POSITION ANALYSIS OF DIGITAL SYSTEM

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This project includes learning how to assmbles a mechatronic system,having informations about working elements and their situations,

This project includes learning how to assmbles a mechatronic system,having informations about working elements and their situations,

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  • 1. TE 331 TERM PROJECTMECHATRONICS POSITION ANALYSIS OF DIGITAL SYSTEM Submitted To:Prof. Dr. ALİ KİREÇCİ 
  • 2. INTRODUCTION In this study, position control of circuit elements are carried out by using servo motor. In the control, microcontroller is used. This microcontroller is prefered for the absense of hardware programming. In the designed system, required position knowledge has been entered with button attached to system. When the system works required and realised position values are seen on the LCD screen.
  • 3. OBJECTIVES OF OUR PROJECT Learning how to assemble a mechatronic system.  Having information about working elements of a position controller such as resistors, buttons, dc motor, etc.  Being able to combine electrical, mechanical and software sciences.  Achieving a successive team work.  Making worker mechatronic system. 
  • 4. TIME SCHEDULE MARCH Fourth week Project plan is going to be created. APRIL First week Third week Circuit elements which is going to be used in the design. Information of circuit elements are going to be researched. Materials are going to be purchased. Fourth week Materials are going to be assembled. Second week
  • 5. PROCEDURE Firstly, we searched the correct electrical circuit.  Then, we researched and purchased the materials.  We find the functions of circuit elements.  Finally, we made the project report. 
  • 6. MATERIALS PIC  SERVO MOTOR  REGULATOR  POTANTIOMETER  BATTERY  LCD  BREAD BOARD 
  • 7. SERVO MOTOR Servo motors are used in closed loop control systems in which work is the control variable. The digital servo motor controller directs operation of the servo motor by sending velocity command signals to the amplifier, which drives the servo motor. An integral feedback device (resolver) or devices (encoder and tachometer) are either incorporated within the servo motor or are remotely mounted, often on the load itself.
  • 8. SERVO MOTOR These provide the servo motor's position and velocity feedback that the controller compares to its programmed motion profile and uses to alter its velocity signal. Servo motors feature a motion profile, which is a set of instructions programmed into the controller that defines the servo motor operation in terms of time, position, and velocity. The ability of the servo motor to adjust to differences between the motion profile and feedback signals depends on the type of controls and servo motors used.
  • 9. HOW RC SERVO MOTOR WORK A servo motor consists of several main parts, the motor and gearbox, a position sensor, an error amplifier and motor driver and a circuit to decode the requested position.Shown figure contains a block diagram of a typical servo motor unit.
  • 10. Inside this box is a complete servo system including: motor, gearbox, dc motor, servo horn /arm control electrics,potentiometer.
  • 11. RC Servo Motor RC servos normally have 3 wires: +v, ground, control. The control signal is a pulse that occurs at about 50hz. The width of the pulse determines the position of the servo motors output. eatly upon the type of controls and servo motors used.
  • 12. PIC  Size of microprocessor is being smaller with developing technology and producing further small part of transistor. Today, microprocessors are used in digital clock, oven,washing machine and all of electrical devices. The microprocessor is not used single in circuit. They must be programmed and made electronic circuits.
  • 13. PIC We will need a computer to run software, allowing you to program a PIC microcontroller circuit. A fairly cheap, low specification computer should run the software with ease. The computer will need a serial port or a USB port. This is used to connect the computer to the microcontroller circuit.  We can prepare advertising board digital thermometer and we can write everything whatever we want on LCD…etc. To make all of these we need PIC, PIC programme and socket to load the proramme 
  • 14. PIC PIC microcontrollers ( Programmable Interface Controllers), are electronic circuits that can be programmed to carry out a vast range of tasks. They can be programmed to be timers or to control a production line and much more. They are found in most electronic devices such as alarm systems, computer control systems, phones, in fact almost any electronic device.
  • 15. SOCKET Sockets are interfaces that can "plug into" each other over a network. Once so "plugged in", the programs so connected communicate.
  • 16. How do sockets work? A socket has a typical flow of events. In a connection-oriented client-to-server model, the socket on the server process waits for requests from a client. To do this, the server first establishes (binds) an address that clients can use to find the server. When the address is established, the server waits for clients to request a service. The server performs the client’s request and sends the reply back to the client. The two endpoints establish a connection, and bring the client and server together.
  • 17. BREAD BOARD  A breadboard (protoboard) is a construction base for prototype of electronics. The term is commonly used to refer to solderless breadboard (plugboard).
  • 18. BREADBOARD Because the solderless breadboard does not require soldering, it is reusable. This makes it easy to use for creating temporary prototypes and experimenting with circuit design. Older breadboard types did not have this property. A stripboard (veroboard) and similar prototyping printed circuit boards, which are used to build permanent soldered prototypes or one-offs, cannot easily be reused. A variety of electronic systems may be prototyped by using breadboards, from small analog and digital circuits to complete central processing units (CPUs).
  • 19. Regulator  A Voltage Regulator is an integrated circuit that outputs a specified DC voltage. Voltage regulators are necessary in applications where a certain constant and consistent level of DC voltage is needed in a circuit. A circuit may need a consistent DC voltage of 3.3 volts. There are 3.3 voltage regulators.
  • 20.   REGULATOR A circuit may need a consistent DC voltage of 9 volts. Then the circuit designer would use a 9volt regulator to provide 9 volts consistently to a circuit. You probably get the point by now. A voltage regulator is used in applications in circuits where a specific, constant DC voltage output is needed.
