhana was done by Dhalana and Galana method. The Shodhana dravya selected was milk and small quantity of ghrita. Gandhaka Shodhana mainly serves 3 purposes,i.e. purification, detoxification, therapeutic potentiating or estimation. During dhalana procedure, when temperature reaches 1190 C, Gandhaka melts and dribbles down into the milk in the form of granules leaving behind the physical impurities like mud, stones etc., on the cloth. Because these impurities does not
  • 204. Discussion  Page 181  change at this temperature. This may be considered as purification. As far as detoxification is concerned, Sulphur is available in combined state along with copper, lead, zinc, iron, lime stone etc. These can be taken as toxic materials or vishas which are unwanted. In this procedure they might have retained on the cloth as these does not change at that temperature. If at all they fall into milk, the fat of milk which exists in the form of micro globules will remove the fat-soluble impurities. The organic Sulphur present in the protein of milk might have a role in detoxification of inorganic Sulphur. From Ayurvedic point of view, Gandhaka and Go-dugdha are having exactly opposite qualities. So, the unwanted effects of Gandhaka might be countered by Ojovriddhikara gunas of Go-dugdha. There by, sendriyatwa might be implemented in nirindriya Gandhaka. The Ushna and Tikshna qualities of Gandhaka got reduced by Mrudu, Snigdha guna of milk. The change in colour of milk from white to yellowish cream and Sulphur smell may indicate the dissolution of fat soluble Sulphur content in the milk. Three times procedure was repeated to remove any remnant doshas. Shuddha Gandhaka was thoroughly washed with hot water to remove remnants of milk. Shuddha Gandhaka was observed brittle and shiny, may be due to the change in crystalline structure (from monoclinic to rhombic) while passing through the stage of melting. By this Gandhaka converts its bio physical properties into more effective therapeutic activities and adds Rasayana properties to it. Discussion on Preparation of kajjali One part of Shudha Parada and two parts of Shudha Gandhaka were taken in a khalwa yantra and triturated. It turned to greenish first, later to grey, greyish black,
  • 205. Discussion  Page 182  slightly black and lastly to black compound. Sulphur is very reactive with mercury and can combine even at the temperature of liquid air (-2000 C). Usually both are rubbed together to make them combine. This indicates that the physical and chemical bond of mercury and sulphur increased, black colour might be due to formation of black sulphide of mercury. Trituration was done till the attainment of nishchandratwa. This indicates the reduction in the amount of free mercury decreased in kajjali. Hg + S HgS Hg readily forms covalent bonds with sulphur and it is this property that accounts for most of the biological properties. The affinity of mercury for ‘thiols’ provides the basis for treatment of mercury. The Hg polarography studies shows- The magnetic circuit provided in the electrode and anode reactions when mercury is immersed in solution of electrolytically active species, due to its relatively large surface area, has a low current density at its surface and is non polarized thus remaining at constant potential. The pH of mercury been 6 is nearer to acidic nature and it would make a strong covalent bond of Hg++ with cations of sulphur compounds. Hg++ acts as a ‘super acid’ to form π bonds. Discussion on Manahashila Shodhana: In the present study, as Bhavana Dravya Lemon juice has been used. Lemon juice is having acidic media with pH 2.3 and Manahshila with pH 8.15. Because of its acid base reaction, alkalinity of Manahshila has reduced and might have benefited for its purification. After the Purification we observed the increased weight of Manahashila, this indicates there may be addition of some organic part from nimbu swarasa in Manashila.
  • 206. Discussion  Page 183  Discussion on Haratala shodhana It was done in dolayantra using choornodaka as media for shodhana by Swedana method. Calcium present in Choornodaka is antagonist of Arsenic and it reduces the toxicity of arsenic. Iron forms an insoluble precipitate with arsenites or arsenates and thereby reducing the Arsenic toxicity. Phosphorous and arsenic belong to same group hence Arsenic interfere the phosphorous function in the body. So that, by supplementing extra phosphorous by shodhana might compensate the harm caused by the Arsenic. Sodium and potassium in presence of water will form an alkaline solution where in Arsenic trisulphide is soluble and the original state can be regained by acidification. By this method other impurities present in the Haratala separate easily. And the same procedure was repeated for seven times in each solution. Here the process-taking place may be diffusion. The time fixed for the process is based on Fick’s law of diffusion. It states that diffusion between two planes X and Y in a non- homogeneous solution can be expressed quantitatively as follows: ds/dt = DA ( dc/dx) where in ds/dt= the rate of moment of solutes D -Diffusion constant A -The area of planes. dc/dx- the concentration gradient i.e. the difference between the concentration between X and Y. So in this process the solutes travel from solution to Haratala. And the unwanted materials travel from Haratala to solution in the same time. So may be time has been fixed depending on this formula.
