3. CONSONANTS a consonant is a speech sound used with a vowel ordiphthong to constitute a syllable CONSONANT SOUND PRODUCTION Voiced sounds are pronounced with the vibration of the vocal cords Voiceless sounds pronounced without the vibration of the vocal cords
4. POINT OF ARTICULATION – refers to the upper parts of the mouth which thelowers parts (articulators) come in contact with the production of the consonantsoundBILABIAL – when the lower lip touches the upper lip to produce the consonantSound /p/, /b/, /m/ & /w/ LABIO-DENTAL – when the lower lip comes in contact with the upper front teeth /f/ & /v/DENTAL – when the lower teeth approach the upper teeth /θ/ & /ð/ALVEOLAR – when the tip of the tongue is raised close to the toothridge or theback of the upper front teeth /t/ & /d/POST ALVEOLAR – when the tip of the tongue is articulated against the back partof the alveolar ridge /r/
5. PALATAL – when the tongue is arched towards the hard palate /∫/VELARS – when the back of the tongue closes against the velum or soft palate /k/GLOTTAL – when friction is produced by the air passing through the glottis /h/
6. 1. STOPS – are produced by stopping the passage of the breath stream with a build up of pressure behind the closure before releasing the breath vl vdBilabial stops /p/ & /b/Alveolar stops /t/ & /d/Velar stops /k/ & /g/
7. 2. FRICATIVES – are continuants produced when the air stream isnot completely stopped but passes through with friction or a hissingsound vl vdLabiodental fricatives /f/ & /v/Dental fricatives /θ/ & /ð/Alveolar fricatives /s/ & /z/Post alveolar fricatives /r/Palatal fricatives /∫/ & /dz/Glottal fricatives /h/
8. 3. AFFRICATES – are produced when a stop combines with a fricative. Likefricatives, they are also continuants. They may be prolonged as long as the speakerwishes.Alveolar affricates /t∫/ & /dz/4. NASALS – are produced with the air stream passing through the nose ratherthan the mouth Bilabial nasal /m/ Alveolar nasal /n/ Velar nasal /ŋ /
9. 5. LATERAL – is produced when the air stream is stopped in the center by the tip ofthe tongue against the alveolar ridge, while the air passes along one or both sides ofthe tongueAlveolar lateral /l/6. SEMI-VOWELS – in their production, there is lack of friction and the sounds arevowel-like in their voicing but they function as consonantsBilabial /w/ - wear, win /wh/ - whyPalatal /y/ - new, view
10. THE ENGLISH VOWELSVowels are sounds which are produced with the vibration of air in the oral cavityAll vowel sounds are voiced oral soundsThe relationship of the vowels to one another is shown by the device known as theVietor Triangle
11. VIETOR TRIANGLE – is a vowel triangle which shows the differences among the vowel sounds inEnglish and their relative positions on the tongue-Contains two axes: a. horizontal axis – from front to back of the mouth (front, center, back) b. vertical axis – from the floor to the roof of the mouth (high, mid,low)
12. Lips loosely spread. Tongue lax with less tension than / i: / Example : BidLips loosely spread and slighly wider apart than / ɪ / Example : HeadOpen lip-rounding, wide open jaws, back of tongue low.Example : HotLips neutrally open and slightly wider apart than / e / Example : LambLips neutrally open. Open jaws. Centralized quality. Example : LoveLips loose, but closely rounded. Tongue not as tense as in / u: /. Example :GoodLips in neutral position. Centralized. Tongue slightly higher than in /ʌ /.Example : aboutLips spread. Tongue tense (front raised) with sides touching upper molars.Example : SeatLips neutrally open and jaws far apart. Centre toback of tongue fully open.Example : Heart
13. Medium lip rounding. Tongue drawn back making no contact with uppermolars. Example : FourLips neutrally spread. Tongue slightly higher than /ə / (no firm contactwith upper molars). Example : girlLips closely rounded. Back of tongue high. Tense compared with /ʊ /.Example : Shoe
14. THE FIRST THREE DIPHTHONGS have the vowel soundin "pit" or "if" as the FINISHING POSITION. To make this sound, your tongue has to be highand towards the front of your mouth and your lips kept relaxed. as in day, pay, say, lay. The starting position is /e/ with tongue in mid position at front of mouth as in "egg", "bed" or "Ted". Therefore you move the tongue up to make the diphthong. as in sky, buy, cry, tie. The starting position is /a/ , the same sound as in "car" or the noise "ah" which you make when you open your mouth at the dentists. To make the diphthong you need a big jaw movement, less opening as you move the tongue up and front. starting pas in boy, toy, coy or the first syllable of soya. The osition is the sound in "door" or "or". Your tongue needs to be low, but you need to pull it back and make your mouth round. To make the diphthong, you relax the lip rounding and move your tongue forward and up.
