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EdWeb Analysis & Design Documentation

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  • 1. EdWeb Analysis and Design Document ~Ann Younce General EdWeb description: to prepare elementary educators for (1) effective science lab instruction, and (2) to provide successful implementation strategies for hands-on inquiry and technology integration. (School Description: college prep, independent day school, PreK-12) -Analysis- I. Instructional Setting: 1. What is the instructional need or opportunity? What business or learning problem needs to be addressed? The instructional need/opportunity is three-fold for teachers: (1) need to utilize successful “science lab” management techniques in PreK-4 , (2) in need of high-quality resources and materials, and (3) need to increase skill/comfort level with both science and technology integration. *I have decided to scale back my initial goals; the original objectives were too 2. Why is it important to address this instructional need or opportunity? What will happen if you do not address it? Need is based on recent teacher/administration input. As a result, science will become a curricular “area of focus” in the next school year. PreK-4 teachers need to increase skill and comfort level teaching and integrating science, as well as identifying and designing hi-quality resources and materials. The construction (and costs) of a new science lab in the next two years increases the possibility that teachers will bring their own classrooms to the lab (rather than the addition one science instructor at the primary level). Administration also expresses an interest in teachers to increase skill and comfort level with technology, specifically online learning. 3. Assuming this instruction is online, what hardware and software (including access speeds and browsers) do potential learners have? The school has three computer labs on campus, laptop carts, and teachers have individual computers in their classrooms (as well as web-based access from home). The school runs a PC- based platform, with hi-speed cable and wireless Internet access. The school’s productivity software is MS Office and the primary browser is Internet Explorer. 4. Why did you decide to deliver this instruction online? What are the benefits and potential drawbacks of that decision? Primarily, I made the decision based on the need of a colleague - who recently took a new position as a Lower School Head (at a school located in South Carolina; while I am located in Colorado). We have planned/delivered staff development together in the past, and she requested my assistance based on my science and technology background. (We thought this would be the perfect opportunity for me to begin my entry into eLearning design, by creating something basic EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 1 of 41
  • 2. for first-time online learners while maintaining a “safe” learning environment for me to take risks in!) Potential drawbacks, of course, are (1) proximity and that (2) I am not familiar with the school or its teachers, so I will work closely with my colleague to mine the necessary demographic data. (3) An additional drawback has surfaced; general teacher unwillingness toward recognizing the need for best practice within a “professional learning community” and for professional growth. The administrator has recently indicated that the teaching staff is somewhat resistant to accepting the challenge to learn about best practice. Many seem to believe that “how they’ve always done it” is good enough. This may become problematic when trying to get the teachers to buy-in to the concept of this online “course”. First, because it is delivered in a way that is “non-traditional” to them. Secondly, the resistance to “change” may become an obstacle itself – so I will have to work that much harder in my design to be “user-friendly” and simplified. 5. Will this be a self-paced, online course or a group-paced, online course? What is your rationale for that decision? This EdWeb will be a self-paced, online “mini-course” (initially, a group of lessons that someday may be compiled for a more full course. See section IV, #2). My rationale for this decision is that the learners (PK-4 teachers) and their administrator are all new to online learning. Time is a valuable commodity in a school setting, and a learning opportunity such as this (or any professional development really) is much more appealing to teachers when they can complete it own their own schedule. That may be during the designated staff development times on campus, or during a free planning period, or during vacation or summer break, or from home. This offers a level of convenience to over-burdened teachers, and I have also found staff development opportunities to be much more successful when learning options are given. Many teachers also tend to be the “last” ones to accept “change” in their routines. So, by offering options where a teacher may choose to learn independently (from home or work), or work together as part of “Community of Practice” or learning cohort (either as a grade level team, or even as part of a lower school study group) to accomplish this goal, we create a level of safety and collaboration for those who wish it. To clarify: Each teacher will learn independently; although, to have the support of a group, they can approach this EdWeb in a collaborative learning community environment, members of the group will be experiencing similar learning, while maintaining individual outcomes. The importance of asynchronous learning in this situation is that teachers (who already have assemblies, special school projects, additional duties, grading and report periods, etc. beyond their normal day) will view this less as “one more thing on their plate” if the timing and pace are individualized and learner-led. Many are non-science teachers, in addition to being new to online learning of any kind, and this venue of instruction will serve as “just-in-time” learning as changes are made in the science curriculum and the incorporation of a new science lab/classroom. 6. Who are the stakeholders? In this school (a K-12 setting) the immediate stakeholders (for whom the learning is intended) are the PK-4 teachers and their administrator. (Other schoolwide stakeholders can include the rest of the administration and faculty, trustees, community partners and alumni, parents, and ultimately, the students who will directly benefit from teacher training). 7. What other instructional context issues, challenges or problems are important in this situation? EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 2 of 41
  • 3. The fact that my colleague is so new to this school environment may produce unexpected changes or issues as she navigates the school year for the first time in this new school as a Lower School administrator. Also, I might anticipate a few conflicts designing something for users at such a great proximity from my home, although regular communication should suffice in this particular instance. In addition, the school is presently conducting a new Head of School search, so there may be changes down the road (as far as support) between the current interim Head and the future Head of School. II. Goals and Outcomes: 1. What do each group of stakeholders need to see to consider this instruction successful? (based on the primary group of stakeholders: PK-4 teachers and Lower School Administrator)… the rest of the stakeholders will benefit from satisfaction of these two. Teachers: (1) Increase in understanding of/access to high-quality resources/materials (both acquired and teacher-designed)… (see indicators below) (2) Increased teacher comfort and skill in successful lab management and integrating science and technology… (3) Increase in student learning…(see indicators below) Administrator: (1) School (and state) science standards and national (NSTA) competencies are met/exceeded… (2) Increase in student learning…(see indicators below) (3) Increase in teacher proficiency…(see indicators below) (4) Favorable perception of science instruction among stakeholders…(see indicators below) 2. What indicators will you use to determine if the instruction meets the desired outcomes of each group of stakeholders? How will you measure? Do you need to collect baseline data? Teachers: (1) … as measured by increased use and larger collection of high-quality resources and materials (2) …as measured by as measured by increased use of multiple strategies for successful lab management and inquiry ; increased use of technology, and teacher perception (3) …as measured by increased student performance in science (grade reporting, additional assessments, and student perception) Administrator: (1) …as measured by curriculum mapping and standards satisfaction (2) … as measured by increased student performance in science (grade reporting, additional assessments, observations, student/teacher perception, and growth in teacher reflective practice) (3) …as measured by stakeholder perception survey Broad baseline data will need to be collected for:  Current types of resources and materials used (materials lists by grade level; lists of textbooks used; lab equipment inventory); prior knowledge (lists of past training offerings- in related areas) EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 3 of 41
  • 4.  Current teacher perception data (comfort/skill levels) in science lab management and integration of technology  Current student performance (standardized assessment reports) and perception data (preliminary survey)  Current curriculum mapping data and unit planner data  National, state, school standards (if different), benchmarks and competencies (student/ teacher- professional standards)… I can collect these independently from the school To collect broad baseline data, I will have ongoing discussions with the school administrator, as well as conducting some independent investigation through information gleaned from the school website, collateral materials used for institutional advancement, curriculum mapping documentation, and similar school reporting. The types of data (especially those gathered through survey) need to be carefully addressed and administered – so as not to overwhelm participants or confuse them this early on (they probably won’t know about this training opportunity until planning is complete for staff development scheduling for next school year – and may not even be introduced to it until after school has begun in the fall). I also want to be sure to be minimally invasive, so as not to take attention away from day-to-day issues or create an unnecessary burden for teachers (or the administrator at the “peak stress” time of the year) 3. What other outcomes do you need to measure? TBD…. III. Learner Needs and Characteristics: 1. What are the demographics of the learners? a. Age range? Adult learners (teachers) who are currently teaching students of PreK-4 grades (ages 3 to 11 years). The adult learner age range is approximately 22 to 70 years. It usually represents about four generations (see comments in “Design” section VII, # 8a ). b. Education levels and/or types of college degrees? 100% have minimum of one BA or BS degree (in education) and applicable teaching credential/license; 50% have one MA or MS degree (in education or related) c. Other important demographics? Approximate number of learners is 30 Additional data: 95% female teachers; 85% of students scored in top 15% of national standardized testing; school diversity 80% Caucasian; More data is needed on % technology use; # years teaching (and # years teaching at current grade level); % with science or technology backgrounds; language barriers; multiple intelligence preferences (teachers and students)…. TBD Ongoing communication and work with the school administrator should help to set the goal: to gather most of the related demographic data by the end of the current school year - or into the beginning of summer, when much of the following year’s planning and prep takes place (and to adjust for new staffing). EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 4 of 41
