Sustainable Paper Packaging


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Sustainable Paper Packaging

  2. 2. Packaging falls into a number of categories: § Primary –packaging in contact with the product. § Secondary –‘outers’ which hold a number of packed products as a unit of say 10 or 12. § Tertiary –stretch wrapped pallets which hold perhaps 100 ‘outers’ or cases.
  3. 3. PACKAGING Purposes: § Contain § Inform § Protect § Transport § Display
  4. 4. PACKAGING put in another way: § is a means of ensuring safe delivery of a product to the ultimate user in a sound condition at a minimum overall cost § Science § Art § Technology
  5. 5. ELEMENTS OF PACKAGING: § Materials § Design - address the issue of wastage - under-packaging cause damage and spoilage to contents - over-packaging wasting resources - goal is “RIGHT SIZE” packaging - packaging design software eg PIQET, Australia (Packaging Impact Quick Evaluation Tool); TOPS, USA (Total Optimization ); Packaging Software)
  6. 6. Materials § Metals (aluminum & steel) § Glass § Polymers (Plastics) § Wood/Composites § Paper
  8. 8. § Measures taken by various sectors to allay fears of sustainability centers around the traditional waste management hierarchy – 3R’s § Reduction § Reuse § Recycling/Recovery
  9. 9. Sustainable Development Entered the public debate after the World Commission on Env. And Dev. Published their landmark report “OUR COMMON FUTURE “ in 1987 Reiterates the most often quoted definition (Brundtland Commission (United nations, 1983): “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” needs”
  10. 10. Sustainable packaging § Is beneficial, safe & healthy for individuals and communities throughout its life cycle; § Meets market criteria for performance and cost; § Is sourced, manufactured, transported, and recycled using renewable energy; § Optimizes the use of renewable or recycled source materials; § Is manufactured using clean production technologies and best practices; § Is made from materials healthy in all probable end-of- life scenarios; § Is physically designed to optimize materials and energy; § Is effectively recovered and utilized in biological and/or industrial closed loop cycles.
  11. 11. Sustainable Development Most often quoted definition (Brundtland Commission (United nations, 1983): “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” needs” Can be conceptually broken into three constituent parts: § environment, § economic and § social
  12. 12. Sustainable Development Model of sustainable development: at the confluence of three constituent parts
  13. 13. § With paper packaging there has never been an issue regarding sustainability – its always sustainable § WHY?
  14. 14. Environmental Dependable § Made from renewable resources § One of the highest recovery rate of all packaging - almost 60% of paper are recycled § Almost total compostable
  15. 15. Socially Dependable § Produced by manufacturers who practised high safety standards – ISO 9000 series § Charitable donations from companies to community § Industry involve educating the public the importance of recycling through school and outreach programs
  16. 16. Economically Dependable § Contributing to the nations’ economy § Creation of jobs
  17. 17. So what’s the problem? §Paper packaging consumption steadily rising over the years
  18. 18. CONSUMPTION OF CORRUGATING MEDIUM IN MALAYSIA X000 TONNES 600 400 200 0 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 YEAR Asian paper Packaging Historical Data, 2009
  19. 19. §Problems in sourcing of and quality of raw material §Issue of Raw Material Sustainability
  20. 20. Social Environmental sustainability sustainability SUSTAINABLE PAPER PACKAGING Raw material Economic sustainability sustainability FACTORS IMPACTING SUSTAINABLE PAPER PACKAGING, AND THEIR INTERDEPENDENCE
  22. 22. Raw material for paper and paper packaging are the cellulose fibers § hygroscopic property (absorb moisture)
  23. 23. Malaysia being in the equatorial region has high humidity § effect on paper strength properties
  24. 24. How to overcome this problem? Yield Pt. NSSC KLB UKP Load 1 Stretch High Humidity Resistance of Various Pulps
  25. 25. Another critical issue relating to raw material sustainability is Quality of raw material § Basically most of all paper packaging in Malaysia uses recycled fibers § Problem of strength
  26. 26. Strength of paper diminishes upon recycling
  27. 27. KRAFT PULP 32
  28. 28. due to HORNIFICATION
  29. 29. § Loss of swelling ability of cellulosic fiber upon drying § due to the closure of pore spaces in the cell walls, plus § the inability of many of the pores to reopen if the fibers are rewetted
  30. 30. WETTING A B DRYING Progressive swelling of fibre wall: from A to D Progressive shrinkage of fibre wall: from D to A C D 35
  32. 32. Factors that influence Hornification § High-yield pulps, such as thermomechanical pulp (TMP), appear to be much less susceptible to changes when they are dried
  34. 34. RESTORATIVE TREATMENTS a) Refining b) Fractionation c) Chemical additives § Starches § Polyacrylamides (PAM) d) Blending with virgin fibers
  35. 35. Where do we get the virgin fibers from?
