LMP 300Y – Lecture 1

                     Cell injury, adaptation & death

                   Douglas M. Templeton, Ph.D....
Cell death -- good and bad

    - good: development, T cell clones, cancer cells

    - bad: tissue destruction, atrophy

...
CAUSES OF CELL INJURY:
Internal stresses

      • metabolic imbalances, nutritional deficiencies or excesses
      • genet...
RESPONSES TO INJURY:

     • Recovery

     • Adaptation

     • Death

Depends on mechanism, severity, duration, …
Cell injury may be reversible or irreversible …
Stages in Cell Injury
“Cellular function is lost far before cell death occurs,

and the morphologic changes of cell injury (or death)

         ...
"Even at the level of the light microscope, it is apparent
     that cells exhibit a finite number of morphologic
    reac...
Different cells show different sensitivities/thresholds.
Exam  ples:

• Brain cells, heart cells susceptible to hypoxia an...
• Hypoxia - Oxygen deficiency
• Ischemia - Impaired blood supply
            (arterial or venous occlusion)

• Infarction ...
Some basic types of tissues
•   Epithelium, endothelium
•   Connective tissue, fibroblasts
•   Muscle tissue – smooth, ske...
A Classification of Epithelium
• Simple
  – Simple squamous (endothelium)
  – Simple cuboidal (renal tubule)
  – Simple co...
FOUR VULNERABLE SYSTEMS:

    • Cell membrane integrity

    • ATP generation / mitochondrial function

    • Protein synt...
SIX GENERAL MECHANISMS:

    • ATP depletion (ox/phos or glycolysis)

    • Oxygen (i) – ischemia/hypoxia

    • Oxygen (i...
ATP



O2           ROS




Ca2+         Mito. fcn.


       PM
A CENTRAL ROLE OF FREE RADICALS IN CELL DEATH



Sources                                                   Defences

Mitoc...
QuickTime™ and a
  Photo - JPEG decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
ADAPTIVE RESPONSES OF CELLS:

    • Atrophy

    • Hypertrophy

    • Hyperplasia

    • Metaplasia

    • Storage
ATROPHY:

   Cell shrinkage by loss of substance
Cerebral atrophy - Alzheimer disease
Testicular Atrophy
HYPERTROPHY:

   Increase in cell (hence organ) size
QuickTime™ and a
  Photo - JPEG decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Hypertrophy - normal and gravid uterus




                       QuickTime™ and a
                  Photo - JPEG decompre...
QuickTime™ and a
  Photo - JPEG decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
HYPERPLASIA:

   Increase in cell number
METAPLASIA:

     (Reversible) replacement of one
differentiated cell type by another
QuickTime™ and a
  Photo - JPEG decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
STORAGE:
Normal Liver
Fatty Liver
Fatty Liver
Hemochromatosis
Calcification - Tricuspid valve
OVERVIEW
i) Atrophy
        – decreased testosterone –> prostatic atrophy (apoptosis)

ii) Hypertrophy
       – exercise /...
Some terms in the histology of cell injury:
Fluid or fat accumulates in vacuoles – cloudy swelling / hydropic degeneration...
Kidney Infarct - coagulative necrosis
Cerebral Infarct - liquefactive necrosis
Caseous necrosis - tuberculosis
APOPTOSIS
Membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, protein fragmentation, chromatin
condensation, DNA degradation, engulfment

-...
Apoptosis vs. Coagulation Necrosis

                      Apoptosis                          Necrosis

Stimulus     Physio...
Extrinsic




            Intrinsic
Bcl-2 family members – balance between pro-apoptotic (e.g., Bax, Bak)
and anti (e.g., Bcl-2, Bcl-x) determines outcome.

H...
Caspases are synthesized as inactive zymogen; pro-domain, p20,
and p10 domains. Activated by cleavage between p20 and p10,...
DNA damage can initiate apoptosis.

Dual function of p53:
      If damage detected, cell cycle arrest.
      If damage not...
Signals for ingestion:

      i) altered sugars recognized by lectins on macrophages

       ii) Thrombospondin – secreted...
Apoptosis can be suppressed
• at the level of caspases
• at the level of the mitochondria
• by ionic control
QuickTime™ and a
       GIF decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Necrapoptosis – Lemasters, Am. J. Physiol. 276: G1-G6 (1999).

