Food Packaging Technology

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  • 1. INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CURRENT ADVANCEMENT AND RESEARCH IN TEXTILE AND PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY 14th December 2009 Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) CURRENT RESEARCH AND ADVANCEMENT IN PACKAGINGN TECHNOLOGY WITH SPECIAL APPLICATION TO FOOD BY RUSSLY ABDUL RAHMAN DEPT OF FOOD TECHNOLOGY/DEPT OF PROCESS AND FOOD ENGINEERING UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA
  • 2. INTRODUCTION More Sophisticated Consumers Increase of Working Woman, Single Parent & Dual Income Household Change in Lifestyle (Health & Weight Conciousness) Aging Population Knowledgeable & Educated Citizens (Food Safety, Nutrition, Labelling) Desire of Ethnic Cuisine Among Various Ethnic Groups Demand for Halal Recognition Among Muslim Community
  • 3. TRENDS IN TECHNOLOGIES
  • 4. TECHNOLOGIES FOR BEVERAGE PACKAGING PET laminated container forming system Super lightweight forming technology Sterilized can forming system Panel forming system Dual co-extrusion coating system Aseptic filling system Induction heating system Foam printing system Less environmental impact lacquer and its coating system Heat-resistant, pressure-resistant and pressure & heat resistant PET bottle Two-mold blow PET bottle production system High barrier plastic container production system Multi-layer co-injection PET bottle production system Oxygen scavenging plastic container production system
  • 5. Multi Layer PET Bottles The multi layer bottles are made from PET / N-MXD6. A typical bottle will have 5 layers namely PET / N-MXD6 / PET / N-MXD6 / PET. It has excellent CO2 and O2 retention in the bottle as compared to the ordinary PET bottle. Also the multi layer gives greater strength and rigidity to the bottle.
  • 6. TECHNOLOGIES FOR FOOD PACKAGING Full aperture easy open end production system Co-extrusion technology Easy-open plastic container production system Eco-friendly bottle cap design In-cap induction heating seal Press forming system for ultra thin steel Large size cup & pouch production system Eco-friendly lamination Induction heating system Multi-layer plastic container production system Extra-functioned end production system Microwavable container production system  Oxygen or moisture scavenging technology for plastic containers
  • 7. Structure of Oxygen Barrier Cup (Lamicon Cup) Lid EVOH Adhesive PP Structure of Lid (1) PET/NY/Al/PP (2) PET/EVOH/NY/PP (Transparent Type) EVOH ; Ethylene-vinylalcohol Copolymer
  • 8. Cup with Iron foil for retort Characteristics (1) Food storage ability at the same level as a metal can (2) Superior heat resistance (3) Use for Retort sterilization Oxygen barrier type lid Iron foil White PP
  • 9. Paper Container (Renjicco) This is a versatile paper based plastic laminated normally of PET. It can withstand freezing temperature on one hand and oven temperature on the other hand. Being microwavable and ovenable, it provides convenience and can be used as a serving container as well. The container is also environmental friendly.
  • 10. TECHNOLOGIES FOR TOILETRIES & COSMETICS PACKAGING  Double structure aerosol can  Glossy bottle production system  Frosted bottle production system  In-mold labeling (IML) system  Partly injected extrusion molding system  Pump dispenser production system  Extra-functioned cap production system  Easy-to-refill plastic containers  Collapsible plastic containers  Oxygen scavenging plastic containers  Various decoration technologies: Mat printing, metallic printing, pearl-tone printing, hot stamping, silk screen printing, frosting  High corrosion-resistant internal coating system for can
  • 11. Oxygen Absorption Cup (Oxyguard Cup) Outside ; PP/Oxygen barrier/Oxygen Absorption/PP ; Inside Oxygen Oxygen Barrier Absorption PP PP Outside Inside Fe O2 O2 Fe2O3 Fe
  • 12. TECHNOLOGIES FOR HOUSEHOLD & INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS PACKAGING Solvent-resistant technology Powder lacquer and its coating system Co-extrusion (window stripe) system In-mold labeling (IML) system Measuring dispensing closure Trigger dispenser production Collapsible plastic container Easy-to-refill plastic container Easy open plastic container Various decoration technologies
  • 13. Spouted Pouch There is an increasing trend in the use of pouch with spout. Compared with plastic bottles, the amount of plastics in pouch is much lower and therefore more environmental friendly. With the spout in place, it is reclosable as in plastic bottle. However, it has disadvantages such as slower filling speed and difficult to display on shelves.
