FRICTION SPINNING TECHNOLOGY, (M.S)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
30,050
On Slideshare
30,050
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
130
Comments
0
Likes
1

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. TE 550 NEW METHODS OF YARN PRODUCTION FRICTION SPINNING 1 SUBMITTED TO : PROF.DR.ALİ KİRECCİ SUBMITTED BY: AYBALA ÖZCAN DEPARTMENT: TEXTILE TECHN. BY TEXTILE ENG.
  • 2. ABSTRACT Friction Spinning or Dref Spinning is a textile technology that  suitable for spinning coarse counts of yarns and technical corewrapped yarns.   Dref yarns are bulky, with low tensile strength making them  suitable for blankets and mop yarns, they can be spun  from asbestos, carbon fibres and make filters was water  systems.  Yarns such as Rayon and Kevlar can be spun using this method.  The technology was developed around 1975 by Dr. Ernst  Fehrer.[1]  2
  • 3. INTRODUCTION With the advent of modern spinning systems, frictional  properties of fiber assemblies have gained technical importance  because of the role played by interfiber friction. Amongst the spinning systems, DREF provides a good platform  for production of core spun yarns due its spinning principle.  It offers less spinning tension to the core and core will be  positioned exactly at the center of the yarn.  Friction (DREF) spinning system is also known as an Open-end or  Core sheath type of spinning system. 3
  • 4. FRICTION SPINNING Features Of Friction Spinning Yarn properties: low tensile strength Good uniformity,high production rates Application: yarns for knitting; terry yarns; weft yarns Advantages: low manufacturing cost; possibility for automation;  no fast-moving parts Features: up now no limited application possibilities; delivery  speed is independent from yarn count Low energy expenses and low labor  4
  • 5. FRICTION SPINNING According to development,the common form of characterizing  the frictional properties of yarns and filaments is the coefficient  of friction. The coefficient of friction determines ;                                                                 - the surface properties,                                                                  -the yarn                                                                  -the fabric strength,  5
  • 6. FRICTION SPINNING Development of DREF core-spun yarns unveils a path for new  products including , • high performance textiles, sewing threads and in the apparels •due to its exceptional strength, outstanding abrasion  resistance, consistence performance in sewing operation,  •adequate elasticity for the stretch requirements, •excellent resistance to perspiration,  •ideal wash  and wear performance and permanent press. 6
  • 7. Principle Of Friction (DREF) Spinning Systems      The friction spinning system consists of;  opening & individualization of fibres from slivers,  reassembling of individualized fibres ( collecting),   twisting (imparting the strength by twisting), withdrawing newly yarn formation, winding of yarn. ( a cross-wound package) 7
  • 8. SCHEMATIC VIEW OF FRICTION SPINNING SYSTEM Following process line 8 Fig.1-SchematicView of Friction Spinning
  • 9. Basic Working Principle Of Friction (Dref) Spinning 1-opened fibers 2-roller 3-rotating drums  The figure 2 describes the  DREF spinning principle  where the opened fibres  (1) made roll with an aid  of a mechanical roller (2)  for reassembling and  twisting. Fig.2-Individualizing of fibers on the drums  Fibers  are  delivered  onto  the  drum  surface  (3),  which  transports  and  stacks  the  fibers  to  the  fiber  bundle  rotating  between  two  surfaces  moving  in  opposite  directions in fig.1. 9
  • 10. Basic Working Principle of Friction (DREF) Spinning  Fig.1-SchematicView of Friction Spinning Collected drums 4 1 2 3 • •  Friction spinning uses two friction surfaces to roll up fibres into a yarn. The fibres flow freely to two rotating friction drums (3) (spinning  drums, friction rollers, torque rollers).  10 • The surfaces at the nip of the two drums (4) move in opposite direction  to twist the fibres collected in the nip. 
  • 11. Basic Working Principle of Friction Spinning Collected drums Following process line Fig.1-SchematicView of Friction Spinning •   The yarn is formed  from inside outwards,  by the superimposition  of twisting of individual  fibres. • 4 Therefore twists by  fiber arrangement are  generated. • Due to separate yarn  winding and method of  twist insertion, it has  capability to go for high  production rate. 11
  • 12. Basic Working Principle of Friction Spinning  The twisting rate in friction spinning is related to the drum rpm, drum diameter and yarn diameter as indicated below.  Because of the very large ratio between the drum and yarn diameters, the rotational speed of the drums need not be high, provided adequate twist efficiency is achieved.  The twist efficiency is reduced due to the slippage between the yarn in the nip and the drum surfaces. It is possible to have a twist efficiency as low as 40%. But even allowing for this, friction spinning is still the most efficient way of inserting twist to fibres, because twist is directly applied 12 to yarn end.
