<ul><li>第三章  汉英翻译中的技巧运用 </li></ul><ul><li>I.  词的选择  ( Selection of Words ) </li></ul><ul><li>1 . 1  根据上下文选词   </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>3 .你做什么没关系,重要的问题是你怎么做。 </li></ul><ul><li>What you do does not matter. The important  thing  is how you do it. </li...
<ul><li>7 .一路上没出问题。 </li></ul><ul><li>The trip went off without mishap. </li></ul><ul><li>8 .生活中可写的东西是很多的,问题在于发掘和提炼。 </li>...
<ul><li>2 .小心不要打破鸡蛋。 </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful not to break the eggs. </li></ul><ul><li>3.  巡逻队必须小心,免遭敌人伏击。 </li></ul><...
<ul><li>3 .把某人搞掉。 </li></ul><ul><li>Put someone out of the way . </li></ul><ul><li>4 .此人专会暗中搞鬼。 </li></ul><ul><li>That man...
<ul><li>8 .这块地搞好了,每亩可收一千斤。 </li></ul><ul><li>If handled well, this plot can yield 1000  jin  per mu. </li></ul><ul><li>9 ....
<ul><li>13 .你最好耐心一些,否则会把事情搞僵了。 </li></ul><ul><li>You’d better be patient, or you might bring things to a deadlock. </li></...
<ul><li>17 .我们搞一点核武器完全为了自卫。 </li></ul><ul><li>It is purely for self-defense that we have produced some nuclear weapons. </...
<ul><li>进行社会主义革命 </li></ul><ul><li>to carry out socialist revolution </li></ul><ul><li>进行一场激烈的争论 </li></ul><ul><li>to carr...
<ul><li>进行表决 </li></ul><ul><li>to put a question to vote </li></ul><ul><li>进行亲切的谈话 </li></ul><ul><li>to have a cordial con...
<ul><li>进行攻击 to launch an attack </li></ul><ul><li>对党员进行党的优良传统教育 </li></ul><ul><li>to educate Party members in the Party’s...
<ul><li>取消禁令 </li></ul><ul><li>to lift a ban </li></ul><ul><li>取消诺言 </li></ul><ul><li>to kill the promise </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>大道理 general ( major ) principles </li></ul><ul><li>2 .同样,汉语中“烈”字与不同中心词搭配   </li></ul><ul><li>烈风 strong gale </li><...
<ul><li>练习 </li></ul><ul><li>翻译下列各句,注意词的选择和搭配: </li></ul><ul><li>1 .我将就这个问题发表我的见解。 </li></ul><ul><li>2 .我心里总是想这个问题,他要这个干什么...
<ul><li>10 .该委员会由十五人组成。 </li></ul><ul><li>11 .空气是由多种气体混合组成的。 </li></ul><ul><li>19 .把自行车借给我骑一下好吗? </li></ul><ul><li>13 .他靠信...
<ul><li>II .增词法  ( Amplification ) </li></ul><ul><li>Amplification , also called addition , means supplying necessary word...
<ul><li>· 交出翻译之前,必须读几遍,看看有没有要修改的地方。 </li></ul><ul><li>Before handing in your translation , you have to read it over and ov...
<ul><li>The ear is the organ which is used for hearing. The nose is used for smelling. The tongue is used for tasting. </l...
<ul><li>· 留得青山在,不怕没柴烧。  </li></ul><ul><li>So long as green hills remain , there will never be a shortage of firewood.  </l...
<ul><li>5 Amplifying by adding necessary background words </li></ul><ul><li>· 三个臭皮匠,赛过诸葛亮。  </li></ul><ul><li>Three cobble...
<ul><li>Exercise   </li></ul><ul><li>Put the following sentences into English , paying attention to amplification. </li></...
<ul><li>9 .天气这样闷,十之八九要下雨。 </li></ul><ul><li>10 .他在战斗中表现突出,受到连长的表扬。 </li></ul><ul><li>11 .年满 18 岁的公民,都有选举权和被选举权。 </li></ul>...
<ul><li>III .省 略 法 ( Omission ) </li></ul><ul><li>Omission as a translation technique is also used in Chinese-English tran...