  36. 36. MALAYSIA - SOURCES OF IMPORTED VIRGIN PULP Others, 11% Chile, 4% Canada, 5% Thailand, 7% USA, 59% New Zealand, 14% Importation of wood pulp to Malaysia is dominated by USA Total imports of wood pulp in 2002 is ca. RM138 Million with a growth of 5.6% compared to 2001
  37. 37. “Let the building and other critically wood- wood- dependent industries use wood. Pulp and paper industry should opt to non- non-wood and wastes for sustainability” sustainability” Ako Norlander, Appita J. 2008
  38. 38. Pulp from oil palm biomass as reinforcement in recycled fibers
  39. 39. Palm oil constitutes only 10% of the palm production while the rest is biomass The biomass (waste residues) generated from this industry throughout harvesting and processing activities as well as during replanting is enormous § Estimated to be 60-100 million tonnes (wet) 60- Forms of waste residues: § Empty fruit bunches (EFB) § Fronds § Trunks
  40. 40. BIOMASS/PRODUCTS FROM OIL PALM TREE Fronds Empty Fruit Bunch Fresh Fruit Bunch Crude Palm Oil Oil Palm Tree Trunk
  41. 41. § An estimation, based on a planted area of 25,700 million m2, and a production rate of dry oil palm biomass of 20,336 kg per 10,000 m2 per year, shows that Malaysian palm oil industry produced approximately 56.9 million tonnes of lignocellulosic biomass in 2000. § Taking into account the proportion of useful fibrous elements that can be extracted from various oil palm components, an overall recovery rate of 75% and a pulp yield of 45%, the net useful bleached pulp would amount to about 14.8 million tonnes § VERY SUSTAINABLE
  43. 43. EFFECT ON BURST STRENGTH 160 140 Burst Strength kPa 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Pulp addition
  44. 44. EFFECT ON RING CRUSH 60 RING CRUSH (N) 40 20 0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% % Pulp addition
  45. 45. Sustainable Development
  46. 46. For a sustainable pulp production § other than a continuous supply and availability of raw materials, § the processes involved in the production of pulp and paper have to be environmentally friendly § Nevertheless, process(es) must be economic viable, if not it will just be an academic study, without having much impact on the society in the long term
  47. 47. Kraft, Sulfite Pulping Raw material Unbleached Pulp Cl2 & derivatives Bleached Pulp PRODUCTION OF PULP
  48. 48. These processes (esp. bleaching) are known to generate serious environmental drawbacks § Chlorine reacts with lignin, to form chlorinated organic compounds (e.g., dioxin) dioxin) o believed to be carcinogenic to humans based on results of laboratory studies with animals § The presence of these chlorinated compounds has also been linked to adverse ecological effects on wildlife in receiving waters
  49. 49. § And to reduce these shortcomings, it is imperative that alternative methods which are cleaner and environmentally friendly are used § ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE
  50. 50. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY § Environmental sustainability is defined as the ability of the environment to continue to function properly indefinitely § Goal to minimize environmental degradation, and to halt and reverse the processes they lead to § Clean Technologies for Pulp Production
  52. 52. “manufacturing processes or product technologies that reduce pollution or waste, energy use, or material use in comparison to the technologies that they replace” process(es) must be economic viable, if not it will just be an academic study, without having much impact on the society in the long term environmentally friendly – SULFUR FREE PULPING AND CHLORINE FREE BLEACHING
  53. 53. CLEAN TECHNOLOGY FOR PULP PRODUCTION Oil Palm Pretreatment 1. Soaking Empty Fruit 2. Washing Oily substance removal Bunch 3. Mechanical process – silica removal (In strand form) Unbleached Pulping EcoPalm Pulp™ Extended Soda Anthraquinone TCF Bleaching 1. Oxygen Bleached 2. Ozone EcoPalm Pulp™ 3. Hydrogen Peroxide
  54. 54. COMPARISON OF PAPER PROPERTIES FROM OIL PALM EFB AND COMMERCIAL HARDWOOD PULPS (UNBLEACHED) Tensile Tear Index Burst Index (mN.m2g-1) Index (Nm/g) (kPa.m2g-1) Commercial 13.21 3.14 1.0 Hardwood Empty Fruit 15.81 3.85 1.20 Bunch
  55. 55. COMPARISON OF PAPER PROPERTIES FROM OIL PALM EFB AND COMMERCIAL HARDWOOD PULPS (BLEACHED) 25 20 15 10 5 0 Tensile Index Tear Index Burst Index Brightness (Nm/g) (mN.m2g-1) (kPa.m2g-1) (x 10%) Commercial Hardwood Pulp 19.55 2.6 1.4 8.43 Empty Fruit Bunch Pulp 20.41 2.72 2.46 8.33
