Want to distinguish between all of social media and out focus here today, which will be social networking, specifcallyWe’ve only chosen to look at the big 3 here—FB, Twitter, and Youtube, but I believe the message along with the tools, techniques, and resources can be applied to other social media and social networking sites
So, let’s start with some numbers to put things in perspective here…US Census Bureau—50 million people have a disability With these disabilities of course come extreme difficulty in mobility, getting from place to place, independently caring for themselves and other day to day struggles. I would argue that it is precisely people in these groups who might benefit from social media networking technologies—especially when libraries are using them to connect programs, services, resources to those they serve—specifically those that may not be able to visit the library regularly, if the social media were easier to use and more accessible.As the baby boomer population ages, there will be an even greater need to make these technologies accessible
Lots of Law that has been passed to ensure people with disabilities have access to resources, facilities, and information
What are we talking about when we talk about accessibility?Specifically accessibility as defined under Section 508 of the 1998 ADA rehabilitation & disability act---Section 508 (which provides guidelines and requirements that ensure federally acquired or developed resources are accessible to federal employees with a disability, specifically the amended version of 1998, which includes electronic information from documents to multi-media to websites, and more.
but what does 508 say about accessibility of social media—specifically social networking sites?Answer—Not really anything, specifically, but the guidelines provided for website usability and electronic document access are great places to start, when identifying guidelines to use when creating content that may be consumed and used by a person with a disability—one perhaps using assistive technology, like a screen reader to interpret the information
Ok, some more perspective……more numbers,,,,,At the same time, social media use continues to grow and with that trend, libraries Increase in use of social networking sites among individuals and organizations such as librariesSource:Social Media, Libraries, and Web 2.0: How American Libraries Are Using New Tools for Public Relations and to Attract New Users — Fourth Annual Survey, November 2011 (PDF).Columbia, S.C., South Carolina State Library, 2012.
Libraries use social media for a wide variety of functions…(read slides)Social Media, Libraries, and Web 2.0: How American Libraries are Using New Tools for Public Relations and to Attract New Users – Fourth Annual Survey November 2011
But, what happens when visually, hearing, learning impaired individuals attempt to connect with their library via social media?
What are some of the barriers? Many have to do with the site’s incompatibility with the assistive technologies, users continue to encounter issues…includingAbilityNet.com Social Networking Sites Block Out Users, 1/18/08 http://www.abilitynet.org.uk/docs/enation/2008SocialNetworkingSites.pdf
Mobile site can be visually easier and works better with screen readersFacely is an app to make Facebook more accessible to impaired individuals. We can certainly suggest the application to impaired users asking about easier access to our social media channels. Charactersitics which make it easier to use and more accessible….
I’ve also got several of the Twitter Apps and Facely installed on my iPad, if anyone wants to check out the interface
Reminder about sign-in sheet, evaluation forms
Accessible Social Media: SocialNetworking to Reach All Users Andrew Youngkin, MLS Emerging Technologies/Evaluation Coordinator NNLM-SE/A University of Maryland, Baltimore Health Sciences & Human Services Library
Overview• Disabled users of social networking sites Facebook, Twitter, & YouTube encounter usability barriers, discouraging use, attainment of benefits• Techniques can help make social media content more accessible• Specific tools, sites, and apps available to help disabled users better access social networking sites• Libraries might enhance the effectiveness of social networking efforts by using techniques and sharing tools that allow this content to be more accessible and more inclusive
Disabled Users• 28,000,000 (10% of the population) are deaf or hearing impaired.• 11,500,000 people have visual conditions not correctable by glasses.• 6,400,000 new cases of eye diseases occur each year.• 2,800,000 people are visually handicapped from color blindness.• 1,100,000 people are legally blind.
Accessibility Law• Laws to ensure persons with disabilities have access to services and resources• Americans with Disabilities Act• Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA)• Rehabilitation Act (1973, Amended 1998)
Accessibility Defined• Accessibility Law includes a lot – Restrooms, telephones, building access• Section 508 of the 1998 (amended version) Rehabilitation Act – Electronic information (websites, documents, media, etc.
Section 508 & Social Networking• Section 508 Lacks Social Media-Specific Guidance• Guidelines regarding website usability/accessibility helpful starting points
Uses in Libraries• “reminder of special resources available to academic community”• tool for “reference transactions, receiving/resolving complaints, building community.”• “technical instruction/how-to at the library/Skype with authors,”• “recruiting and managing volunteers.”• tool to connect with others around a hobby and interest.