  • 5. 2. Prior experiences with this content or related areas? Most are non-science teachers (at minimum, teaching integrated science as one of the core subjects in a self-contained primary/elementary classroom)… Most are novice technology users……Would need to determine # of years teaching, # of years teaching at current grade level, and prior experience in either science or technology. 3. What are the technology skills of the learners? a. Approximately what percentage of learners have taken online instruction before? Minimal…..TBD….. Ongoing communication and work with the school administrator should help to set the goal: to gather most of the related demographic data by the end of the current school year - or into the beginning of summer, when much of the following year’s planning and prep takes place (and to adjust for new staffing). b. Do the learners have the needed technology skills? As stated above, technology skills are minimal… would have to collect specific skill data (from a web-based technology proficiency tool that the school plans to utilize at some point in the near future- or at the start of next school year) 4. What are the learning styles and skills of the learners? a. Generally, what are the learning styles of your learners? If you have no idea, how/where can you find that information? I have not met these specific learners….. I will have to rely on assistance from their administrator (my colleague)… Their administrator hopes to have teachers complete a general “multiple intelligence” inventory and “learning styles” survey at some point in the near future…. TBD Ongoing communication and work with the school administrator should help to set the goal: to gather most of the related demographic data by the end of the current school year - or into the beginning of summer, when much of the following year’s planning and prep takes place (and to adjust for new staffing). b. Do they have self-directed learning skills? Yes, as evidenced in prior professional development, credentialing coursework, degree success. (Self-directed online as novices may be another story…?) c. What other learning styles or skills issues are important to consider for the design of this instruction? As previously mentioned this would entail prior technology and online learning experiences… prior knowledge of elementary science……. yet TBD… although there has been some indication on the part of the administrator to a general resistance to “professional learning communities” and “professional growth” as far as reflective practice. So, accurate pre-assessment may be difficult. EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 5 of 41
  • 6. 5. What are the reading skills/level of the learners? Teachers; reading level should already be at/above proficiency; I will need to research this further; I would assume it will be whatever the “average” reading level for the adult learner is - I am not well-versed in literacy training as it is for K-12, much less adult learners, so further investigation is necessary –I guess 10th grade if that’s the average adult level?? 6. What are the expectations and/or assumptions your learners have about instruction and/or this topic? a. Do they have a positive attitude toward instruction? Many do; the teachers themselves requested assistance in science and technology integration and resource acquisition, thus the curriculum mandate, and so the interest is already there for most. (It is anticipated that some will see this instruction as “being added to their plate” regardless of the flexibility of choices, but they realize it’s necessary… whether or not their administrator will make this optional or mandatory over a certain time frame has yet to be determined. Knowing her and her staff development methods as I do, I suspect that it will be optional). All current indications definitely point to “optional” at this time b. Do they have a positive attitude toward this topic? See “a” above… and there’s been a lot of resistance to reflective practice c. What do they want or expect from instruction? They wish to (1) be able to recognize, acquire and utilize high-quality science resources; (2) integrate inquiry-based science and related technology; (3) become more comfortable teaching science (especially in a lab-type environment) 7. What are the incentives and disincentives for learners to successfully complete this instruction? a. Will learners take this instruction in their free time or as part of a class or part of their regular work hours? (As repeated from section I. part 5, including changes): This will be self-paced and available to teachers when they can complete it own their own schedule. That may be during the designated staff development times on campus, or during a free planning period, or during vacation or summer break, or from home. This offers a level of convenience to over-burdened teachers, and I have also found staff development opportunities to be much more successful when learning options are given. Many teachers also tend to be the “last” ones to accept “change” in their routines. So, by offering options where a teacher may choose to learn independently (from home or work), or work together as part of a “Community of Practice” or learning cohort (either as a grade level team, or even as part of a lower school study group) to accomplish this goal, we create a level of safety and collaboration for those who wish it. To clarify: Each teacher will learn independently; EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 6 of 41
  • 7. although, to have the support of a group, they can approach this EdWeb in a collaborative learning community environment, members of the group are experiencing similar learning, while maintaining individual outcomes. The importance of asynchronous learning in this situation is that teachers (who already have assemblies, special school projects, additional duties, grading and report periods, etc. beyond their normal day) will view this less as “one more thing on their plate” if the timing and pace are individualized and learner-led. b. Do learners need the instructional information? Do they get rewarded for using it? It has been identified as a “need” by the teachers themselves, and identified as an “online need” by their administrator. It will probably be made optional by their administrator, although it is too early to tell (most definitely will remain optional)….. As for a reward, I still need to investigate whether or not professional development is directly linked to salary column advances, or whether this will be considered for “credit”….. TBD. To clarify: I don’t mean college credit here. Some schools/districts use their own in-house “point system” for professional development (in addition to actual college credit opportunities) when determining reward. For example, “x” amount of in- house training hours = 1 C.U. worth of points. Usually, college credits far outweigh a school’s internal point system for determining salary bumps. I suspect that there is neither an in-house point system in place, nor will the administrator be prepared to offer this for college credit. It will probably be more of a staff development “science club” atmosphere, where regular meetings/training and independent work will yield an in-house training certificate…. (See number of learners listed in section III, 1c ) 8. What other learner needs or characteristics are important and/or relevant to this project? TBD…. IV. Instructional Content: 1. What do the learners already know about the topic? According to their administrator, most are non-science elementary teachers. They have mostly taught science as one of several core subjects in a self-contained elementary classroom, which would be basic science concepts delivered in thematic instruction. Few are familiar with teaching in a “shared lab” approach. 2. What is the scope of this instructional product? If it is more than one lesson, list the topics you plan to cover. This EdWeb will be a self-paced, online “mini-course” (initially, a group of lessons that may eventually be compiled toward a full course. See section I, #5) for “just-in-time” learning. The topics to be covered are:  Hands-on science & technology integration, and successful lab management  Locating & utilizing high-quality resources and materials  Utilizing science apparatus and tools in a lab/classroom setting  Best practice and strategies EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 7 of 41
  • 8. *this EdWeb has been recently streamlined and scaled back to be more realistic for a first EdWeb attempt. Thus, the concepts of “differentiation” and “inquiry-based lesson design” will have to be applied at another time for a future component. 3. What are the learning objectives for the instruction? (not yet in any particular order) See “Design” section VI, #7 for re-ordering and more detailed objectives The elementary teacher will be able to: a. …identify quality science/technology resources and sites for integration into hands-on lessons, given clear evaluation guidelines. b. …evaluate the use of various apparatus and materials for differentiated labs and centers, given effective guidelines and descriptors. Tentative apparatus/tool listing: microscope, slides & coverslips, heat source, compass, balance, thermometer, spring scale, simple machines, dissection kit, apparatus components (base, rod, ring stand, clamps), magnets, glassware (falsk, beaker, test tube, graduated cylinder), holders/stoppers/racks, dropper/pipette, magnifying glass, petri dish, lenses & mirrors (convex, concave), Periodic Table, pulley c. …design a lab-based lesson/activity to share with colleagues and contribute to lab collection, given strategies for inquiry-based lesson development. (see section II) d. …acquire and assemble inquiry-based resources to contribute to lessons and unit planners, given materials and tools selection strategies. e. …demonstrate effective use of science apparatus and tools, given lab use manual and guidelines. f. …utilize best practices for hands-on science and technology integration, given effective strategies and tools. The givens (or job aids) will be the following:  Resource selection/evaluation guidelines  Sample strategies (classroom management, inquiry, lessons, labs)  Activity design strategies and planning template  Tools/apparatus descriptors and usage  Lab use manual There will be a glossary, reference, resource section on the EdWeb where these and other similar items can be downloaded 4. For each learning objective, describe how you will measure students’ mastery of that objective. See “Design” section VI, #7 for re-ordering and more detailed objectives a. … as measured by identification and justification of resource selection to align with guidelines 20 (min. of 2 from each of 10 categories given) b. … as measured by evaluation/critique of apparatus/materials for effective use at differentiation levels to align with guidelines and objectives 22 of 30 (approx. 70%) (see tentative apparatus/tool listing above) c. …as measured by effective design of inquiry-based lesson/activity (per design guidelines) EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 8 of 41
