PrefaceThe changing business environment along with fierce competition andpressures from the investors have forced even hi...
Operational Excellence – Principles and Tools                          Table of Contents1. Data Analysis and Presentation ...
DATA ANALYSIS & PRESENTATION                       Pareto Charts Purpose: To focus efforts on the problems that offers the...
Construction:  PLEASE NOTE THAT GUIDELINES TO TAKE YOU THROUGH THE  EXCEL SPREADSHEET PRODUCTION OF PARETO CHARTS ARE     ...
E.g. frequency4. Choose the relevant period of time to be studied.   For example, if measuring late deliveries to the cust...
REASON FOR LATENESS           FREQUENCY PERCENT                                        OF TOTALTraffic                    ...
BEING LATE TO WORK                                      5               Number of Times Late                              ...
However it is important to remember that this chart only shows      one measurement. If for example, our late to work char...
Computer TipsUse Excel to complete your Pareto charts.Make the table of your data collection into an excel spreadsheet.Mak...
At Step three of the chart wizard you should enter in the title ofyour chart, and the titles of the axes. The X axis is th...
A. Major Cause Breakdowns in which the “tallest bar” is        broken into subcauses in a second, linked Pareto.    For ex...
DATA ANALYSIS & PRESENTATION                        Histograms    Purpose: It is a visual summary of data that is often di...
2. Decide what you want to measure about the issue. Your data   must be variable, i.e. measured on a continuous scale. For...
collected, and find the square root.            Round it up to the    nearest whole number    TIP: as a rough guide, consi...
7. Now construct your classes.         It is important that your first class should contain your lowest         value and ...
650 - 699     660 695 695700 – 749     710 735 740 710 715750 – 799     790 790 780 785 775                         750   ...
Repeat for each one of your classes.                           Monthly Rent paid on 1 bedroom                             ...
Click on the chart wizard and a dialogue box will come up withtwo option tabs at the top; Standard Types or Custom Types.S...
The shape of the Histogram (the frequency distribution) tells us alost about probability. If a height Histogram was repres...
To interpret your Histogram you need to ask:Why this shaped distribution and what is it telling us?For example, if assessi...
Figure A is a Histogram with a fairly symmetrical shape with noobvious outliers (extreme data values) which might be due t...
12       21       21        25       26       23        20  22       19       21        14       45       15        24Give...
DATA ANALYSIS & PRESENTATION                        Radar Charts      Purpose: To visually show in one graphic the size of...
Brainstorm to create the categories. Alternatively, if you     have done previous study of this issue, you may like to use...
CATEGORY                  1            2           3           4             5People             No experience           M...
7. Using a large piece of flipchart paper, draw as many spokes as   there are rating categories.     Write down each ratin...
JOB XYZ COMPETENCIES                         CURRENT RATINGPeople Management                                        3Commu...
Computer TipsUse Excel to complete your Radar Charts.Make the table of your data collection into an excel spreadsheet.Have...
Alternatively if you click on the part of the chart you want tochange (i.e. titles, formatting etc) it should let you chan...
state over time. Post the Radar Chart in a prominentplace. Review progress regularly and update the chartaccordingly.Varia...
ISSUES ANALYSIS                   5 Whys Analysis Purpose: To be able to move past symptoms and get to           the true ...
Example of Using 5 Whys To Discover Root CausePROBLEM:        There is a damp patch on the ceilingBecause water is drippin...
Example from a kitchen range manufacturerPROBLEM: There is too much work in process inventory, yet wenever seem to have th...
This template gathers information to help you complete your 5Whys Analysis. This form captures historical data, problempri...
2. Once the top cause has been selected, then ask the question   as to why that happens 5 times.3. Once root cause is dete...
Example Problems (Good to practise on)* why is the monthly report always late?* why do I always get injured playing sport?...
ISSUES ANALYSIS                     Brainstorming  Purpose: To establish a common method for teams to creatively and effic...
