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1 Winter / November 2011 Master of Business Administration Semester I MB0038 –Management Process and Organizational Behaviour - 4 Credits (Book ID:B1127) Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks)Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.Q1. Explain the four processes of Social Learning Theory.Ans: The Social Learning Theory was proposed by Albert Bandura. It recognizes the importance ofobserving and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. The fourprocesses of Social Learning Theory are: a) Attention processes, b) Retention processes, c) Motorreproduction processes, d) Reinforcement processes a) Attention processes: Social Cognitive Theory implies that you must pay attention for you to learn. If you want to learn from the behavior of the model (the person that demonstrates the behavior), then you should eliminate anything that catches your attention other than him. Also, the more interesting the model is, the more likely you are to pay full attention to him and learn. b) Retention processes: The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process. Retention can be affected by a number of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning. c) Reproduction processes: Once you have paid attention to the model and retained the information, it is time to actually perform the behavior you observed. Further practice of the learned behavior leads to improvement and skill advancement. d) Reinforcement processes: Finally, in order for observational learning to be successful, you have to be motivated to imitate the behavior that has been modeled. Reinforcement and punishment play an important role in motivation. While experiencing these motivators can be highly effective, so can observing other experience some type of reinforcement or punishment. For example, if you see another student rewarded with extra credit for being to class on time, you might start to show up a few minutes early each day.Q2. What are the hindrances that we face in perception?Ans: Following are the barriers to perception: a) Selective perception - People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, knowledge, exposure, and attitudes. The tendency to see
2 what we want to see using short cuts can make us draw unwarranted conclusions from an ambiguous situation. b) Halo Effect – This effect occurs when we draw a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic. But what this experiment demonstrates is that although we can understand the halo effect intellectually, we often have no idea when it is actually happening. This is what makes it such a useful effect for marketers and politicians. We quite naturally make the kinds of adjustments demonstrated in this experiment without even realising it. And then, even when its pointed out to us, we may well still deny it. c) Contrast Effect – Individuals do not evaluate a person in isolation. Their reaction to one person is influenced by other people they have encountered recently. d) Projection – This tendency to attribute one`s own characteristics to other people is called projection. This too can distort perceptions made about others. When managers engage in projection, they compromise their ability to respond to individual differences. They tend to see people as more homogeneous than they really are. e) Stereotyping – Judging someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he or she belongs. Stereotypes are generalizations about a group of people whereby we attribute a defined set of characteristics to this group. These classifications can be positive or negative, such as when various nationalities are stereotyped as friendly or unfriendly. It is easier to create stereotypes when there is a clearly visible and consistent attribute that can easily be recognized. This is why people of colour, police and women are so easily stereotyped. People from stereotyped groups can find this very disturbing as they experience an apprehension (stereotype threat) of being treated unfairly. f) First-Impression Error - is the tendency to form lasting opinions about an individual based on initial perceptions. We tend to remember what we perceive first about a person and sometimes we are quite reluctant to change our initial impressions.Q3. Describe the bases of power.Ans: Power is the ability to make things happen in the way an individual wants, either by self or bythe subordinates. The essence of power is control over the behavior of others (French & Raven,1962). Managers derive power from both organizational and individual sources. There two kinds ofpower – Formal and Informal.Formal Power consists of the following bases - Coercive, Reward, Legitimate, InformationalInformal Power consists of the following bases – Expert, Rational persuasion, Referent power,Charismatic powerPositional power - Also called "legitimate power", it is the power of an individual because of therelative position and duties of the holder of the position within an organization. Legitimate power isformal authority delegated to the holder of the position. It is usually accompanied by variousattributes of power such as uniforms, offices etc. This is the most obvious and also the mostimportant kind of power.Referent power - Referent power is the power or ability of individuals to attract others and buildloyalty. Its based on the charisma and interpersonal skills of the power holder. A person may be