  • 9. d. …as measured by effective collection (min. # of contributions to a class resource wiki- probably 2 contributions for each of 6 categories) of resources and tools for inquiry e. …as measured by demonstration of mastery of apparatus/tool per task guidelines Different tools will be simulated (or actually used with school equipment); Approximately 10 of the most common items: microscope, compass, balance, spring scale, thermometer, simple machines, dissection kit, magnets, apparatus assembly f. …as measured by effective inquiry-based activity design, demonstrating class management strategies (*for differentiation) *This will be a change – dropping the focus on differentiation for now, and going with simple hands-on activity design. Activity design measurement will utilize: brief lesson plan protocols (parts of the lesson plan); indicators; objectives (3 components), inquiry (templates), hands-on qualities, and effective use of materials. Class management measurement will utilize: criteria for best practice (science guidelines), brain-based strategies (collaboration, responsive classroom, and movement with purpose), hands-on lab set-up, and manipulatives. 5. Complete the following table to indicate how your objectives and your measurement of those objectives fit with the needs of your stakeholders. Name of stakeholder group Results stakeholders need to see Indicators the instruction achieved the stakeholder results Objectives that align with these results and indicators (1) Increase in understanding of/access to high-quality resources/materials (both acquired and teacher- designed)… (1) … as measured by increased use and larger collection of high-quality resources and materials …(a) identify quality science/technology resources and sites for integration into hands-on lessons, given clear evaluation guidelines. …(d) acquire and assemble inquiry- based resources to contribute to lessons and unit planners, given materials and tools selection strategies PreK-4 Teachers (2) Increased teacher comfort and skill in integrating science and technology… (2) …as measured by increased use of hands-on activities, technology, and teacher perception …(b) evaluate the use of various apparatus and materials for differentiated labs and centers, given effective guidelines and descriptors. …(c) design a hands- on lesson/activity to EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 9 of 41
  • 10. share with colleagues and contribute to lab collection, given strategies for inquiry- based lesson development. (3) Increase in student learning… (3) …as measured by increased student performance in science (grade reporting, additional assessments, and student perception) (all objectives contribute) Lower School Administrator (1) School (and state) science standards and national (NSTA) competencies are met/exceeded (1) …as measured by curriculum mapping and standards satisfaction …(c) design a hands- on lesson/activity to share with colleagues and contribute to lab collection, given strategies for inquiry- based lesson development. …(f) utilize best practices for hands- on science and technology integration, given effective strategies and tools. … (2) Increase in student learning…(see indicators below) (2) … as measured by increased student performance in science (grade reporting, additional assessments, and student perception) (all objectives contribute) (3) Increase in teacher proficiency…(see indicators below) (3) …as measured by student performance in science (grade reporting, additional assessments, observations, and student/teacher perception) (all objectives contribute) (4) Favorable perception of science instruction among stakeholders…(see indicators below) (4) … as measured by stakeholder perception survey …(a) identify quality science/technology resources and sites for integration into hands-on lessons, given clear evaluation EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 10 of 41
  • 11. guidelines. …(c) design a hands- on lesson/activity to share with colleagues and contribute to lab collection, given strategies for inquiry- based lesson development. …(f) utilize best practices for hands- on science and technology integration, given effective strategies and tools. (Rest of administration, faculty, community partners, alumni, parents & students) (all objectives contribute) - happy, productive kids; increased use of quality science resources’ increased “lab” time; increased community partner opportunities If interest becomes a “problem”, management strategies such as maximizing space and shared resources can be addressed at that time, In addition: teaching science in classrooms, lab, “anywhere”; utilizing teachable moments and mobile carts can be addressed. Increased comfort levels in lab instruction can lead to creative use of materials, and increased virtual opportunities. 6. What learning resources will learners need during this instruction? How will they be obtained and used during the instruction?  “Toolbox” and “Education Library” resources- book links, articles, professional journal links, related sites and templates;  Databases: lesson plans, activities, collaboration sites with other educators;  Interactive site links: simulations, virtual field trips, gadgets/tools, webquests, web 2.0 tools;  “Make and Take” sessions for creating materials, sharing lesson documents;  Standards, benchmarks, competencies, scope & sequence;  Site links for resources, hotlinks, search strategies, “ask the experts”, collections;  Reflective journal (in the form of an ongoing blog), planner, inquiry templates, rubric templates, formative & summative assessment sources; process journal (online lab notebook to record experimentation and data) All resources will be accessible from a “Toolbox” resource tab…..web-based, site links or linked as documents, PDF files, etc. 7. What other instructional content issues are important or relevant to this project? EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 11 of 41
  • 12. TBD… V. Project Management: 1. EdWeb implementation readiness & formative evaluation….Do those milestones (in IT5670 & IT565680) fit with the needs and/or expectations of the organization sponsoring your EdWeb? If not, describe how you plan to handle the problem. Yes, they fit the needs of the organization; for curricular changes, they will begin to investigate and offer staff development at the beginning of next school year (fall), so the late summer would be the very earliest opportunity for implementation. They have a two-year window for design, approval and construction of the new science lab, so staff development will exist parallel to that timeframe. As for formative evaluation, I have access to the administrator (and her teachers if need be) during the remaining months of this current school year, and into the next school year. For the formative evaluation, I had to use “similar” teachers in various locations, as access to the teachers at that site was not convenient to the administrator. 2. Are you the content expert? a. If no, is a content expert available to help you develop the content and review it for accuracy? Do you anticipate any problems in working with this expert, e.g., time available, schedules, time zone differences? b. If yes, you may still want a “second set of eyes” to review your content. Who will be available to provide this support? Yes, for the most part. I have many years of experience in science instruction, lab set-up and curriculum design, at all grade levels, PreK-8….. I also have access to a variety of resources, colleagues, “experts in the field”, and “beta site” opportunities in various classrooms across four states. I anticipate some limited time zone challenges working with the school’s administrator (my colleague) 3. What other types of experts do you need for this project? When do you plan to discuss this project with each expert? Use the following table if there are more than two experts with whom you need to coordinate. Title of Expert Approximate Date for Discussion With This Expert Lower School Administrator (my colleague) Consistent basis See above, # 2 As needed….. Instructors of these IT courses, fellow students Consistent basis….. EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 12 of 41
  • 13. 4. Who has to approve this project? When do you need to get their approval? I have been given “carte blanch” by my colleague and a “green light” to design something that might help her with her faculty…. As an administrator in a new position at a new school, she has her hands full with a variety of “overhaul” issues (although none will collide or interfere with this project; we don’t believe in taking on too many implementation projects at once… usually one or two efforts per school year); this project is mutually beneficial for the both of us : ) 5. Organizational change issues: a. Are you breaking new ground in your organization with your EdWeb? If yes, who is likely be threatened or intimidated by it? Yes, it is new ground for their organization; we do not anticipate anyone threatened or intimidated by it. (Although the recent resistance to the administrator’s “best practice” trainings have been a clear indicator that the predicted “curiosity” might not be there in force. Luckily, it will be optional, and there should be at least a few teachers who will take advantage of this EdWeb. The school traditionally was always eager to try new things… we’ll have to see. (The only ones intimidated by it might be the first-time online learners that it is aimed at…. And part of the EdWeb will be designed to put them at ease and be supportive throughout.) b. Who directly supervises the learners? Does this person support and/or value the instruction and/or your approach to the instruction? My colleague, the Lower School Head. She definitely supports and values the instruction and the “gentle” approach it will take. c. Are there people who want this project to fail? If yes, list their titles and why you think they want this project to fail. d. None that are immediately evident…… (possible changes upon installation of new Head of School??) TBD e. How and when will you inform each group of stakeholders about the project? Administrator: currently informed; (new Head of School… TBD) Teachers: In parts throughout the school year, as we need demographic data from them, input, etc. For the most part, at the end of the school year, in anticipation of the late summer/ fall start of staff development training. Rest of stakeholders: as needed 6. What other resources or project management issues are important or relevant to this project? ??? TBD………. EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 13 of 41
