1. ==== ====The #1 Ultimate Empowerment Toolkit for Parentshttp://94e532zp417v0y6bnoneyjqgfm.hop.clickbank.net/?tid=PARENT==== ====ABSTRACTThe importance of parental involvement as an accelerating and motivating factor in theirchildren&#146;s education is a worldwide-accepted fact. This research project provides an indepth explanation along with specific reasons, the importance of parents&#146; involvement intheir children&#146;s education. It also discusses the parenting techniques, their types and theirconsequences if neglected. It also describes the ways to measure the outcome of the positiveparental involvement. Furthermore, it mentions the teachers involvement and the difficulties facedby the teachers in getting parents involved in their children&#146;s (this is further supported by theexamples of two teachers who with their deliberate efforts won the parents over to devote theirmaximum attention towards their children), single-parent involvement, children&#146;s own effortsto improve their academic levels and joint home-school based interventions. A detailed analysis ofthe different main ideas is given, based on the findings from other research surveys and projects.INTRODUCTION:Parental involvement can be seen to fall into three types: 1) Behavioral, 2) Intellectual and 3)Personal. The research explores the effect of multi-dimensional participation of parents and theresulting progress of children in their studies when different parental resources were dedicated tothem. Actively participating parents help their children in their academic development by going toschools and participating in open houses. By keenly observing the behavior of their children theycan rightly judge the kind of behavior or the allocation of resources required by their children. Suchcaring parents can also motivate teachers to become more attentive towards a particular student,thus maintaining the cycle of parent-teacher involvement. Encourage Building up cognitive andperception abilities in a child is a major concern in the upbringing of the child. The way the parentsinvolve their children in cognitive learning is by exposing them to different cognitively stimulatingactivities and materials such as books, electronic media and current events at home. This helpsthe child to practice all sorts of language comprehending skills at the school. The results show aremarkably positive behavior at the school and with peers.Two parenting processes namely the Supportive Parenting (SP) and Harsh Parenting (HP) helpeda lot in the research of parental involvement in their children&#146;s education. By adjusting thelevels of supportive parenting, different levels of successful outcomes were observed. Supportiveparenting in even kindergarten students yielded positive results. Four measures of supportiveparenting were used in the study, they were:1.Proactive teaching.2.Calm discussion in disciplinary encounters.
2. 3.Warmth.4.Interest and involvement in peer activities.The assessments were conducted when children entered kindergarten and when they reachedgrade 6. There was a factor noted to hinder children&#146;s development: family adversity. It wasthe result of a multipurpose negative process that included the risk of low socio-economic status,single-parenting and family stress. Child maladjustments were found to be more common infamilies with such adversities. No matter how much negative impacts were cast, SP was found toovercome the risks associated with family adversity. SP was strongly related to adjustmentprocedures in grade 6 children who had single parent family or experienced low socio-economicstatus (SES) in their early childhood.In a way to socialize their children, parents adopted the techniques of calm discussion andproactive teaching. They helped lessen the behavioral problems by carrying long discussions withtheir children, cultivating in them a sense of respect, calmness and peace of mind. Mothers alsoparticipated actively in reducing the peer stress among their children. It is also a widely acceptedfact that supportive parenting plays an important role in the children&#146;s development ofempathy, prosocial behavior and emotional competence. On the negative side, the absence ofsupportive parenting may be related to the development of internal problems such as anxiety anddepression.Lack of the necessary parental care and attention is the main factor for the subsequent rise in thepercentage of juvenile delinquency (crime among children). The absence of parental instructionscauses children to develop irreversible behavioral and emotional problems. They in order to seekattention, resort to crimes thinking that in this way they could fulfill their wishes. They may revert touncontrolled violence if not kept an eye upon. Such criminal activities cannot be brought to a haltuntil their distressing symptoms of low self-esteem, depression, dysphonic mood, tension andworries, and other disturbances are relieved. And the importance of parents&#146; role in thisregard cannot be over-emphasized.In an effort to describe parental involvement, many researchers use a term&#147;Transition&#148;(Lombardi, Joan). &#147;Transition&#148; is used to describe the timeperiod in which children move from home to school, from school to after school activities, from oneactivity to another within a pre-school, or from pre-school to kindergarten. The untiring endeavorsof teachers in the phenomenon of transition cannot be ignored. They prepared the children andtheir parents to face the problems of adjusting to elementary school programs that had differentpsychology, teaching styles and structure than the programs offered