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      • 第三章 汉英翻译中的技巧运用
      • I. 词的选择 ( Selection of Words )
      • 1 . 1 根据上下文选词
      • A .“问题”这个词,一般都认为它的英语对等词是 question 和 problem
      • 1 .问题是到哪儿去找答案。
      • The problem is where to find the answer.
      • 2 .科学家必须知道怎样运用数学以求得对问题的准确答案。
      • It is necessary that a scientist know how to use mathematics to get an accurate answer to his question .
      • 3 .你做什么没关系,重要的问题是你怎么做。
      • What you do does not matter. The important thing is how you do it.
      • 4 .我不断参阅论述那些问题的著作。
      • I have constantly referred to works dealing with those subjects .
      • 5 .你会听到到处都在讨论这个问题。
      • You’ll find the topic being discussed everywhere.
      • 6 .那台车床出问题了。
      • Something has gone wrong with that lathe.
      • 7 .一路上没出问题。
      • The trip went off without mishap.
      • 8 .生活中可写的东西是很多的,问题在于发掘和提炼。
      • There are many things in life that one can write about, but the point is how to explore and select them.
      • B .“小心”这个词可根据不同的上下文译为 caution , careful , on one’s guard against , on the alert against… 等等。如:
      • 1 .他做事极其小心。
      • He did his work with great caution.
      • 2 .小心不要打破鸡蛋。
      • Be careful not to break the eggs.
      • 3. 巡逻队必须小心,免遭敌人伏击。
      • The patrols must be on their guard against ( on the alert against ) the enemy’s ambush.
      • C .常用汉语动词“ 搞 ”在英语中根本就没有一个准确的对应词。
      • 1 .他-心要把对手 搞臭 。
      • He is bent on discrediting his opponent.
      • 2 .把你鞋子上的泥巴搞掉。
      • Remove mud from your shoes .
      • 3 .把某人搞掉。
      • Put someone out of the way .
      • 4 .此人专会暗中搞鬼。
      • That man is good at scheming.
      • 5 .搞好与邻居的关系。
      • Foster good relations with with your neighbour.
      • 6 .搞好救灾工作。
      • Do a good job of disaster relief .
      • 7 .这件事只能搞好,不能搞坏。
      • You must make the thing a sure Success. It brooks no failure .
      • 8 .这块地搞好了,每亩可收一千斤。
      • If handled well, this plot can yield 1000 jin per mu.
      • 9 .搞活企业。
      • Rejuvenate an enterprise.
      • 10 .实行对外开放,对内搞活的政策。
      • Implement the policy of opening to the outside world and invigorating the domestic economy.
      • 11 .大量的作业搞得我头昏脑涨。
      • A great number of exercises make my head swim .
      • 12 .他是搞法律的。
      • He is in the law.
      • 13 .你最好耐心一些,否则会把事情搞僵了。
      • You’d better be patient, or you might bring things to a deadlock.
      • 14 .把这堆垃圾搞掉。
      • Get rid of this rubbish dump .
      • 15 .你到底搞什么鬼。
      • What tricks are you playing after all ?
      • 16 .这兄弟俩看起来很像,别把他们搞错了。
      • The two brothers are very much alike. Don’t make one for the other.
      • 17 .我们搞一点核武器完全为了自卫。
      • It is purely for self-defense that we have produced some nuclear weapons.
      • 18 .搞好经济建设。
      • Do well in economic construction.