  • 207. Discussion  Page 184  The choornodaka due to its alkaline nature reduces the Teekshna and Pittakara properties of Haratala. It might be the alkalinity of choornodaka acting in breakdown of crystalline structure of Haratala to gain amorphous nature. This may be due to chemical affinity of Haratala towards alkalies. And even kooshmanda swarasa & lime water are considered as antidote for Haratala visha by which it might be doing detoxification as well as therapeutic potentiation. Possible chemical reaction. AS2S3 + Ca (OH) 2 2As (OH) 3 + 3 Ca After procedure Haratala was yellow with slight reddish tinge, might be due to loss of extra sulphur as CaS. Discussion on Gairika Shodhana: Gairika shodhana was done by the method of ghrita bharjana. For Bharjana 100 gms of Gairika have taken and after shodhana we got 95 gms. 5% loss is observed because during bharjana some of the volatile impurities might have evaporated. During bharjana the bonding present between molecules becomes loose due to which the impurities attached at the bonding site will be eliminated and cause of loose bonding it will be readily absorbable. After bharjana laghu guna will increase. Also ghrita is antagonist to Visha hence any toxic materials reacted with Gairika an be easily nullified. Ghrita bharjana helps to reduce ushnata and teekshanata of Gairika . Vrana rakshasa tail and Lajjalu moola taila: • Vrana rakshasa taila and Lajjalu moola taila were prepared as per classics. • For Vrana rakshasa taila the whole process was done in 3 days since the drava dravya used was swarasa. Each day paka was done for 4 hrs. Trial I , the whole process took 12hrs.
  • 208. Discussion  Page 185  • For Lajjalu moola taila the whole process was done in 2 days. Trial II, the procedure completed with in 10 hrs. Discussion on analytical study: The main aim of the analysis is to check the quality for obtaining desired therapeutic effect. In order to obtain desired therapeutic effect it is necessary to control batch to batch variation, which is possible only through standardization protocols. Here the Vrana rakshasa taila and Lajjalu moola Taila is standardized on the grounds of organoleptic characters and physico chemical parameters Table no. 50: Showing the results of Analytical study. Tests Moorchita Go-Ghrita Moorchita Sarsapa Taila Moorchita tila taila Vranarakshaa taila Lajjalu moola Taila Organoleptic characters Yellow colour ghrita Dark yellow colour oil Reddish orange colour oil Dark green colour yellow colour oil Loss on Drying 1.50% 0.25% 0.50% 0.76% 0.5% Total ash -- -- -- 0.09% 0.08% Acid insoluble ash -- -- -- -- -- Water soluble ash -- -- -- -- -- Refractive index 1.4661 1.4771 1.4773 1.4661 1.4773 Specific Gravity -- 0.9022 0.9179 0.9221 0.9239 Saponification value 151.47 109.32 140.25 182.02 123.42 Acid value 1.12 0.6 1.12 3.5272 2.0196 Iodine value 24 20 2 94.2 24 Ester value 150.35 89.32 139.13 178.50 121.4
  • 209. Discussion  Page 186  Table No.51: Showing the resulults of Qualitative test. Tests Murchhita Ghrita Murchhita Sarsapa Taila Moorchita tila taila Vranarakshaa taila Lajjalu moola Taila Carbohydrate ++ +++ +++ + +++ Phytosterol +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ Protein ++ ++ ++ -- -- Saponin + + + + + Anthraquinone glycoside ++ ++ -- +++ +++ Tannin -- -- -- + + Alkaloid + ++ + -- + Flavonoid ++ +++ +++ ++ + For the preparation of formulations, tila taila, sarsapa taila and ghrita were done with murchana processes. The analysis of these three shows that moisture content was slightly higher in ghrita than those of tila taila and sarsapa taila. All ash values including total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble were found negligible in all three which meant for their completely organic origin. Both taila were more viscous in nature than that of ghrita as revealed with slightly higher refractive index values. The specific gravity could be done with tila taila and sarsapa taila only. Due to condensing nature of ghrita at room temperature, it could not be done with ghrita. Among these two taila, more specific gravity was found with tila taila which means more weight of molecules were present in this comparatively. The qualitative tests of these three exhibited almost similar pattern of constituents in all three except absent of anthraquinone glycoside in tial taila which was present with other two. The reason behind these may be due to use of common drugs for the murchhhana like triphala, haridra and manjistha.
  • 210. Discussion  Page 187  The moisture content in prepared formulations Lajjalumoola taila and Vrarakshasa taila respectively exposed the almost similarities in quantity with slightly higher in Vranaraksha taila, this may be due to adding of ghrita in Vranarakshasa taila which was absent in Lajjalumoola tail. This finds the persuasiveness with analysis of murchhita tila taila, murchhita sarsapa taila and murchhita ghrita. The ash values of these formulations were almost similar. The refractive index and specific gravities were slightly higher in Lajjalumoola taila than that of Vranaraksha taila. It may be due to use of murchhita tila taila in Lajjalumoola taila which was not used in Vranarakshasa taila and tila tail was found with viscosity and weight as exposed from their analysis. The qualitative tests also exposed the similar type colouring pattern for various opted tests for these two drugs. The only difference was found with presence of alkaloid in Lajjalumoola taila in traces while it was absent in Vranarakshasa taila. The Lajjalumoola taila was added only with kalka of whole plants of Lajjalu along with water and tila taila while this was absent in Vranarakshasa taila. The quantitative estimation revealed the saponification values, ester values, acid values and iodine values in Vranarakshasa taila. This may be due to addition of sarsapa taila and ghrita both in this formulation while in Lajjalumoola tail, only tila taila was added. Under quantitative estimation murchhita ghrita was having more saponification value than other two which means for more possibilities of hydrolysis of lipids are possible with this comparatively and with formulation too. However, the more acid value of Vranarakshasa taila may go for it more chances of rancidity. The iodine value of murchhita tila taila was found minimum in which reveals the least number of double bond present with these. This may also be region behind the less value in formulation used with this i.e., Lajjalumoola taila.