  • 14. -Design- VI. Instructional Design Model & Learning Theory 1. What is your theory, model or definition of learning? For example, some say learning is the process of personalizing new information. Others say learning is the process of memorizing new information. What is your definition? I believe learning is an experiential process, where one’s learning can be shown in a variety of ways, and where learners have multiple modalities in which to experience varying degrees of comfort/ease/frustration in learning (multiple intelligences). I believe learning is best when it is inquiry-based, and the learner seeks, constructs and internalizes the information in ways relevant and meaningful to them. I believe that one’s “approaches to learning” (Intl. Baccalaureate) are very important: “approaches to learning” are skills that show us how we learn (while we learn) such as metacognition, ”thinking out loud”, reflective practice, learning style preferences, “tagging and labeling” for brain retrieval, literacy and numeracy strategies, coping strategies, etc. And finally, I believe learning needs to be fun, obtain elements of surprise and “thinking outside the box”. 2. Other than the CIVs and Horton’s Absorb, Do, Connect model, what, if any, other instructional design models do you plan to use, i.e., Kolb’s Model of Experiential Learning or Problem-Based Learning? (You are only required to use the CIVs and Horton). Definitely Kolb’s Model; in addition to a combination of other “lenses” such as Multiple Intelligences,, IB Inquiry,, and high-level Bloom’s Taxonomy… *( I’ve scaled back from lesson design and differentiation, to an understanding of successful lab management and materials use as a simpler goal.) 3. What other instructional design issues are important or relevant to this project? I am learning to become better versed in adult learning theory and what “best practices” are for adult education….. that is, how adults learn that may be different from how children learn. Most of my lesson planning up to this point has been for PreK-8; and although I have done staff training for many years, I am not necessarily “formally” trained in adult ed. So I will consult the few texts that I have: one being The Adult Leaner- the Definitive Classic in Adult Education and Human Resource Development, (Knowles, Holton, Swanson) and two others: On Common Ground- The Power of Professional Learning Communities (Defour, Eaker, Defour) and PLCs At Work (Defour, Eaker)…. I also have resources through my National Staff Development Council membership. *the goal is to impart the relevance of the EdWeb to the upcoming science lab construction and administrative mandate; there will be a variety of job aids, from activity planning templates, to guidelines, “lab manuals” and the “Toolkit” resource tab (which I will find a way to keep the link accessible beyond the EdWeb period…. EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 14 of 41
  • 15. VII. Learning Activities 1. Given your answers to the questions in the Instructional Design Model and Learning Theory section and your answers to the Learner Needs and Characteristics section (both above), what is your overall instructional approach to this instruction? Why do you think this is a good approach? Experiential/ Multiple Intelligences…. To try to meet the needs of all types of learners; to offer a variety of ways /strategies to construct learning; to accommodate a variety of “Approaches to Learning”; to incorporate brain-based strategies (to move learning from sensory memory to working memory to permanent memory); to create science experiences that are “hands-on” and fun. 2. How do you intend to integrate the “Learner Centered” Common Instructional Value into your EdWeb? Be specific. [Refer to Horton chapters 2-4] *(see chart, item #7 for specifics) Relevant (design for their own classes/students); engage & motivate (wide range of activities- new and traditional- and encourages creativity); reflective (process journal of experimentation as a model for their students’ science notebooks); learner controls experience ( self-paced, opportunities for surface learning across all science disciplines, or delve deeper in specific topic); meaningful (opportunities to “test & verify” with their own students, and just-in-time learning) 3. How do you intend to integrate the “Social” Common Instructional Value into your EdWeb? Be specific. [Refer to Horton chapters 2-4] *(see chart, item #7 for specifics) Independent or small group (collaborative learning, community of practice); communication (journals, shared dialogue, peer sharing & review); comfortable environment online (mix of familiar with new); community building (fun, shared resource toolbox, increased confidence); slow, deliberate and supportive (slowly introduce new online components or web 2.0 tools) 4. How do you intend to integrate the “Contextual” Common Instructional Value into your EdWeb? Be specific. [Refer to Horton chapters 2-4] *(see chart, item #7 for specifics) Authentic (real science; doing science, lab atmosphere); challenge (out of comfort zone); integrate all science disciplines (standards-based, grade level appropriate); problem-based (sims, critical thinking, problem solving); science strategies and tools; 5. How do you intend to integrate the “Active” Common Instructional Value into your EdWeb? Be specific. [Refer to Horton chapters 2-4] *(see chart, item #7 for specifics) Hands-on; real experiences (collaboration, active experimentation); exploratory & experiential (investigations; further research); constructive (building sets of resources and skills; inquiry, discovery (activities, skill building, classroom management strategies); build academic vocabulary and content knowledge (demos, models, sims and labs, role play); guided instruction EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 15 of 41
  • 16. 6. How do you intend to integrate the “Supportive” Common Instructional Value into your EdWeb? Be specific. [Refer to Horton chapters 2-4] *(see chart, item #7 for specifics) Community of practice; differentiated; multiple intelligences; fun and enthusiastic; comfort/safe (“classroom” environment online); scaffolding (resources, flexible choices); non-judgmental, constructive feedback; honor creativity; slow and deliberate pacing (support, minimize frustration, encourage risk-taking); well-organized, clear; wide variety, broad appeal 7. Complete the following chart to describe the activities you plan to include for each objective. (Objectives re-ordered from “Analysis” section IV, # 4 & # 5)… *I am still thinking about how some of the “other” models come into play for each objective, but I have listed Kolb. Horton and CIVs here…. yes.. feel free to use it  Objective Activities to Support Objective Kolb Horton (A, D, C) CIVs *Other 1-A) 10 Activities: Readings** Site Reviews** WebQuest** Virtual Field Trip** Recorded Demos** Examining Explaining Experiencing Experiencing Examining A A, D A, D, C A, D, C A, C Contextual Contextual; Active Social; Active Learner-Cent Contextual **(taught over a span of 10 mini-lessons, specific order TBD)… Activities used to learn about & further explore 10 categories of resource types:  Hands-on materials/manipulatives  Texts, experts, content sites  Video/audio  Interactive sites  Apparatus building (purchased v. home-made)  Virtual field trips  Lesson planning & activity sites  Games, fun, logic, critical thinking, problem solving  Online collaborations  Web 2.0 tools 1-B): Brief Critiques [10] Explaining A, C Contextual 1). Identify quality resource materials/ sites for hands-on lessons… … (given clear selection/evaluation guidelines)… … [as measured by justification of 20 applicable resources in critique form- 2 from each of 10 given categories- that aligns with guidelines] (taught over a span of 10 mini-lessons, specific order TBD)… Select 20 examples (2 from each of the 10 categories) and write a brief evaluation on resource selection based on given guidelines, and provide 1 example (from each of 10 categories) of potential instructional use …(to be compiled in group doc) EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 16 of 41
  • 17. 1-C): Reflective Blog (ongoing) Examining A Learner-Cent Objective Activities to Support Objective Kolb Horton CIVs Other 2-A) Scavenger Hunt: Identify apparatus/tools** Evaluate apparatus/tools** Applying Explaining Explaining D D D Contextual Contextual Contextual ** Tentative apparatus/tools listing:  microscope, slides & cover slips  heat source  compass  balance  glassware (flask, beaker, test tube, graduated cylinder)  holders/stoppers/racks  dropper/pipette  lenses & mirrors (convex, concave)  pulley  thermometer  spring scale  simple machines  dissection kit  apparatus components (base, rod, ring stand, clamps)  magnets  magnifying glass  Petri dish  Periodic Table 2). Evaluate the use of a variety of apparatus/ tools for differentiated labs & centers… … (given usage guidelines, lab procedure manual, and demos)… … [as measured by the identification/evaluation of 22 of 30 items (approx. 70%) - for effective use at various differentiation levels] 2-B): Reflective Blog (ongoing) Examining A Learner-Cent Objective Activities to Support Objective Kolb Horton CIVs Other 3-A) Watch and/or Do: -Demos -Simulations -Case Studies …and participate in asynch. discussion threads Examining Applying Experiencing Examining A, C D D C Learner-Cent Contextual Contextual Social 3). Demonstrate effective use of science apparatus/ tools… … (given usage guidelines, lab procedure manual, and demos)… … [as measured by the effective use of 10 apparatus/tools and the usage rubric criteria] 3-B) Do Lab Investigations: (individual, small group): Experiencing D Active EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 17 of 41