  56. 56. POTENTIAL PRODUCT APPLICATION(S) Unbleached virgin pulp (Unbleached EcoPalm Pulp™) which can be used in Pulp™) full or mixed with wastepaper depending on the final product Bleached virgin pulp (Bleached EcoPalm Pulp™) which can be used in Pulp™) the production of writing and printing paper
  57. 57. Yield Pt. NSSC KLB UKP Load 1 Stretch High Humidity Resistance of Various Pulps
  59. 59. Alkaline Peroxide Mechanical Pulping (APMP) process involves the impregnation of the chips with an alkaline peroxide bleach liquor in one or more steps prior to atmospheric refining, hence combining pulping and bleaching in a single operation
  60. 60. Attractive Features of APMP § High yield (85% on average), compared to 50% or lower yield of chemical pulping § High brightness – use of peroxide § Can also be use for newsprint
  62. 62. Packaging Source Reduction § Avoid unnecessary components § Eg: Toothpaste boxes have been eliminated in countries with strict waste laws § Reduce amount of material § Eg. Nike
  63. 63. Nike
  64. 64. “Lightweighting” § Lightweight packages produce less waste than packages manufactured from heavyweight materials § Requires new designing and technolgies since lightweight material generally are not stronger § Softdrink manufacturers have manage to reduce PET up to 5%
  66. 66. Design for Reuse
  67. 67. diverted 20 tons of plastic bags from landfills two years after the launch of its reusable grocery bag program.
  68. 68. Design for Biodegradable - use of natural fibers - degradable polymers (biopolymers) biopolymers)
  69. 69. Dell introduces packaging made from bamboo Packaging Digest, 11/17/2009
  70. 70. Coca-Cola begins global launch of PlantBottle Packaging Digest, 11/16/2009
  72. 72. § bottles made with nanocomposites that minimize the leakage of carbon dioxide out of the bottle; this increases the shelf life of carbonated beverages without having to use heavier glass bottles or more expensive cans § food storage bins with silver nanoparticles embedded in the plastic. The silver nanoparticles kill bacteria from any food previously stored in the bins, minimizing harmful bacteria. § CONCERNS: Because the particles are so small, these materials might be able to migrate into food
  73. 73. § Nanopartcles (eg. nanoCeO2 and TiO2) have been used to increase UV resistance in plastic packaging § Other nanomaterials have the potential to improve a variety of packaging- packaging-performance attributes such as oxygen and moisture blockage, ink or dye-free coloration dye- and increased strength while lightweighting.
  74. 74. Use of Nanomaterials
  75. 75. INNOVATIVE NEW FIBERS FOR PACKAGING through Surface Functionalization/derivatization § Moisture stable § Breathable § Enhanced strength properties to allow for lightweighting § Paper foam packaging § Controlled diffusion packaging
  76. 76. Real problem with sustainable paper packaging in Malaysia is Raw Material Solution: Use Oil Palm Biomass Fibers as raw material
  77. 77. Any Burning Questions?
  79. 79. "Don't keep forever on the public road, going only where others have gone. Leave the beaten track occasionally and dive into the woods. You will be certain to find something you have never seen before.“
  81. 81. ENVIRONMETALLY FRIENDLY TECHNOLOGY Oil Palm Pretreatment 1. Soaking Empty Fruit 2. Washing Oily substance removal Bunch 3. Mechanical process – silica removal (In strand form) Unbleached Pulping EcoPalm Pulp™ Extended Soda Anthraquinone TCF Bleaching 1. Oxygen Bleached 2. Ozone EcoPalm Pulp™ 3. Hydrogen Peroxide
  82. 82. STAGE 1: PRETREATMENT OF RAW MATERIAL (i) Soaking (ii) Washing (iii) Mechanical process
  83. 83. EFBs are obtained following the extraction of the palm oil, nevertheless, part of the oil still remains, which, if not removed will cause considerable reduction in pulp quality and its subsequent products. Hence, the first step is minimizing the oil content in the raw material
  84. 84. Fig. 1: The brown Fig. 2: The after washed coloured washed and unwashed EFB fibre water, suspected of strands. containing some oily substance, water- soluble lignin, and extractive
  85. 85. As with most non-woody material, EFB also contains a substantial amount of 1% silica, which can increase liquor viscosity thus posing problems in chemical recovery. In addition, its presence could cause abrasion of metals during papermaking and also reduce paper quality.