  • 211. Discussion  Page 188  Discussion on Result: The aim of the present study was to evaluate, the wound healing property of the trial drugs Vranaraksasa Taila and Lajjalu moola Taila. A comparative study is done to study the better efficacy of the trial drugs with the natural healing process (control group). While comparing the result of the experiment, both the trial drugs show significant effect on wound healing property in the comparison with the control group and Vranarakshasa Taila having more effect than Lajjalu moola taila. In the excision wound model two parameters were assessed, 1. Percentage of contraction of original wound area.  2. Period of epithelization Whenever a breach occurs in the continuity of tissue the surrounding connective tissue and capillaries grows to cover up the area damaged, to achieve the contraction of wound. In the trial groups wound closure was achieved on 16th day, but in the control group it has been achieved by 17 -18 days. The Period of epithelization is calculated by the scar formation and by falling it off leaving no raw area behind. The mean period of epithelization in the trial group- I was11.3 days, that of trial group-II was 14.2 days, and that of control group was 17.2 days. This clearly shows that epithelization was achieved earlier in the trial groups than the control group. Once a breach or gap has occurred in the tissue, it is closed by the granulation tissue. The two ends of the breach are held together by the granulation tissue. In the incision wound model, the strength of the granulation tissue was measured by using tensiometer in grams. The mean of the trial group-I was 519 gm, that of trial group-II was 343 gm, and that of control group was 249 gm. This clearly shows that the trial
  • 212. Discussion  Page 189  group I, Vrana rakshasa Taila had better tensile strength than the Trial group II, Lajjalumoola Taila& control group. Overall look on experiment shows following results, • Comparative effect of treatment in the percent closure of excision wound on 4th , 8th , 12th , & 16th day- The results of Vrana rakshasa Taila & Lajjalu moola Taila provided better result than the control group. When comparing both the trial drugs Vrana rakshasa Taila & Lajjalu moola Taila, the action looked similar. But on seeing the mean values we can say that Vrana rakshasa Taila having more effect than Lajjalu moola Taila. • Comparative effect of treatment in the period of epithelisation- While comparing period of epithelization both trial groups provided better result than the control group. When comparing the trial Drugs Vrana rakshasa taila &Lajjalu moola Taila, the action looked similar but on seeing the mean values we can say that Vrana rakshasa Taila had better action than Lajjalu moola taila. • Comparative effect of treatment in the development of collagen strength: When comparing Vrana rakshasa Taila and Lajjalu moola Taila with the Control group, the Trial Drugs showed better results. When comparing both the trial Drugs Vrana rakshasa Taila & Lajjalu moola Taila, the action looked similar but on seeing the mean values we can say that Vrana rakshasa Taila had better action than Lajjalu moola Taila. • All these result shows that both trial drugs are having significant wound healing properties when used externally in experimental models.
  • 213. Discussion  Page 190  Probable Mode of Action : Table No. 52 Showing general properties of trial drug I NAME OF DRUG RASA GUNA VIRYA VIPAKA KARMA Sarsap Taila& Sarshap Choor nna1 Katu Guru,Ushna Ushna. Katu Raktapitta kopaka,Kushtaghna,kandughn Go-Ghrita Madhura Laghu, Tikshana Sheeta Madhura Medya,Balya,Dahaprashaman Vrishya Arka 2 Katu, Tikta Laghu,Rooksha Tikshana Ushna Katu Vatakaphahara,Vranahara, sophahara,krimighna,kandugh Bhoorja patra3 Kashaya Laghu Ushna Katu Stambhana,Keetanu nashaka,medya,Vranapraksha Shudha Parada _ - _ _ _ Gandhaka Katu, Tikta,Kashaya Sara Uhsna madhura Krimihara,Vishaghna ,Kandughna Hartala Katu, Tikta,Kashaya Snigdha,Guru Ushna _ Vrana hara,Kushtaghna ,Kandughna Manahashila Tikta, Katu Snigdha,Guru, Sara Ushna _ Lekhana,Vishaghna,Shoshan Varnakara,Kanduhara Gairika Madhura, kashya Snigdha Sheeta _ Vrana ropaka, Rakta Shamaka . Giri sindoora Katu,Tikta Ushna Ushna _ Vrana ropaka Haridra 4 Kasaya, Tikta Rooksha Ushna. Katu Twak doshahara,vranahara, Varnya. Table No.: 53 Showing general properties of trial drug II: NAME OF DRUG RASA GUNA VEERYA VIPAK A KARMA Tila taila5 Madhura,Tikta , Guru, Sookshma Ushna,Teekshn a Madhur Snehana,Vran a shodhana,