  • 13. YARN FORMATİON İN FRİCTİON SPİNNİNG SYSTEM The mechanism of yarn formation is quite complex. It consists of three distinct operations, namely: Feeding of fibers, Fibers integration Twist insertion. 13
  • 14. YARN FORMATİON İN FRİCTİON SPİNNİNG SYSTEM 1-FEEDING The individualized fibers are transported by air currents and deposited in the spinning zone.  The mode of fiber feed has a definite effect on fiber extent and fiber configuration in yarn and on its properties. There are two methods of fibre feed : a)Direct feed b)Indirect feed. 14
  • 15. YARN FORMATİON İN FRİCTİON SPİNNİNG SYSTEM  FEEDING In case of direct feed, fibers are fed directly (b) or forward guidance onto the rotating fiber mass that outer part of the yarn tail. In indirect feed (c ) or bacward guidance, fibers are first accumulated on the ingoing roll and then transferred to the yarn tail. Figure 3 (b) and (c) are showing the above methods of fiber feed. 15 Fig.3-Direct and Indirect Fiber Feeding Methods
  • 16. YARN FORMATİON İN FRİCTİON SPİNNİNG SYSTEM  2-FIBERS INTEGRATION: The fiber orientation is highly dependent on the decelerating fibers arriving at the assembly point through the turbulent flow. The fibers in the friction drum have two probable methods for integration of incoming fibres to the sheath.  One method, the fiber assembles completely on to perforated drum before their transfer to the rotating sheath.  In the other method, fibers are laid directly on to rotating 16 sheath.
  • 17. YARN FORMATİON İN FRİCTİON SPİNNİNG SYSTEM  3-TWIST INSERTION: In friction spinning, the fibers are applied twist with more or less one at a time without cyclic differentials in tension in the twisting zone. Therefore, fiber migration may not take place in friction spun yarns. The mechanism of twist insertion for core type friction spinning and open end friction spinning are different,which are described next slayt. 17
  • 18. YARN FORMATİON İN FRİCTİON SPİNNİNG SYSTEM  TWIST INSERTION: a-In Core Type Friction Spinning  Core is made of a filament or a bundle of staple fibers is false twisted by the spinning drum.  The sheath fibers are deposited on the false twisted core surface and are wrapped helically over the core with varying helix angles.  It is believed that the false twist in the core gets removed once the yarn is emerged from the spinning drums, so that this yarn has virtually twist less core. 18
  • 19. YARN FORMATİON İN FRİCTİON SPİNNİNG SYSTEM  TWIST INSERTION: b-In Open End Type Friction Spinning    The fibers in the yarn are integrated as stacked cone. The fibers in the surface of the yarn found more compact and good packing density than the axial fibres in the yarn. The Figure 4 shown the arrangement of fibers in the DREF-3 yarn as stacked cone shape . 19
  • 20. COMPARE WITH RING SPINNING AND ROTOR SPINNING.. Unlike ring spinning and rotor spinning, friction spinning imposes very little tension to the yarn.  So the ends-down rate in friction spinning is very low and the yarn can be withdrawn from the nip of the drums at a very high speed, say 300 m/min. This makes friction spinning more productive than ring and rotor spinning.  Similar to rotor spinning, friction spinning uses sliver feed and tooth drafting.  20
  • 21. DEVELOPMENT CATEGORİES OF FRİCTİON SPİNNİNG  DREF-1  DREF-2  DREF-3  DREF-5  DREF-2000  DREF-3000 21
  • 22. TECHNOLOGİCAL DEVELOPMENTS OF DREF SYSTEM  ‘Dref’ is the trade name given to the machine based on friction spinning system, which was developed by Dr E Fehrer of Austria. This process is primarily suited to spin coarser and recycled yarns but most suitable to spin technical yarn. Today, Dref is only spinning machine, which got commercial success.  The different versions of the machine are DREF-1, DREF-2, DREF-3, DREF5, DREF-2000 and DREF-3000. DREF-1 friction spinning system has single friction drum (fig.5), where as DREF-2 has two friction drums (fig.6). 22 Fig.5-Dref-1Schematic Fig. (Single Drum) Fig.6-Dref-2 Schematic Fig. (Double Drum)