  • 14. TECHNOLOGIES FOR HEALTHCARE PACKAGING Biaxially oriented blow molding system (BOB) 2-port blown bag production system Production system for stopper with rubber disc Total engineering for fill/seal/autoclave Aseptic filling system Oxygen or moisture scavenging plastic container production system Improper use prevention system for IV bag
  • 15. Trends in Functional Packaging Materials • Light Barrier Film (U-SAVE) • Non-heating Packaging Materials for Microwave Oven • Moisture Absorbing Material • Self Heating / Cooling Containers • Biodegradable Plastics (Bionolle)
  • 16. TRENDS IN FUNCTIONAL PACKAGING MATERIALS Light Barrier Film (U-SAVE) U-SAVE is a plastic sheet composed of several plastic films laminated by special adhesive which can shade more than 95% of ultraviolet rays while it transmits more than 80% of visible light. It has been developed as an ideal packaging material which meets the requirement to show the contents while shading ultraviolet rays.
  • 17. TRENDS IN FUNCTIONAL PACKAGING MATERIALS Non-heating Packaging Materials for Microwave Oven The non-heating Packaging Materials for Microwave Oven is a new package for microwave oven that prevents heating using aluminium foil and thus able to prevent spark from occurring. This can be achieved by special design in such a way that no aluminium foil exists at edges.
  • 18. TRENDS IN FUNCTIONAL PACKAGING MATERIALS Moisture Absorbing Material The material consists of highly water absorbent resins sandwiched between plastic film and paper. It is capable of absorbing and retaining moisture several hundred times its own weight. It serves as powerful absorber and water retainer, while allowing the retained moisture to disperse as water vapour. One such example is the ‘Total-Dry’ which is a barrier packaging material which has moisture absorbing function by having drying agent to the internal layers of laminated films. It prevents deterioration of moisture and maintains stable long- term quality contents.
  • 19. TRENDS IN FUNCTIONAL PACKAGING MATERIALS Self Heating / Cooling Containers With consumers preference to have their drinks either warm or cold, the self heating or cooling containers were developed. Essentially such container will have a separate compartment in the container consisting of two chemicals separated from each other which upon mixing will give either exothermic or endothermic reactions. The reaction can be activated by having a simple mechanism such as a plastic needle to pierce through a layer separating the chemicals. A typical example is having CaO to react with water which gives out heat in the reaction.
  • 20. TRENDS IN FUNCTIONAL PACKAGING MATERIALS Biodegradable Plastics (Bionolle) More and more biodegradable plastics are being researched and developed. One such example is Bionolle which is a biodegradable aliphatic polyester. Like wood and paper, Bionolle is stable in the atmosphere but biodegrades in compost, moist soil, water with activated sludge and in sea where a large number of microorganisms is present. It can be incinerated with less problem to the furnace as its combustion heat is relatively low and does not generate toxic or acid gases.
  • 21. TRENDS IN RESEARCH ACTIVITIES •Oxygen Scavenging •Ethylene Scavenging •Antimicrobial Films •Sulphur Dioxide Emitting Films •Freshness Indicators •Improving Food by Food-Film Interaction
  • 22. TRENDS IN RESEARCH ACTIVITIES Oxygen Scavenging Use of oxygen-scavenging technology can lower oxygen levels further, or can be used to permit the use of a cheaper packaging film. Oxygen-scavenging chemistry can be incorporated into films, adhesives, printing inks or lid seals, and so can be adapted to almost any type of package.
  • 23. TRENDS IN RESEARCH ACTIVITIES Ethylene Scavenging The ripening and ageing processes of many fruits and vegetables are stimulated by ethylene. Removal of ethylene is an attractive way of extending the storage life. By incorporating the ethylene scavenging system into the packaging film (rather than adding a sachet to the package) the removal of ethylene is enhanced by the large surface area of the film.
  • 24. TRENDS IN RESEARCH ACTIVITIES Antimicrobial Films Antimicrobial agents can be incorporated into a packaging film rather than in the food itself. The film can be configured to allow controlled release thereby extending shelf life. Films, both edible and inedible, based on biopolymers are being investigated.
  • 25. TRENDS IN RESEARCH ACTIVITIES Freshness Indicators Since many foods lose their `freshness’ by oxidative reactions, films that change colour in response to the level of oxygen within a package can be used to indicate freshness.
  • 26. Some Examples of Current Researches
  • 27. AMI+™ AN ACTIVE-SMART PLASTIC FILMS FOR APPLICATIONS IN PACKAGING USING A SMART BIO-SWITCH CONCEPT DR. IDA IDAYU MUHAMAD DEPARTMENT OF BIOPROCESS ENGINEERING FKKKSA, UTM SKUDAI
  • 28. THE IDEA The term ‘active packaging’ preserves the condition of the packed food to extend shelf life, to improve safety or sensory properties. Whilst a ‘smart packaging’ system monitors the condition of packed foods to give information about the quality of the packed food during transport and storage. An active-smart packaging using a bio-switch concept is a combination technology of biodegradable polymer, antimicrobial control releaser and pH-colour indicator from Anthocyanidin extracts. It is developed to detect (I) the degree of continuous natural fermentation in food products or (2) the spoilage of non-fermented food by microorganisms/chemical reaction by pH changes.