<ul><li>1. Omission of Redundant Words </li></ul><ul><li>· 质子带正电,电子带负电,而中子 既不带正电,也不带负电 。  </li></ul><ul><li>A proton [ ...
<ul><li>我们说, 长征 是历史记录上的第一次, 长征 是宣言书. 长征 是宣传队, 长征 是播种机。  </li></ul><ul><li>We answer that the  Long March  is the first of ...
<ul><li>· 我们党结束了那个时期的社会动荡和纷扰不安的 局面 。 </li></ul><ul><li>Our party has put an end to the social unrest and upheaval of that ...
<ul><li>3. Omission of Meticulous Description </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally, omission is used for the sake of simplificat...
<ul><li>花园里面是人间的乐园,有的是吃不了的 大米白面 ,穿不完的 绫罗绸缎 ,花不完的 金银财宝 。 </li></ul><ul><li>The garden was a paradise on earth, with more fo...
<ul><li>4 .多年来那个国家一直有严重的失业现象。 </li></ul><ul><li>5 .中国人民历来是勇于探索,勇于创造,勇于革命的。 </li></ul><ul><li>6 .人们利用科学去了解自然,改造自然。 </li></u...
<ul><li>11 .这些新型汽车速度快,效率高,行动灵活。 </li></ul><ul><li>12 .我厂生产的地毯图案新颖、色调雅致、美丽大方、富丽堂皇。 </li></ul>
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  1. 1. <ul><li>第三章 汉英翻译中的技巧运用 </li></ul><ul><li>I. 词的选择 ( Selection of Words ) </li></ul><ul><li>1 . 1 根据上下文选词 </li></ul><ul><li>A .“问题”这个词,一般都认为它的英语对等词是 question 和 problem </li></ul><ul><li>1 .问题是到哪儿去找答案。 </li></ul><ul><li>The problem is where to find the answer. </li></ul><ul><li>2 .科学家必须知道怎样运用数学以求得对问题的准确答案。 </li></ul><ul><li>It is necessary that a scientist know how to use mathematics to get an accurate answer to his question . </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>3 .你做什么没关系,重要的问题是你怎么做。 </li></ul><ul><li>What you do does not matter. The important thing is how you do it. </li></ul><ul><li>4 .我不断参阅论述那些问题的著作。 </li></ul><ul><li>I have constantly referred to works dealing with those subjects . </li></ul><ul><li>5 .你会听到到处都在讨论这个问题。 </li></ul><ul><li>You’ll find the topic being discussed everywhere. </li></ul><ul><li>6 .那台车床出问题了。 </li></ul><ul><li>Something has gone wrong with that lathe. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>7 .一路上没出问题。 </li></ul><ul><li>The trip went off without mishap. </li></ul><ul><li>8 .生活中可写的东西是很多的,问题在于发掘和提炼。 </li></ul><ul><li>There are many things in life that one can write about, but the point is how to explore and select them. </li></ul><ul><li>B .“小心”这个词可根据不同的上下文译为 caution , careful , on one’s guard against , on the alert against… 等等。如: </li></ul><ul><li>1 .他做事极其小心。 </li></ul><ul><li>He did his work with great caution. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>2 .小心不要打破鸡蛋。 </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful not to break the eggs. </li></ul><ul><li>3. 巡逻队必须小心,免遭敌人伏击。 </li></ul><ul><li>The patrols must be on their guard against ( on the alert against ) the enemy’s ambush. </li></ul><ul><li>C .常用汉语动词“ 搞 ”在英语中根本就没有一个准确的对应词。 </li></ul><ul><li>1 .他-心要把对手 搞臭 。 </li></ul><ul><li>He is bent on discrediting his opponent. </li></ul><ul><li>2 .把你鞋子上的泥巴搞掉。 </li></ul><ul><li>Remove mud from your shoes . </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>3 .把某人搞掉。 </li></ul><ul><li>Put someone out of the way . </li></ul><ul><li>4 .此人专会暗中搞鬼。 </li></ul><ul><li>That man is good at scheming. </li></ul><ul><li>5 .搞好与邻居的关系。 </li></ul><ul><li>Foster good relations with with your neighbour. </li></ul><ul><li>6 .搞好救灾工作。 </li></ul><ul><li>Do a good job of disaster relief . </li></ul><ul><li>7 .这件事只能搞好,不能搞坏。 </li></ul><ul><li>You must make the thing a sure Success. It brooks no failure . </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>8 .这块地搞好了,每亩可收一千斤。 </li></ul><ul><li>If handled well, this plot can yield 1000 jin per mu. </li></ul><ul><li>9 .搞活企业。 </li></ul><ul><li>Rejuvenate an enterprise. </li></ul><ul><li>10 .