      • 1 . 2 根据词的搭配习惯选词
      • A .动词和宾语的搭配
      • 1 .在汉语的动宾结构中,动词“ 进行 ”是一个用途很广的词,但译成英语,则有不同的说法。如:
      • 进行社会主义革命
      • to carry out socialist revolution
      • 进行一场激烈的争论
      • to carry on a spirited debate
      • 进行实地调查
      • to make an on-the-spot investigation
      • 进行科学实验
      • to engage in a scientific experiment
      • 进行核实验
      • to conduct a nuclear test
      • 进行表决
      • to put a question to vote
      • 进行亲切的谈话
      • to have a cordial conversation
      • 进行侵略
      • to commit aggression
      • 进行抵抗
      • to put up resistance
      • 进行协商
      • to hold consultation with
      • 进行攻击 to launch an attack
      • 对党员进行党的优良传统教育
      • to educate Party members in the Party’s fine tradition
      • 2. 汉语动词“ 取消 ”也是一个用途很广的词,但译成英语,也有不同的说法
      • 取消一次会议
      • to cancel ( call off ) a meeting
      • 取消会员资格
      • to deprive sb. of his membership
      • 取消决定
      • to rescind a decision
      • 取消禁令
      • to lift a ban
      • 取消诺言
      • to kill the promise
      • B .定语和中心词的搭配
      • 1 .下列搭配中,汉语的定语都是“ 大 ”
      • 大城市 a big city
      • 大雨 a heavy rain
      • 大志 a high ( lofty ) aim
      • 大宗 a large amount
      • 大人物 an important person
      • 大道理 general ( major ) principles
      • 2 .同样,汉语中“烈”字与不同中心词搭配
      • 烈风 strong gale
      • 烈日 burning sun
      • 烈火 raging fire ( flames )
      • 烈性子 fiery disposition
      • 练习
      • 翻译下列各句,注意词的选择和搭配:
      • 1 .我将就这个问题发表我的见解。
      • 2 .我心里总是想这个问题,他要这个干什么。
      • 3 .那要看情况如何。
      • 4 .这种情况必须改变。
      • 5 .他们的情况怎么样?
      • 6 .马克思主义是一切革命者都应该学习的科学。
      • 7 .学习别人的长处,克服自己的弱点。
      • 8 .他把全部书籍都献给了图书馆。
      • 9 .教师应当献身于教育事业。
      • 10 .该委员会由十五人组成。
      • 11 .空气是由多种气体混合组成的。
      • 19 .把自行车借给我骑一下好吗?
      • 13 .他靠信用借钱。
      • 14 .严格训练,严格要求。
      • II .增词法 ( Amplification )
      • Amplification , also called addition , means supplying necessary words in our translation on the basis of accurate comprehension of the original .
      • 1. Amplifying by Adding necessary Pronouns
      • · 大作收到十分高兴。
      • I was very glad to have received your writing.
      • · 没有调查研究就没有发言权。
      • He who makes no investigation and study has no right to speak.
      • · 交出翻译之前,必须读几遍,看看有没有要修改的地方。
      • Before handing in your translation , you have to read it over and over again and see if there is anything in it to be corrected or improved.
      • 2. Amplifying by Adding Necessary Articles
      • · 我们对问题要做全面的分析,才能解决得妥当。
      • We must make a comprehensive analysis of a problem before it can be properly solved .
      • · 耳朵是用来听声音的器官,鼻子用来嗅气味,舌头用来尝滋味。
      • The ear is the organ which is used for hearing. The nose is used for smelling. The tongue is used for tasting.
      • 3. Amplifying by Adding Necessary Connectives
      • · 老师在等我,我得走了。
      • The teacher is expecting me, so I must be off now.
      • · 虚心使人进步,骄傲使人落后。
      • Modesty helps one to go forward , whereas conceit makes one lag behind .
      • · 留得青山在,不怕没柴烧。
      • So long as green hills remain , there will never be a shortage of firewood.
      • 4. Amplifying by Adding Necessary Prepositions
      • · 咱们校门口见吧。
      • Let’s meet at the school gate
      • · 你是白天工作还是夜间工作?
      • Do you work in the day time or at night ?
      • · 该地区已没什么城乡差别。
      • There is little difference between town and country in this region.
      • 5 Amplifying by adding necessary background words
      • · 三个臭皮匠,赛过诸葛亮。
      • Three cobblers with their wits combined equal Zhuge Liang the master mind .
      • · 班门弄斧。
      • Showing off one’s proficiency with the ax before Lu Ban the master carpenter .
      • · 这真是俗话说的,“旁观者清”。
      • It is just as the proverb goes ,“ The onlooker sees most of the game .”
      • Exercise
      • Put the following sentences into English , paying attention to amplification.