3admired because of specific personal trait, and this admiration creates the opportunity forinterpersonal influence. Here the person under power desires to identify with these personalqualities, and gains satisfaction from being an accepted follower. Nationalism and patriotism counttowards an intangible sort of referent power. For example, soldiers fight in wars to defend thehonour of the country. This is the second least obvious power, but the most effective. Advertisershave long used the referent power of sports figures for products endorsements, for example. Thecharismatic appeal of the sports star supposedly leads to an acceptance of the endorsement,although the individual may have little real credibility outside the sports arena.Expert power - Expert power is an individuals power deriving from the skills or expertise of theperson and the organizations needs for those skills and expertise. Unlike the others, this type ofpower is usually highly specific and limited to the particular area in which the expert is trained andqualified.Reward power - Reward power depends on the ability of the power wielder to confer valuedmaterial rewards, it refers to the degree to which the individual can give others a reward of somekind such as benefits, time off, desired gifts, promotions or increases in pay or responsibility. Thispower is obvious but also ineffective if abused. People who abuse reward power can become pushyor became reprimanded for being too forthcoming or moving things too quickly.Coercive power - Coercive power is the application of negative influences. It includes the ability todemote or to withhold other rewards. The desire for valued rewards or the fear of having themwithheld that ensures the obedience of those under power. Coercive power tends to be the mostobvious but least effective form of power as it builds resentment and resistance from the peoplewho experience it.Informational power - Informational power is based on the potential use of informational resources.This influence can occur through such means as rational argument, persuasion, or factual data.Members of a group can make information into power by giving it to others who need it, by keepingit to themselves, by organizing it in some way, by increasing it, or even by falsifying it.Q4. Ms. Chanchal Das Gupta is a recruitment specialist. For the post of QC Manager, she interviewsthree candidates. Given below are the physical characteristics of the candidates. Candidate Physical Characteristics Mr.Ravi Muscular, thick skin, rectangular shaped Mr.Gineesh Thin, delicate build, large brain, tall Mr.Ramgopal Soft, round shaped, underdeveloped musclesFrom the above descriptions, what personality traits can Ms. Chanchal derive out of the candidatesas per Sheldon’s theory of personality?Ans: Per Sheldon`s theory of personality, below are the traits that Ms. Chanchal can derive:
4 • Mr. Ravi represents Mesomorph body type. He is “well-proportioned”. Psychologically he is Adventurous, Courageous, Indifferent to what others think or want, Assertive/bold, Zest for physical activity, Competitive, With a desire for power/dominance, And a love of risk/chance • Mr. Gineesh represents Ectomorph body type. Psychologically he is Self-conscious, Private, Introverted, Inhibited, Socially anxious, Artistic, Intense, Emotionally restrained, Thoughtful • Mr. Ramgopal represents Endomorph body type. Psychologically he is Sociable, Fun-loving, Love of food, Tolerant, Even-tempered, Good humoured, Relaxed, With a love of comfort, And has a need for affectionQ5. What are the consequences of conflict in organisations?Ans: Organizational Conflict can have both positive and negative consequences.Negative consequences: Increased costs (time, money) devoted to dealing with the conflict, wastedresources and energy spent dealing with the conflict, Decreased productivity, Lowered motivation,Decreased morale, Poor decision-making, Withdrawal and miscommunication or non-communication, Complaints and blaming, Backstabbing and gossip, Attitudes of distrust and hostility(that may influence all future interactions, (Permanent) erosion to personal, work, and communityrelationships, Harm to others not directly involved in the conflict, Damaged emotional andpsychological well-being of those involved in the conflict, Dissatisfaction and stress.Positive consequences: Leads to new ideas, Stimulates creativity, Motivates change, Promotesorganizational vitality, Helps individuals and groups to establish identities, Serves as a safety valve toindicate problems, Builds cooperation, Helps individuals to develop skills on how to manageconflicts, Improving quality decisions.Q6. Explain sensitivity training.Ans: sensitivity training is a psychological technique in which intensive group discussion andinteraction are used to increase individual awareness of self and others; it is practiced in a variety offorms under such names as T-group, encounter group, human relations, and group-dynamics training. The group is usually small and unstructured and chooses its own goals. A trainedleader is generally present to help maintain a psychologically safe atmosphere in which participantsfeel free to express themselves and experiment with new ways of dealing with others. The leaderremains as much as possible outside the discussion. Issues are raised by the group members, andtheir interactions evoke a wide variety of feelings. The leader encourages participants to examineverbally their own and others’ reactions. It is believed that as mutual trust is developed,interpersonal communication increases, and eventually attitudes will change and be carried overinto relations outside the group. Often, however, these changes do not endure.Sensitivity training seems to be most effective if sessions are concentrated and uninterrupted, as inseveral days of continuous meetings. Sensitivity-training methods derived in large part from thoseof group psychotherapy. They have been applied to a wide range of social problems (as in businessand industry) in an effort to enhance trust and communication among individuals and groupsthroughout an organization.