at the kindergarten level. Inthe elementary level schools the teachers had to face serious challenges in motivating the parentsto take interest in their children&#146;s activities. The teachers adopted different methods toinvolve the parents in day-to-day classroom and home activities. They used to send notes,invitation of parent-teacher meetings, invitation of parental guidance sessions and trainingsessions, continuously directing the parent&#146;s attention towards their children. Patricia BrownClark suggests that it is very important to keep the line of communication between teachers andparents open, so that the parents can interact with the teachers and get up to date information oftheir children&#146;s school activities. One way to involve parents is to schedule school eventsand arranging classroom activities such as volunteering for libraries, acting as classroom aides or
3. efficiently organizing lunch breaks. The teachers also opt for making phone calls at thechildren&#146;s houses to keep in touch with the parents and getting to know the extent to whichthey are contributing towards the welfare of their children. Apart from the above activities, theteachers also assign home activities for both the parents and their children so that the parentsremain indulged in their children and the children get to study at home. However, it was a bad anddisappointing experience for the teachers when many of the parents failed to respond asexpected. Many of the parents were so overwhelmed with their official work that they could hardlytake out some time for their beloved children.Moreover, for some parents their schoolings were not positive and character-boostingexperiences, therefore they preferred to keep a distance from their children&#146;s school as well.This made it really difficult and at times impossible for teachers to bring the parental involvementto the desired level. Nevertheless, the activities of two teachers proved greatly fruitful in makingparents involved in their children. They were Carlos Valdez, an art teacher and 8th grade classsponsor, and Mike Hogan, the school&#146;s band director. They did it by involving parents inmusic festivals and other school ceremonies. They proved to be great examples for the futureteachers to come.If the children&#146;s academic development programs are to prove successful they must sharetwo characteristics:1)Developmentally appropriate practice:A child&#146;s academic progress is clearly reflected by the appropriate practice he/sheadministers while in school life. During transitions from pre-school to kindergarten, a child if giventhe exact developmentally appropriate practice tends to learn a great deal of language and playingskills. He develops a keen interest in exploring his environments and interacting (withouthesitation) with his adults.2)Supportive services:These include the assistance that the school provides to low-income family students. The servicesinclude health care, childcare and community care. This strengthens the relation between schooland children and creates a sense of security and confidence among the children. They get to learnthat their communities are a part of their school since the school&#146;s supportive services striveto help community development.It is commonly believed that children are good self-teachers. Their self-initiated strategies helpimprove their expression, creativity, intellectual capabilities and extra-curricular skills. This idea isproved by the documentation of young children&#146;s work provided by Reggio Emilia :&#147;The Reggio Emilia educators highlight young children&#146;s amazing capabilities andindicate that it is through the unity of thinking and feeling that young children can explore theirworld, represent their ideas, and communicate with others at their highest level.&#148;(Edwards,Pope. C, Springate, Wright.K)The climax rests in the fact that how the parents would know that their sincere involvements arereally proving worthwhile for their children. The answer lies in the attitude of the children. The
4. degree of parental involvement can be judged by a child&#146;s attitude towards his schoolsubjects, his academic desires and achievements. There is a direct relationship betweenacademic achievements and the attitude towards school. Schunk in 1981 had the following idea ofaspiration or academic desires:&#147;Level of aspiration is defined as one&#146;s subjective probability that he or she will reacha certain level of education.&#148;(Abu, H. &amp; Maher, M)As a result children who received adequate parental concern were found to be much moreconfident in their academic desires and achievements than those who could not get the rightamount of parental concern.The individual involvement of mothers and fathers also plays a vital role in the behavioraldevelopment of a child. Students from one-parent household were observed to show less positiveattitude towards schools and studies as compared to students from two-parent households. Onestudy aimed at investigating parental concern showed that despite mothers&#146; sincereendeavors, the role of fathers could not be ignored and both served as an important foundation forthe future progress of the child. This can be proved from the following fact:According to a recent report from the National Center for Educational Statistics (1997), comparedto their counterparts, children with involved fathers are more likely to have participated ineducational activities with their parents (e.g., to have visited a museum or a historical site withtheir parents in the past month), and are more likely to have access to multiple types of resourcesat