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  • 1. Background information
  • 2. The origin of America Indians
    • Bering strait
    • Mongoloid
    • Maya civilization, the Aztec Empire, and the Inca Empire
  • 3. Highlands of Mexico Tropical rain forest of the Amazon Basin Grassy pampas of Argentina and frigid islands of southernmost Chile.
  • 4. Maya empire
    • Aztec civilization
  • 5. Inca empire
  • 6. The Theory of Diamond
    • Not will or intelligence, but is the result of a chain of developments
    • Guns Germs and Steel
    • Not the Determinism
  • 7. the North Americans
    • Native Americans in United States
    • Chief Seattle
  • 8. How can you sell or buy the sky The shining water that moves in streams and rivers is not just water but the blood of our ancestors. The waters murmur is the voice of my father’ father. The sight of your cities pains the eyes of the red man. But perhaps it is because the red man is a savage and does not understand. There is no quiet place in the white man’s cities . No place to hear the unfurling of leaves in spring, or the rustle of an insect’s wings. But perhaps it is because I am a savage and do not understand. The clatter only seems to insult the ears. And what is there to life a man cannot hear the lonely cry of a whippoorwill or the arguments of the frogs around a pond at night. I am a red man and do not understand. The Indian prefers the soft sound of the wind darting over the face of the pond, and the smell of the wind itself, cleaned by a middy rain, or scented with the pinon pine. The air is precious to the red man, for all things share the same breath – the beast, the tree, the man; they all share the same breath. The wind that gave our grandfather his first breath also receives his last sigh. Where is the thicket? Gone. Where is the land? Gone. The end of living is the beginning of survival.
  • 9. Some people hear their own inner voices; they live by what they hear. Such people become crazy or they become legend. ------Legend of Fall