  • 23. TECHNOLOGİCAL DEVELOPMENTS OF DREF SYSTEM  Dref-2 is one of the earliest friction spinning machines introduced in the market somewhere around 1977 primarily for long staple fibers to produce coarser yarns was exhibited in the year 1975 at ITMA exhibition.  Dr Ernst Fehrer began work on the development of the DREF 3 friction spinning system, which was first presented to the public at the 1979 international textile machinery exhibition (ITMA'79) in Hanover.  Dref-3 is a development over of Dref-2 system for improving the quality of yarn,productivity and count range came to the market in the year 1981,and this is a core-sheath type spinning arrangement and produce component yarns which can not be produce by other spinning machines(Fig.7-Dref 3 ). Fig.7-Dref-3 Process Schema 23
  • 24. Technological Developments Of Dref System Dref -2 End-Uses Areas Blankets for the homes, hotels, hospitals, camping, military uses, plaids etc. Cleaning rags and mops from cotton waster and various waste-blends Deco- and upholstery fabrics (fig.8) Outerwear and leisure-wear Filter cartridges for liquid filtration Secondary carpet backing for tufting carpets Canvas and tarpaulins for the military and civil sectors Fif.8-upholstery fabrics High-tenacity core yarn for ropes, transport and conveyor belts Asbestos substitutes for heavy protective clothing (protective gloves, aprons etc) packing, gaskets, clutch and brake-linings, flame retardant fabrics etc. Filter yarns for the cable, shoe and carpet industries Carpet Yarns (Berber carpets, hand-woven and hand-knotted carpets) and filler weft yarns for carpets. 24
  • 25. TECHNOLOGİCAL DEVELOPMENTS OF DREF SYSTEM Dref 5 was developed by Schalafhorst, Suessen and Fehrer after Dref 3,but this spinning system was not commercialized due to to various technical difficulties.  In 1999 ,Dref 2000 was demonstrated at ITMA exhibition (fig.9).  It has ‘S’ and ‘Z’ direction is possible without mechanical alterations to the machine.And this machine also has dust extraction for secondary fibers and low energy costs due to the use of only  Fig.9-Dref 2000 25
  • 26. TECHNOLOGİCAL DEVELOPMENTS OF DREF SYSTEM Dref-3 spinning system has advantages over Dref-2 which are; oThe sheath fibers are attached to the core fibers by the false twist generated by the rotating action of drums.[fig.10] oTwo drafting units are used in this system, one for the core fibers and other for the sheath fibers 26 Fig.10-Dref-3 Schematic Figure
  • 27. TECHNOLOGİCAL DEVELOPMENTS OF DREF SYSTEM Dref 2000 End-Uses Areas Blankets for the homes, hotels, hospitals, camping, military uses, plaids etc. Deco- and upholstery fabrics Outerwear and leisure-wear Filter cartridges for liquid filtration Secondary carpet backing for tufting carpets (fig.11) Canvas and tarpaulins for the military and civil sectors High-tenacity core yarn for ropes, transport and conveyor belts Asbestos substitutes for heavy protective clothing (protective gloves, aprons etc) packing, gaskets, clutch and brake-linings, flame retardant fabrics etc. Filter Yarns for the cable, shoe and carpet industries Carpet Yarns (Berber carpets, hand-woven and handknotted carpets) and filler weft yarns for carpets. (fig.9) Fig.11-Dref 2000 end uses,Gloves and secondary carpet backing yarns,TBA Textiles 27
  • 28. TECHNOLOGİCAL DEVELOPMENTS OF DREF SYSTEM   Fig.12- Dref 3000 The latest innovation of spinning system is exhibited in the ITMA 2003, the first public appearance of the DREF 3000 was made. Higher bobbin weights through 200 mm winding traverse was used (fig.12). Apart from other dref types,in Dref 3000,the drafting unit can handle all types of synthetic fibres. 28
  • 29. TECHNOLOGİCAL DEVELOPMENTS OF DREF SYSTEM Dref 3000 End UsesArea Backing fabrics for printing, electrical insulation, hoses, filter fabrics Hot air filtration and wet filtration in food and sugar industries. Clutch lining and brake lining for automotive industries.(fig.13) Fire resistant protecting clothing,aircraft and contract carpeting, Conveyor and transport belts. Composites for aviaton and automotive industries. Fig.13-Brake linings for auotomotive industry produced by Dref 3000 method. 29