User Disparities• Disabled users have been shown to use social media less because of the barriers it poses• Disabled users, though more willing and in better position benefit from social networking, will not have opportunity
Barriers Persist in Social Networking• CAPTCHA• Non-Mouse Users difficulty with quickly skipping main menu (via Tab), moving on to page content• Non-Mouse Users get no indication of linked content displayed only when mouse overs over page terms• Non-compatibility between screen readers and powerful scripting used by sites to perform complex actions such as “adding friends”, watching video, listening to music.• Java requirement (difficulty, compatibility with screen readers)• Important links are graphic-only with no text alternative, without option to alter color/size• Graphics lacking description
Provide Captions/Descriptions• YouTube offers Closed Captioning service options for Videos (Do it Yourself or Automated services available)• Caption videos with YouTube prior to sharing on Facebook, Twitter• Add descriptions to photos so that information will be read by screen readers
Suggest 3rd Party Sites, Apps• Mobile Sites (Facebook)• Twitterific, Tweetero• Easy Chirp (Twitter)• Facely (Facebook)• Keyboard friendly interfaces to Youtube (Easy Youtube, Accessible Youtube)
Seek FAQS, Help, Tutorials• YouTube Accessibility section, tutorials• Join/Follow/Friend accessibility• Twitter Help provides tutorials on using features• Facebook Accessibility Help page• Contact sites directly
Additionally• Make content accessible in other forms/other places• Advertise suggested tools that help disabled users access your social networking content• Avoid social networking sites if detriments of accessibility barriers outweigh benefits for users
Take Aways• Be aware of access needs of persons with disabilities• Apply content development techniques when using social networking sites (captions, descriptions) to ease access• Consider/choose/monitor accessibility of sites to decide appropriateness for your audience• Suggest/Promote 3rd party sites that make social networking content more accessible for users
References• Pew Internet & American Life Project. Why Americans use social media. By Aaron Smith, Senior Research Specialist. 11/14/2011.• Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act (29 U.S.C. 794d), as amended by the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (P.L.105-220), August 7, 1998.• Social Media, Libraries, and Web 2.0: How American Libraries Are Using New Tools for Public Relations and to Attract New Users — Fourth Annual Survey, November 2011 (PDF). Columbia, S.C., South Carolina State Library, 2012.• Prepare now for 508 web-compliance changes - FierceGovernmentIT http://www.fiercegovernmentit.com/story/prepare-now-508-web-compliance- changes/2010-04-29#ixzz24i2ZEF17• www.wave.webaim.org• http://www.visionaustralia.org.au/ais/toolbar/• http://www.practicalecommerce.com/articles/1581-Accessibility-and-Social-Media• http://www.facebook.com/help/accessibility• http://www.w3.org/WAI/• Sociability: Social Media for People with a disability. Media Access Australia (MAA), http://www.mediaaccess.org.au/sites/default/files/files/MAA2657-%20Report-OnlineVersion.pdf• Youtube statisics http://www.youtube.com/t/press_statistics• Twitter statistics http://www.youtube.com/t/press_statistics• Facebook statistics http://newsroom.fb.com/• Jaeger, Paul T. & Xie, Bo (2009). “Developing Online Community Accessibility Guidelines for Persons with Disabilities and Older Adults. Journal of Disability Policy Studies.• Ellis, Katie & Kent, Mike (2010). “ Tweeters Take Responsibility for an Accessible Web 2.0”. Fast Capitalism.• AbilityNet.com Social Networking Sites Block Out Users, 1/18/08. http://www.abilitynet.org.uk/docs/enation/2008SocialNetworkingSites.pdf• Brown, Andy et al. (2011). The Uptake of Web 2.0 technologies, and its impact on visually disabled users”.• Web Accessibility Testing Tools.Oz: The blog of Glenda Sims, The Good Witch. http://www.glendathegood.com/blog/?p=730• Media Access Australia—Twitter. http://www.mediaaccess.org.au/online-media/social-media/twitter• Media Access Australia—Facebook. http://www.mediaaccess.org.au/online-media/social-media/facebook• AppleVis accessible apps: www.applevis.com• Twitter help centrer support.twitter.com/• Contact Twitter: twitter.com/about/contact• Media Access Australia—Youtube. http://www.mediaaccess.org.au/online-media/social-media/youtube
ContactAndrew YoungkinUniversity of Maryland, BaltimoreHealth Sciences & Human Services LibraryNNLM, SE/A, Suite 508601 West Lombard StreetBaltimore, Maryland 21201800.338.7657 (in region)410.706.2855Email: email@example.comSkype: andrew.youngkin1SlideShare:Web: www.nnlm.gov/sea