实行对外开放,对内搞活的政策。 </li></ul><ul><li>Implement the policy of opening to the outside world and invigorating the domestic economy. </li></ul><ul><li>11 .大量的作业搞得我头昏脑涨。 </li></ul><ul><li>A great number of exercises make my head swim . </li></ul><ul><li>12 .他是搞法律的。 </li></ul><ul><li>He is in the law. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>13 .你最好耐心一些,否则会把事情搞僵了。 </li></ul><ul><li>You’d better be patient, or you might bring things to a deadlock. </li></ul><ul><li>14 .把这堆垃圾搞掉。 </li></ul><ul><li>Get rid of this rubbish dump . </li></ul><ul><li>15 .你到底搞什么鬼。 </li></ul><ul><li>What tricks are you playing after all ? </li></ul><ul><li>16 .这兄弟俩看起来很像,别把他们搞错了。 </li></ul><ul><li>The two brothers are very much alike. Don’t make one for the other. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>17 .我们搞一点核武器完全为了自卫。 </li></ul><ul><li>It is purely for self-defense that we have produced some nuclear weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>18 .搞好经济建设。 </li></ul><ul><li>Do well in economic construction. </li></ul><ul><li>1 . 2 根据词的搭配习惯选词 </li></ul><ul><li>A .动词和宾语的搭配 </li></ul><ul><li>1 .在汉语的动宾结构中,动词“ 进行 ”是一个用途很广的词,但译成英语,则有不同的说法。如: </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>进行社会主义革命 </li></ul><ul><li>to carry out socialist revolution </li></ul><ul><li>进行一场激烈的争论 </li></ul><ul><li>to carry on a spirited debate </li></ul><ul><li>进行实地调查 </li></ul><ul><li>to make an on-the-spot investigation </li></ul><ul><li>进行科学实验 </li></ul><ul><li>to engage in a scientific experiment </li></ul><ul><li>进行核实验 </li></ul><ul><li>to conduct a nuclear test </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>进行表决 </li></ul><ul><li>to put a question to vote </li></ul><ul><li>进行亲切的谈话 </li></ul><ul><li>to have a cordial conversation </li></ul><ul><li>进行侵略 </li></ul><ul><li>to commit aggression </li></ul><ul><li>进行抵抗 </li></ul><ul><li>to put up resistance </li></ul><ul><li>进行协商 </li></ul><ul><li>to hold consultation with </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>进行攻击 to launch an attack </li></ul><ul><li>对党员进行党的优良传统教育 </li></ul><ul><li>to educate Party members in the Party’s fine tradition </li></ul><ul><li>2. 汉语动词“ 取消 ”也是一个用途很广的词,但译成英语,也有不同的说法 </li></ul><ul><li>取消一次会议 </li></ul><ul><li>to cancel ( call off ) a meeting </li></ul><ul><li>取消会员资格 </li></ul><ul><li>to deprive sb. of his membership </li></ul><ul><li>取消决定 </li></ul><ul><li>to rescind a decision </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>取消禁令 </li></ul><ul><li>to lift a ban </li></ul><ul><li>取消诺言 </li></ul><ul><li>to kill the promise </li></ul><ul><li>B .定语和中心词的搭配 </li></ul><ul><li>1 .下列搭配中,汉语的定语都是“ 大 ” </li></ul><ul><li>大城市 a big city </li></ul><ul><li>大雨 a heavy rain </li></ul><ul><li>大志 a high ( lofty ) aim </li></ul><ul><li>大宗 a large amount </li></ul><ul><li>大人物 an important person </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>大道理 general ( major ) principles </li></ul><ul><li>2 .同样,汉语中“烈”字与不同中心词搭配 </li></ul><ul><li>烈风 strong gale </li></ul><ul><li>烈日 burning sun </li></ul><ul><li>烈火 raging fire ( flames ) </li></ul><ul><li>烈性子 fiery disposition </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>练习 </li></ul><ul><li>翻译下列各句,注意词的选择和搭配: </li></ul><ul><li>1 .我将就这个问题发表我的见解。 </li></ul><ul><li>2 .我心里总是想这个问题,他要这个干什么。 </li></ul><ul><li>3 .那要看情况如何。 </li></ul><ul><li>4 .这种情况必须改变。 </li></ul><ul><li>5 .他们的情况怎么样? </li></ul><ul><li>6 .马克思主义是一切革命者都应该学习的科学。 </li></ul><ul><li>7 .学习别人的长处,克服自己的弱点。 </li></ul><ul><li>8 .他把全部书籍都献给了图书馆。 </li></ul><ul><li>9 .教师应当献身于教育事业。 </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>10 .