  86. 86. As part of the technology, a simple mechanical process has been developed that could remove almost 80% of the silica present. It is postulated that during this mechanical treatment, the silica is dislodged from the fiber surfaces as evident from the scanning electron microscope pictures (Fig. 3) and later washed out during the washing stages
  87. 87. Plate 1: Initial surface of EFB (P) Plate 2: Cracks attributable to with silica lodged mechanical treatment as evident on Q Fig. 3: The Effect of Mechanical Treatment on EFB fiber Plate 3: Removal of metals by washing assisted dislodge of silica.
  88. 88. STAGE 2: PULPING
  89. 89. Pulping chemicals used: used: sodium hydroxide and anthraquinone but with extensive modifications of the pulping parameters (henceforth called Extended Soda Anthraquinone Pulping) Either the cooking time for pulping or the pulping temperature is increased to provide extended delignification. delignification.
  90. 90. STAGE 3: BLEACHING
  91. 91. The brown color of unbleached pulp is mainly associated with its lignin component. component. To reach an acceptable brightness level, this residual lignin has to be removed through a series of bleaching sequences. sequences. Common bleaching chemicals today are chlorine and chlorine dioxide, which has been blamed for the environmental issues created. created.
  92. 92. Sequences and optimization of parameters are of paramount importance for a successful bleaching process; failure in process; either of these two aspects will contribute to an inferior quality cellulose pulp resulting in a low -grade end product. low- product. In tandem with global requirements, the bleaching treatment put forward in this work is of the following sequence: Oxygen (O), sequence: Ozone (Z) and Peroxide (P), with inclusion of several chemicals to increase the reactivity of each step. In addition the pulp was step. washed in between the processes. processes.
  93. 93. Any Burning Questions?
  94. 94. Load-elongation curve of paper at different humidities. The ends of the curves correspond to specimen rupture
  95. 95. Diagrammatic representation of changes in paper properties with relative humidities
  96. 96. Effect of Recycling on paper properties
  97. 97. H2O WATER O---H---O H BOND 106
  98. 98. Other potential uses of oil palm biomass
  99. 99. TOTAL POTENTIAL UTILIZATION OIL PALM BIOMASS (OPB) OPB PULP Black liquor Polymer Unbleached Bleached/ Cellulose Composite Pulp Diss. Pulp Derivatives Thermoplastic Thermoset Rubber Lignin Glaze material Effluent treatment using AC Lignin based Products Glaze products Soda lignin Vanillin Oil-water Anti corrosion Emulsion agent
  100. 100. Cellulose Derivatives • Cellulose Acetate (CA) • Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) • Cellulose Phosphate
  102. 102. § cellulose acetate an acetylated cellulose used as a hemodialyzer membrane. § oxidized cellulose an absorbable oxidation product of cellulose, used as a local haemostatic cellulose, (also in wound dressing) § Carboxymethylcellulose a substituted cellulose polymer of variable size, used as the sodium or calcium salt as a pharmaceutical suspending agent, tablet excipient, and viscosity-increasing agent; the viscosity- former is also used as a laxative. laxative. § cellulose sodium phosphate an insoluble, nonabsorbable cation exchange resin prepared from cellulose; it binds calcium and is used to prevent formation of calcium-containing renal calculi. calcium-
  103. 103. § cellulose phosphate an insoluble material which has the potential to be used in orthopedic applications § Microcrystalline (MMC), is widely used in the pharmaceutical and food industries for several applications and enjoys the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status § Cellulose viscose sponges have also been proposed as implantable tissue matrices for connective tissue regeneration. § Cellulose regenerated by the viscose process has also been investigated as an implantable material in orthopedic surgery, as a sealing material for the femoral component in hip prostheses, in place of acrylic cement.
  104. 104. CONCLUSIONS
  105. 105. § Pulp mills based on the oil palm biomass are attractive to our palm oil industry because of several benefits. v Firstly, it will help to decrease rural depopulation v Secondly, there will be a reduction in the outflow of the currency due to fewer imports of paper and paper products. v Thirdly, it will help create new pulp and paper technologies and also new products which are currently being developed in our laboratories. v And, finally, it will create economic growth for the nation.
  106. 106. § However, the use of conventional technology in processing oil palm biomass is of little interest due to the overwhelming environmental problems generated. v Thus to promote sustainable development, the pulp mill based on oil palm biomass should be able to operate free from sulphur and chlorine and its derivatives and the cellulose pulp produced should be of comparable quality to its woody counterparts. § The proposed environmentally friendly technology consisting of the three or five sequences meets these demands and probably even more. § Sustainable pulp production from oil palm biomass using the proposed environmentally friendly technology is definitely close to reality.
  107. 107. Being both a tree-free and tree- hazardous- hazardous-free paper, this product (EcoPalm Paper™) (EcoPalm Paper™) fulfills itself as one of the truly environmentally friendly paper of our time.
  108. 108. TQ