home as well (as measured by the proportion of parents who belong to community orprofessional organizations, or regularly volunteer in the community). (Flouri, E. And Buchanan, A,Pg.142)Also, the parental involvement has been discussed and implemented in terms of interventions orprevention programs, which are nothing but safety measures taken to assure healthy and perfectupbringing of the child. The study uses school-based and home-only intervention programs to findout the extent of intellectual capabilities found in children from different family backgrounds. Thesuccess of one school-based interventions can be proved from the following fact, which was a partof &#147;Education Service Improvement Plan 2001-2005&#148; of Edinburgh:----The Scottish Executive Discipline Task Force, which studied the causes of poor behavioramong pupils in schools produced a report of Better Behavior - Better Learning in June 2001. Thereport included 36 recommendations for action, which were then turned into an Action Plan in2002. Many of these have implications for the Education Authority. (Craig Millar Instep Project)ReferencesAbu, H. &amp; Maher, M. (2000). A structural model of attitudes towards school subjects,academic aspiration and achievement. Educational Psychology, 20, 75-84.Angoff, W.H. (1988). The nature-nurture debate, aptitudes and group differences. AmericanPsychologist, 43, 713-720Berger, D. (2003). The Developing Person, Worth PublishersBrown, P. C. (1989). Involving Parents in the Education of Their Children. ERIC Clearinghouse on
5. Elementary and Early Childhood Education Urbana IL.&#147;Craig Millar Instep Project&#148; [http://www.edinburgh.gov.uk/CEC/Recreation/Libraries/]Local_Organisations/local_Craigmillar_Instep_Project.html&amp;http://www.inspire.edin.org/pages/paperA.htm - contextDeKlyen, M., Speltz, M.L., &amp; Greenberg, M.T. (1998).Fathering and early onset conduct problems: Positive and negative parenting, father-sonattachment, and the marital context. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 1, 3-21.Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Springate, Kay Wright (1995), Encouraging Creativity in Early ChildhoodClassrooms, Eric Digest.Flouri, E. &amp; Buchanan, A. (2004). Early fathers and mothers involvement and childs latereducational outcomes. Department of Social Policy and Social Work, University of Oxford, UK,British Journal of Educational Psychology 74, 141-153Fortier, M.S., Vallerand, R.J., &amp; Guay, F. (1995). Academic motivation and schoolperformance: Toward a structural model. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 20, 257-274.Ganzach, Y. (2000). Parents&#146; education, cognitive ability, educational expectations andeducational attainment: Interactive effects. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 419-441.Georgiou, S. (1999). Parental attributions as predictors of involvement and influences on childachievement. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 409-429.Grolnick, W.S., &amp; Slowiaczek, M.L. (1994). Parents&#146; involvement in children&#146;sschooling: A multidimensional conceptualization and motivational model. Child Development, 65,237-252.Halsey, P. (2004). Nurturing the Parent Involvement, Two middle Level Teachers Share theirSecrets. Assistant Professor in the College of Education at Texas Tech University in Lubbock,Texas. Vol 77, No. 4, pages 135-137 WN: 04062038590002Lombardi, Joan (1992), Beyond Transition: Ensuring Continuity in Early Childhood Services, EricDigest.Masse, L.C., &amp; Tremblay, R.E. (1999). Kindergarten disruptive behavior, family adversity,gender and elementary school failure. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 23, 225-240.Mulkey, L.M., Crain, R.L, &amp; Harrington, A.J.C. (1992). One parent households andachievement: Economic and behavioral explanations of a small effect. Sociology &amp;Education, 65, 48-65.Pamela A. Halsey (2004) Nurturing the Parent Involvement, Two middle Level Teachers Sharetheir Secrets. Assistant Professor in the College of Education at Texas Tech University in
6. Lubbock, Texas. Vol 77, No. 4, pages 135-137 WN: 04062038590002.Pettit, G.S., Bates, J.E., &amp; Dodge, K.A. (1997). Supportive parenting ecological context andchildren&#146;s adjustment: A seven year longitudinal study. Child Development, 68, 908-923.Ramey, C.T., Campbell, F.A, &amp; Ramey, S.L, (1999). Early intervention: Successful pathwaysto improving intellectual development. Developmental Neuropsychology, 16, 385-392.Shepard, J. &amp; Carlson, J.S. (2003).An Empirical Evaluation of School-Based Prevention Programs that Involve Parents. OklahomaState University and, Michigan State University, copyright, Wiley Periodicals, Psychology in theSchools, Vol. 40 (6), pages 641-656Updegraff, K.A., McHale, S.M., Crouter, A.C. (1996). Gender roles in marriage: What do theymean for girls&#146; and boys&#146; school achievement? Journal of Youth and Adolescence,25, 73-88.Yongman, M.W., Kindlon, D., &amp; Earls, F. (1995). Father involvement andcognitive/behavioral outcomes of preterm infants. Journal of American Academy of Child &amp;Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 58-66.Fawwad works as a staff writer for TermPapersCorner,Inc. Term Papers Corner Provide highquality custom term paper, custom essay and thesis writing service to students and professionals.We are currently having a writing competition visit Writing Contest 2005Article Source:http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Fawad_Imam==== ====The #1 Ultimate Empowerment Toolkit for Parentshttp://94e532zp417v0y6bnoneyjqgfm.hop.clickbank.net/?tid=PARENT==== ====