该委员会由十五人组成。 </li></ul><ul><li>11 .空气是由多种气体混合组成的。 </li></ul><ul><li>19 .把自行车借给我骑一下好吗? </li></ul><ul><li>13 .他靠信用借钱。 </li></ul><ul><li>14 .严格训练,严格要求。 </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>II .增词法 ( Amplification ) </li></ul><ul><li>Amplification , also called addition , means supplying necessary words in our translation on the basis of accurate comprehension of the original . </li></ul><ul><li>1. Amplifying by Adding necessary Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>· 大作收到十分高兴。 </li></ul><ul><li>I was very glad to have received your writing. </li></ul><ul><li>· 没有调查研究就没有发言权。 </li></ul><ul><li>He who makes no investigation and study has no right to speak. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>· 交出翻译之前,必须读几遍,看看有没有要修改的地方。 </li></ul><ul><li>Before handing in your translation , you have to read it over and over again and see if there is anything in it to be corrected or improved. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Amplifying by Adding Necessary Articles </li></ul><ul><li>· 我们对问题要做全面的分析,才能解决得妥当。 </li></ul><ul><li>We must make a comprehensive analysis of a problem before it can be properly solved . </li></ul><ul><li>· 耳朵是用来听声音的器官,鼻子用来嗅气味,舌头用来尝滋味。 </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>The ear is the organ which is used for hearing. The nose is used for smelling. The tongue is used for tasting. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Amplifying by Adding Necessary Connectives </li></ul><ul><li>· 老师在等我,我得走了。 </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher is expecting me, so I must be off now. </li></ul><ul><li>· 虚心使人进步,骄傲使人落后。 </li></ul><ul><li>Modesty helps one to go forward , whereas conceit makes one lag behind . </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>· 留得青山在,不怕没柴烧。 </li></ul><ul><li>So long as green hills remain , there will never be a shortage of firewood. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Amplifying by Adding Necessary Prepositions </li></ul><ul><li>· 咱们校门口见吧。 </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s meet at the school gate </li></ul><ul><li>· 你是白天工作还是夜间工作? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you work in the day time or at night ? </li></ul><ul><li>· 该地区已没什么城乡差别。 </li></ul><ul><li>There is little difference between town and country in this region. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>5 Amplifying by adding necessary background words </li></ul><ul><li>· 三个臭皮匠,赛过诸葛亮。 </li></ul><ul><li>Three cobblers with their wits combined equal Zhuge Liang the master mind . </li></ul><ul><li>· 班门弄斧。 </li></ul><ul><li>Showing off one’s proficiency with the ax before Lu Ban the master carpenter . </li></ul><ul><li>· 这真是俗话说的,“旁观者清”。 </li></ul><ul><li>It is just as the proverb goes ,“ The onlooker sees most of the game .” </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Put the following sentences into English , paying attention to amplification. </li></ul><ul><li>1 .清把这张表填一下,填完给我。 </li></ul><ul><li>2 .要提倡顾全大局。 </li></ul><ul><li>3 .吃饭防噎,走路防跌。 </li></ul><ul><li>4 .送君千里,终有一别。 </li></ul><ul><li>5 .一个篱笆三个桩,一个好汉三个帮。 </li></ul><ul><li>6 .大气寒冷,河水都结冰了。 </li></ul><ul><li>7 .前途是光明的,道路是曲折的。 </li></ul><ul><li>8 .理论联系实际,这是我们应当牢记的一条原则。 </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>9 .天气这样闷,十之八九要下雨。 </li></ul><ul><li>10 .他在战斗中表现突出,受到连长的表扬。 </li></ul><ul><li>11 .年满 18 岁的公民,都有选举权和被选举权。 </li></ul><ul><li>12 .他们患得患失,拒绝接受分配给他们的任务。 </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>III .