Literacy Pedagogy to Combat       Severe Poverty in Haiti- Yvonne Aja - Alex Lizzappi- Faculty Mentor: Philomena Susan Mar...
ABSTRACTStruggling to read is the cause of most Haitian students leaving school by 4th grade. FAU and the Miami based non-...
•   The purpose of the reading experience will be to increase students’    achievement in reading and to provide learning ...
WHY HAITI NEEDS LITERACY                INTERVENTIONThe reality of education in Haiti is too inadequate,     unproductive ...
WHATS THE PROBLEM AT AEMSA   a community school serving marginalized children of povertyThe majority of the students at AE...
AREA OF FOCUS STATEMENTThe focus of the research is to collect students  academic achievement data pre/post the  literatur...
POPULATION SAMPLESix teachers will be trained by a FAU professor via      online Blackboard recordings.                   ...
RESEARCH QUESTIONS•   Are there pre/post intervention differences in the comprehension    achievement of students?•   Are ...
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND  •     Comprehension Strategies        IRA identified six comprehension                            ...
LITERATURE CIRCLE DEFINITION•    Student should spend most of their time reading texts that they can read and want to read...
LITERATURE CIRCLE DEFINITION  1.    Children choose their own reading materials.  2.    Small temporary groups are formed,...
FORMATS FOR DISCUSSIONBonnie Campbell Hill, Katherine L. Schlick Noe, and Nancy J. Johnson
INFORMATION FOR THE DISCUSSION   Bonnie Campbell Hill, Katherine L. Schlick Noe, and Nancy J. Johnson
INFORMATION FOR THE DISCUSSION    Bonnie Campbell Hill, Katherine L. Schlick Noe, and Nancy J. Johnson
ROLES IN LITERATURE CIRCLESSummarizerThis role involves preparing a brief summary of the reading that was assigned for tha...
ROLES IN LITERATURE CIRCLESDiscussion FacilitatorThis role involves developing a list of questions that the group might di...
DATA COLLECTION METHODOLOGYHow will the data be collected?Observations •  On-going teacher observation and active particip...
SELECTION OF LITERATURECompelling content -- action, suspense, dialogue, humor, controversy: Most teachers look for   book...
PROCEDURES                                    READING PROGRAM                                    The reading program will ...
INSTRUMENTS AND RESOURCESWill use a Teacher Exit Reflection Survey developed and validated by a team    of seven FAU facul...
TIMELINE OF RESEARCH      September 2013 - July 2014 Haitian School YearAug    Teacher Training                           ...
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Florida Atlantic University Research Symposium 03152013

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Florida Atlantic University and the Miami based non-profit organization “Ayiti Now Corp” are collaborating to provide a culturally-relevant literacy intervention to Haitian teachers and Haitian children of poverty.

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Florida Atlantic University Research Symposium 03152013

  1. 1. Literacy Pedagogy to Combat Severe Poverty in Haiti- Yvonne Aja - Alex Lizzappi- Faculty Mentor: Philomena Susan Marinaccio, Ph.D.
  2. 2. ABSTRACTStruggling to read is the cause of most Haitian students leaving school by 4th grade. FAU and the Miami based non- profit organization "Ayiti Now Corp" are collaborating to provide a culturally-relevant literacy intervention to Haitian teachers and Haitian children of poverty. Ladson-Billings (1995) characterized culturally relevant teachers as attending to students’ academic needs, ensuring that students learn that which is most meaningful to them, inviting the students to engage the world and others critically, allowing students to maintain their cultural integrity and valuing their skills and abilities and channeling them in academic ways. Our research will provide teacher and student training as well as access to childrens literature in Haitian Creole and textbooks in French for a Literature Circle intervention (Daniels, 2010).When teachers engage their students in quality literature in a culturally relevant environment it allows the student the opportunity to interpret from more than one perspective and point of view; be purposeful and reflective; and promotes curiosity, inquiry, and critical thinking.Methods: Research subjects will consist of 6 teachers and 40 children from 3th grade at the AEMSA School in St. Marc, Haiti. For a one-week period in August 2013 an FAU professor will provide teacher training in this literacy approach through online Blackboard recordings. The literature circle training will be presented in a fast-track course for 3 hours per day for 5 days. The literature circle reading strategy combines reading, writing, thinking, feeling, talking and taking action by encouraging students to get excited about literature while developing a community of learners where everyone’s input is important and valued (Long & Gove, 2004). During training Haitian teachers will be introduced to grade-specific literature selections in Haitian Creole and French, trained in literature circle participant roles and responsibilities, and learn before-during and after meta-comprehension strategies.Researchers will use a formative process to develop a classroom observation instrument for use in Haitian classrooms to determine the fidelity of implementation of the Literature Circle (Newman, Lim, & Pineda, 2011). This observation instrument will be used to measure the occurrence of observable teaching practices that are aligned with the Literature Circle training. Results: This research intervention proposal is being written for implementation during the 2013-2014 Haitian School year.
