Blood Overview PPT


Published on

Medical .
Educational PPT .
Blood Overview .
physiology of blood .

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Blood Overview PPT

  1. 1. ‫بسم ال الرحمن الرحيم‬ ‫]البقرة :23[‬
  2. 2. The Blood By : Aya Atef Ez El-
  3. 3. Introduction Blood is composed of - 55% Plasma - 45% Cellular elements (RBC’s - WBC’s - Platlets) Physical properties of blood 1.Color : Red due to hemoglobin in RBC’s 2.pH : 7.3 - 7.4 3.Viscosity : 5 times as water causes resistance of flow
  4. 4. 4.Specific gravity:1.060 (of plasma =1.030 & RBC’s =1.090) 5.Osmotic pressure: 5100-5500 mmHg Function of blood 1. Act as transport medium (O2 - CO2 - absorbed food) 2. Defensive function (WBCs attack foreign organisms) 3. Homeostatic function (regulation of .water content .temperature .pressure .pH )
  5. 5. Blood volume Blood volume = 5 liters = 80 ml/kg (3L Plasma . 2L RBC’s) Blood vol. represents 80% of body weight The distribution of blood 55% in veins 7% in heart 15% in arteries 18% in pulmonary system 5% in capillaries
  6. 6. The plasma Volume: 3 liter = 55% of blood volume =5 % of body weight Composition: 1.Water = 90% 2.Organic constituent = 9% -plasma proteins = 7.1 -7.4 gm% -others = 2% 3.Inorganic constituent =1%
  7. 7. Plasma proteins Albumin Globulin fibrinogen prothrombin Amount 4.2 gm% 2.4 gm% 0.2 gm% 0.01 gm% M.W 70.000 150.000 340.000 69.000 Site of synthesis liver 1.Liver 2.RES liver liver Main Function Osmotic Carrier Defensive Carrier Viscosity Clotting (I) (II) Clotting factor
  8. 8. Sources of plasma protein 1. Food protein : Proteins with high biological value rich in essential amino acids 2. Tissue proteins : a. Reserved : 1. labile: plasma proteins stored in liver 2. dispensable: synthesized in liver during starvation b. Fixed : essential for cell life so it can’t be converted to plasma protein
  9. 9. Hypoproteinemia Definition : Marked decrease in plasma proteins Causes : 1. Prolonged starvation 2. Decrease of absorption 3. Liver diseases : cirrhosis hepatitis 4. Kidney diseases : nephrosis 5. Congenital afibrinogenemia Effects : 1.Decrease of albumin decrease the osmotic pressure edema 2.Decrease of globulin decrease the immunity 3.Decrease of fibrinogen & clotting factors bleeding tendency
  10. 10. Albumin / Globulin ratio A/G ratio = 1.2 – 1.7 It decreases in case of 1.Liver diseases as hepatitis ( synthesis of albumin) 2.Kidney diseases as nephrosis ( loss of albumin) 3.Infection ( gamma globulin as a defense mechanism)
  11. 11. The plasma Obtained by centrifugation of blood sample after adding anticoagulant 2. Contain all plasma proteins and all clotting factors 3. Clot on standing 4. Normal serotonin level 1.
  12. 12. The serum Obtained by centrifugation of clotted blood sample 2. Contains all plasma proteins but no clotting factor (I & II &V & VIII 3. Not clot on standing 4. High serotonin level 1.
  13. 13. Plasma and serum Plasma blood
  14. 14. Erythrocyt es
  15. 15. Erythrocytes Shape: biconcave non nucleated discs Volume: 90 It’s center appears paler than the periphery due to the biconcavity Structure: 1.cell membrane 2.submembranous cytoskeleton 3.contents of RBCs a. hemoglobin b. enzymes c. ions
  16. 16. Sites of formation of RBC’s According to age 1.In fetus - Yolk sac : first few weeks of pregnancy - Liver &spleen : from 6 weeks to 6 month - Bone marrow : from the 6th month 2.In infant & Child - Red bone marrow of all bones 3.In adult - Red bone marrow is restricted to the central skeleton (flat bones) also proximal ends of long bones - the remaining change into yellow marrow which can be reactivated to red marrow in case of sever anemia
  17. 17. Normal Erythropoiseis Needs Hypoxia Dietary factors Hormonal factors proteins minerals vitamins Healthy organs Liver Bone Kidney marrow
  18. 18. Factors affecting Erythropoiesis (erythro = RBC, poiesis = to make) = the process of RBC formation 1- hypoxia the low levels of oxygen in the blood stimulate the secretion of a hormone called erythropoietin from kidney and liver which then travels to the red bone marrow to stimulate the marrow to begin RBC production. 2-ditary factors A. Proteins Proteins of high biological value
  19. 19. B. Minerals 1.Iron • needed for the synthesize of Hb & myoglobin • found in meat , liver and green vegetables • requirement 10 mg/day for adult male • loss in stool , sweat and exfoliated skin -In the upper part of small intestine the ferrous combine with apotransferrin to form transferrin that is absorbed by intestinal epithelium to be stored under need -When iron content in blood decreases it is released to be used in bone marrow to form Hb of RBCs -In liver and other tissues transferrin release its iron to combine with apoferritin to store iron in form of ferritin - When body needs iron the tissue ferritin release its iron in blood to be carried as transferrin to the body where it is needed