5 Winter / November 2011 Master of Business Administration Semester I MB0038 –Management Process & Organizational Behaviour - 4 Credits (Book ID:B1127) Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.Q1. State the characteristics of management.Ans: The main characteristics of management are as follows:I. Management is an activity: Management is an activity which is concerned with the efficientutilization of human and non-human resources of production.II. Invisible Force: Management is an invisible force. Its existence can be felt through the enterpriseor institution it is managing.III. Goal Oriented: Management is goal oriented as it aims to achieve some definite goals andobjectives. According to the Haimann, "Effective management is always management by objectives".Managers and other personnel officers apply their knowledge, experience and skills to achieve thedesired objectives.IV. Accomplishment through the efforts of Others: Managers cannot do everything themselves. Theymust have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others.V. Universal activity: Management is universal. Management is required in all types or organizations.Wherever there are some activities, there is management. The basic principles of management areuniversal and can be applied anywhere and in every field, such as business, social, religious, cultural,sports, administration, educational, politics or military.VI. Art as well as Science: Management is both an art and a science. It is a science as it has anorganized body of knowledge which contains certain universal truths and an art as managingrequires certain skills which apply more or less in every situation.VII. Multidisciplinary Knowledge: Though management is a distinct discipline, it contains principlesdrawn from many social sciences like psychology, sociology etc.VIII. Management is distinct from ownership: In modern times, there is a divorce of managementfrom ownership. Today, big corporations are owned by a vast number of shareholders while theirmanagement is in the hands of paid qualified, competent and experienced managerial personnel.IX. Need at all levels: According to the nature of task and scope of authority, management is neededat all levels of the organization, i.e., top level, middle and lower level.
6X. Integrated process: Management is an integrated process. It integrates the men, machine andmaterial to carry out the operations of the enterprise efficiently and successfully. This integratingprocess is result oriented.Q2. Mr. Suresh Kumar is the VP- HR of a leading Financial services company. He is having a meetingwith Ms. Rejani Chandran leading HR consultant. Mr. Suresh is concerned about creating anenvironment that helps in increasing the job satisfaction amongst employees. Assume that you areMs. Rejani, the HR consultant. What suggestions you will give to Mr. Suresh, for creating anenvironment that increases job satisfaction?Ans: Below are the suggestions for creating an environment with increased job satisfaction from anHR perspective: • Provide workers with responsibility-and then let them use it • Show respect • Provide a positive working environment • Reward and recognition • Involve and increase employee engagement • Develop the skills and potential of your workforce • Evaluate and measure job satisfactionQ3. Define emotional intelligence. Explain Goleman’s model of emotional intelligence.Ans: Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control and evaluate emotions.Some researchers suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while othersclaim it is an inborn characteristic. Since 1990, Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer have been theleading researchers on emotional intelligence. In their influential article "Emotional Intelligence,"they defined emotional intelligence as, "the subset of social intelligence that involves the ability tomonitor ones own and others feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use thisinformation to guide ones thinking and actions" (1990).Goleman identified the five domains of EQ as: 1. Knowing your emotions. 2. Managing your own emotions. 3. Motivating yourself. 4. Recognising and understanding other peoples emotions. 5. Managing relationships, i.e., managing the emotions of others.Emotional Intelligence embraces and draws from numerous other branches of behavioural,emotional and communications theories, such as NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming), TransactionalAnalysis, and empathy. By developing our Emotional Intelligence in these areas and the five EQdomains we can become more productive and successful at what we do, and help others to be moreproductive and successful too. The process and outcomes of Emotional Intelligence developmentalso contain many elements known to reduce stress for individuals and organizations, by decreasingconflict, improving relationships and understanding, and increasing stability, continuity andharmony.