  3. 3. • The purpose of the reading experience will be to increase students’ achievement in reading and to provide learning opportunities that promote an intrinsic desire for the love of reading.• Through an increase in students reading achievement they will be better equipped to complete their primary schooling and advance to secondary school.• A program in which Haitian teachers are trained to provide research- proven strategies to enhance reading experiences.• Not only students reading scores will improve; teachers will also gain confidence and demonstrated improved skills after professional development. PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
  4. 4. WHY HAITI NEEDS LITERACY INTERVENTIONThe reality of education in Haiti is too inadequate, unproductive and inefficient.- Lack of government investment: Of Haitis 10 million* (20% of education budget serves 70% of the population) * (Education budget IS 2% of GDP, 2009); person population, a- Poverty ($2/day) & Extreme poverty ($1/day);- 92% of all primary schools are privatized; Tuition cost; surprising 6 million- Child labour; Over-age children; Reduced attendance;- Lack of oversight/regulation and licensed schools; are under the age of- Illiterate parents or disengaged guardians;- Unqualified teachers (which results in): 21. Sadly, only about *High rate of student repetition and dropout *Lack of reading-comprehension teaching strategies; half of those children- Low teacher salaries *High teacher turnover rate attend school. And of- Lack of resources: technology, supplies & textbooks;- Language barrier; French is imposed; those children, only- Antiquated national testing;- Lack of physical access to schools; Long distance walk; about 30% finish- Classroom/Students ratios & no individualized attention primary schooling!
  5. 5. WHATS THE PROBLEM AT AEMSA a community school serving marginalized children of povertyThe majority of the students at AEMSA have low reading-comprehension proficiency furthermore reduced when reading in French. The inability to read and learn impairs the graduation rates and leads to permanent dropouts in primary school. Illiteracy increases the percentage of students trapped by poverty.
  6. 6. AREA OF FOCUS STATEMENTThe focus of the research is to collect students academic achievement data pre/post the literature circle attended by teachers trained on metacognitive / comprehension strategies.
  7. 7. POPULATION SAMPLESix teachers will be trained by a FAU professor via online Blackboard recordings. All the students from AEMSAs 3rdFour teachers are female. All teachers are native grade class will be invited to Haitians. Their ages range from 28 to 49 years, participate in the literature circle, with an average age of 37 years. averaging about 40 students.All teachers have been teaching at AEMSA since 2000 except one since 2010. One teacher has Parent/guardian approval is required 29 years of school teaching experience. through a signed consent and assent form. Five to seven groups will be created consisting of 6 - 8 students. According to last years 3rd grade demographics, 60% are female, 91% are over the age of 8, 53% are over the age of 12 and 50% are restavek.
  8. 8. RESEARCH QUESTIONS• Are there pre/post intervention differences in the comprehension achievement of students?• Are there pre/post intervention differences in the attitude scores of students?• Are there pre/post intervention differences in the academic achievement scores of students?• Are there pre/post differences for teachers after inservice/training (awareness workshop) reflections of their own literacy pedagogy?• Are there pre/post differences for teachers after inservice/training (awareness workshop) reflections of their students literacy pedagogy?
  9. 9. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND • Comprehension Strategies IRA identified six comprehension (1) Prediction/Prior Knowledge (2) Think-Alouds (3) Text Structure strategies that research suggests are (4) Visual Representation, crucial in developing reading (5) Summarizing, comprehension: (6) Questions/questioning (National Reading Panel, 2000) • Metacognitive Strategies Metacognition has been described as thinking about thinking. More specific definitions include references to knowledge and control of factors that affect learning, such as knowledge of self, the task at hand, and the strategies to be employed (Baker and Brown 1984; Palincsar and Brown 1981) Metacognition plays an important role in comprehension (Flavell, 1970 , 1974). Palinscar & Brown identified six metacognitive strategies that help foster comprehension (1984, 1989).(1) clarifying the purpose of reading; (4) evaluating content for internal consistency and compatibility with prior(2) activating relevant background knowledge; knowledge;(3) allocating attention to the important ideas; (5) self-monitoring to verify comprehension; and (6) drawing and testing inferences. Readers skilled in these strategies seek to establish "meaningfulness" in their reading and value careful selection of strategies and of their comprehension.
