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  1. 1. Corpus linguistics in lexicography <ul><li>Group members: </li></ul><ul><li>Sarah Khairuddin (0713976) </li></ul><ul><li>Eslam Abdurabuh (0614532) </li></ul><ul><li>Nurul Diana Md. Rabi (0634264) </li></ul><ul><li>Noraini Mohd Noor (0728928) </li></ul>
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>Lexicography is a scholarly discipline that involves compiling, writing, or editing dictionaries. </li></ul><ul><li>It is divided into two related areas: </li></ul><ul><li>Practical Lexicography. </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical Lexicography. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Scope <ul><li>The basic concern of lexicography is 'word' which is studied in different branches of linguistics, phonetics, grammar, stylistics etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Lexicography focuses on the design, compilation, use and evaluation of general dictionaries, i.e. dictionaries that provide a description of the language in general use. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, </li></ul><ul><li>Practical Lexicography focuses on writing, or editing dictionaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Profiling the intended users, Defining words. </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing the appropriate structures for presenting the data in the dictionary. </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting words and affixes for systematization as entries. </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting collocations, phrases and examples. </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing lemma forms for each word or part of word to be lemmatized. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing definitions. </li></ul><ul><li>Specifying pronunciations of words. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Theoretical Lexicography: is the analysis or description of the vocabulary of a particular language, and the meaning that links certain words to others in a dictionary. </li></ul><ul><li>Related aspects: </li></ul><ul><li>Dictionary criticism. </li></ul><ul><li>Dictionary history. </li></ul><ul><li>Dictionary typology. </li></ul><ul><li>Dictionary structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Dictionary use. </li></ul><ul><li>Dictionary IT. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Corpus used in Lexicography <ul><li>Written Part: </li></ul><ul><li>Extracts from regional and national newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>Specialist periodicals and journals for all ages and interests </li></ul><ul><li>Academic books and popular fiction, </li></ul><ul><li>Published and unpublished letters </li></ul><ul><li>Memoranda, </li></ul><ul><li>School and university essays, </li></ul><ul><li>Among many other kinds of text. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Spoken Part: </li></ul><ul><li>Orthographic transcriptions of unscripted informal conversations (recorded by volunteers selected from different age, region and social classes in a demographically balanced way) </li></ul><ul><li>Spoken language collected in different contexts, ranging from formal business or government meetings to radio shows and phone-ins. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Examples of the Corpus <ul><li>Collins Cobuild. </li></ul><ul><li>British National Corpus (BNC). </li></ul><ul><li>Longman Corpus Network. </li></ul><ul><li>American National Corpus. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Relevance or application of lexicography to language learning/language research <ul><li>Giving definitions to avoid ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>As a main source for record keeping in preserving the collection of words </li></ul><ul><li>Served as a guideline on how words are changing </li></ul><ul><li>New words are been introduced and old words die out </li></ul><ul><li>Give status labels for example slang, jargon, taboo, etc </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Author : Patrick Hans </li></ul><ul><li>Objective of the study : </li></ul><ul><li>-To see the relevance of transforming generative linguistic theory to lexicography. </li></ul><ul><li>To see the relevance of using a device machine( corpus ) that can generate all and only the grammatical utterances in grammar. </li></ul><ul><li>Findings and synopsis : </li></ul><ul><li>By studying the corpus evidence for a natural-kind term spider, we can develop a sort of collective </li></ul><ul><li>cognitive profile of the word and its meaning: the corpus prompts us into considering what might </li></ul><ul><li>be said. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Corpus-based cognitive profile of the noun spider: </li></ul><ul><li>Many thousands of species of spiders are known. </li></ul><ul><li>Spiders are carnivores. </li></ul><ul><li>Some species of spiders hunt prey. </li></ul><ul><li>Some spiders bite. </li></ul><ul><li>Some species of spiders are poisonous. </li></ul><ul><li>Many species of spiders spin webs, with threads of extremely strong silk. </li></ul><ul><li>Spiders lurk in the centre of their webs. </li></ul><ul><li>Spiders control what is going on in their webs. </li></ul><ul><li>Spiders have eight legs. </li></ul><ul><li>Their legs are thin, hairy, and long in proportion to body size. </li></ul><ul><li>Spiders have eight eyes. </li></ul><ul><li>Spiders spend a lot of time being motionless. </li></ul><ul><li>Spiders’ movement is sudden. </li></ul><ul><li>Spiders crawl. </li></ul><ul><li>Spiders scuttle. </li></ul><ul><li>Spiders are swift and agile. </li></ul><ul><li>Spiders can run up walls. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people have a dread of spiders. </li></ul><ul><li>People are much concerned with trying to get spiders out of the bath. </li></ul>
  11. 11. LEXICOGRAPHY AND CORPUS LINGUISTICS (1992) <ul><li>Author : Fred Karlson </li></ul><ul><li>Objective of the study : </li></ul><ul><li>-To introduce the first English Corpus projects and its use. </li></ul><ul><li>Synopsis : </li></ul><ul><li>The systematic design and collection of the corpora, their large size, the idea of making them generally available to the research community, careful evaluation of the problems of representativeness and sampling, and, especially in the case of the Brown Corpus, full-scale computerization. </li></ul>