      • 1 .清把这张表填一下,填完给我。
      • 2 .要提倡顾全大局。
      • 3 .吃饭防噎,走路防跌。
      • 4 .送君千里,终有一别。
      • 5 .一个篱笆三个桩,一个好汉三个帮。
      • 6 .大气寒冷,河水都结冰了。
      • 7 .前途是光明的,道路是曲折的。
      • 8 .理论联系实际,这是我们应当牢记的一条原则。
      • 9 .天气这样闷,十之八九要下雨。
      • 10 .他在战斗中表现突出,受到连长的表扬。
      • 11 .年满 18 岁的公民,都有选举权和被选举权。
      • 12 .他们患得患失,拒绝接受分配给他们的任务。
      • III .省 略 法 ( Omission )
      • Omission as a translation technique is also used in Chinese-English translation , and in most cases it is used to avoid unnecessary repetition . Omission in Chinese-English translation is generally employed in three circumstances: 1) redundant words ( 赘言 ) in original Chinese , such as unnecessary repetition and wordy expressions ( 冗词 ) ; 2) the original meaning that has already been implied in the context of the English version ; 3) the original meaning obviously shown in the English version without further elaboration. And the following are some typical examples .
      • 1. Omission of Redundant Words
      • · 质子带正电,电子带负电,而中子 既不带正电,也不带负电 。
      • A proton [  ] has a positive charge and an electron a negative charge , but a neutron has neither .
      • · 我已经提前完成了交给我的工作,他也提前完成了交给他的工作。
      • I have fulfilled my assigned work ahead of schedule , so has he.
      • ·
      • 我们说, 长征 是历史记录上的第一次, 长征 是宣言书. 长征 是宣传队, 长征 是播种机。
      • We answer that the Long March is the first of its kind in the annals of history , that it is a manifesto, a propaganda force, a seeding-machine.
      • 2. Omission of Words of Conceptual Category
      • Sometimes, omission is used in Chinese-English translation when the original Chinese indicates not a specific case but a conceptual category (概念范畴), especially such nouns as “ 任务、工作、情况、问题、事业、局面” and so on.
      • · 我们党结束了那个时期的社会动荡和纷扰不安的 局面 。
      • Our party has put an end to the social unrest and upheaval of that time.
      • · 这些都是人民内部矛盾 问题 。
      • Our party has put an end to the social unrest and upheaval of that time.
      • · 她的朋友们听到她家中的困难 情况 后,都主动伸出援助之手。
      • All these are contradictions among the people.
      • 3. Omission of Meticulous Description
      • Occasionally, omission is used for the sake of simplification, especially when the original Chinese is too meticulous in description:
      • · 二百公里航道上,遍布着无数险滩。险滩上, 江流汹涌,回旋激荡,水击礁石,浪花飞溅,声如雷鸣 。
      • Numerous shoals scattered over the 200 kms course give rise to many eddies. Pounding on the midstream rocks, the river roars thunderously.
      • ·
      • 花园里面是人间的乐园,有的是吃不了的 大米白面 ,穿不完的 绫罗绸缎 ,花不完的 金银财宝 。
      • The garden was a paradise on earth, with more food and clothes than could be consumed and more money than could be spent.
      • Exercise
      • Put the following sentences into English, using the technique of omission.
      • 1 .我们必须培养分析问题解决问题的能力。
      • 2 ,他一开口总是三句话不离本行。
      • 3 .每条河流都有上游、中游、下游。
      • 4 .多年来那个国家一直有严重的失业现象。
      • 5 .中国人民历来是勇于探索,勇于创造,勇于革命的。
      • 6 .人们利用科学去了解自然,改造自然。
      • 7 .他把事情一五一十地都给父母讲了。
      • 8 .新老干部要互相学习,互相帮助,取长补短。
      • 9 .我昨天没有进城,一来是因为天气不好,二来是我不舒服。
      • 10 .生也好,死也好,我们要忠于党,忠于人民,忠于祖国。
      • 11 .这些新型汽车速度快,效率高,行动灵活。
      • 12 .我厂生产的地毯图案新颖、色调雅致、美丽大方、富丽堂皇。