  10. 10. LITERATURE CIRCLE DEFINITION• Student should spend most of their time reading texts that they can read and want to read (Allington, 2002; Ivey & Baker, 2004).• Literature circles assist the students in responding to literature more critically, while improving fluency and to creating an environment in which students can use their personal experiences and prior knowledge (Kong & Fitch, 2003).• Literature Circles combines reading, writing, thinking, feeling, talking and taking action beyond the obvious by encouraging students to get excited about literature while developing a community of learners where everyone’s input is important and valued (Long & Gove, 2004).• All literature circles share three common elements: diversity, self-choice and student initiative (Daniels, 2002).• Learn to read by reading (Smith, 1990).• Daniels (1994) defines literature circles as, small-group, student-directed meetings to share the same book with peers through discussion of the literature where the topics are chosen by the students and supported by the teacher. Each group member prepares to take specific responsibilities in the upcoming discussion, and everyone comes to the group with the notes needed to to help perform that job (pg. 13).Schlick Noe, K.L. & Johnson, N.J. (1999)
  11. 11. LITERATURE CIRCLE DEFINITION 1. Children choose their own reading materials. 2. Small temporary groups are formed, based on book choice. 3. Different groups read different books 4. Groups meet on a regular predictable schedule. 5. Students use written or drawn notes to guide both their reading and discussion. 6. Discussion topics come from the students 7. Group meetings aim to be open, natural conversations. Often the conversations digress to topics relating to the students or loosely to the books, but should eventually return to the novel. 8. The teacher serves as a facilitator, observer, listener and often a fellow reader, alongside the students. The teacher is not an instructor. 9. Students are given roles or jobs to complete for each group meeting. 10. The teacher should model how students facilitate each role or job. 11. Evaluation is by teacher observation and student self-evaluation and should also include extension projects. 12. A spirit of playfulness and fun pervades the room. 13. New groups form around new reading choices.(Daniels, 1994)Discussion prompts can be given by the teacher to encourage a direction for the students responses, such as"How does the setting affect the characters?""What are alternative solutions to the characters conflicts in the text?""What connections can you make with regard to the characters situation(s)?"
  12. 12. FORMATS FOR DISCUSSIONBonnie Campbell Hill, Katherine L. Schlick Noe, and Nancy J. Johnson
  13. 13. INFORMATION FOR THE DISCUSSION Bonnie Campbell Hill, Katherine L. Schlick Noe, and Nancy J. Johnson
  14. 14. INFORMATION FOR THE DISCUSSION Bonnie Campbell Hill, Katherine L. Schlick Noe, and Nancy J. Johnson
  15. 15. ROLES IN LITERATURE CIRCLESSummarizerThis role involves preparing a brief summary of the reading that was assigned for that days meeting. The summary should include the main ideas or events to remember, major characters, symbols or other significant highlights of the passage. Good summarizers are important to literature circles, as they can help their peers see the overall picture (DaLie, 2001). Also include important events.Vocabulary EnricherAlso called the Word Master or Word Wizard, this role is to record important words for that days reading. Words that are unusual, unknown, or that stand out in some way are usually chosen by the student. Their page number and definition is also recorded. Often students do not see this role as particularly stimulating; however, it can be a role suited to students who are still developing confidence in English classes or textual analysis.Travel TracerThis role involves recording where the major shifts in action or location take place in the novel for the reading section. Keeping track of shifts in place, time, and characters helps students keep track of important shifts in the novel. Artistic students also are drawn to this role, as artwork can be incorporated into this role as well. The students role is to describe each setting in detail, using words or maps that illustrate the action.InvestigatorThis role includes investigative work where background information needs to be found on any topic relating to the book. Historical, geographical, cultural, musical or other information that would help readers connect to the novel is often researched and shared with the group. The research is informal in nature, providing small bits of information in order that others can better understand the novel.Figurative Language FinderThis role includes identification of various types of figurative language, including but not limited to simile, metaphor, personification, hyperbole, and idiom. This may lead to discussion about the authors craft - why the author chose to use those particular words or phrases, and whether or not they were effective. This in-context identification can be more relevant and memorable than isolated instruction by the teacher of these types of tools.