  20. 20. 2.Copper •Catalyze the oxidation of ferrous iron into ferric state •Carried by plasma protein 3.Cobalt •Stimulate erythropoietin release from the kidney C. Vitamins 1-Vitamin b12 •Needed for maturation of RBCs & DNA synthesis •Present in diet as protein bound complex •Requirement is 1-2 Mg/day •Stored in liver (1-5 mg) •Deficiency of vit. B12 causes megaloblastic pernicious anemia
  21. 21. 2-folic acid •Is water soluble vitamin essential for maturation of RBCs & DNA synthesis •Present in green vegetables ,fruits ,liver and meat •Absorbed in small intestine and changed into active folinic acid •Deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia 3-vitamin C •Needed for reduction of ferric to ferrous and help maturation of RBCs 4-vitamin B complex •Needed for normal erythropoiesis
  22. 22. 3- Hormonal factors 1. Erythropoietin hormone from kidney and liver 1. Androgens: stimulate erythropoietin production from kidney 2. Thyroid hormone: stimulates bone marrow and Stimulates general metabolism increase o2 consumption &decrease o2 supply causing hypoxia to stimulate erythropoiesis 3. Glucocorticoids: acts as thyroid 4. Pituitary hormones: as growth hormone stimulate bone marrow 1. Haemopoietic growth factors : secreted by lymphocytes stimulate bone marrow
  23. 23. 4- Healthy organs 1-Liver •Storage of iron & vit. B12 & folic acid &copper •Formation of erythropoietin hormone •Formation of globin part of Hb •Synthesis of RBCs in fetal life •Destruction of old RBCs 2-bone marrow •Site of erythropoiesis •Irradiation, infection, toxins or tumor causes aplastic anemia 3-kidney •Formation of erythropoietin hormone •So renal failure lead to decrease erythropoietin and retention of toxic substances as urea lead to depression of bone marrow
  24. 24. HEMOGLOBIN It is the principle constitute of RBCs (33%) which is a red pigment which give the blood it’s color Structure if Hb -Globin: 2 pairs of polypeptide chains (2 a& 2 B) -4 Haem: each is an iron-protoporphyrin Hb is made of 4 subunits each formed of one Haem & one globin polypeptide chain Function of Hb •Carriage of O2 - CO2 •Strong buffer system
  25. 25. Reactions of Hb Oxy Hb Met Hb Carbamin Hb Carboxy Hb normal Carry O2 abnormal Not carry O2 normal Carry CO2 abnormal Not carry CO2 -O2 bind with fe in ferrous state -Called oxygenation -Strong oxidation -CO2 attached by oxidizing to the globin agent part of Hb -Causes dusky color of skin -CO attach to Fe in high affinity 210 times as O2 Affected by: -pH -Temperature -2,3DPG -Normal Met Hb not exceed 0.5% Due to NADHMetHb reductase enzyme Part attached to CO not carry O2 Remaining part of Hb not give it’s O2 to tissue -Binding to CO2 causes decrease of affinity of Hb to O2
  26. 26. Types of Hemoglobin Hemoglobin Adult Hb (Hb A) (Hb A2) Fetal Hb (Hb F) Glycosylated Hb Hb S
  27. 27. Function of spleen 1-storage (blood reservoir): •Stores 250 ml of blood •Sympathetic stimulation add this amount to general circulation 2-synthesis (Hemopoietic tissue ): •During intrauterine life or extrameduilary hemopoiesis 3-defensive function: •part of reticulo endothelial system 4-Destruction of old RBCs
  28. 28. Destruction of RBCs : •Lifespan of RBCs = 120 days •Old RBCs removed from blood by phagocytic cells in narrow capillaries of RES (spleen) and Hb released 1- Globin: used in protein synthesis in liver 2- iron part of Haem: stored as ferritin in liver 3-protoprophyrin part of Haem: used in bile pigments (Bilirubin) which is conjugated in liver then excreted in bile
  29. 29. Destruction of RBCs
  30. 30. Blood Group s
  31. 31. ABO blood grouping system According to the ABO blood typing system there are four different kinds of blood types: A, B, AB or O .
  32. 32. Blood group A have A antigens on the surface of RBCs and B antibodies in blood plasma. Blood group B have B antigens on the surface of RBCs and A antibodies in blood plasma. Blood group AB have both A and B antigens on the surface of RBCs and no A or B antibodies in blood plasma Blood group O have neither A or B antigens on the surface of RBCs but both A and B antibodies in blood plasma.
  33. 33. Blood transfusion   Universal Donor Group O – Carries no A or B antigens – Packed and processed units have little antibody   Universal Recipient Group AB – Patient has no antiA or anti-B present – antibodies may be present
  34. 34. The Rhesus (Rh) factor •According to presence of Rh agglutinogen on RBCs membrane 1- Rh +ve = 85 % (have D-antigen may be DD or Dd) 2- Rh –ve = 15% (no D-antigen genotype is dd) •D-antigen is the most important Rh-antigen •Normally the plasma doesn’t have anti D-agglutinin
  35. 35. • A person with Rh- blood can develop Rh antibodies in the blood plasma if he or she receives blood from a person with Rh+ blood • whose Rh antigens can trigger the production of Rh antibodies. •A person with Rh+ blood can receive blood from a person with Rhblood without any problems.