省 略 法 ( Omission ) </li></ul><ul><li>Omission as a translation technique is also used in Chinese-English translation , and in most cases it is used to avoid unnecessary repetition . Omission in Chinese-English translation is generally employed in three circumstances: 1) redundant words ( 赘言 ) in original Chinese , such as unnecessary repetition and wordy expressions ( 冗词 ) ; 2) the original meaning that has already been implied in the context of the English version ; 3) the original meaning obviously shown in the English version without further elaboration. And the following are some typical examples . </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>1. Omission of Redundant Words </li></ul><ul><li>· 质子带正电,电子带负电,而中子 既不带正电,也不带负电 。 </li></ul><ul><li>A proton [  ] has a positive charge and an electron a negative charge , but a neutron has neither . </li></ul><ul><li>· 我已经提前完成了交给我的工作,他也提前完成了交给他的工作。 </li></ul><ul><li>I have fulfilled my assigned work ahead of schedule , so has he. </li></ul><ul><li>· </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>我们说, 长征 是历史记录上的第一次, 长征 是宣言书. 长征 是宣传队, 长征 是播种机。 </li></ul><ul><li>We answer that the Long March is the first of its kind in the annals of history , that it is a manifesto, a propaganda force, a seeding-machine. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Omission of Words of Conceptual Category </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes, omission is used in Chinese-English translation when the original Chinese indicates not a specific case but a conceptual category (概念范畴), especially such nouns as “ 任务、工作、情况、问题、事业、局面” and so on. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>· 我们党结束了那个时期的社会动荡和纷扰不安的 局面 。 </li></ul><ul><li>Our party has put an end to the social unrest and upheaval of that time. </li></ul><ul><li>· 这些都是人民内部矛盾 问题 。 </li></ul><ul><li>Our party has put an end to the social unrest and upheaval of that time. </li></ul><ul><li>· 她的朋友们听到她家中的困难 情况 后,都主动伸出援助之手。 </li></ul><ul><li>All these are contradictions among the people. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>3. Omission of Meticulous Description </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally, omission is used for the sake of simplification, especially when the original Chinese is too meticulous in description: </li></ul><ul><li>· 二百公里航道上,遍布着无数险滩。险滩上, 江流汹涌,回旋激荡,水击礁石,浪花飞溅,声如雷鸣 。 </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous shoals scattered over the 200 kms course give rise to many eddies. Pounding on the midstream rocks, the river roars thunderously. </li></ul><ul><li>· </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>花园里面是人间的乐园,有的是吃不了的 大米白面 ,穿不完的 绫罗绸缎 ,花不完的 金银财宝 。 </li></ul><ul><li>The garden was a paradise on earth, with more food and clothes than could be consumed and more money than could be spent. </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Put the following sentences into English, using the technique of omission. </li></ul><ul><li>1 .我们必须培养分析问题解决问题的能力。 </li></ul><ul><li>2 ,他一开口总是三句话不离本行。 </li></ul><ul><li>3 .每条河流都有上游、中游、下游。 </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>4 .多年来那个国家一直有严重的失业现象。 </li></ul><ul><li>5 .中国人民历来是勇于探索,勇于创造,勇于革命的。 </li></ul><ul><li>6 .人们利用科学去了解自然,改造自然。 </li></ul><ul><li>7 .他把事情一五一十地都给父母讲了。 </li></ul><ul><li>8 .新老干部要互相学习,互相帮助,取长补短。 </li></ul><ul><li>9 .我昨天没有进城,一来是因为天气不好,二来是我不舒服。 </li></ul><ul><li>10 .生也好,死也好,我们要忠于党,忠于人民,忠于祖国。 </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>11 .这些新型汽车速度快,效率高,行动灵活。 </li></ul><ul><li>12 .我厂生产的地毯图案新颖、色调雅致、美丽大方、富丽堂皇。 </li></ul>

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