  16. 16. ROLES IN LITERATURE CIRCLESDiscussion FacilitatorThis role involves developing a list of questions that the group might discuss about the section of the novel to be discussed for that meeting. Questions should be designed to promote lively conversation and insights about the book; they should be open-ended and should not be "yes/no" questions. A student with this task asks these questions to the group to prompt discussion; overall, the job is to keep the group talking and on-task. Questions that a student might ask could be: "What was going through your mind when you read this passage?" or "How did the main character change as a result of this incident?"LocatorThis role involves locating a few significant passages of text that are thought-provoking, funny, interesting, disturbing, or powerful. The quotations are copied down with properly cited page numbers. A student with this task can read the passages out loud him/herself or ask other group members to read as well. Commentary and discussion will be generated from these passages.IllustratorAs the term implies, this job entails drawing, sketching, or painting a picture, portrait or scene relating to the appropriate section of the novel. Collages from magazines, images from the internet, and other media can also be used. The student with this role then shares the artwork with the group, explaining the passage(s) that relate to the art. Often students who do not like to write do very well with this role. The pictures usually generate interesting group conversations.ConnectorThis role involves locating several significant passages in the novel and connecting these passages to real life. The connections might relate to school, friends or family, home, the community, or they might relate to movies, celebrities, the media etc. Students should also feel free to connect incidents or characters with other books that they have read. Of all the roles, this role is often the most personal in its focus.
  17. 17. DATA COLLECTION METHODOLOGYHow will the data be collected?Observations • On-going teacher observation and active participation in group discussions is critical in assessing student progress both individually and in whole group. Daniels (1994) notes that most assessment should be formative, ensuring that students are provided with timely feedback to learn more effectively. Observations can meet such formative assessment criteria.Portfolios • Collections of student products, collected and assembled in a meaningful fashion, provide the opportunity for reflection, discussion, response to the book, and displaying a students best work. Portfolios can take on many forms, ranging from writing, art, video/audiotapes, learning logs, student journals, personal responses etc. (Daniels, 1994).How often will the data be collected? • At every scheduled discussion.
  18. 18. SELECTION OF LITERATURECompelling content -- action, suspense, dialogue, humor, controversy: Most teachers look for books in which the story blasts off from the first few pages. Books with action and conflict automatically prompt response. As Janine King said, "If students disagree with what the characters are doing, theyll talk. If they think the characters making some bad choices, they can get pretty riled up and want to talk about that, too."Realistic characters: As readers, we all want characters we can come to know, characters so real that they could walk down the street with us.Picture books with strong, colorful illustrations that support the story: Illustrations can be as important as story content in sparking response, particularly for beginning readers.* Monson, D. (1995). Choosing books for literature circles
  19. 19. PROCEDURES READING PROGRAM The reading program will be implemented in twoSETTINGS phases.Several classrooms at AEMSA Primary School where the • First, the teachers will be trained on reading students reside will serve as pedagogy for struggling students, with a the primary setting for significant emphasis on strategies that are delivering the reading appropriate for low income students. program. Furthermore, hands-on practice in writingTeachers will receive their lesson plans, creating literacy activities, and training via online Blackboard selecting and using appropriate reading recordings provided by an resources will be provided. FAU professor over the course of a one-week period. • The second phase is the delivery of the reading program to students. The reading program will occur once a week for the entirety of the academic school year.
  20. 20. INSTRUMENTS AND RESOURCESWill use a Teacher Exit Reflection Survey developed and validated by a team of seven FAU faculty members and doctoral students with expertise in reading instruction. The survey utilize a retrospective design in order to collect information about both their growth as well as the students tutored. Demographic information, tutor changes in confidence, knowledge, and skills, and student changes in attitude and reading skills will be solicited using quantitative and qualitative formats. A state-administered reading test, will be utilized in obtaining both pre- and post- intervention scores.
  21. 21. TIMELINE OF RESEARCH September 2013 - July 2014 Haitian School YearAug Teacher Training Nov Pre-assesments Population Sample • Jan Literature DistributionSep Students Orientation • Mar Reading Schedule • May Start Intervention / GroupsOct Reconnaissance Area Of Focus Start Discussion 1day per wk • Collect Data Literature Research • Observation / Self- Pre-attitude Survey assessments Finalize Instrumentation • Session Reports • Video & Photo Dec Interviews Collect Works Samples • Feb Post Assessments Post-attitude Survey • Apr Analyze & Chart Data • Jun Summarize Findings Submit Research

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