  • 29. THE PRODUCT i.The Plastic Film – biodegradable from starch based formulation ii.Encapsulated colourant – natural, from plant extract iii.Antimicrobial Substances – varies e.g. essential oils, lysozyme, nisin and lauric acid Inhibition of E. coli by the antimicrobial film in liquid culture medium at 37 oC
  • 30. THE PRODUCT iii. Anthocyanidin Group  controls the colour of the pigment  one of the things that change the color is the level of acid or alkali  the molecules are affected by the pH of the environment  antioxidant component neutralizes free radicals
  • 31. THE PRODUCT Antimicrobial effects In blow molded plastic sheets In thermoformed plastic of film With AMI+® On-cap label film As container layer Use for dipping or coating
  • 32. THE MECHANISM  This system consists of two main mechanisms: i. The first mechanism is the bioactive substances (antimicrobial) protect the food from external microbial contamination. ii. The second mechanism is the colour changes of the developed indicator represented properly the quality of the internal packed food and sustainability of the bioactive substances.
  • 33. Project Title Susceptor Packaging Material for Differential Heating In Microwave with Special Application for Microwave Reheating Of Frozen Foods Project Leader Russly bin Abd Rahman Project Team Members - Nor Mazlana Main - Yus Aniza Yusof - Nor Amaiza Mohd Amin - Chin Nyuk Ling - Coskan Ilicali
  • 34. MATERIALS & METHODS Rigid box Preparation of susceptor packaging Susceptor board ***put a pair of susceptor board at the top and bottom surfaces in rigid box
  • 35. Preparation of puffs Conventional baking Microwave baking Puffs for testing Conventional Oven (UM 200-800, MEMMERT GmbH+Co.KG, Germany) Microwave oven (EM- B756A, SANYO Electric Co, Ltd., UK)
  • 36. Quality testing Colour changes at the top & using bottom surfaces Sensory evaluation-30 untrained panelist Minoltra Colour Reader (CR-10, Japan) (a) (b) (c) Figure 1: Puffs baked in (a) conventional oven,(b) susceptor packaging in microwave oven and (c)microwave oven
  • 37. RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS **Microwave baking without packaging application had some quality defects such as lack of desirable, colour, become soggy, shrinked and brittle when cold. **When susceptor was used, ΔE values increased, showing that the colour of puffs were getting brown and darker, more than the control colour. Besides, it formed a texture similar to the conventionally baked ones at three level of power used. **In this study, the best conditions for baking puffs in microwave oven using susceptor packaging were 270s, 285s and 300s at 340W; 165s and 180s at 500W; and 105s and 120s at 790W. When susceptor packaging was applied for this condition, it reduced conventional baking time to about 75%-91%.
  • 38. Production of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles by Chemical Reduction Using Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) and Antimicrobial Effect on E.coli O157:H7 Russly Abd. Rahman*, Maryam Joukar*, Nor Azowa Bt Ibrahim , Luqman Chuah Abdullah , Tan Chin Ping Faculty of Food Science and Technology University of Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang, Selangor Malaysia
  • 39. Introduction Silver containing composites have been extensively studied because of their strong , stable and wide spectrum antibacterial activity. Silver ions can react with cell membrane proteins by combining the thiol(-SH) groups , change the membrane permeability, generate free radicals and subsequent free radical-induced membrane damage. Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are of interests due to their unique physicochemical and antibacterial characteristics and become one of the most quickly developing area in current research .
  • 40. Materials and Methods AgNo3 + PEG (solvent , Reducing Agent and stabilizer ) Reduction of Ion (Ag+) to nanoparticle (Agº ) Characterization TEM , UV-vis Spectroscopy , XRD , FTIR Antimicrobial Efficiency Escherichia coli 0157:H7
  • 41. Results 100 90 80 Cumulative distribution Q3 / % 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.5 1 5 10 50 100 500 1000 5000 10000 particle size / nm Peaks confirmed to metallic silver references Particle size : 3.27±0.36 nm
  • 42. MICROBIAL INHIBITION Counts of colonies Inhibitory reduction Treatment (*107) (percentage%) Control 257.5 ± 159a - 10 ppm (µg/ml) of AgNPs 106.3 ± 27b 58.75% 50 ppm (µg/ml) of AgNPs 98.8 ± 60b 61.55% 100 ppm (µg/ml) of AgNPs 85.5 ± 38b 66.93% Colloidal solution 18.5 ± 8c 92.99% PEG 58.3 ± 16c 77.43%
  • 43. Research Conclusion This study presented a simple and inexpensive method for preparation of silver nanoparticles, well defined in size and nano-responding properties and have excellent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. It has high potential for application in food packaging polymers currently under research.