  • 21. REGULATOR  Voltage regulators are widely used in variety of electronic circuits. This is because electronic components, especially microelectronic circuits, which contain components such as ICs(integrated circuits), would fry if they were supplied with high voltage.  They are voltage-sensitive devices and would be destroyed and rendered nonfunctional and useless with high voltage. These devices function only on low voltage, so they are used in conjunction with voltage regulators, which outputs low DC voltage.
  • 22. How to Connect a Voltage Regulator in a Circuit Voltage Regulator (regulator), usually having three legs, converts varying input voltage and produces a constant regulated output voltage. They are available in a variety of outputs.  The most common part numbers start with the numbers 78 or 79 and finish with two digits indicating the output voltage. 
  • 23. Pin no •1 •2 •3 function • İnput voltage (5V-18V) • Ground (0V) • Regulated output 5V (4.8 V-5.2V) name • İnput • Ground • output The number 78 represents positive voltage and 79 negative one. The 78XX series of voltage regulators are designed for positive input. And the 79XX series is designed for negative input.
  • 24. REGULATOR  Pin 1 is the Input Pin. The output voltage of whatever voltage source you want to regulate down is fed into this pin. So for instance, if you have 10 volts coming from a transformer that you want regulated down to 5 volts, the output of the transformer is fed into the regulator input (pin 1) so that the regulator can regulate it down to your wanted voltage (5 volts). The voltage regulator should always be fed as smooth of a DC signal as possible so it can regulate it
  • 25.   REGULATOR Pin 2 is ground. It hooks up to the ground in our circuit. Without ground, the circuit couldn't be complete because the voltage wouldn't have electric potential and the circuit wouldn't have a return path. Ground is essential. Pin 3 is the output pin. This is the pin that gives out the regulated voltage, which, in this case, is 5 volts. At the end of this experiment, when our circuit is hooked up, we're going to read out the voltage with a multimeter and it should give out close to 5 volts.
  • 26. POTENTIOMETER In electrical engineering parlance, the term "potentiometer" is used in either one of two ways. It may refer to an instrument that measures an unknown emf or voltage by comparing it to a standard emf. In this capacity, it is functioning as a null instrument; it permits precision measurement by adjusting a value of a circuit element until a meter reads zero. Alternatively, "potentiometer" may refer to an electronic component that is used to vary resistance in a circuit
  • 27. POTENTIOMETER  Digital potentiometers are active devices.  Conventional potentiometers are passive devices with no electronic parts.  Digital potentiometers which are used to replace the conventional mechanical potentiometer sand they offer the advantages that they are programmable.  Their main advantage is that the resistance is programmable and it can be adjusted automatically by a microprocessor or a microcontroller.
  • 28. Elements of potentiometer
  • 29. POTENTIOMETER  A potentiometer is also referred to as a variable resistor or pot. They have three terminals, where the one in the middle is known as the wiper, and the other two are known as ends.  The wiper is a movable contact where resistance is measured with respect to it and either one of the end terminals.
  • 30. B20K POTENTIOMETER - Shaft Diameter: 6mm - Shaft Length (Included Thread Portion): 15mm - Thread Portion Length: 7mm - Whole Length Included Base: 25mm - Base Diameter: 17mm - Cut Size: 7mm
  • 31. How does a potentiometer work?  Potentiometers work by having a resistive element inside. Both end terminals are attached to it, and do not move. The wiper travels along the strip when the knob is turned. The closer the wiper is to the end terminal it is wired in conjunction with, the less the resistance, because the path of the current will be shorter. The further away it moves from the terminal, the greater the resistance will be.
  • 32. How does a potentiometer work?  The symbol for a potentiometer is the same one as a resistor, save for an arrow in the middle. In a circuit where they are used strictly as variable resistors or rheostats, only two terminals are wired to the other components. All three terminals are wired separately when they function as voltage dividers. Light dimmers in houses and volume controls on electronics are two common applications. Others include switches and position sensors.
  • 33. BATTERY A battery is a device that converts chemical energy directly to electrical energy.  GP 1604G 9V Carbon-zinc Battery is used in Cameras, toys and many other electronic devices, it can provide extensive long power life and work effectively and keep longer time than other batteries. 
  • 34. Features •New battery •High quality and durable •Provides excellent continuous power sources to your device •High energy density, long life battery •This battery has an extra long life for all your battery •powered devices •Fit for Microphone, MP3/MP4 Player, electronic toys and •other electronic devices
  • 35. • • • • • • • Specifications Type / BrandGP 1604G 6F22 carbonzinc battery Voltage /9V Weight / 37g / 1.31 oz Color / GoldPackage Includes 1 x GP 1604G 9V Carbon-zinc Battery Green
  • 36. Product Overview Innovaties LCD 2x16 A Module provides versatile display functions. Through itssimple connections, it can be controlled by Innovatis BASIC Commander for a widerange of LCD applications. In this module, two display lines, each with 16 characters on each line can be displayed. By using the cursor control command, the position ofthe character to be displayed on the screen can be arbitrarily changed. In this module,the backlight function can be used to change the backlight to allow the message tobe read easily. In addition, it can be configured to display user defined characters to display any specially required characters.
  • 37. Product Features         It can be used to display corresponding characters in ASCII code. The module will automatically convert and display the data according to its data type. 255 steps backlight control. For continuous inputs, the module will carriage return automatically Cursor position assignment and Tab function with configurable Tab steps and HOME function. Destructive backspace, clear to end of line or end of screen from the cursor position. Set the user defined characters to display various creative characters. Display off command to reduce power consumption.