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Raja Jai Singh’s Observatory, Delhi. The Observatory or Jantar Mantar was constructed in1724, by Sawai Jai Singh, the Raja of Jaipur (r. 1699-1743), at the request of the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah (r. 1719-48). The Observatory in Delhi was the first to be built and was one of five-Jaipur, Ujjain, Varanasi and Mathura. A keen astronomer, Jai Singh tried to calculate planetary positions and alignments accurately.