  • 214. Discussion  Page 191  Kashaya , Teekshna, vyavayi Vedana stapana Lajjalu 6 Kashaya,Tikta Laghu, Rooksha Sheeta katu Sandhaniya, Rakta stambhana, Vrana ropana Probable mode of action based on Rasa : 7 As per the references available in various Nighantus regarding the GunaKarmas of trial drugs we can derive at a conclusion that in trial drug I the drugs are having Katu,Tikta and Kashaya rasas. In trial drug II the drugs are having Tikta and Kashaya Rasa. When we critically study about the Guna karmas of Katu rasa as mentioned in our classics we end up with a term Vranam Avasadayati in Charaka Sutra & Ashtanga Sangraha Sutra. Also the properties like Mamsa Lekhana, Shodana, Chedana mentioned in the Context of Katu rasa implies that it does the Chedana & Lekhana of dushta mamsa (Unhealthy tissue) formed at the site of Vrana, thus does the shodana of vrana (removes sluff formation). The krimighna and Kandughna property of katu rasa helps to kill the germs and prevents itching. • Tikta rasa does the shoshana of Kapha, Puya srava & Kleda. Twak mamsa Sthirikarana property mentioned for tikta rasa helps in providing strength to the tissues. Thiktha rasa has the visada guna, which acts as lekhana and vishoshikari. It plays a major part in vranashodana by keeping the wound area clean, by the lekhana property. Prevents the growth of microbes and thus provides a shield against infection by its krimigna property, and helps in wound contraction by its vishoshikari nature. • Kashaya rasa helps in Sthambana (styptic action) & both Tikta and Kashaya rasas does Shoshana thus maintaining a dry locality at the site of Vrana, which
  • 215. Discussion  Page 192  prevents the invasion of Krimis. Sandhaniya karma of Kashaya rasa fastens the process of contraction and Ropana karma helps in formation of healthy granulation tissue thus facilitating the Wound healing Process. Probable mode of action based on Guna: • Most of the drugs of Vrana rakshasa tailam are having Laghu, Rooksha, and Teeksna,Ushana ,Snigdha and Sara gunas. • The drugs of Lajjalu moola taila are having Laghu, Sookshma, and Teekshana Guna. • Laghu guna by nature is kaphagna and sroto shodana, by this quality it helps in repairing all the blocked channels and aid in the proliferation of surrounding connective tissue elements and capillaries, which migrate in to site to be repaired. • Ruksha guna helps in drying up the raw area and helps in wound contraction. • Theekshna guna helps the drug to act fast, spreading in to deep and entire wound area.It is the guna which is responsible for the quick activity of the drug.It does the sodhana also( Sodhane teekshna) Probable mode of action based on karma: • To achieve the main goal of healing, it is necessary to remove the maximum local dushti or debridement at the site of Vrana by the virtue of lekhana,
  • 216. Discussion  Page 193  dahahara, kanduhara, soolahara, jantuhara, krimihara, vranaropana, vranashodana, avasadana properties of the trial drugs. • The classical references show that tailam is Twachyam or good to skin • According to Susruta 8 Tila taila is a best drug for all types of sadhyo vranas. Because of its vyavayi and Sookshma guna it enters even through minute pores and spread throughout the body very quickly. It does the twak prasadana,varnya,balya and lekhana (helps to do the Vrana shodhana).It is krimighna(kills the worms),soola prasamana (acts as analgesic) and vrana ropana.Tila taila is best suited for parisheka,Abhyanga,Avagaha etc in conditions such as china ,bhinna,vidha vranas, khsra agni dagdha vrana,vislishta ,durbhagna(complicated fractures),Mruga vyaladi vidashta (bites by wild animals)etc. • Acc.to Yogaratnakara9 tailaprakarana tila taila guna told as, Jantuhara, vranaropana, kandunashana, kanthivardana etc. • Recent research shows that tila taila is good for wound healing; on external application, toxic principles are attracted towards sesame oil molecules and can be washed out easily with warm water. It has been proved active antibacterial against staphylococcus and streptococcus. These were the main reason, which prompted to take tila taila as the base for the preparation. Also reference in classics that tila taila is to be taken in places were particular oil is not specified. • Ghrita alleviate pitta and vata. It is beneficial for rasa dhatu, rakta dhatu, sukra dhatu and ojas. It has seeta guna (cooling), Mrudukarma (softening) and varnya (improves luster). Lipophilic action of ghee, easily facilitate transportation to a target organ and final delivery inside the cell, because cell
  • 217. Discussion  Page 194  membrane also contains lipid. This lipophilic nature of ghee facilitates entry of the formulation into the cell and its delivery to mitochondria, micro some and nuclear membrane. Purana ghrita is indicated as vranashodana as well as ropana10 . • Go-ghrita is beneficial for rasa datu, rakta datu, with these property ghrita enhance rasagni, and raktagni thus increase the ropana karma. According to Bhava prakasha ghrita is a rasayana, tasty, good for eyes, stimulant for digestion, supports glow and beauty, enhances memory and stamina, promotes longevity and protects body from various diseases. • Mustered oil which comes from mustered seeds , a very good source of Calcium, Folic acid , Vitamin B1,B2, B6,C and E,Magnesium, Potassium,Protene, Carotenes, fiber, Copper, Iron etc. It also offers a high content of antioxidants.11 (ref. written in paper) • It containts Selenium,a trace mineral known for its anti inflametory ,analgesic action. It also having antimicrobial property. • Lekhana and Sodhana property Hareedra, Manahashila, Bhurja patra helps for vrana sodhana by removing the unhealthy granulation tissue in the wound. • Vrana Ropana action of Hareedra, Gairika, Hartala, Arka and Lajjalu promotes the wound healing process. • Sothaghna property of Hareedra, Arka and Lajjalu helps to reduce the local inflammation. • Krimihara property of Sarshap Taila, Gandhaka, Bhoorja patra and Arka helps to sweep out the infections from the wound.
