Blood Overview PPT
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Blood Overview PPT



Medical .

Medical .
Educational PPT .
Blood Overview .
physiology of blood .



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Blood Overview PPT Presentation Transcript

  • 1. ‫بسم ال الرحمن الرحيم‬ ‫]البقرة :23[‬
  • 2. The Blood By : Aya Atef Ez El-
  • 3. Introduction Blood is composed of - 55% Plasma - 45% Cellular elements (RBC’s - WBC’s - Platlets) Physical properties of blood 1.Color : Red due to hemoglobin in RBC’s 2.pH : 7.3 - 7.4 3.Viscosity : 5 times as water causes resistance of flow
  • 4. 4.Specific gravity:1.060 (of plasma =1.030 & RBC’s =1.090) 5.Osmotic pressure: 5100-5500 mmHg Function of blood 1. Act as transport medium (O2 - CO2 - absorbed food) 2. Defensive function (WBCs attack foreign organisms) 3. Homeostatic function (regulation of .water content .temperature .pressure .pH )
  • 5. Blood volume Blood volume = 5 liters = 80 ml/kg (3L Plasma . 2L RBC’s) Blood vol. represents 80% of body weight The distribution of blood 55% in veins 7% in heart 15% in arteries 18% in pulmonary system 5% in capillaries
  • 6. The plasma Volume: 3 liter = 55% of blood volume =5 % of body weight Composition: 1.Water = 90% 2.Organic constituent = 9% -plasma proteins = 7.1 -7.4 gm% -others = 2% 3.Inorganic constituent =1%
  • 7. Plasma proteins Albumin Globulin fibrinogen prothrombin Amount 4.2 gm% 2.4 gm% 0.2 gm% 0.01 gm% M.W 70.000 150.000 340.000 69.000 Site of synthesis liver 1.Liver 2.RES liver liver Main Function Osmotic Carrier Defensive Carrier Viscosity Clotting (I) (II) Clotting factor
  • 8. Sources of plasma protein 1. Food protein : Proteins with high biological value rich in essential amino acids 2. Tissue proteins : a. Reserved : 1. labile: plasma proteins stored in liver 2. dispensable: synthesized in liver during starvation b. Fixed : essential for cell life so it can’t be converted to plasma protein
  • 9. Hypoproteinemia Definition : Marked decrease in plasma proteins Causes : 1. Prolonged starvation 2. Decrease of absorption 3. Liver diseases : cirrhosis hepatitis 4. Kidney diseases : nephrosis 5. Congenital afibrinogenemia Effects : 1.Decrease of albumin decrease the osmotic pressure edema 2.Decrease of globulin decrease the immunity 3.Decrease of fibrinogen & clotting factors bleeding tendency
  • 10. Albumin / Globulin ratio A/G ratio = 1.2 – 1.7 It decreases in case of 1.Liver diseases as hepatitis ( synthesis of albumin) 2.Kidney diseases as nephrosis ( loss of albumin) 3.Infection ( gamma globulin as a defense mechanism)
  • 11. The plasma Obtained by centrifugation of blood sample after adding anticoagulant 2. Contain all plasma proteins and all clotting factors 3. Clot on standing 4. Normal serotonin level 1.
  • 12. The serum Obtained by centrifugation of clotted blood sample 2. Contains all plasma proteins but no clotting factor (I & II &V & VIII 3. Not clot on standing 4. High serotonin level 1.
  • 13. Plasma and serum Plasma blood
  • 14. Erythrocyt es
  • 15. Erythrocytes Shape: biconcave non nucleated discs Volume: 90 It’s center appears paler than the periphery due to the biconcavity Structure: 1.cell membrane 2.submembranous cytoskeleton 3.contents of RBCs a. hemoglobin b. enzymes c. ions
  • 16. Sites of formation of RBC’s According to age 1.In fetus - Yolk sac : first few weeks of pregnancy - Liver &spleen : from 6 weeks to 6 month - Bone marrow : from the 6th month 2.In infant & Child - Red bone marrow of all bones 3.In adult - Red bone marrow is restricted to the central skeleton (flat bones) also proximal ends of long bones - the remaining change into yellow marrow which can be reactivated to red marrow in case of sever anemia
  • 17. Normal Erythropoiseis Needs Hypoxia Dietary factors Hormonal factors proteins minerals vitamins Healthy organs Liver Bone Kidney marrow
  • 18. Factors affecting Erythropoiesis (erythro = RBC, poiesis = to make) = the process of RBC formation 1- hypoxia the low levels of oxygen in the blood stimulate the secretion of a hormone called erythropoietin from kidney and liver which then travels to the red bone marrow to stimulate the marrow to begin RBC production. 2-ditary factors A. Proteins Proteins of high biological value
  • 19. B. Minerals 1.Iron • needed for the synthesize of Hb & myoglobin • found in meat , liver and green vegetables • requirement 10 mg/day for adult male • loss in stool , sweat and exfoliated skin -In the upper part of small intestine the ferrous combine with apotransferrin to form transferrin that is absorbed by intestinal epithelium to be stored under need -When iron content in blood decreases it is released to be used in bone marrow to form Hb of RBCs -In liver and other tissues transferrin release its iron to combine with apoferritin to store iron in form of ferritin - When body needs iron the tissue ferritin release its iron in blood to be carried as transferrin to the body where it is needed
