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[0] final - report hydroelectric power plant

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  • 1.  
  • 2. HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT
  • 3. GROUP-1 MEMBERS:
    • NOOR HAFIZ 2008-ME-151
    • KASHIF IQBAL 2008-ME-153
    • MUHAMMAD AYAZ 2008-ME-155
    • GHULAM QASIM 2008-ME-157
  • 4. Content
    • Overview about hydroelectric power plant
    • CASE TSUDY
    • Analysis of Hydro Power in Pakistan
    • Selection of turbine for Hydro Power Plant
  • 5. Hydropower to Electric Power
  • 6. How Hydropower Works
  • 7. Sizes of Hydropower Plants
    • Pico hydroelectric plant
      • Up to 10kW, remote areas away from the grid
    • Micro hydroelectric plant
      • Capacity 10kW to 300kW, usually provided power for small community or rural industry in remote areas away from the grid
    • Small hydroelectric plant
      • Capacity 300kW to 1MW
    • Mini hydroelectric plant
      • Capacity above 1MW
    • Medium hydroelectric plant
      • 15 - 100 MW usually feeding a grid
    • Large hydroelectric plant
      • More than 100 MW feeding into a large electricity grid
  • 8. Micro Hydropower Systems
    • Many creeks and rivers are permanent, they never dry up, and these are the most suitable for micro-hydro power production
    • Micro hydro turbine could be a waterwheel
    • Newer turbines : Pelton wheel (most common)
    • Others : Turgo, Crossflow and various axial flow turbines
  • 9. PAKISTAN POWER SECTOR PROFILE
    • TOTAL POWER GENERATION (INSTALLED CAPACITY): 19,404 MW
    • HYDROPOWER GENERATION (INSTALLED CAPACITY): 6,489 MW
    • IPPs POWER GENERATION (INSTALLED CAPACITY): 6,042 MW
    • HIGHEST PEAK: 12,328 MW
    • ENERGY GENERATED: 75,682 GWh
    • TOTAL No. OF GRID STATIONS: 690
    • TOTAL No. OF CONSUMERS: 14.3 millions
    • ACCESS OF POPULATION TO ELECTRICITY: 62 %
    • HYDROPOWER POTENTIAL 41,722 MW
  • 10. POWER SECTOR - INSTALLED CAPACITY
  • 11. OVERVIEW OF POWER SECTOR
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14.  
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17.  
  • 18. SELECTION OF THE TURBINES
  • 19. Turbine Speed:
    • If direct drive is required, synchronous speed of generator should be the turbine speed.
    • Synchronous speed of generator for 50 Hz
    • 12 pole – 500 RPM
    • 10 pole – 600 RPM
    • 8 pole – 750 RPM
    • 6 pole – 1000 RPM
    • 4 pole – 1500 RPM
    • 2 pole - 3000 RPM
  • 20. Specific Speed & Head Range for Different Turbine:
    • S.N Turbine type Ns Hr Nr
    • 1 Kaplan 300 – 1000 4 m to 40 m 2.0 to 2.2 xNo
    • 2 Francis 50 – 450 30 m to 450 m 1.9 to 2.2 xNo
    • 3 Pelton 10 – 70 100m to 2000m 1.8 to 1.9 xNo
    • 4 Cross-flow 20 – 70 5m to 200m 1.8 to 2.0 xNo
    • Turgo 20 – 80 30 m to 300m 1.9 to 2.0 xNo
    • Where
    • Ns= Range of specific speed(rpm)
    • Nr= Range of runaway speed(rpm)
    • Hr= Range of head
    • No= normal speed(rpm)
  • 21. General Efficiency of Different Turbine:
    • KEPLAN TURBINE:
    • Good efficiency range for full and part load condition and can be operated up to 20% load.
    • Best efficiency=0.91
    • FRANCIS TURBINE:
    • Full load efficiency is good and part load efficiency is poor and not recommends operating below 50% load.
    • Best efficiency=0.92 TO 0.94
  • 22. General Efficiency of Different Turbine:
    • PELTON TURBINE:
    • Good efficiency range for full and part load condition and can be operated up to 30% load.
    • Best efficiency=0.90.
    • CROSS-FLOW TURBINE:
    • Good efficiency range for full and part load condition and can be operated up to 30% load.
    • Best efficiency=0.80
  • 23. General Efficiency of Different Turbine:
    • TURGO TURBINE:
    • Good efficiency range for full and part load condition and can be operated up to 25% load.
    • Best efficiency=0.85
  • 24.  
  • 25. Turbine Selection Chart
  • 26. Advantages and disadvantages of hydroelectricity:
    • Advantages:
    • Hydroelectricity is a renewable energy resource.
    • Hydroelectricity is one of the most efficient energy sources because most of the kinetic energy of the water is converted to electrical energy.
    • No greenhouse gases or other dangerous gases are produced so there is no damage of this kind to the environment.
    • No fuel is needed, therefore the price of hydroelectricity will not change if the price of fuel increases.
  • 27. Advantages and disadvantages of hydroelectricity:
    • Hydroelectric plants are generally less expensive to run than other generating plants.
    • Electricity can be generated almost straight away compared to coal-fired power stations which take several hours to start.
    • Electricity can be stored for later use by using excess production to pump water to a higher altitude facility until it is released again to generate electricity.
    • Hydroelectric plants only need a turbine and generator where as coal-fired stations need a furnace, boiler, condenser, cooling towers etc.
  • 28. Advantages and disadvantages of hydroelectricity:
    • Disadvantages:
    • The construction of hydroelectric plants is expensive.
    • Hydroelectric plants are site specific. In other words you can't build them just anywhere.
    • Hydroelectric plants can have a detrimental effect on the river flow and water supply. The construction of hydroelectric plants usually means that areas of land will be flooded. This means that habitats for animals and plants are lost. People living in the area may also lose their land.
  • 29. THANK YOU