  • 218. Discussion  Page 195  • Kandughna property of Gandhaka, hartala , Manahashila, Sarshapa, Hareedra Arka,elps to control the itching on the wounded area. • Stambhana Guna of Bhurja patra and Gairika help to control excess bleeding from wound. • Soolahara, propertie of Hareedra and Arka patra helps to reduce the tenderness and pain. • Dahaprashamana Property of Ghrita helps to reduce the burning sensation • Varnya property of Haridra helps to remove the scars. • Sulphur plays a significant role in production of collegen fibers.(ref in paper) • It helps to manufactures of various proteins including those forming hair,muscles,skin, removes inflamation which helps fast and better wound healing. • Hartala(As2S2) having Vitamin C,K, E,& anti oxidents which are helpful in wound healing. • Gairika(Red ochere) helps in stopping bleeding.(ref in paper) • Promoting tissue regeneration and helps in wound healing. • It reduces the formation of pus and neutralizes over acidification .The ancient Egyptians used it to shrink Tumors. (ref) • Bhoorja patra bark is astringent,thermogenic alexetric,deodorant,antibacterial. 12 (ref .Indian medicine plants Orient Longman,page 262 ,vol. I) • Calcium present Tila Taila is considered as important factor for the granulation tissue development. • Vitamin C present in the Tila Taila is helpful for the maturation of collagen.
  • 219. Discussion  Page 196  Thus by considering all the above facts about the rasas, gunas and karmas it can be concluded that, Vrana rakshasa taila processed by Herbal and Mineral drugs promoted wound healing faster than purely herbal drug Lajjalu moola Taila and this explains the probable mode of action of the drug.
  • 220. Conclusion  Page 197  CONCLUSION The Following conclusions can be drawn from the study carried on, “A COMPARATIVE, PHARMACEUTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF VRANARAKSHASA TAILA AND LAJJALU MOOLA TAILA W.S.R TO ITS VRANA ROPANA PROPERTY”. Conceptual Study: • Vrana is the disease, and symptom in the Ayurvedic classics. • Sneha Kalpana is one where the fat soluble & Water soluble therapeutically active constituents of the drugs are extracted. • Sneha Kalpana is one of the most beneficial dosage forms available in Bhaishajya Kalpana, due to its long shelf life, more acceptability. • Vrana rakshasa Taila and Lajjalu moola Taila mentioned in different classics as an important formulation for Vrana. • So, experimental study was carried out in order to evaluate efficacy of these two formulations in albino rats, which is the easiest & standard method for wound healing model. • This helps in arriving at a better, cost effective solution to the commonest problem that a physician/surgeon is confronted in day to day clinical practice. Pharmaceutical study: • Vrana rakshasa Taila and Lajjalu moola Taila were prepared in College Pharmacy, following classical rules and regulations. • The Rasa dravyas which are used in Vrana rakshasa Taila have purified as per classics.
  • 221. Conclusion  Page 198  • Vrana rakshasa taila and Lajjalu moola Taila were prepared in Murchita ghrita & Tailas. Analytical study: • Both the trial drugs were subjected to physico chemical analysis. Experimental study & Results: • Both the trial drugs were found to be effective in bringing about wound healing action, when compared with control group. • Both the Trial drugs Vrana rakshasa Taila and Lajjalu moola Taila having similar wound healing action but statistically Vrana rakshasa Taila is said to be more effective than Lajjalu moola Taila. • Vrana rakshasa taila has exposed the better potency due to more therapeutic principles inherited during the manufacturing of formulation along with component drugs used. Attending the commercial feasibility , Lajjalumoola taila is far cheaper. However the potency of the formulation was lesser in comparison Further scope of the study: • The Trial Drugs showed good result on animal wound model, its efficacy on human model is to be assessed. • Since both the formulations are Talia, its application looks messy and can be converted into ointment Base. • The efficacy of this compound needs further exploration to identify the exact mode of action. • Wound healing action of both Tailas need to be studied for a better comparison with any Standard Vrana Ropak Taila e.g. Jatyadi Taila or Jatyadi Ghrita.
  • 222. Summary    Page 199 SUMMARY The present dissertation titled “A Comparative, Pharmaceutical and Experimental Study of Vrana rakshasa Taila &Lajjalu moola Taila W.S.R To Its Vrana Ropana Property”. In this study, an attempt was made to find out the efficacious compound among Vrana rakshasa taila &Lajjalu moola taila on wound healing effect. It consists of different topics which are discussed under the following headings: Introduction: It gives a general glimpse on Ayurveda, Bhaishajya kalpana, Importance of wound healing, with importance to the present study in the present context. Objectives: Under this heading the main objectives of this study has been mentioned along with hypothesis. Review of literature: Done in three sections: Pharmaceutical Review: In this chapter, exhaustive screening of literature pertaining to principles of Bhaishajya kalpana and Sneha kalpana are included. Drug Review: Reviews of the different components of the trial drug are a part of this chapter. Disease Review: Under disease review both Ayurvedic and modern literatures is screened on the concepts of wound and wound healing. Methodology: Practical study: Here the preparation of Murchita tila taila, Murchit Sarsapa Taila, Moorchit Go-ghrita ,VRANARAKSHASA TAILA and LAJJALUMOOLA TAILA along with the descriptions of pharmaceutical preparations observations, and other details are included.  
  • 223. Summary    Page 200 Experimental study: The experimental study of wound healing on albino rats by inducing two wound models (Incision and Excision) which was done in the college animal house was explained along with selection of rats, grouping, surgical procedures, illustration and photographs. Analytical study: The basic parameters like Acid value, Saponification value, Iodine value, Loss on drying at 1100 C, Ester value, Refractive index at 400 C etc. were analysed. An attempt was made to get the T.L.C. finger prints of the individual samples. Result: It consists of both Analytical and Practical results. In analytical results, the results of the parameters like Acid value, Saponification value, Iodine value, Loss on drying at 1100 C, Ester value, and Refractive index at 400 C etc.were included. The result obtained in 6 sub groups (Trial 1 and control, Trial 2 and control, Trial 2 and Trial 2 – Excision and Incision) were recorded, tabulated and analyzed. Statistical analysis was done by applying appropriate statistical tests and significance noted. The result shows that the trial drugs Vrana rakshasa Taila and Lajjalu moola Taila is statistically significant than the control group and Vranarakshasa Taila is better than Lajjalu moola Taila in all the parameters analyzed, with respect to the two wound model viz, incision and excision. Discussion: Discussion deals with the many aspects of wound healing, and a discussion of the possible mode of action of the trial drug. Conclusion: The conclusion of the above study is done by highlighting the outcome, along with the limitations of the study and scope for further improvement. Summary: Precise form of this Dissertation.  