  • 30. TECHNOLOGİCAL DEVELOPMENTS OF DREF SYSTEM Dref 3000 spinning system has a drafting unit can handle all types of synthetic fibres such as; aramid, FR and pre-oxidized fibres, polyamides, glass fibers in blends phenol resin fibres (e.g. Kynol), melamine fibres (e.g. Basofil), melt fibres (e.g. PA, PES, PP), natural fibres (wool, cotton, jute, linen, flax, etc.), Dref 3000 has some advantages over other friction systems ; Production of both ‘S’ and ‘Z’ yarns at any time without mechanical alterations to the machine. Reduced yarn preparation costs due to high sliver weights (card slivers) Higher Bobbin weights through 200mm winding traverse. DREF 3000 core yarns offer high output, breakage-free spinning and weaving mill operation and thus up to 95% efficiency can be achieved. 30
  • 31. SPINNING TENSION FOR DREF YARNS   Friction spun yarns have less spinning tension during the yarn formation.(Fig.14) Due to less tension during the spinning the core component can be placed exactly at the centre of the yarn. Fig.14-Spinning Tension for DREF Ring and Rotor Yarns 31
  • 32. PROPERTIES OF FRICTION SPUN YARNS  Friction spun yarns (DREF) yarns have bulky appearance (100-140% bulkier than the ring spun yarns).  The twist is not uniform and found with loopy yarn surface.  Usually weak as compared to other yarns.  The yarns possess only 60% of the tenacity of ring-spun yarns and about 90% of rotor spun-yarns.  The breaking elongation of ring, rotor and friction spun yarns is equal. 32
  • 33. PROPERTİES OF FRİCTİON SPUN YARNS      Depending on the type of fiber, the differences in strength of these yarns differ in magnitude.  100% polyester yarns-strength deficiency is 32%  100% viscose yarns-it ranges from 0-25% In polyester-cotton blend, DREF yarns perform better than their ringspun counterparts.  70/30% blend yarn-superior in strength by 25% DREF yarns are inferior in terms of unevenness, imperfections, strength variability and hairiness. The friction spun yarns are more hairy than the ring spun yarns DREF yarns are most irregular in terms of twist and linear density while ring spun yarns are most even. 33
  • 34. PROPERTIES OF HYBRID YARNS/DREF CORE YARNS If one yarn creates out of 2 or more single yarn components is called hybrid yarn. Hybrid yarns are used;  For reinforced plastic (fig.15) Yarn Properties  Core/Sheath structure with centric position of the reinforcing filament  Zero twisted reinforced filament gives best strength result  Definable fiber matrix proportion  Protection of the reinforcing filament through the sheath fibers Fig.15-Reinforced plastics produced by dref method used hybrid yarn 34
  • 35. HYBRİD YARNS/DREF CORE YARNS For liquid filter cartridges (fig.16) Yarn Properties  Huddle fiber arrangement for best filter action  High elongation values  Long yarn length knotless  Uniform yarn with high tensile strength  For heat proof woven and knitted fabrics (fig.17) Yarn properties  Flame resistance  High temperature resistance  High tear abrasion resistance  Good wearing comfort  Good care properties  Skin friendly  Fig.16-Liquid filter cartridges Fig.17-Fire gloves ,nonflammable woven hybrid fabric produce by friction method.. 35
  • 36. HYBRİD YARNS/DREF CORE YARNS  For Secondary carpet backings(fig.18) Yarn Properties  Steady high tensile strength  High uniformity of the yarn  Long knotless length of the yarn  Good non-rotating properties  High chemical resistance  Good thermal transfer  Dust free product  Electric insulation  Good dimension stability for carpets Fig.18-Secondary backing fabric of tufted carpet. 36
  • 37. HYBRİD YARNS/DREF CORE YARNS For asbestos substitute (fig.19) Yarn properties  High yarn volume  Good temperature resistance  High tensile strength  Low elongation  Cut proof woven and knitted fabric (fig.20) Yarn properties  High cut resistance  Good wearing comfort  High dimension stability  Fig.19-Ropes and Fabrics which are used marine produces by asbestos by frictipn method. Fig.20-Cut –roof gloves 37