  • 18. 3-C): Keep Process Journal (lab notebook) to record experimentation and data collection; submit selections to thread Explaining A, D Learner-Cent 3-D): Reflective Blog (ongoing) Examining A Learner-Cent Objective Activities to Support Objective Kolb Horton CIVs Other 4-A) Group Wiki Collaboration (ongoing): to build a resource toolkit consisting of: -hot lists (links) -lab activities “database” -WebQuest collection -virtual trips and online project collaborations -process skills/ lab manual -classroom management strategies & best practices Applying D, C Social4). Explore, acquire and assemble (* Assemble) inquiry-based resources to contribute to shared resources (for lesson/unit planners) ... (given guidelines and selection strategies. … [as measured by an effective and consistent collection- minimum 2 contributions for each of the 6 categories- for the group wiki] 4-B) Reflective Blog (ongoing) Examining A Learner-Cent Objective Activities to Support Objective Kolb Horton CIVs Other 5). Design one science lesson/ activity to share ... (given strategies for lesson design and a planning template) 5-A) Create inquiry-based lesson/activity plan & post to share in thread (and ultimately group wiki) Applying Examining D C Active Social EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 18 of 41
  • 19. 5-B) Reflective Blog (ongoing) Examining A Learner-Cent Objective Activities to Support Objective Kolb Horton CIVs Other 6-A) Watch sample lesson videos …and participate in asynch. brainstorm/ discussion threads Examining Examining; Explaining A, C C Learner-Cent Social; Supp 6-B) Create Demo Video: (individually or w/ partner) of instruction of hands-on lab activity or lesson (may opt to include elem. student participation) Explaining; Applying D Social; Supp 6). Utilize best practice for hands-on, science/ tech integration, … (given effective strategies, samples and tools) …[as measured by: a) effective inquiry- based lesson design criteria- lesson plan protocols, objectives & indicators (3 components), inquiry templates, hands-on; and effective use of materials b). demonstrating class management strategies criteria for best practice in science; brain-based strategies (collaboration, responsive classroom, movement with purpose); hands-on lab set-up; and manipulatives] 6-C): Reflective Blog (ongoing) Examining A Learner-Cent ***Two that I think are ongoing, and I didn’t find specific placement within the charts: “Experiencing”: “Examining”: -Support: differentiated choices (absorb) -Support: peer/instructor feedback (connect, absorb) 8. What instructional strategies or activities do you plan to include to address each of the learner needs and characteristics you described in the Learner Needs and Characteristics above? EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 19 of 41
  • 20. a. Demographics “Generations/ Getting to Know You” science-related, sharing common science experiences… (Recognize and appreciate value and unique contributions of generations of teachers represented; cross-generation collaboration and consensus; create awareness dealing with learners across multiple generations- gaps/overlaps, common ground)… from text Generations at School: Building an Age-Friendly Learning Community (Lovely & Buffum) b. Technology skills Slow and steady; intro to online learning and web 2.0 tools; ongoing support & feedback; encourage self-help (tech support options, FAQs, problem-solving); anchors and examples; support within “communities of practice” c. Learning styles Multiple intelligences opportunities throughout (reading/writing; reflection; communication; draw/sketch; active experimentation & hands-on; collaborate & communicate; numbers, stats, graphs; science & nature; music (as a mnemonic device)… d. Reading skills ** continued investigation (for adult reading level goals); varied selections and accessibility of text; *To support visual literacy, “dual coding” will be used to reinforce the text with appropriate visuals; “picture superiority effect” will be used in the form of pictograms and ideograms to use images to represent commonly-held vocabulary, actions or directions. (such as a “book” to indicate “read this”, or a “question mark” to indicate “need more information”, etc. e. Attitudes toward instruction and this topic/content “optional” learning (by administrator) and self-paced structure should create optimal attitudes; “just in time” to get ready for science lab addition and plan for increased science integration * hopefully the recent “resistance” to best practice training will change as they approach a new school year f. Incentives or disincentives for completing this instruction Professional development (staff training) time is offered; site-based training (or from home); opportunities for community of practice; self-paced; “optional”; g. Other important learner needs and/or characteristics TBD…… 9. What other issues related to learning activities are important or relevant to this project? EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 20 of 41
  • 21. In my design planning, I may have the tendency to let this grow too big…..I have to remember the KISS principle (“Keep It Short & Simple”) so as not to overwhelm the learners (or myself)… the scope of integrated science disciplines is large and I need to remain focused on grade-level appropriate skills (and appropriate skills for teachers-new-to-online-learning)…. I have put myself in-check; I have streamlined the EdWeb and scaled-back the so as a bit to be more realistic (both for a first-time EdWeb, as well as somewhat reluctant learners). By removing the weightier concepts of “differentiation” and “inquiry-based design” (and perhaps saving them for another add-on component in the future), the EdWeb focus is simply to learn successful lab management strategies (which include using lab materials and equipment, quality resources, and creating opportunities for hands-on inquiry and technology). EdWeb Design Prototype The three components of this EdWeb Design Prototype will follow as listed: 1. Design Prototype 2. Justification of Color Scheme and Typography 3. Formative Evaluation Questions 1. Design Prototype EdWeb Home Page (with screenshot and plans for the following variables):  General Comments: This EdWeb design has been scaled back from my initial concepts. The EdWeb is designed for busy teachers (who generally perceive this “course” as “one more thing to have to do”). My goal is to keep the interface simple, clutter-free and fun. The criteria below are described in general as they pertain to the entire website – and the individual pages that follow may offer additional insights specific to each page. *Although all of the pages in this EdWeb have a similar look and feel as far as the overall layout (in order to provide cohesiveness among the site pages) each page does offer some unique layout & content components in terms of function and form* EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 21 of 41
  • 22.  Page Identifier (header): The page identifier exists as a banner and includes a logo, the main title and a subtitle for further clarification. The logo is visually appropriate to the science content. The banner title is centered and the subtitle is slightly offset for balance. The use of alliteration in the banner title and subtitle is intentional; as repetition of sound is not only a catchy form of figurative language, but lends itself to being easily remembered as well.  Layout and Main Navigation Mechanisms: The grouping of solid background colors are used to divide the page into functional areas (“zone display”) and are consistent throughout the site for visual coherence (unity and aesthetics). It also is used intentionally to establish a precise visual hierarchy to help arrange content predictably, where users can find critical material in sight when needed. The “Golden Rectangle” ratio is utilized to establish an alignment of horizontal orientation, with main menu navigation in a sidebar, main frame content in the center of focus (and taking up more than half the space), and additional (minor to instruction) navigational elements along the bottom of the page. Graphics are used intentionally: either in consistent locations (logo), or to fill a large space, or to support content (see “visuals” section). The interface is designed with rich navigation, and the hope is that users have the “freedom of searchability” and can move freely as needed within the EdWeb: 1. Paging: (within lesson modules only) 2. Hyperlinks: used internally for “return to top”, job aides, additional resources, and externally for links to other sites as activities or resources. 3. Menus: sidebar menu serves as a “table of contents” and is constantly displayed. The orderly shape of the buttons relates to the site theme, and the buttons will change color to indicate current selection/location. The sidebar buttons are also designed with multi-level submenus that will appear when rolled- over, expanding to reveal more full information or tips/explanations.  Color scheme, with examples and RGB values, and typography: (see color scheme & typography justification in section 2)  Placement of Content (including some actual text, titles, sub-titles and body text): (see mention of title and subtitle selection above in “Page Identifier”); body text is organized within the main frame in short paragraphs or grouped in bulleted lists for proximity and an orderly, clean appearance. The goal is to maintain a maximum of 60 characters per line for alignment purposes and ease of reading. (See color scheme & typography justification in section 2 for additional title and subtitle information).  Visuals (that “dual code” the text, graphic areas, etc): Some of the visuals on this page include: “character with magnifying glass”: o decorative, representative (of the content) and organizational (for site recognition and to maintain continuity) EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 22 of 41
  • 23. o used both as dual coding (to reinforce the investigative nature of learning to design a successful science lab), and as an aesthetic element o intended to hopefully engage learner and generate interest o intended to guide learner (grounded as a stationary position in the upper corner of each page)  Description of animations (if any): TBD  Learner interaction (a do-type activity– with the content or links to additional resources outside the EdWeb, etc.): none on the “Home Page” (with the exceptions of a welcome note, an invitation to visit the “How To” page to familiarize the user with the EdWeb, as well as an invitation to “click on any link to explore the site further”). Sample Page A (with screenshot and plans for the following variables):  General Comments: I selected this “How To” page because it is an example of the first page the users will visit (after the homepage). My goal is to keep the interface clean, simple and straightforward, and to hopefully alleviate user fears or concerns upfront by showing the ease of navigation. The criteria below are described EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 23 of 41
