First, let’s remember that adjectives modify (or describe) nouns and pronouns. Example: Intelligent students understand adjectives.(The word "intelligent" is an adjectivebecause it describes the noun"students.")
But adjectives are not always single words.Sometimes they are clauses:Example: Students who are intelligent understandadjectives.(The adjective clause is underlined. It is an"adjective" clause because it describes the noun"students.")
Remember A clause is a group of related words with a subject and verb. Adjective clauses are always dependent clauses. Adjective clauses, like adverb clauses, are introduced by dependent signals.
If you find yourself not caring a hoot in a far countryabout that, just remember that there are only fivedependent signals which introduce adjective clauses.They are: Who Whom Whose Which That
Therefore, I call these little devils (sorry, I mean theserelative pronouns), double duty dependent signals. Again, the double duty dependent signals whichintroduce adjective clauses are: Who Whom Whose Which That
2. Relative clauseA relative clause is a kind of subordinate clause,one of whose arguments shares a referent with amain clause element on which the subordinateclause is grammatically dependent.
relative pronounexample who subject or object pronoun for people I told you about the woman who lives next door. which subject or object pronoun for animals and things Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof? which referring to a whole sentence He couldn’t read which surprised me.
whose possession for people animals and things Do you know the boy whose mother is a nurse? whom object pronoun for people, especially in non-definingrelative clauses (in defining relative clauses we colloquiallyprefer who) I was invited by the professor whom I met at theconference. that subject or object pronoun for people, animals andthings in defining relative clauses (who or which are alsopossible) I don’t like the table that stands in the kitchen.
Relative Adverbs A relative adverb can be used instead of a relative pronoun pluspreposition. This often makes the sentence easier to understand.This is the shop in which I bought my bike.→ This is the shop where I bought my bike.relative adverbo when Meaning : in/on which use : refers to a time expression Example : day when we met himo where Meaning : in/on which use : refers to a place Example : the place where we met himo why Meaning : for which use : refers to a reason Example : the reason why we met him