  • 224. References  REFERENCES Introduction 1. Su.su .1541 2. Su.. su .1717,18 3. Su . chi.190-108 Pharmaceutical review 1. Bhai. Ra. 5/ 1288-1291 2. Bhai. Ra 5th chapter commentary by Sidhinandan mishra. 3. Sa.Sa.Ma 5/1 4. Sa.Sa.Ma 9/9 5. Sa.Sa.Ma 9/11 6. Sa.Sa.Ma 9/6 7. Sa.Sa.Ma 9/7 8. Sa.Sa.Ma 9/8 9. Sa.Sa.Ma 9/3 10. Sa.Sa.Ma 9/4-5 11. V.P.P Triteeya khanda 12. B. R. 5/ 1283 - 1284 13. Su.Chi 3/8, A.S.Ka 8/22 14. Y. R 15. B. R 54/280 16. Sha.Sa.Ma 9/52-56   17. V.P.P 3/
  • 225. References  18. Cha.Sa.Ka 12/103, Su.Chi 31/9-10, A.Sa.Ka 8/31, Sha.Ma.9/15-19. 19. A.H.Ka 6/17-19, B.R 5/1313-1314 20. C.S.Chi.2/4, S.S.Chi 15/33, Dalhana ‘s Commentary, Chakradatta 22/107 21. Sa.S.P 1/52 22. Bharat Bhaishajya Kalpana Vignana by Acharya Vishwanath Dwivedi 23. Sa S.M 9/1, B.R 5/53 24. V.P.P Truteeya khanda 93 – 95 25. Chakradutta Ratnaprabha Teeka 23/35-3634 . 26. Adharva veda samhita 6/139/5, 7/10/1 27. C.S.Su.20/9-11 28. A.H.Ni.15/16-17 29. Rasadarpana, 1st Part, 369 -370 pp. 30. Dravya Guna Vignana, 1st Vol, 342 pp. 31. Gujarat Ayurveda University, souvenir and abstract book, 2004, 25th -26th pp. 32. J.L.N Shasthri, Dravya guna Vignana, 1st Vol, 320th pp. 33. R.T., 2 /52, 22pp. 34. Rasadarpana, 1st Part, 369 pp. Disease review 1. Adharva veda samhita 6/139/5, 7/10/1(disease review anu) 2. Su.chi.1/3 3. A.Sa.U.29/3 4. Su. Chi. 1/6-7 disease review anu)   5. Su.Chi.2/11-22 disease review anu)
  • 226. References  6. Su.Chi. 1/4-5 7. Su.Chi. 1/3 8. A.H.Ut . 25/5 9. Su.su .1/5 10. Cha.Chi 29/9 11. Su.Chi.2/9, M.Ni.43/2, A.S.Ut.31/3-5, A.H.Ut.26/1. disease review anu) 12. Su.Chi.2/56, Su.Su.22/4-6, 28/16-17 13. Ch.Chi.25/20-26 14. A.H.Ut.25/5-18 15. Sa Sa Pu.7/72-74 16. Su.Su.23/18, Su.Chi.1/7, Cha.Chi.25/86, A.H.Ut.25/11, Ma.Ni. 42/8 17. Su.Su.22/7 18. A.H.Su.22/4, A.Su.Ut.29, Su.Su.22/6, Ma.Ni.42/12 19. Su.Su.23/6-7, Cha.Chi.25/35-37. 20. Su.Sut.23/8, 21. Su. Su 23/12-17, Ch.Chi.25/29-30, M. Ni. 42/12-17, A.H.Ut.25/18 . 22. Su.Su 22 23. Ch.Chi.25/29-31 24. Su.Chi.1/139 25. Ma.Ni.43/25-26 26. Su Su . 17/22-23 27. Su.Chi.1/8 28. Cha.Chi.25   29. A.S.Ut.29, A.H.4/25
  • 227. References  30. Ch.Chi.25/9, Su.Chi.1/4, A.H.Ut.26/13 31. Tabers, Cyclopedic medical dictionary, Brothers medical publishers New Delhi. P.No.2165 32. Blakistons New gold Medical Dictionary 33. en.wikipedia.org disease review anu) 34. en.wikipedia.org 35. www.worldwidewounds.com 36. Harsh Mohan , Text book of pathology, Jaypee publication, 3rd edition, 1998 Drug Review : 1. Dravya Guna Vignana,Vol-2,882 2. Dravya Guna Vignana, Vol-2, 747 3. Dravya Guna Vignana, Vol-2,962 4. Dravya Guna Vignana, Vol-2,594 5. Dravya Guna Vignana, Vol-2, 344 6. Dravya Guna Vignana, Vol-2,513 7. R. R. S., 1/ 67–68, 8pp. 8. B. P. N., Version 88–89, 613 pp. 9. R. T., 5/ 5–6, 72 pp. 10. B.P.N., Version 91–92, 813 pp. 11. R. R.S., 11/ 18–19, 175 pp. 12. B.P. N., Version 93–95, 614 pp. 13. P.L. Soni, Text Book of Inorganic Chemistry, 3324 pp.   14. Ibid 3325–3326 pp.