  • 44. Reinforced Biocomposite using Kenaf Fiber: A Study on Its Mechanical Properties Russly Abdul Rahman, Behjat Tajeddin, Luqman Chuah Abdulah, Nor Azowa Ibrahim and Yus Aniza Yusof Universiti Putra Malaysia
  • 45. METHODS The cellulose processing was carried out according to Standard Test Method, ASTM No.D1103-60. Biocomposite formulation was processed for HDPE with 0, 30, 40 and 50% of cellulose and 0, 5 and 7% of PEG as plasticizer. In order to make each HDPE/Cellulose/PEG sample sheet, predetermined amount of materials were mixed using Thermo Haake PolyDrive R600/610 blending machine. Blending was carried out at 145 oC with rotor speed 30 rpm in 12 minutes. Then, composites obtained from melt blending were compressed using the Hot Press Machine for preparation of composite sheets with thickness of 1 and 3 mm.
  • 46. Impact Strength of cellulose & PEG content in HDPE matrix
  • 47. SOUS VIDE PROCESSING SOUS VIDE (FRENCH) MEANS “UNDER EMPTY” “UNDER VACUUM” “WITHOUT AIR” Sous vide or vacuum cooking technology is an emerging processing technology in Asia and an established one in Europe since the 1980s due to its high nutritional and flavor retention Sous vide is an interrupted catering system in which raw or par-cooked food is sealed into a vacuumized laminated plastic pouch or container, heat treated by controlled cooking, rapidly cooled and then reheated for service after a period of chilled storage Sous vide Advisory Committee, U.K.
  • 48. SOUS VIDE RESEARCHES IN UPM • Storage Stability of Sous Vide Beef Satey • Effects of Sous Vide Processing on Chicken Tom Yam • Storage of Vacuum Packed Cook-chilled Ginger Chicken Soup • Storage of Vacuum Pack Cook-chilled Fried Kai Lan • Storage of Vacuum Packed Cook-chilled Maggie Goreng • Effects of Sous Vide Processing on Nasi Goreng • Storage of Vacuum Packed Cooked-Chilled Spaghetti and Bolognaise Meat Sauce • Storage of Vacuum Packed Cook Chilled Wantan Mee • Sous Vide Processing of Rendang • Preparation of Sous Vide Chicken Rice and Chicken Keel
  • 49. STEPS IN SOUS VIDE INITIAL PREPARATION PROCESSING (mixing, cooking, blanching, etc.) REFRIGERATION PACKAGING (weigh, assemble, place in package) RAPID CHILLING AIR COOKING & EXTRACTION & PASTEURIZATION HERMETIC SEALING
  • 50. Preparation of Sous Vide Chicken Rice & Chicken Keel • Time-temperature profiles and process time for sous vide chicken rice and chicken keels were obtained through heat penetration test for 5D and 13D processes using the General Method. In slow heating (75° of chicken keel, the process time for C) 5 D and 13 D processes were 26.7 and 38.3 min whereas for the fast heating (90° C), were 16.5 and 19.2 min, respectively • Sous vide products showed their benefits as better retention. in aroma and flavour, lower cook loss, juicier and more tender compared to the traditionally cooked products • Better aroma and flavour retention were obtained in the sous vide products compared to the traditional cooked products over 4 weeks storage
  • 51. Research on standards Department of Standards M’sia (DSM) SIRIM - Technical Committees - Working Group Example of Standards being Developed; • Transport packaging for dangerous goods • Packaging and storage of pesticides • Sacks made from thermoplastic flexible film •Linear bar code for product packaging • Child resistant packaging • Steel drums
  • 52. STANDARDS ON PACKAGING OF WET CARGO
  • 53. STANDARDS ON PACKAGING OF CUT FLOWERS
  • 54. CONCLUSION The modern consumers are changing continuously. Fresh opportunities are evolving all the time. Technological advances in science and technology coupled with good packaging technologies will shape the future and continue to meet the needs of the consumers.
  • 55. Question For a dual income family, after a hard day’s work at the office, who will go to the kitchen to prepare dinner? Answer A. Husband B. Wife
  • 56. Traditionally ……. this is what happens
  • 57. THANK YOU Acknowledgement: Jamilah Bakar Ida Idayu Mazlana Main Stella Johan Maryam Jokar Behjat Tajeddin Toyo Seikan