Mid 16 th century developments in in Europe led to declaim of old controls( of Roman Empire of Church)
Search for NEW IDENTITY began and thus came the idea of NATION in to the picture.
Portugal, Spain, Britain ,France were the early beginners as Monarchic States ( fre from Holy roman empire)
The Rise of Monarchial Nation States: 1500 - 1700
Prime Characteristics of the Nation States
Growing Bureaucratization: More and more was the need to have a centralized state.
Existence of a Permanent Mercenary Army: Due to the wars, people wanted armies.
Growing need to tax: In order to pay for the armies and for the wars, monarchy needed taxes.
Consequence of raise of Nation State
Balance Power has shifted as each new nation state want to expand its sphere of Influence
Search for new territories has started
The Ideas of Individualism and reason stated to get impetus.
Colonization began to take shape
Examples of an expansion :16th Century Spanish Empire
Phases of Development of Nation State
Treaty of Westphalia 1648
Utrecht Treaty 1713
Congress of Vienna 1815
First World War 1914-19
Second World War 1939-1945
From 1945 onwords
Europe During The Treaty of Westphalia 1648
Simplified image Europe in 1648
Size of this preview: 800 × 577 pixels
By the time of Treaty of Westphalia ( which is in modern day Germany)
England, France, Spain and Swedon were great powers
Denmark( with Norway) ,Holland, Portugal and Switzerland were small powers
Russia was yet to become power full
Treaty ended thirty war within the holy roman empire and eighty years rivalry between Spain and Dutch republic
Consequences of Treaty of Westphalia
General recognition of the exclusive sovereignty of each party over its lands, people, and agents abroad, was recognised
Gave way to religious freedom: The Kingdoms were free to follow Catholicism, Lutheranism or Calvinism
Europe in 1713 during Utrecht Treaty
Utrecht Treaty (Utretcht is A Dutch city)
Colonial supremacy fights for western hemisphere were on
Paved way for alliances and the balance of power as the basis of future of Nation state system
Treaties were signed between Spain, France, England ,Dutch republic etc.
After this treaty till the French revolution(1789) and Raise of Napoleon Old balance of power continued in Europe
World between 1700 -1763 Colonies
Europe During Treaty of Vienna 1815
The principal negotiators At Vienna Congress
Austria - Metternich
Prussia- Hardenberg and von Humbolt
Russia - Nesselrode and Rasoumoffski
Great Britain- Castlereagh, and later, Wellington
France - Talleyrand and Dalberg
Significance of Congress of Vienna -1
The objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary wars, and the Napoleonic Wars and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire
The Congress of Vienna was seen as the first f a series of Congresses. Diplomats felt that they should 'stick together' in peacetime to preserve the peace
Adopted a fair policy of no great rewards and no great punishments
Gave a balanced settlement which ensured no major conflict for forty years (the Crimean War,1854-6) and then until 1914
Significance of Congress of Vienna-2
The Congress of Vienna settlement, despite later changes, formed the framework for European international politics until the outbreak of the First World War in 1914.
In February 1815, the Congress condemned the slave trade as inconsistent with civilization and human rights.
Restored monarchies across Europe
Ignored demands for greater democracy and nationalism; this led to the majority of conflicts in the Nineteenth Century, between and within countries( thus ignited Liberal National Revolutions of 1848 Across Europe)
Europe in 1850
Italian Unification by 1870
Unification of Germany 1866-71
Europe in 1900
From 1815 to 1914
The Russian attempt to expand west words was stopped by Crimea war(1854-56) by Britain and France
Germany became united and started as a new power player in 1870
Italy followed the immediately
Development of these new powers led to a a search for new balance of power in Europe
Many central American countries got independence from Spanish control.
Two world wars and nation states
The first worked war spell the doom of old empires( Ottoman , astro hungarian empire) and paved way for emergence of many nation states form the empire. Russsia in the form of USSR could still hold many nationalities in in its fold . Yugoslavia is an exaple for a emergence of new state,
After the second world warie after 1945 war many nations in Africa Asia got independence thus le to the in thglobe