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  • Maps from : http://ap_history_online.tripod.com/apeh5.htm

Transcript

  • 1. Origin and Journey of the Nation State System
    • Mid 16 th century developments in in Europe led to declaim of old controls( of Roman Empire of Church)
    • Search for NEW IDENTITY began and thus came the idea of NATION in to the picture.
    • Portugal, Spain, Britain ,France were the early beginners as Monarchic States ( fre from Holy roman empire)
  • 2. The Rise of Monarchial Nation States: 1500 - 1700
  • 3. Prime Characteristics of the Nation States
    • Growing Bureaucratization: More and more was the need to have a centralized state.
    • Existence of a Permanent Mercenary Army: Due to the wars, people wanted armies.
    • Growing need to tax: In order to pay for the armies and for the wars, monarchy needed taxes.
  • 4. Consequence of raise of Nation State
    • Balance Power has shifted as each new nation state want to expand its sphere of Influence
    • Search for new territories has started
    • The Ideas of Individualism and reason stated to get impetus.
    • Colonization began to take shape
  • 5. Examples of an expansion :16th Century Spanish Empire
  • 6. Phases of Development of Nation State
    • Treaty of Westphalia 1648
    • Utrecht Treaty 1713
    • Congress of Vienna 1815
    • First World War 1914-19
    • Second World War 1939-1945
    • From 1945 onwords
  • 7. Europe During The Treaty of Westphalia 1648
  • 8. Simplified image Europe in 1648
    • Size of this preview: 800 × 577 pixels
  • 9. By the time of Treaty of Westphalia ( which is in modern day Germany)
    • England, France, Spain and Swedon were great powers
    • Denmark( with Norway) ,Holland, Portugal and Switzerland were small powers
    • Russia was yet to become power full
    • Treaty ended thirty war within the holy roman empire and eighty years rivalry between Spain and Dutch republic
  • 10. Consequences of Treaty of Westphalia
    • General recognition of the exclusive sovereignty of each party over its lands, people, and agents abroad, was recognised
    • Gave way to religious freedom: The Kingdoms were free to follow Catholicism, Lutheranism or Calvinism
  • 11. Europe in 1713 during Utrecht Treaty
  • 12. Utrecht Treaty (Utretcht is A Dutch city)
    • Colonial supremacy fights for western hemisphere were on
    • Paved way for alliances and the balance of power as the basis of future of Nation state system
    • Treaties were signed between Spain, France, England ,Dutch republic etc.
    • After this treaty till the French revolution(1789) and Raise of Napoleon Old balance of power continued in Europe
  • 13. World between 1700 -1763 Colonies
  • 14. Europe During Treaty of Vienna 1815
  • 15. The principal negotiators At Vienna Congress
    • Austria - Metternich
    • Prussia- Hardenberg and von Humbolt
    • Russia - Nesselrode and Rasoumoffski
    • Great Britain- Castlereagh, and later, Wellington
    • France - Talleyrand and Dalberg
  • 16. Significance of Congress of Vienna -1
    • The objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary wars, and the Napoleonic Wars and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire
    • The Congress of Vienna was seen as the first f a series of Congresses. Diplomats felt that they should 'stick together' in peacetime to preserve the peace
    • Adopted a fair policy of no great rewards and no great punishments
    • Gave a balanced settlement which ensured no major conflict for forty years (the Crimean War,1854-6) and then until 1914
  • 17. Significance of Congress of Vienna-2
    • The Congress of Vienna settlement, despite later changes, formed the framework for European international politics until the outbreak of the First World War in 1914.
    • In February 1815, the Congress condemned the slave trade as inconsistent with civilization and human rights.
    • Restored monarchies across Europe
    • Ignored demands for greater democracy and nationalism; this led to the majority of conflicts in the Nineteenth Century, between and within countries( thus ignited Liberal National Revolutions of 1848 Across Europe)
  • 18. Europe in 1850
  • 19. Italian Unification by 1870
  • 20. Unification of Germany 1866-71
  • 21. Europe in 1900
  • 22. From 1815 to 1914
    • The Russian attempt to expand west words was stopped by Crimea war(1854-56) by Britain and France
    • Germany became united and started as a new power player in 1870
    • Italy followed the immediately
    • Development of these new powers led to a a search for new balance of power in Europe
    • Many central American countries got independence from Spanish control.
  • 23. Two world wars and nation states
    • The first worked war spell the doom of old empires( Ottoman , astro hungarian empire) and paved way for emergence of many nation states form the empire. Russsia in the form of USSR could still hold many nationalities in in its fold . Yugoslavia is an exaple for a emergence of new state,
    • After the second world warie after 1945 war many nations in Africa Asia got independence thus le to the in thglobe
  • 24. Essential nature of modern nation sate
    • Territoriality
    • Sense of nationality
    • Sovereignty
    • Equal recognition in the community of nations
    • Recognition of international law
  • 25. 1914 Ethnolinguistic Map of Europe
  • 26. Napoleon's Empire
  • 27. Austro Hungarian empire
  • 28. Ottoman empire1174-1914
  • 29. 1914 Political Map of Europe
  • 30.  
  • 31. World Map 1914
  • 32. World in 1945
  • 33. Current World Map