  • 20. 2.Copper •Catalyze the oxidation of ferrous iron into ferric state •Carried by plasma protein 3.Cobalt •Stimulate erythropoietin release from the kidney C. Vitamins 1-Vitamin b12 •Needed for maturation of RBCs & DNA synthesis •Present in diet as protein bound complex •Requirement is 1-2 Mg/day •Stored in liver (1-5 mg) •Deficiency of vit. B12 causes megaloblastic pernicious anemia
  • 21. 2-folic acid •Is water soluble vitamin essential for maturation of RBCs & DNA synthesis •Present in green vegetables ,fruits ,liver and meat •Absorbed in small intestine and changed into active folinic acid •Deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia 3-vitamin C •Needed for reduction of ferric to ferrous and help maturation of RBCs 4-vitamin B complex •Needed for normal erythropoiesis
  • 22. 3- Hormonal factors 1. Erythropoietin hormone from kidney and liver 1. Androgens: stimulate erythropoietin production from kidney 2. Thyroid hormone: stimulates bone marrow and Stimulates general metabolism increase o2 consumption &decrease o2 supply causing hypoxia to stimulate erythropoiesis 3. Glucocorticoids: acts as thyroid 4. Pituitary hormones: as growth hormone stimulate bone marrow 1. Haemopoietic growth factors : secreted by lymphocytes stimulate bone marrow
  • 23. 4- Healthy organs 1-Liver •Storage of iron & vit. B12 & folic acid &copper •Formation of erythropoietin hormone •Formation of globin part of Hb •Synthesis of RBCs in fetal life •Destruction of old RBCs 2-bone marrow •Site of erythropoiesis •Irradiation, infection, toxins or tumor causes aplastic anemia 3-kidney •Formation of erythropoietin hormone •So renal failure lead to decrease erythropoietin and retention of toxic substances as urea lead to depression of bone marrow
  • 24. HEMOGLOBIN It is the principle constitute of RBCs (33%) which is a red pigment which give the blood it’s color Structure if Hb -Globin: 2 pairs of polypeptide chains (2 a& 2 B) -4 Haem: each is an iron-protoporphyrin Hb is made of 4 subunits each formed of one Haem & one globin polypeptide chain Function of Hb •Carriage of O2 - CO2 •Strong buffer system
  • 25. Reactions of Hb Oxy Hb Met Hb Carbamin Hb Carboxy Hb normal Carry O2 abnormal Not carry O2 normal Carry CO2 abnormal Not carry CO2 -O2 bind with fe in ferrous state -Called oxygenation -Strong oxidation -CO2 attached by oxidizing to the globin agent part of Hb -Causes dusky color of skin -CO attach to Fe in high affinity 210 times as O2 Affected by: -pH -Temperature -2,3DPG -Normal Met Hb not exceed 0.5% Due to NADHMetHb reductase enzyme Part attached to CO not carry O2 Remaining part of Hb not give it’s O2 to tissue -Binding to CO2 causes decrease of affinity of Hb to O2
  • 26. Types of Hemoglobin Hemoglobin Adult Hb (Hb A) (Hb A2) Fetal Hb (Hb F) Glycosylated Hb Hb S
  • 27. Function of spleen 1-storage (blood reservoir): •Stores 250 ml of blood •Sympathetic stimulation add this amount to general circulation 2-synthesis (Hemopoietic tissue ): •During intrauterine life or extrameduilary hemopoiesis 3-defensive function: •part of reticulo endothelial system 4-Destruction of old RBCs
  • 28. Destruction of RBCs : •Lifespan of RBCs = 120 days •Old RBCs removed from blood by phagocytic cells in narrow capillaries of RES (spleen) and Hb released 1- Globin: used in protein synthesis in liver 2- iron part of Haem: stored as ferritin in liver 3-protoprophyrin part of Haem: used in bile pigments (Bilirubin) which is conjugated in liver then excreted in bile
  • 29. Destruction of RBCs
  • 30. Blood Group s
  • 31. ABO blood grouping system According to the ABO blood typing system there are four different kinds of blood types: A, B, AB or O .
  • 32. Blood group A have A antigens on the surface of RBCs and B antibodies in blood plasma. Blood group B have B antigens on the surface of RBCs and A antibodies in blood plasma. Blood group AB have both A and B antigens on the surface of RBCs and no A or B antibodies in blood plasma Blood group O have neither A or B antigens on the surface of RBCs but both A and B antibodies in blood plasma.
  • 33. Blood transfusion   Universal Donor Group O – Carries no A or B antigens – Packed and processed units have little antibody   Universal Recipient Group AB – Patient has no antiA or anti-B present – antibodies may be present
  • 34. The Rhesus (Rh) factor •According to presence of Rh agglutinogen on RBCs membrane 1- Rh +ve = 85 % (have D-antigen may be DD or Dd) 2- Rh –ve = 15% (no D-antigen genotype is dd) •D-antigen is the most important Rh-antigen •Normally the plasma doesn’t have anti D-agglutinin
  • 35. • A person with Rh- blood can develop Rh antibodies in the blood plasma if he or she receives blood from a person with Rh+ blood • whose Rh antigens can trigger the production of Rh antibodies. •A person with Rh+ blood can receive blood from a person with Rhblood without any problems.