  • 228. References  15. Krishan Vij , Text Book of Forencsic Medicine and Toxicology Principles and Practices, 832 pp. 16. R. T. 8/ 4, 175 pp. 17. R. R. S, 3 / 21–23, 61 pp. A. P, 2 / 19, 260pp. 18. R. T., 8 /4, 182pp 19. Ibid, 2563 pp 20. Iatro chemistry of Ayurveda, 338pp. 21. R. R. S, 3/ 91-93; 34- 35 pp. 22. R. T., 11/ 106 , 261 pp. 23. R. R. S., 3/ 94,35pp. 24. R. T., 11/ 115-116, 263 pp. 25. R.T. 11/09 26. http:// my site.du.edu/~jcalvert/phys/physhom.htm#mate 27. Monier Williams, Sanskrit - English Dictionary, 1291pp. 28. R. T. 11 /1-2, 244 pp 29. R.R. S., 3/ 70 , 73 pp. 30. R. R. S., 3 /75, 73 pp. 31. R. R. S., 3 /74, 73pp 32. R.T. 11 /25, 248 pp. 33. Ibid, 11 /16-17, 246 pp. 34. R. R.S., 3 / 73, 73 pp. A. P. 2 /176, 304 pp. 35. R. T., 11/55, 252 pp.   36. R. T., 11 / 39-41, 250 pp
  • 229. References  37. R.T., 11 /52-54, 252 pp. 38. Damodar Joshi, Rasashastra, 144 pp. 39. http://intox.org/databank/documents/chemical/artsul/ukpid 44.htm. 40. P.L. Soni, Textbook of Inorganic chemistry, 2.500 pp. 41. http://www.intox.org. 42. http://www.webelements.com. 43. R Ghosh, pharmacology materia Medica, 564 pp. 44. http://www.intox.org. 45. R.R.S. 3/137 46. Rasa jala nidhi 47. A.P. 4/89-90 48. R.T. 49. R.RS. 3/50 50. R. R.S .3/47 51. http:/www.brittanica.com/sea/h/hematite Discussion 1. API, Part I, Vol. III, pp. 194 2. API, Part I, Vol. III, pp.18 3. API, Part I, Vol. V, pp. 15 4. Dravya Guna Vignana,Vol.II,pp514 5. API, Part I, Vol. IV, pp.127 6. API, Part I, Vol. II, pp.101 7. Cha.su 26/43, Su. Su 42/10, A.H.Su 10/14-21   8. Su.Su.45/11
  • 230. References  9. Y.R Taila guna 10. H. Sut. 5/40  
  • 231. Bibiliography      BIBILIOGRAPHY 1. Agnivesa, Charaka Samhita, Commentary by Chakrapanidutta, Yadavji Trikamji Acharya, Chaukhamba Surbharati prakasan, Varanasi, U.P, Edition 2008. 2. Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita, Redacted by Charaka and Dridabala with Ayurveda Dipika Commentray by Chakrapanidatta, Y.T. Acharya ed, Varanasi, Chaukhamba Surabharati prakashana, Edition 2000. 3. Amarasimha - Amarakosha, Hindi commentary by Har Govinda shashtri, Chaukambha Sanskrit series, Varanasi, 6th edition, 1998. 4. Acharya Madhava, Ayurveda Prakasha, edited by Gulraj Sharma Mishra, Varanasi, Chaukhamba Bharati Academy, Edition 1999, 5. Acharya Somadeva, Rasendra Choodamani, Translated by Siddinandan mishra, Edi. 1st , Varanasi Delhi, Chaukamba Orientalia,. 6. Anonymous - Yogaratnakara, with Vidyotini Hindi Commentary by Vaidya Lakshmeepati Shastri, 7th edition, 1999, Published by Chaukambha Sanskrit Samsthaana, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. 7. Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India –Vol. I & II, Govt.of India, Ministry of Health & Family welfare, Dept. of ISM&H, New Delhi, 2000. 8. Bhavamishra, Bhavaprakash Nighantu, Hindi commentary by Chunekar K.C, Edited by Dr.G.S Pandey, Choukhamba Bharathy Academy, Varanasi, U.P, Reprint 2006. 9. Bhudev Mukharjee, Rasa Jala Nidhi Vol II, Calcutta, Nababhikar press, 1998. 10.  Bhajandas Swami Dadupanth, Rasadarpana, 1st Part, Nath Pustak Bhandar, parishistha, Rohtak,  
  • 232. Bibiliography      11. Baily & Love - Short Practice of Surgery, revised by Charles V. Mann, R. C. G. Russell, 21st edition, 1991, ELBS with Chapman and Hall. 12. Guyton – Medical Physiology, Published by W.B.saunders Company, Pennsylvania, 10th edition, 2000. 13. C.B. Jha, Ayurvediya Rasashastra, Varanasi, Chaukhamba surabharati prakashana, 2002. 14. Chakrapanidatta – Chakradatta, English translation by Priyavrat Sharma, Chaukhambha publishers, Varanasi, U.P, 2nd Edition, Reprint – 1998. 15. Damodar Joshi, Rasashastra, Sri Kumari Amma ed, Trivandrum, Publication division Ayurveda College. 16. Database on medicinal plants used in ayurveda , vol 1,2,4&5, New Delhi, Central council for research in Ayurveda and siddha, 1st Edition – 2001. 17. J.L.N Shasthri, Dravya guna Vignana, 1st Vol, Chaukambha Publications, Varanasi, 1st Edition, 2002-2005. 18. Krishan Vij, Text Book of Forencsic Medicine and Toxicology Principles and Practices, Edi 2nd , New Delhi, B.I. Churchill Living Stone. 19. Kaviraj Govinda das sen, Bhaishajya Ratnavali, commentary by Sidhinandan Mishra, Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakasan, Varanasi, U.P, Reprint 2007. 20. Madhavakara, Madhava Nidana, English translation by K.R Srikanta murthy, Choukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, U.P, 1993. 21. Mahajan B. K, Methods in Biostatistics, Jaypee Brothers Publication, New Delhi, 6th Edition, 1997.  