  • 24.  Page Identifier (header): The page identifier exists as a banner and includes the site logo for coherence and a page title.  Layout and Main Navigation Mechanisms: Within the main frame, this page utilizes text, arrows & indicators, and images to provide an “orientation” to how the site is laid out. Graphics are used intentionally: either in consistent locations (logo), or to fill a large space, or to support content (see “visuals” section). The interface is designed with rich navigation, and items different than that of the home page are listed below: 1. Paging: consists of “next”, “previous” or “proceed” as needed with longer text sections. “Page 1 of 3” (etc.) will also appear at the bottom of continued text sections.(the rest is same as the home page) 2. Hyperlinks: used internally for “return to top”, job aides, additional resources, and externally for links to other sites as activities or resources. (the rest is same as the home page) 3. Menus: (same as the home page)  Color scheme, with examples and RGB values, and typography: (see color scheme & typography justification in section 2)  Placement of Content (including some actual text, titles, sub-titles and body text): (see mention of title and subtitle selection above in “Page Identifier”) Content continues to be organized within the main frame in short paragraphs or grouped in bulleted lists for proximity and an orderly, clean appearance. Visual icons are provided to serve as a “key” to understanding and using the site, and directional arrows & indicators show examples of site navigational tools.  Visuals (that “dual code” the text, graphic areas, etc): Some of the visuals on this page include: “compass” o decorative, representative and organizational- used as visual link (for navigation) and an aesthetic element; also helps to organize the “navigation” information “light bulb” o representative- used for picture superiority effect (as well as an aesthetic element), to indicate a “good/bright idea” that the user will want to take note of o intended to engage learner EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 24 of 41
  • 25. o intended to guide learner through the process “magnifying glass” o representative - used for picture superiority effect (as well as an aesthetic element), to indicate that the user needs to “investigate further/take a closer look” o intended to engage learner and generate interest o intended to reinforce text o intended to help learner see this concept in practice o intended to guide learner through the process “question mark” o representative - used for picture superiority effect (as well as an aesthetic element ), to indicate that the learner can seek further answers o intended to engage learner o intended to reinforce text o intended to guide learner through the process “hand” o representative - used for picture superiority effect (as well as an aesthetic element), to indicating a “hands-on activity” o intended to engage learner and generate interest o intended to help learner see this concept in practice o intended to guide learner through the process “book” and/or “pen” o representative - used for picture superiority effect (as well as an aesthetic element), to indicate that the user needs to “read” or “write” o intended to engage learner and generate interest o intended to reinforce text o intended to guide learner through the process  Description of animations (if any): TBD  Learner interaction (a do-type activity– with the content or links to additional resources outside the EdWeb, etc.): none on the “How To” page (with the exceptions of an invitation “take a minute to explore and familiarize yourself with the layout of this ‘online classroom’ a bit further”). EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 25 of 41
  • 26. Sample Page B (with screenshot and plans for the following variables):  General Comments: I selected this “Lesson” page because it is an example of one of the lesson module pages that the users will interact with. My goal with respect to interface is that in using the file folder format, the participants will see the relationship among: “intro, lesson, practice, assess, reflect & apply” for each specific lesson module. The criteria below are described in terms that are specific to this page only. *Although all of the pages in this EdWeb have a similar look and feel as far as the overall layout (in order to provide cohesiveness among the site pages) each page does offer some unique layout & content components in terms of function and form *  Page Identifier (header): The page identifier exists in two parts: the banner which includes the site logo for coherence and a page title, as well as a subtitle that identifies which part of the lesson module the user has accessed (it mirrors the corresponding “file tab” header in the layout below the banner).  Layout and Main Navigation Mechanisms: Within the main frame, this page utilizes a horizontal file folder layout to contain the sections of the lesson module. Each “tab” points to a different portion of the module, and changes color when in use. Graphics are used intentionally: either in consistent locations (logo), or to fill a large EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 26 of 41
  • 27. 1. Paging: (within lesson modules only) consists of “next”, “previous” or “proceed” as needed. “Page 1 of 3” (etc.) will also appear at the bottom of continued text sections. 2. Hyperlinks: used internally for “return to top”, job aides, additional resources, and externally for links to other sites as activities or resources. (the rest is same as the home page) 3. Menus: file folder tabs indicate the “intro, lesson, practice, assess, reflect & apply” sections of the lesson (the rest is same as the home page)  Color scheme, with examples and RGB values, and typography: (see color scheme & typography justification in section 2)  Placement of Content (including some actual text, titles, sub-titles and body text): (see mention of title and subtitle selection above in “Page Identifier”) Content is organized within the main frame in picture/label links in columns and rows for proximity and an orderly, clean appearance. Visual icons are provided to serve as a “link” to additional understanding, explanations, and video clips.  Visuals (that “dual code” the text, graphic areas, etc): Some of the visuals on this page include: “graduated cylinder” , “triple beam balance”, “Periodic Table of Elements”, etc. o representative- used as visual links for dual coding (nature of each of the lab tools’ purposes) o intended to engage learner and generate interest o intended to reinforce text o intended to help learner see this concept in practice  Description of animations (if any): TBD  Learner interaction (a do-type activity– with the content or links to additional resources outside the EdWeb, etc.): users will work through a lesson on this page, clicking on icons to learn more about specific science tools. The link will take them to a new window that shows a detailed diagram of the tool, explanations of it use, set-up requirements, and situations when its use is appropriate. In most cases, there will also be a video clip to watch the tool in “action”, as well as an opportunity for a self-assessment (a multiple choice question where several new windows could appear depending on the answer selected… “correct”, “try again”… etc.) EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 27 of 41
  • 28. Sample Page C (with screenshot and plans for the following variables):  General Comments: I selected this “Toolbox” page because it is an example of one of the additional site resources that the users will interact with and use to support their lessons. My goal with respect to interface is that it be a user-friendly “hotlist” of resource links to sites and job aids, categorized into subgroups. The criteria below are described in terms that are specific to this page only. *Although all of the pages in this EdWeb have a similar look and feel as far as the overall layout (in order to provide cohesiveness among the site pages) each page does offer some unique layout & content components in terms of function and form *  Page Identifier (header): The page identifier exists as a banner and includes the site logo for coherence, a page title and a brief explanation of the page.  Layout and Main Navigation Mechanisms: Within the main frame, this page utilizes text, hyperlinks, and images in columns and rows to provide a hotlist of job aides, sites and resources. Graphics are used intentionally: either in consistent locations (logo), or to fill a large space, or to support content (see “visuals” section). The interface is designed with rich navigation, and items different than that of the home page are listed below: 1. Paging: (within lesson modules only) EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 28 of 41
  • 29. 2. Hyperlinks: used internally/externally for job aides, additional resources, and externally for links to other sites as activities or resources (the rest is same as the home page) 3. Menus: (same as the home page)  Color scheme, with examples and RGB values, and typography: (see color scheme & typography justification in section 2)  Placement of Content (including some actual text, titles, sub-titles and body text): (see mention of title and subtitle selection above in “Page Identifier”); the “toolbox” page exemplifies (I think) Bender’s “buffet model” – or “something for everyone”. There is a myriad of resource links in the toolbox that cover a variety of related topics.  Visuals (that “dual code” the text, graphic areas, etc): Some of the visuals on this page include: “character with hammer” o decorative and representative- used as visual link (and as an aesthetic element) o intended to engage learner and generate interest “characters that point” or “characters that show expressions” o decorative- used as aesthetic elements o intended to engage learner and generate interest  Description of animations (if any): TBD  Learner interaction (a do-type activity– with the content or links to additional resources outside the EdWeb, etc.): none on the “Toolbox” page (with the exception of the user being able to select any number of resources, job aides or external sites to peruse, visit or download). 2. Color Scheme & Typography Justification Color Scheme: I plan to use the color palette shown below .The color palette is made up of various tints, tones and shades of earth tones, which I feel is appropriate for a “science” topic. In actuality, a “science lab” look and feel would be black or grey, white, and “sterile” in appearance…although in an elementary school, there is much more vibrancy and color. So, the three main fields of science (Life Science, Earth Science, and Physical Science) can be represented best by earth tones of browns, greens and blues, subdues when necessary and able to “pop” as well. This palette should offer enough choices for contrast and plenty of options for use in eye-pleasing ways throughout various layouts. The darker color recedes as a “frame” in the background, and the lighter color advances to offer additional contrast among content areas. The dark text against a light background provides contrast for legibility. And conversely, the light text against the darker button background works as well and is easily read. EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 29 of 41