15. THE NEXT THREE DIPHTHONGS have the neutral "shwa" vowel soundwhich occurs in grunting noises and the weak forms of "the" and "a", as the FINISHINGPOSITION. To make the neutral vowel sound keep your tongue fixed in the centre of yourmouth, lips fairly relaxed and just grunt! as in beer (the drink), pier, hear. The starting position isas in "if" or "pit" with tongue front and high and lips relaxed. as in bear (the animal), pair and hair. The starting position is as in "egg" or "bed" with tongue in mid position at front of mouth. To make the diphthong, using a small controlled movement, pull your tongue slighty back from mid front to the mid central position in your mouth. as in "tour", "poor" (talking posh!) or the first syllable of "tourist". The starting position is with tongue pulled back but small mouth aperture as in "hook", "book" or "look".To make the diphthong, this time the small controlled tongue movement goes from the back postion to the mid central position, losing the lip rounding and relaxing your mouth from the tight starting position.
16. THE LAST TWO DIPHTHONGS have the back vowel(tongue pulled back but small tight mouth aperture as in "hook", "book" or "look") as theFINISHING POSITION. as in "oh", "no", "so" or "phone". The starting position is the neutral vowel sound, also known as "shwa“ which sounds like a grunt, as in the weak form of "the" or "a". To start in this way, the tongue should be fixed in mid centralposition in your mouth with lips relaxed. To make the diphthong, it is a short controlledmovement in the opposite direction of 5) above: from the centre to the back moving yourrelaxed lips into a tighter small round aperture. Your cheeks should move in a bit! as in all the words of "How now brown cow!". The starting position is the vowel sound as in "at" "bad" or "rat" with tongue front but also low(i.e. mouth open). To make the diphthong the journey for your tongue from front low (mouthvery open) to back high (small tight mouth aperture) is a very long excursion. Your jaw willmove a lot too.
17. A consonant cluster is a group or sequence of consonants that appear together in a syllablewithout a vowel between them, such as the /sp/ combination in speak, spot, or the /skr/combination in scrape, scream.Consonant Cluster : 1) s+ (initial) p,t,k,f,m,n,w,l,y,r / s:pre-initial/others :initial 2) s+other consonant s+ (post-initials) l,r,w,j =pre-initial+initial+post-initials The consonant clusters which constutute the coda are also not arbitrarily formed, they canbe described as:”any consonant except for h,r,w,j may be final consonant. There may be 2 kinds of FinalCluster : pre-final+final/final+post final, Pre-finals(m,n,nasal,l,s : bump,belt) / Post-finals (s, z,t, d, /q/ : bets,beds)”
18. The following worksheets and activities help with initial and final clusters.
19. Stress is defined as using more more muscular energy while articulating the words. Whena word or a syllable in word is produced louder, more lenghty, with higher pitch or withmore quality, it will be perceived as stressed. The prominence makes some syllables beperceived as stressed. Words including long vowels and diphthongs or ending with morethan 1 consonant are stronger, heavier and stressed. Rules of Word Stress in EnglishThere are two very simple rules about word stress:One word has only one stress. (One word cannot have two stresses. If you hear twostresses, you hear two words. Two stresses cannot be one word. It is true that there canbe a "secondary" stress in some words. But a secondary stress is much smaller than themain [primary] stress, and is only used in long words.)We can only stress vowels, not consonants.Here are some more, rather complicated, rules that can help you understand where to putthe stress. But do not rely on them too much, because there are many exceptions. It isbetter to try to "feel" the music of the language and to add the stress naturally.
20. 1. Stress on first syllable rule example Most 2-syllable nouns PRESent, EXport, CHIna, TAble Most 2-syllable adjectives PRESent, SLENder, CLEVer, HAPpy 2 Stress on last syllable rule example to preSENT, to exPORT, to deCIDE, Most 2-syllable verbs to beGINThere are many two-syllable words in English whose meaning and class change with achange in stress. The word present, for example is a two-syllable word. If we stress thefirst syllable, it is a noun (gift) or an adjective (opposite of absent). But if we stress thesecond syllable, it becomes a verb (to offer). More examples: the words export, import,contract and object can all be nouns or verbs depending on whether the stress is on thefirst or second syllable.
21. 3 Stress on penultimate syllable (penultimate = second from end)rule exampleWords ending in -ic GRAPHic, geoGRAPHic, geoLOGicWords ending in -sion and -tion teleVIsion, reveLAtionFor a few words, native English speakers dont always "agree" on where to put the stress. Forexample, some people say teleVIsion and others say TELevision. Another example is:CONtroversy and conTROversy.4 Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)rule example deMOcracy, dependaBIlity, phoTOgraphy,Words ending in -cy, -ty, -phy and -gy geOLogyWords ending in -al CRItical, geoLOGical
22. 5 Compound words (words with two parts)rule exampleFor compound nouns, the stress is on the BLACKbird, GREENhousefirst partFor compound adjectives, the stress is on the bad-TEMpered, old-FASHionedsecond partFor compound verbs, the stress is on the to underSTAND, to overFLOWsecond part