7Q4. Explain the different leadership styles as per Managerial – Leadership Grid Theory.Ans: The Managerial Grid is based on two behavioral dimensions: • Concern for People – This is the degree to which a leader considers the needs of team members, their interests, and areas of personal development when deciding how best to accomplish a task. • Concern for Production – This is the degree to which a leader emphasizes concrete objectives, organizational efficiency and high productivity when deciding how best to accomplish a task. i. Country Club Leadership – High People/Low Production This style of leader is most concerned about the needs and feelings of members of his/her team. These people operate under the assumption that as long as team members are happy and secure then they will work hard. What tends to result is a work environment that is very relaxed and fun but where production suffers due to lack of direction and control. ii. Produce or Perish Leadership – High Production/Low People Also known as Authoritarian or Compliance Leaders, people in this category believe that employees are simply a means to an end. Employee needs are always secondary to the need for efficient and productive workplaces. This type of leader is very autocratic, has strict work rules, policies, and procedures, and views punishment as the most effective means to motivate employees. iii. Impoverished Leadership – Low Production/Low People This leader is mostly ineffective. He/she has neither a high regard for creating systems for getting the job done, nor for creating a work environment that is satisfying and motivating. The result is a place of disorganization, dissatisfaction and disharmony. iv. Middle-of-the-Road Leadership – Medium Production/Medium People This style seems to be a balance of the two competing concerns. It may at first appear to be an ideal compromise. Therein lies the problem, though: When you compromise, you necessarily give away a bit of each concern so that neither production nor people needs are fully met. Leaders who use this style settle for average performance and often believe that this is the most anyone can expect. v. Team Leadership – High Production/High People According to the Blake Mouton model, this is the pinnacle of managerial style. These leaders stress production needs and the needs of the people equally highly. The premise here is that employees are involved in understanding organizational purpose and determining production needs. When employees are committed to, and have a stake in the organization’s success, their needs and production needs coincide. This creates a team environment based on trust and respect, which leads to high satisfaction and motivation and, as a result, high production.Q5. Distinguish between internal and external forces of change.Ans: Internal Forces:Poor financial performanceEmployee dissatisfactionInefficiency of existing business processes and systemsNeed to increase profitabilityExistence of cultural misfits to organisation goals and objectives
8External Forces:Changes in technologyPolitical factorsGeneral macro-economic environmentChanges in consumer tastes, preferences, purchasing patterns & frequenciesDeclining market shares due to competitionQ6. What are the 14 principles of management of Henri Fayol?Ans: Following are the 14 principles of management of Henri Fayol: 1. DIVISION OF WORK: Work should be divided among individuals and groups to ensure that effort and attention are focused on special portions of the task. Fayol presented work specialization as the best way to use the human resources of the organization. 2. AUTHORITY: The concepts of Authority and responsibility are closely related. Authority was defined by Fayol as the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience. Responsibility involves being accountable, and is therefore naturally associated with authority. Whoever assumes authority also assumes responsibility. 3. DISCIPLINE: A successful organization requires the common effort of workers. Penalties should be applied judiciously to encourage this common effort. 4. UNITY OF COMMAND: Workers should receive orders from only one manager. 5. UNITY OF DIRECTION: The entire organization should be moving towards a common objective in a common direction. 6. SUBORDINATION OF INDIVIDUAL INTERESTS TO THE GENERAL INTERESTS: The interests of one person should not take priority over the interests of the organization as a whole. 7. REMUNERATION: Many variables, such as cost of living, supply of qualified personnel, general business conditions, and success of the business, should be considered in determining a worker’s rate of pay. 8. CENTRALIZATION: Fayol defined centralization as lowering the importance of the subordinate role. Decentralization is increasing the importance. The degree to which centralization or decentralization should be adopted depends on the specific organization in which the manager is working. 9. SCALAR CHAIN: Managers in hierarchies are part of a chain like authority scale. Each manager, from the first line supervisor to the president, possess certain amounts of authority. The President possesses the most authority; the first line supervisor the least. Lower level managers should always keep upper level managers informed of their work activities. The existence of a scalar chain and adherence to it are necessary if the organization is to be successful. 10. ORDER: For the sake of efficiency and coordination, all materials and people related to a specific kind of work should be treated as equally as possible. 11. EQUITY: All employees should be treated as equally as possible. 12. STABILITY OF TENURE OF PERSONNEL: Retaining productive employees should always be a high priority of management. Recruitment and Selection Costs, as well as increased product- reject rates are usually associated with hiring new workers. 13. INITIATIVE: Management should take steps to encourage worker initiative, which is defined as new or additional work activity undertaken through self direction. 14. ESPIRIT DE CORPS: Management should encourage harmony and general good feelings among employees.