1. Workflow and related tecnologies
From project to implementation
Corso di formazione gratuito organizzato da
Azienda Speciale della CCIAA presso Incubatore Firenze
Ente Cassa di Risparmio di Firenze
2. Workflow and related tecnologies
"Corso di formazione gratuito organizzato da Firenze Tecnologia -
Azienda Speciale della CCIAA presso Incubatore Firenze nell'ambito del
finanziamento Ente Cassa di Risparmio di Firenze" -
3. About us
● Studio Associato di consulenti indipendenti attivi nel campo del
Knowledge Management e del Workflow
● Tutta la nostra attività è basata su Zope (Free Software Web
Application Server) e Plone (Content Management System).
● Supporter tecnologici di e Zope Solution Providers e Large Zope
Accounts (Università, Centri di Ricerca, ...)
● Sviluppatori di Zope 3 (workflow group), sviluppatori Plone.
Rilasciamo come software libero la maggior parte dei tool e dei
prodotti che sviluppiamo (Reflow, OpenSPI, PloneProject,
● Unici membri Italiani di Zope Europe Association e membri del
Plone Business Network.
Business Process Management
● From “data-aware” information systems to “process-aware”
● To support business processes an enterprise information system
needs to be aware of these processes and their organizational
● Business Process Management (BPM) includes methods,
techniques, and tools to support the design, enactment,
management, and analysis of such operational business processes.
● BPM can be considered as an extension of classical Workﬂow
Management (WFM) systems and approaches.
Business Process Management
● BPM systems can be used to avoid hard-coding the work processes
into tailor-made applications and thus support the shift from
programming to assembling applications.
● Moreover, process orientation, redesign, and organic growth are
supported. (For example, today’s WFM systems can be used to
integrate existing applications and support process change by
merely changing the workﬂow diagram.)
● From applications built around data to applications built around
● Today there were more fundamental problems: a uniﬁed way of
modeling processes was missing and the systems were too rigid to
be used by people in the workplace.
● Most of the technical problems have been resolved by now.
However, the more conceptual problems remain. Good standards
for business process modeling are still missing and even today’s
WFM systems enforce unnecessary constrains on the process logic
(e.g., processes are made more sequential).
7. BPM life­cycle
● Any BPM effort requires the modeling of an existing (“as-is”) or
desired (“to-be”) process, i.e., a process design. During this phase
process models including various perspectives (control-ﬂow, data-
ﬂow, organizational, sociotechnical, and operational aspects) are
constructed. The only way to create a “process-aware” enterprise
information system is to add knowledge about the operational
processes at hand.
● Based on a process design, the process-aware enterprise
information system is realized. In the traditional setting the
realization would require a time-consuming and complex software
development process. The traditional software development
process is replaced by a conﬁguration or assembly process.
Therefore, we use the term system conﬁguration for the phase in-
between process design and enactment.
8. BPM life­cycle
● The process enactment phase is the phase where the process-
aware enterprise information system realized in the system
conﬁguration phase is actually used.
● Process-aware enterprise information system have to change over
time to improve performance, exploit new technologies, support
new processes, and adapt to an ever changing environment.
Therefore, the diagnosis phase is linking the process enactment
phase to the a new design phase.
9. BPM Benefits
● cost and performance measurement
● quality control
● confidentiality and access control
● adherence to procedures
● response time
● information on case status
● service quality
● agent accesibility
10. BPM Benefits
● clear picture of the tasks
● information 'at agent' fingertips
● automatic access tools
● information on context of tasks
● just in time display of tasks
● just enough informations
● warning system
● measurement and tracking of quality
11. BPR Business Process
What is reengineering?
“Reengineering is the fundamental rethinking and radical
redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements
in critical, contemporary measures of performance such as cost,
quality, service and speed.”
Hammer,M., Champy.J., (1993), Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution.,
Harper Collins, London.
12. BPR Business Process
● Prepare for reengineering
● Map and Analyze As-Is process
● Design To-be process
● Implement reengineered process
● Improve continuously
13. BPR Business Process
● Prepare for reengineering
● Is BRP necessary? There should be a significant need for the
process to be reengineered.
