The respiratory system includes all those structures involved in inspiration of air, gas exchange, and expiration of CO2.It also includes the anatomic and histologic structures associated with the chemoreceptor sense of smell.
Oxygen is necessary for normal metabolism; lack of it leads to death in a few minutes. Carbon dioxide is a waste product of metabolism; if breathing stops, carbon dioxide will quickly accumulate to a toxic level in the blood. Thus our lungs, the organs that exchange O2 and CO2 with the atmosphere, are vital since their total failure is quickly fatal
Abour 3mm diameter in infant
Less than 3 yrs, bronchi leave trachea at equal angles
Inhalation – down, increased vertical dimater of the thorax
Transcript of "Respiratory system"
By: Dr. Pamela Josefina T. Fabie
Main Function Interchange of gases between the organism and the environmentExternal Respiration Internal Respiration - gas exchange between - gas exchange betweenthe blood and the air taken the blood and the cells ofinto the lungs the body
I. UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT a. Nose, Nasal Cavities, Paranasal Sinuses b. PharynxII. LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT a. Larynx b. Trachea c. Bronchi d. LungsIII. IMPORATNT PARTS/ORGANS a. Diaphragm b. Thoracic cavity, Mediastenum, Pleural Cavities
The nose filters substances in 2 ways:1. Vibrissae (Nasal Hairs) – filters out the coarsiest bosied like insects2. Air currents passing over the moist mucosa in curved pathways deposit fine particles like dust, powder and smoke. Wave back and forth about 12 times per minute
These are hollow cavities located around the nasal cavities, lined by mucous membranes continuous with that of the nasal cavities.FUNCTIONS: a. Lightens the bones of the skull b. Provide mucous for the nasal cavity c. Act as resonating chambers during phonation
- 5 inches in length;extends from the base ofthe skull to the esophagus• Nasopharynx• Oropharynx• Laryngopharynx
- Aka “VOICEBOX”- Connects the pharynx to the trachea- Function:- a. phonation- b. protective sphincter
CARTILAGES:UNPAIRED – thyroid, cricoid and epiglottisPAIRED – arytenoid, cuneiform and corniculate
THYROID CARTILAGE- largest;triangular in shape,; aka “Adam’sapple”CRICOID CARTILAGE – mostinferior; shaped like a signet ringARYTENOIDS – small; attached tothe superior portion of thecricoid; pyramidal in shapeCUNEIFORMS – small elasticcartilages at the base of theepiglottisCORNICULATE – smalll; conical inshapeEPIGLOTTIS – perforated leaf-shaped lamina of firbroelasticcartilage
MUSCLES OF THE LARYNX:1. EXTRINSIC – originate from the surrounding structures and move the entire larynx CN 102. INTRINSIC – found within the larynx (open and close the vocal folds during respiration and phonation)• RIMA GLOTTIS – space between the true vocal cords• RIMA VESTIBULI – space between the false vocal cords/vestibular folds (keep the true vocal cords moist in holding the breath and in protecting the larynx during swallowing of food
FEMALE MALECords are shorter Cords are longer More taut Less TautCloser together Farther apart High voice Low voice
- “windpipe”- 4.5in long, 1in diameter- Function: Passagewayof air to reach the lungs
• continuation of the larynx, and extend to approx. the level of the 5th thoracic vertebra where it divides into right and left bronchi• membranous and cartilaginous tube cylindrical, about 11cm in length and about 2-2.5cm in diameter• Composed of 12-20 incomplete or C-shapes hyaline cartilagesTRACHEOSTOMY – a procedure inwhich the trachea is surgicallyopened and a tube is placed inside tomaintain a patent airway
- Bifurcation(Carina) at thelevel of the 5ththoracic vertebraRIGHT BRONCHI LEFT BRONCHI - wider, shorter tube, lies - narrower, longer than inin a more vertical position the right(5cm), lies in almost(25 degrees) horizontal position (45 degrees)
- smaller branches of bronchi; diameter of 1mm; nocartilage in their wallsTrachea Bronchi Bronchioles Alveolar Terminal Alveoli Ducts Bronchioles
ADULT LUNG – spongy; frequently blue-gray in color because ofthe inhaled dust and soot in the pulmonary lymphaticsINFANT LUNG– pink, since no foreign material has yet entered
- thin, muscular andtendinous septum thatseparates the chest cavityfrom the abdominal cavity- most important muscle ofrepsiration
Esopahageal 3 Major Aortic Openings Vena Cava- The domes support the right and left lungs- Right dome is higher because of the larger size of the right lobe of the liver
Function: - Protection not only forthe lungs, but also to otherlife-sustaining organs of thebody (heart and major bloodvessels, etc.)- Bounded by chest wall andbelow by the diaphragm
- Divides the thoracic cavity into two pleural cavitiesMIDDLE COMPARTMENT – Boundaries Anterior – Sternum Posterior – Bodies of the 2 thoracic vertebrae Inferior – Diaphragm Superior – Thoracic inletINFERIOR COMPARTMENT – subdivided by the heart in 3 Divisions Anterior Middle (where the heart is) Posterior
The 2 Pleural Cavities are lined with pleura on either side of the mediastenum. Each lung is enclosed by Visceral pleura. Parietal Pleura (serous membrane), is in close contact with the diaphragm and internal aspect of the thoracic cavity.
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