  • 233. Bibiliography      22. Mohan Harsh, Textbook of Pathology, Jaypee publication, New Delhi, 3rd edition, 1998. 23. Mukhyopadyaya Girindranath - History of Indian Medicine, Munshiram Manoharalal Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1994 edition. 24. P.L. Soni, Text Book of Inorganic Chemistry, Edi 20th , New Delhi, Sultan Chand and Sons, 1991. 25. Pharmacopial standards for Ayurvedic Medicines, Published by Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Sidha, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi, Revised edition 1987. 26. Raja Radhakantedeva Bahadur, Shabda Kalpa Druma, Vol 2, Nag Publications, Delhi, Reprint 1988. 27. Rama devi R, Bhaishajya Kalpana, VPSVAC, Perfect publications, Kottakkal, 2004, 2nd Edition. 28. Rama Chandra Reddy .K, Bhaishjya Kalpana Vijnanam, Choukhambha Sanskrit Bhavan, Varanasi, U.P,1st edition, 1998. 29. Sadananda Sharma, Rasa Tarangini, edited by Kashinath Shastry, 11th edition, New Delhi, Motilal Banarasidas publication, 2004. 30. Sahasrayoga, Hindi translation Published by Kendriya Ayurveda evam sidha anusandhana parishad, New delhi, Edition 1999. 31. S. Das, A Concise Text book of Surgery, Published by Dr. S. Das, 13, Old Mayors’ Court, Calcutta, 3rd edition, 2001.  
  • 234. Bibiliography      32. Sarangadhara, Sarangadhara Samhita, With the commentary Adhamallas Dipika and Kasiramas Gudhartha Dipika, Choukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi, U.P, 2005, 6th Edition. 33. Sharma P. V, Dravya Guna Vijnana, vol.2, Chaukambha Vishva Bharathi Academy, Varanasi, U.P, 17th edition, 1996. 34. Shastri J.L.N, Illustrated Dravya Guna Vijnana, Vol.2, Choukhmaba Orientalia, Varanasi, U.P, 3rd edition, 2008. 35. Shobha.G.Hiremath, A Text Book of Bhaishajya Kalpana, IBH Prakashana, Banglore,1st edition, 2000. 36. Sri Govindasena,Vaidyka paribhasha pradipa, English translation, Published by Chaukambha Samskruta Samsthan, Varanasi, U.P, 1st edition, 2003. 37. Sri Sadananda Sarma, Rasa Tarangini, Hindi trnslation by Kasinadha sastri, Motilal Banarasidas publication, New Delhi, Reprint 2000. 38. Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita, Hindi translation by Kaviraj Ambikadutta Sastri, Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi, U.P, 12th edition, 2001. 39. Taber’s – Cyclopedic medical dictionary, Edited by Clayton. L. Smith, J.P Brothers medical publishers, New Delhi, 1st edition, 1998. 40. Vagbhatacharya, Rasa Ratna Samuchchaya, Kaviraj Ambikadatta Shastry ed, Varanasi Chaukhamba Amarabharati Prakashana, 8th ed, 1994. 41. Vd. Yadav Trikamji, Rasamritam, edited by Damodar Joshi, 2nd edition Chaukhambha Sanskrit Bhavan, Varanasi, 2003, Chapter I,Version 18, 14pp.  
  • 235. Bibiliography      42. Vagbhata, Ashtanga Hridayam, Srikantha Murthy, Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi, U.P, edition, 2001. 43. Vaidya Yadavji Trikamji Acharya, Rasamrita, English translation by Damodar Joshi, Plublished by Chaukambha Samskruta Samsthan, Varanasi, U.P, 1st edition, 1998. 44. Vrudha Vagbhata - Ashtanga Sangraha, with Indu Vyakhya, edited by Vaidya Ananth Damodar Athavale, Published by Mahesh Ananth Athavale, Sreemad Aatreya Prakashanam Nandanandana, Pune, 1980.  
  • 236.   INGREDIENTS                     Parada Kajjali Gandhaka Haratala Manashila Gairika Sindhura Sarshapa Haridra
  • 237.   Arka Patra Burj Patra Lajjalu Til Taila Sarshapa Taila Goghrita
  • 238.   PRACTICALS AND PREPARATIONS Taila Moorchana Ghrita Moorchana Parada Shodhana Gandhaka Shodhana Kajjali Nirmana Gairika Shodhana
  • 239.   Haratala Shodhana Manasheela Shodhana Lajjalu Moola Taila Nirmana Vrana Rakshasa Taila Nirmana Paka Sidhi Lakshana Finished Product