  • 30.  Palette: Initially, I started with a “pocket” cardboard color wheel and began to search for a carefully balanced harmony with the dial on the “blue-green” key color section of the pure color row. I immediately liked the tint, tone and shade colors of blue-green, and decided to make one of them my dark background border color. The complimentary shade of “mahogany” brown on the wheel looked promising for text color, as did the split complimentary shades of burgundy and a lighter “cinnamon” brown. I also decided to use the triad tint of a “buttery yellow” for the text background as it would provide for a nice contrast. Color RGB HEX # Page/Use 255-204-102 F6BE47 Body text background; text on dk. sidebar buttons 140-67-37 8C4325 Outline for light main frame background 127-56-2 7F3802 Text/titles on dk. teal background border 51-22-0 331600 Heading text on light background 64-188-204 40BCCC Not yet sure? 2-113-127 02717F Background border 1-68-76 01444C Sidebar buttons; dividing line 0-0-0 000000 Page outline; picture outline (The color scheme tool I eventually experimented with was Kuler… and I was additionally influenced by some of the schemes below…..) ~Analogous ~Monochromatic ~Triad ` ~Complimentary ~Compound ~Shades EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 30 of 41
  • 31.  Background Color: There are two background colors at work: a dark teal color (a shade of the key color) that serves as a page “frame”, and a light “buttery yellow” background color for main frame text was selected from the original color scheme so as not to cause the eyestrain that a white background would. It also would serve to provide a nice contrast for the body text color.  Foreground/Body Text Color: The complimentary shade of “mahogany” brown looked promising for text color, as did the split complimentary shades of burgundy and a lighter “cinnamon” brown. The “mahogany” and “burgundy” would contrast nicely against the “buttery yellow” main frame background as a text color for smaller headings, subtitles and bulleted lists. The lighter “cinnamon” brown would be more readable as main titles on the darker blue-green border background, and the “buttery yellow” also works as the text color against the darker teal buttons. Black was also selected for the majority of smaller text that makes up the bulk of paragraphs; it also provides a crisp contrast to the “buttery yellow”.  Link Color: Hyperlinks are designed in a blue-green shade as well. They will stand-out against the “buttery yellow” background. (I don’t think at this time that I will have the hyperlink change a different color once selected).  Highlighting Color: The only “highlighting” will be the buttons in the sidebar or the file folder tabs that change color to indicate current selection. The dark teal sidebar buttons will show an outline in “buttery yellow” when they are selected (to help the users keep track of where they are). In the lesson modules, the file folder tabs will also change color to indicate current selection. Since the file folder itself will be the “buttery yellow” background, the tab will be outlined in the dark teal. Alternate Color Palette: My second choice provides some alternative options for formative feedback. I selected these colors because they represent some of the tetrad tints, tones and shades of my original blue-green key color selection, and I’m just simply drawn to the cool tones as a personal preference. Color RGB # Page/Use 246-190-71 F6BE47 Body text background; text on dk. sidebar buttons 217-154-19 D99A13 Text/titles on dk. background border 73-217-153 49D999 Not yet sure? 8-217-124 08D97C Sidebar buttons; dividing line 6-153-88 069958 Background border 93-24-13 5D180D Heading text on light background 0-0-0 000000 Page outline; picture outline (I experimented with the alternate color schemes on Kuler as well… and I was influenced by some of the schemes below…..) ~Analogous ~Monochromatic EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 31 of 41
  • 32. ~Triad ` ~Complimentary ~Compound ~Shades Typography: I chose to use Tekton Pro, a decorative script font for the banner titles and sidebar button text (see table below*). I also decided to use Bookman Old Style for the various heading sizes. I think that the fun, bold script of Tekton Pro and the stylish serif structure of Bookman Old Style both contrast nicely with the straightforward sans serif structure and simple character shape of Verdana. I selected this for the main body text, as it was easiest in which to read large amounts of text online. Even though all three fonts end up having similar weight and structure, they each represent a different form (script, old style serif, and sans serif) and each remains crisp and easy to read on its own, and all are consistent with a “science lab” topic – they seem sleek, clean and clutter-free (without being too “science fiction-y”. The Tekton Pro font also has a hand-written, informal feel which is common in a classroom setting (like writing on the whiteboard) and is suitable for both the topic and prospective audience of elementary teachers. *Although initial instructor feedback suggests sticking with a font that is readily available on most computers, I am going to continue to proceed with Tekton Pro (which I will use jpeg pictures of to compensate for the fact that Tekton Pro might not be available on the user’s computer) and I think it displays well in any font size and will work well (as a jpeg) on all screens.. EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 32 of 41
  • 33. 3. Formative Evaluation Questions Questions I plan to ask students who “test” the Design Prototype: -Overall interface design:  Do you prefer the page layout in a landscape orientation (horizontal- as you see it now), or would you prefer a portrait (vertical) orientation?  What are your eyes drawn to (graphics/images, text, links, color)?  Do you find the site visually appealing?  Do you find the overall organization of the site clean and clutter-free? -Color scheme preferences:  Which “home page” color scheme do you prefer A or B?  Do the color selections enhance or detract from the site?  Do the text and background colors offer enough contrast? -Feedback on typography:  Is the text easy to read? Does the font enhance or detract from the legibility?  Is there too much text? Or not enough?  Is the text size adequate? -Navigation design (user-friendly and easy to understand?):  Does the navigation make sense?  Is it easy to find things? Easy to find your way back?  Are the navigation tools located where you would expect them to be? -Different types of visuals, e.g., photos, graphics, stick-figures…which are most useful or most helpful?):  Do you find the photos appropriate for the content they represent?  Do you find the images and graphics helpful as guiding icons and navigational tools?  Do you find the stick-figure characters aesthetically appropriate for the site? -Content:  Does the site look interesting? Does it make you want to explore?  Is the concept fun? Challenging enough? -General:  What’s missing?  Comments? Questions? Concerns? EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 33 of 41
  • 34. Potential Visuals: *need to use Fireworks to create transparent backgrounds on each clip… EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 34 of 41
  • 35. *need to scan more photos of lab tools and equipment... Formative Evaluation: Design Prototype 1. Ann Younce: “Science Lab Success” 2. Summary of the EdWeb target audience: elementary teachers, K-4. Most are non- science teachers (at minimum, teaching integrated science as one of the core subjects in a self-contained primary/elementary classroom)… Most are novice technology users… EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 35 of 41
  • 36. 3. Description of your formative evaluation participants: 1 elementary teacher (actual intended participant); 3 elementary teachers (local colleagues); 2 science teacher colleagues (elementary & middle school) 4. Description of how you conducted your formative evaluation: I met with 3 participants in person and discussed their impressions while they reviewed the prototype; this was important to me because I wanted to gather additional non-verbal feedback. I tried to take into account anything I could glean from eye contact, facial expressions, hesitation in voice, and listened as they “”thought out loud” and asked questions. I also sent emails with the prototype attached to 3 participants (one being an actual intended future participant; the other two supplemented information via a phone conversations as well). 5. Use the following table to summarize your formative evaluation data: Question you asked Summary of the data Changes you plan to make to your EdWeb based on this data Interface Design:  Do you prefer the page layout in a landscape orientation (horizontal- as you see it now), or would you prefer a portrait (vertical) orientation to scroll through? Interface Design:  100% preferred the horizontal, landscape orientation (as it was designed). 2 commented that they dislike having to scroll through long pages. Interface Design:  None; I will leave the orientation of the pages as is.  Do you find the site visually appealing?  83% had positive comments; like “crisp & clear”, “simple and easy to read”…1 said that some of the lab tool photos should “pop” more  I will look into finding a way to make the lab tools stand out more (perhaps outlining them in black or making them a bit larger)  Do you find the overall organization of the site clean and clutter-free?  100% said yes (1 also asked about the compass logo at bottom – if it led anywhere.)  No changes; the compass logo was my attempt to link this EdWeb to the rest of my resource website… I eventually want to host more EdWeb there. (Perhaps I should make it smaller and less noticeable?) Color Scheme:  Which “home page” color scheme do you prefer A or B? (“A” was the original blue “complimentary” scheme; “B” was the alternate green scheme) Color Scheme:  83% preferred the first color option; (1 commented additionally that she remembered reading somewhere that a light yellow or buff color was a good color background for dyslexic readers as well). 1 person liked the Color Scheme:  Thankfully, I have to admit, I’m glad the majority liked the original blue & brown color scheme, as that was my favorite too! I will definitely not change the color scheme and keep the original blue/brown EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 36 of 41