● Consensus on the importance of reengineering (Build Cross
● Planning for organizational changes (Develop Strategic Purpose)
● Understand the expectations of the involved persons (Identify
Customer driven objective)
14. BPR Business Process
● Map and Analyze As-Is process
● Create Process and Activity Models
● Evaluate time and resource cost of each activity
● Identify disconnects (anything that prevent the process to
achieving the desired results)
● Identify value adding processes
15. BPR Business Process
Design To-be process: produce alternatives to current situation
● Benchmark processes
● Design To-Be processes
● Validate To-Be processes
● Perform Trade-off Analysis (to choose the better implementation)
16. BPR Business Process
Implement reengineered process:
● Remove all oppositions
● Prepare a transition plans
● Initiate training programs
● Implement transition plan
17. BPR Business Process
● Initiate On-going measurement
● Review performance against target
● Improve process continuously
18. Workflow Paradigms
● The automation of a business process, in whole or part, during
which documents, information or tasks are passed from one
participant to another for action, according to a set of procedural
19. Workflow Paradigms
Workflow entity based
Workflow activity based
20. Workflow Entity Based
● A workflow in which the process is centered around a document,
that represents the task to be completed.
● The task are assigned by role.
22. Workflow Activity Based
● A workflow in which the process is constituted from a set of
activities (tasks), these can involve a document exchange or
informations, and can be executed in parallel.
● An activity is assigned to a specific user.
30. Petri net
A Petri net is a triple (P, T , F ):
● P is a ﬁnite set of places,
● T is a ﬁnite set of transitions (P ∩ T = ∅),
● F ⊆ (P × T ) ∪ (T × P ) is a set of arcs (ﬂow relation)
(1) A transition t is said to be enabled if each input place p of t
contains at least one token.
(2) An enabled transition may ﬁre. If transition t ﬁres, then t
consumes one token from each input place p of t and produces
one token for each output place p of t.
31. Petri net: WF­net
A Petri net PN = (P, T , F ) is a WF-net (Workﬂow net) if and only if:
(i) There is one source place i ∈ P such that •i = Ø.
(ii) There is one sink place o ∈ P such that o• = ∅Ø.
(iii) Every node x ∈ P ∪ T is on a path from i to o.
32. Petri net: WF­net
Tasks are modeled by transitions and causal dependencies are
modeled by places and arcs. In fact:
A place corresponds to a condition which can be used as pre- and/or
post-condition for tasks.
An AND-split corresponds to a transition with two or more output
An AND-join corresponds to a transition with two or more input
OR-splits/OR-joins correspond to places with multiple
● A notation that is readily understandable, from the business
analysts to the technical developers
● A standard graphical notation that ensure a common language
● To show the flow of data between activities
● Applicable only to business processes (not organizational
structures, resources, data models and strategy)
39. BPMN: Core
40. BPMN: Events
41. BPMN: Activities
42. BPMN: Connections
43. BPMN: Gateways
44. BPMN: Swimlane
45. BPMN: Artifacts
50. WfMC: define WfMS
● To define "standards"
● A model for workflow management systems
● Interoperability between heterogeonus engines
57. Workflow Patterns
● Identify flow of execution control:
● Patterns as way to compare workflow engines
58. Workflow Patterns: problems
● Different language semantics
● multiple instances of an activity
● loops with one entry and one exit point
● explicit termination of activity and process
59. Workflow Patterns
● Basic control flow
● Branching and synchronization
● Multiple Instances
● Business Process Management Demystiﬁed: A Tutorial on Models, Systems
and Standards for Workﬂow Management - W.M.P. van der Aalst
● Workflow Management in the Internet Age - C. MOHAN
● BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: A CONSOLIDATED METHODOLOGY -
Subramanian Muthu, Larry Whitman, and S. Hossein Cheraghi
● BPMN Fundamentals (slide) - Prepared by Stephen A. White, IBM
● Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN)
● YAWL: Yet Another Workﬂow Language - W.M.P. van der Aalst, and A.H.M.
● Workflow Management Coalition The Workflow Reference Model - David
● Workflow Patterns - W.P.M van der Aalst, A.H.M ter Hofstede, B.
Kiepuszewski, and A.P.Barrose
● Yet Another Workflow Language: http://www.yawl.fit.qut.edu.au/
● Workflow Patterns: http://is.tm.tue.nl/research/patterns/
● Flash animations of workflow patterns:
● Workflow management coalition: http://www.wfmc.org/
● Business process management initiative: http://www.bpmi.org/