        Cell balanced between apoptosis and necrosis depend...
Cell Injury Patho
Cell Injury Patho
Cell Injury Patho
Cell Injury Patho
Cell Injury Patho
Cell Injury Patho
Cell Injury Patho
Cell Injury Patho
Cell Injury Patho
Cell Injury Patho
Cell Injury Patho
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Cell Injury Patho

  1. 1. LMP 300Y – Lecture 1 Cell injury, adaptation & death Douglas M. Templeton, Ph.D., M.D. doug.templeton@utoronto.ca References Kumar, Cotran & Robbins, Basic Pathology, 7th ed.Saunders, 2003. Apoptosis - Nature, Oct. 12, 2000; Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 42:259 (2002) Some images from http://medlib.med.utah.edu/WebPath/webpath.html 2002/2003; revised 2005
  2. 2. Cell death -- good and bad - good: development, T cell clones, cancer cells - bad: tissue destruction, atrophy Four terms: Necrosis Apoptosis Necrapoptosis Anoikis
  3. 3. CAUSES OF CELL INJURY: Internal stresses • metabolic imbalances, nutritional deficiencies or excesses • genetic abnormalities • acquired derangements –> hypoxia, ischemia External • physical agents (heat, cold, radiation, …) • natural toxins, venoms • drugs, "chemicals" (Paracelsus)
  4. 4. RESPONSES TO INJURY: • Recovery • Adaptation • Death Depends on mechanism, severity, duration, …
  5. 5. Cell injury may be reversible or irreversible …
  6. 6. Stages in Cell Injury
  7. 7. “Cellular function is lost far before cell death occurs, and the morphologic changes of cell injury (or death) lag far behind both.”
  8. 8. "Even at the level of the light microscope, it is apparent that cells exhibit a finite number of morphologic reactions to a wide range of internal and external environmental stresses." "This … implies common biochemical and molecular mechanisms responsible for cell adaptation and failure of adaptation, or cell death."
  9. 9. Different cells show different sensitivities/thresholds. Exam ples: • Brain cells, heart cells susceptible to hypoxia and ischemia; liver cells susceptible to chem injury ical . • Calf muscle tolerates 2-3 h of ischemia, cardiac muscle dies in 20-30 min. • Highly differentiated surface epithelial cells of the respiratory tract more susceptible to cigarette smoke than less differentiated basal epithelia. • Nutritional status – glycogen-replete hepatocyte more resistant to ischem than depleted one. ia
  10. 10. • Hypoxia - Oxygen deficiency • Ischemia - Impaired blood supply (arterial or venous occlusion) • Infarction - Area of necrosis due to ischemia
  11. 11. Some basic types of tissues • Epithelium, endothelium • Connective tissue, fibroblasts • Muscle tissue – smooth, skeletal, cardiac • Nervous tissue • Blood and lymph
  12. 12. A Classification of Epithelium • Simple – Simple squamous (endothelium) – Simple cuboidal (renal tubule) – Simple columnar (small intestine) • Stratified squamous – Low keratin (esophagus) – Keratinized (epidermis) • Pseudostratified – Columnar, ciliated (trachea, epididymis) – Transitional (bladder)
  13. 13. FOUR VULNERABLE SYSTEMS: • Cell membrane integrity • ATP generation / mitochondrial function • Protein synthesis / enzyme function • Genetic integrity
  14. 14. SIX GENERAL MECHANISMS: • ATP depletion (ox/phos or glycolysis) • Oxygen (i) – ischemia/hypoxia • Oxygen (ii) – ROS • Loss of Ca2+ homeostasis • Plasma membrane integrity • Mitochondrial damage
  15. 15. ATP O2 ROS Ca2+ Mito. fcn. PM
  16. 16. A CENTRAL ROLE OF FREE RADICALS IN CELL DEATH Sources Defences Mitochondrial respiration Glutathione Xanthine oxidase (purine metabolism –> uric acid, O2-.) Catalase (H2O 2) - peroxisomes Peroxisomes (long chain FA –> H2O 2) Mn-superoxide dismutase - mitochondria NADPH oxidase (respiratory burst) Cu,Zn-SOD - cytosol Cyt P450 mixed function oxidase Antioxidants Metal sequestration Metallothionein
  17. 17. QuickTime™ and a Photo - JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  18. 18. ADAPTIVE RESPONSES OF CELLS: • Atrophy • Hypertrophy • Hyperplasia • Metaplasia • Storage
  19. 19. ATROPHY: Cell shrinkage by loss of substance
  20. 20. Cerebral atrophy - Alzheimer disease
  21. 21. Testicular Atrophy
  22. 22. HYPERTROPHY: Increase in cell (hence organ) size
  23. 23. QuickTime™ and a Photo - JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  24. 24. Hypertrophy - normal and gravid uterus QuickTime™ and a Photo - JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  25. 25. QuickTime™ and a Photo - JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  26. 26. HYPERPLASIA: Increase in cell number
  27. 27. METAPLASIA: (Reversible) replacement of one differentiated cell type by another