  • 38. ADVANTAGES OF FRICTION SPINNING SYSTEM Greater flexibility of processing a wide range of fibres.  Higher production speed (up to 500 mpm).  Ability to produce multi component and hollow yarns.  Ability to generate huge no of turns per unit length of yarn with one revolution of twisting element.  The number of end-breaks in friction spinning is quite low, which results in higher machine efficiency than ring and rotor spinning.  Rewinding is eliminated.  Bulkier and softer handle than that of ring and rotor spun yarn 38 
  • 39. LIMITATIONS OF FRICTION SPINNING SYSTEM        Low yarn strength and extremely poor fiber orientation made the friction spun yarns very weak. The extent of disorientation and buckling of fibers are predominant with longer and finer fibers. Friction spun yarns have higher snarling tendency. High air consumption leads to high power consumption. The twist variation from surface to core is quite high; this is another reason for the low yarn strength. It is difficult to hold spinning conditions as constant. The spinning system is limited by drafting and fiber transportation speeds. 39
  • 40. İN COMPARİSİON WİTH OTHER SPİNNİNG SYSTEMS Friction spun yarns are usually weaker than other yarns due its structural weakness. It has been demonstrated that DREF-2 friction spun yarns possess only 60% of the tenacity of ring spun yarns and about 90% of that of rotor spun yarn.  It has also shown that friction spun yarn generally has *60 - 70% strength, *60 - 90% unevenness, *100 - 140% bulk and *requires 75 - 100% of the minimum no of fibres in the cross section as compared with the corresponding ring spun yarn.  Rotor spun yarns show the highest evenness followed by ring spun and friction spun yarns.  The imperfections were also less in friction spun yarns than in rotor spun 40 yarns but higher than those in ring spun yarns. 
  • 41. İN COMPARİSİON WİTH OTHER SPİNNİNG SYSTEMS       Further friction spun yarns are more hairy than ring or rotor yarns and are more susceptible to stripping back and thus abrading easily. In respect of yarn to metal friction, ring spun yarn exhibits the highest friction, followed by rotor and friction spun yarns for cotton and viscose fibres. With polyester fibre, friction spun yarns show the highest value of friction followed by rotor and ring spun yarns. DREF-3 yarns occupy an intermediate position between ring and rotor spun yarns as far as short hair (up to 3 mm) and total hairiness were concerned. In addition DREF-3 yarns are the most irregular in terms of twist and linear density unevenness, and ring spun yarns are most even. DREF-3 yarns also show a lower resistance to abrasion and repeated extensions than ring and rotor spun yarns. Further the twist level did not have any influence on the rigidity of ring and rotor spun yarns. But the flexural rigidity of DREF-3 yarns decreased41 considerably with increasing twist.
  • 42. REFEFERENCES 1-Wang X, Huang W and Huang XB, 1999, A study on the formation of yarn hairiness, Journal of the Textile Institute, 90 Part 1, No 4, p.555 - 569. 2-Grosberg, P. and Iype, C., Yarn production - Theoretical aspects, The Textile Institute, Manchester, 1999. 3-Klein, W., Manual of textile technology Vol 5: New spinning systems, The Textile Institute, Manchester, 1993, p.14. 4-Wulfhorst, B., Evaluation of the new spinning techniques on automation and quality criteria, ITB - Yarn Forming, No. 4, 1990, p. 5 - 13. 5-http://textlnfo.wordpress.com/2011/11/12/dref-spinning/ 6- http://textile2technology.com/2009/10/dref-3-yarn-frictional-behaviour.html 7-Friction Spinning-A Critical View ,N.Balasubramanian,The Bombay Research Textile Association,L.B.S Marg,Ghatkopar (West),Bombay 400 088,13 April 1992. 8-Experimental Study of the Frictional Properties of Friction Spun Yarns, S. S. Ramkumar,* L. Shastri, R. W. Tock, D. C. Shelly, M. L. Smith, S. Padmanabhan,Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texass,29 August 2002. 9- http://www.indiantextilejournal.com/articles/FAdetails.asp?id=4636 42