  • 37.  Do the text and background colors offer enough contrast?  100% agreed that the text offered good contrast (1 added that the text on the “next” arrows might be darker – or the arrows should be outlined)  No changes will be made in overall text color & contrast. I will attempt to outline the “next” and “Previous” arrows in black first; the color will probably stay the same as it matches the sidebar tabs… Typography:  Is the text easy to read? Does the font enhance or detract from the legibility? Typography:  83% agreed that it was clear and legible. 1 commented that the headings and subheadings in the main window seemed too close in size for any contrast. 1 commented that the page titles were large and easy to read. Typography:  I will look into the point size difference between headings and subheadings in the main frame… and see how I can offer a bit more contrast.  Is there too much text? Or not enough?  100% said that what they saw seemed “just right”; 1 wondered if there would be enough room on the “file folder” frames for more text – or if there would be “next” arrows and more “folder” pages to accommodate.  I will continue to adjust text space on future “file folder” frames… I also plan to use next arrows for additional pages to alleviate having to scroll to far down a page. Navigation design:  Does the navigation design make sense? Navigation design:  66% said yes; 16% said noted that the “home” tab should be highlighted while in the “home” view; 1 also asked if a new window opens up with each lab tool icon; 16% asked if it mattered where to start first.; also if you click on the “file folder” tabs or the side menu buttons. Navigation design:  I will definitely highlight the home tab when the home page is accessed, just I did for the other pages; and yes, I intend for new windows to open with each tool. I will have to go back to the “home” & “how to” pages to clarify directions for starting. I will have to add directions on clicking “file folder” tabs vs. “next” arrows…  Are the navigation tools located where you would expect them to be?  100% said yes; 1 asked if all the lessons were on the same tab…  No changes (except for those mentioned above); the lesson tab will initially bring the participant to a main lesson page that lists all lessons in sequence. They then follow each link to go thru the “file folder” views of “intro, lesson, practice, assess & reflect” for EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 37 of 41
  • 38. Visuals:  Do you find the images appropriate for the content they represent? Visuals:  100% said yes; 50% questioned whether I should use actual lab tool photos in place of the clip art; 1 also noted that some of the “bean” figures appeared a bit fuzzy… Visuals:  I agree that I should try actual photos; I have been having “fuzziness” issues with converting some of the images I’ve found – I’ll need to investigate further in Fireworks.  On the “How To” page, do you find the graphics helpful as guiding icons and navigational tools?  66% said they do & that they were nice visual reminders of the expected task; 2 wanted to see the successive pages to read more about them- were they just a reminder, or did they link to something?  I should find a way to be more specific about their use (probably a small new window that opens for further explanation); there are successive pages that have additional info as well  Do you find the stick-figure characters aesthetically appropriate for the site?  100% said yes; that the characters were “light and fun”  No changes Content:  Does the site look interesting? Does it make you want to explore? Content:  83% said it does; 1 wondered how I would make science lab tools engaging… Content:  I wished that I had provided an example of one of the lab tool investigations, but I still think I can make them interesting…  Is the concept fun? Challenging enough?  66% said yes; 33% said yes, but wondered what I would do for those participants who were already somewhat familiar with these tools – were there any levels of differentiation?  I’ll have to re-think how to add the challenge for those who may already be somewhat familiar… General:  What’s missing? Comments? Questions? Concerns? General:  Not many comments here; For the most part they were excited and wanted to see more page samples… 6. Reflections: a. What is the most important thing you learned from this assignment? I think one of the most important take-aways for me from this evaluation (and more importantly from talking about it with other science teacher colleagues) was to remember to keep the perspective of a novice science teacher at each stage of site development. I tend to get carried away with all kinds of ideas that may tend to spiral too far away from EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 38 of 41
  • 39. EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 39 of 41 the purpose of “introductory” and “novice” lab instruction – I want to start slow and keep them comfortable with science materials. I also want the site to be simple (clutter-free) but not too “basic”…. Not overwhelming, but at the same time not too “childish” either. It’s difficult because as elementary teachers, we’re used to using kid-friendly images and age-appropriate design, and that often seeps in even when we design instruction for each other. b. What will you do differently, if anything, the next time you conduct a formative evaluation? I would probably like to design it more like a focus group. I really get more out of seeing and speaking with those who are evaluating, to capture facial expressions, initial reactions, and the like. Perhaps trying to incorporate a “video conference” type thing…. With those who aren’t in close proximity to me?? Also, incorporating more types of designed pages….and I think it will be much more helpful to additionally have formative evaluation on the actual navigation of pages. c. How are you feeling about your EdWeb? Describe any concerns or problems you anticipate? I feel that I still need to design some areas for those participants who already may have the fundamental concepts and need more. The thought of differentiating instruction makes perfect sense, I’m just not yet sure where or how I can accommodate advanced layering. Generally, I feel a bit better about having streamlined my goals earlier. I scaled it way back to just deal with general lab management, and basic tools and their use. I intend to eventually make this a part of my original resource website (which also needs changing now that I’ve learned about design)…..and I can then add more EdWeb components that deal with a variety of related issues – build add-on “classes”, etc. Resources  M. Tessmer, Planning and Conducting Formative Evaluations. (1993) Chapter 1: Central Questions and Issues in Formative Evaluation (in eCollege DocSharing).  Formative vs Summative Evaluation: A Comparison. http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/edtech/etc667/proposal/evaluation/summative_vs._fo rmative.htm  Formative Evaluation: A Practical Guide http://www.elearnmag.org/subpage.cfm?section=tutorials&article=25-1  The section on unintended consequences is very good. http://www.roundworldmedia.com/cvc/module10/notes10.html
  • 40. EdWeb Content Inventory: "Effective Elementary Science Instruction" ID Location Type Description Unique identifier (can be a title, like "Case Study 1" or a number, like 1.0.0.1) Where does this content item fit in your EdWeb? (For example, is this part of the introduction, topic 2, or the summary?) Category of this content. (Is it text, image, video, interaction, assessment, etc.?) Brief description of this content. (What is it about -or what information /message does this content deliver?) Home Home (Index page) text, image welcome, intro, getting started, what's new, etc. Learning Online Learning Online text, image how-to instructions for new online learners, website navigation Intro 1 Module 1 text, image (perhaps video or audio) intro to Lesson 1: Elements of Effective Science Lab Instruction Lesson 1 Module 1 text, image, (perhaps video or audio) scientific method, process skills, lab reports, hands-on collaboration (readings, identify, anchor samples, scenarios) Practice 1 Module 1 exploration, interaction, text, image demonstrate process skills; lab write-up Assess 1 Module 1 assessment, text, image TBD Reflect & Apply 1 Module 1 interaction, text, image reflection, blog or logbook; "make & take" sample materials for classroom use **repeat previous 5 steps for each new lesson module** (see below) Modules 2-4 TBD TBD Lab Lab interaction, text, image exploration; demonstration; experimentation Community of Practice Community of Practice interaction, text, image discussion, blog, logbook, meeting room, bookmarking, wiki, fun Glossary Glossary text, image (perhaps audio) terminology, academic vocabulary & background, schema Toolbox/Resources Toolbox/Resources text, external links resources, hotlists (external links), strategies, tools, classroom management, library/media center, student work product, tech integration, etc. Support/FAQs Support/FAQs text, image FAQs, tech support, contact info, etc. Other Modules: Module 2 Inquiry-based Lesson Design Module 3 Using a Lab Environment Module 4 Building Quality Collections (Materials & Strategies) EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 40 of 41
  • 41. EdWeb Analysis and Design DocumentPage 41 of 41 Associated images, charts, visuals Existing content or new? Original File Name and Type Links Notes or comments Dual coding and picture superiority effect. (What visuals are you going to use?) If the content exists: (Where is it? Or, who has it?) If this will be new content: (Where will it come from? Are you developing it or getting it from someone?) If existing and you have the file, list the file name here. Note if file is HTML, DOC, PPT, XLS, PDF. JPG, GIF, MOV, SWF (Flash), WMF, FLV or some other format External or internal links to additional content Anything not covered in the other columns (editing needed, additional research needed, broken links, redundancies, etc.) relevant science images, symbols for easy recognition (ex. magnifying glass, hand, light bulb, timer, etc.) to be developed TBD internal links to: all site components; course objectives, relevant science images, symbols for easy recognition to be developed TBD external links to: tutorials, relevant science images, symbols for easy recognition to be developed; links to external sources TBD links to external sources relevant science images, symbols for easy recognition to be developed; links to external sources TBD links to external sources relevant science images, symbols for easy recognition to be developed; links to external sources TBD links to external sources relevant science images, symbols for easy recognition to be developed TBD TBD relevant science images, symbols for easy recognition to be developed TBD internal links to: Community of Practice TBD TBD TBD TBD relevant science images, symbols for easy recognition to be developed; links to external sources TBD links to external sources relevant science images, symbols for easy recognition to be developed; links to external sources TBD links to external sources relevant science images, symbols for easy recognition to be developed; links to external sources TBD links to external sources relevant science images, symbols for easy recognition to be developed; links to external sources TBD links to external sources relevant science images, symbols for easy recognition to be developed TBD