  28. 28. QuickTime™ and a Photo - JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  29. 29. STORAGE:
  30. 30. Normal Liver
  31. 31. Fatty Liver
  32. 32. Fatty Liver
  33. 33. Hemochromatosis
  34. 34. Calcification - Tricuspid valve
  35. 35. OVERVIEW i) Atrophy – decreased testosterone –> prostatic atrophy (apoptosis) ii) Hypertrophy – exercise / skeletal muscle; hypertension / cardiac myocyte iii) Hyperplasia – hyperthyroidism, effect of excess TSH on thyroid gland iv) Metaplasia – ciliated epithelium –> squamous epithelium in smoker. (Point for argument: Is the myofibroblast a metaplastic cell?) v) Storage – Gaucher's disease (glucocerebrosidase),Haemochromatosis (Fe), Fatty liver (EtOH)
  36. 36. Some terms in the histology of cell injury: Fluid or fat accumulates in vacuoles – cloudy swelling / hydropic degeneration e.g., disruption of ion transport/pumping (loss of ATP –> Na+/K+ ATPase, oxidation of thiols on pumps, disorganization of membrane lipids, …) Fat accumulation – fatty change - fatty acid synthesizing/transporting cells (heart, liver, kidney) - ER membrane damage, ↓FA oxid'n, ↑TG synth., ↓lipoprotein synth., … Irreversible injury: A cell may be irreversibly injured long before any changes are apparent in the microscope. Coagulation necrosis – influx of water and ions, mitochondrial swelling, general loss of membrane integrity, influx of Ca2+ (coagulation of proteins, activation of enzymes), release of lysosomal enzymes (autolysis)
  37. 37. Kidney Infarct - coagulative necrosis
  38. 38. Cerebral Infarct - liquefactive necrosis
  39. 39. Caseous necrosis - tuberculosis
  40. 40. APOPTOSIS Membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, protein fragmentation, chromatin condensation, DNA degradation, engulfment - central role of caspases, cysteine proteases cleaving Asp-Xxx bond - upstream (initiator) and downstream (effector) caspases - may inactivate (e.g., lamins) or activate (e.g., nucleosomal nuclease) substrate
  41. 41. Apoptosis vs. Coagulation Necrosis Apoptosis Necrosis Stimulus Physiological (Developmental, Hyppoxia, Toxins Atrophy, …) Selected Pathological Histology Single cells, shrinkage, chromatin Cell swelling, groups of cells, condensation, apoptotic bodies tissue disruption Organelles Intact Swelling of mitochondria & ER Nucleus Chromatin condensation, inter- Disappearance, nucleosomal breaks, laddering Random DNA breaks (karyorrhexis) (karyolysis) Outcome Phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies Inflammation, regeneration or repair by fibrosis
  42. 42. Extrinsic Intrinsic
  43. 43. Bcl-2 family members – balance between pro-apoptotic (e.g., Bax, Bak) and anti (e.g., Bcl-2, Bcl-x) determines outcome. Hydrophobic C-terminal domain localizes them to outer mitochondrial membrane. With other proteins, form channels to facilitate release of Cyt c. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore – MPTP
  44. 44. Caspases are synthesized as inactive zymogen; pro-domain, p20, and p10 domains. Activated by cleavage between p20 and p10, and pro- domain and p20. Active as tetramer of 2 p10 and 2 p20 domains. Three models for caspase activation. i) caspase cascade, e.g. downstream effectors caspase-3, -6, -7 ii) induced proximity, e.g., on ligand binding CD95 receptors aggregate to form signaling complexes, which through adapter proteins bring about high local concentrations of procaspase-8 iii) association with a regulatory subunit, e.g., caspase-9 and Apaf-1
  45. 45. DNA damage can initiate apoptosis. Dual function of p53: If damage detected, cell cycle arrest. If damage not repaired, iniates apoptosis. How is damage sensed? Proteins of the ATM (ataxia telangiectasia- mutated) and DNA-PK contain DNA binding domains and protein kinase activity. Both phosphorylate p53.
  46. 46. Signals for ingestion: i) altered sugars recognized by lectins on macrophages ii) Thrombospondin – secreted by macrophages, binds to apoptotic cells (mechanism not known), then macrophage integrins bind to thrombospondin. iii) phosphatidyl serine (annexin V)
  47. 47. Apoptosis can be suppressed • at the level of caspases • at the level of the mitochondria • by ionic control
  48. 48. QuickTime™ and a GIF decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  49. 49. Necrapoptosis – Lemasters, Am. J. Physiol. 276: G1-G6 (1999). Cell balanced between apoptosis and necrosis depending on production of ATP. Anoikis – Frisch & Ruoslahti, Current Opin. Cell Biol. 9: 701-706 (1997). "Homelessness". Apoptosis initiated by detachment of epithelial cell from matrix.
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