1. NO CRITICISMThere should be no criticism of any ideas thrown up during asession. This means suspending any judgement of...
impractical the ideas are. In fact brainstorming sessions are muchmore effective if really crazy ideas are encouraged.Ther...
It is also important to make sure the group can see the list beingcompiled.The scribe, who should be someone different to ...
Restate, write up and reinforce the rules of Brainstorming! Itcan be easy to assume everyone can slot into the role ofbrai...
You can do this in a structured way by going around theroom and taking it in turns to call out ideas. If someone cannot th...
should step in and try rephrasing the topic to get a different    angle. Example questions might be:-   What would you lik...
Charts) to isolate the one or two ideas that would solve mostof the problem.
VariationsTo generate the flow of ideas you may like to switch between thestructured and unstructured method of brainstorm...
7 Secrets to Good BrainstormingGenerating rafts of good ideas is Ideo’s business. Here’s how thisworld-class product-devel...
rules without making it feel personal," Kelley says. Other rules include, "Gofor quantity," "Be visual," and "Encourage wi...
Six Surefire Ways to Kill a BrainstormComing up with good ideas -- even in an ideal environment -- is hardwork. But these ...
and sketches are fine. A short note that preserves a thought is acceptable.But detailed writing destroys momentum, dissipa...
ISSUES ANALYSIS                   Issue Diagrams   Purpose: To identify the problem attributes and the  specific areas tha...
Bottom Up:1. Place 2-3 pieces of Flipchart paper on the wall.2. On a whiteboard, or separate piece of Flipchart paper,   w...
4. Use thin tipped felt pens on Post-It notes. This makes it                easy for everyone to read. It is also importan...
would like to see it split into. This doesn’t need to be a        hard and fast sorting process but good as a prompt.     ...
8. Write a statement that summarises each group on a   header card or Post-It. It is possible a Post-It within the   group...
I’M HAVING PROBLEMS SAVING FOR A HOUSE DEPOSIT   BANK                                 HOUSE                    EARNINGS & ...
Top Down:       1.   Place 2-3 pieces of Flipchart paper on the wall.       2.   Start with a problem statement. Place it ...
4.     Test each ‘major category’. Are they mutually       exclusive? If not, why not? Review the categories to       make...
7.   Be prepared to put things to one side if you are     getting bogged down – return when appropriate.     Don’t allow s...
I AM HAVING PROBLEMS SAVING FOR A HOUSE DEPOSIT SPENDING         INVESTMENT         AMOUNT FOR        EARNINGS            ...
I AM HAVING PROBLEMS SAVING FOR A HOUSE DEPOSIT SPENDING         INVESTMENT        AMOUNT FOR        EARNINGS             ...
InterpretationLook at the issue diagram and through the team identifythe perceived major causes for the problem. Prove the...
ISSUES ANALYSISCause & Effect / Fishbone Analysis  Purpose: To determine the root cause(s) of theproblem so that solutions...
TIP: Make sure your problem statement doesn’t     seem to suggest a solution. Problem statements that     read “We need mo...
For a Process Classification Type Fishbone, a maximum  of 6-8 major steps should be identified, to ensure major  classes o...
Group members can call out suggestions for causes/variables to the facilitator. The group member should alsostate which ca...
A quick summary of the brainstorming rules are:             1.   NO CRITICISM             2.   FREEWHEEL             3.   ...
MEASUREMENT                METHODS                MATERIALS                  Car not being            Poor qualityOdometer...
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Ls Tools And Principles

  1. 1. PrefaceThe changing business environment along with fierce competition andpressures from the investors have forced even highly stable and matureorganizations to look for ways of improving productivity and excellence inevery echelon of business. The business gurus and perfectionists havelong been in the process of coining theories and suggesting methodologiesfor transforming businesses and sustaining Excellencies. These strategicinitiatives really provide miracle benefits, alone; General Electric claimsbenefits worth US $ 12b from six sigma initiatives.The challenges faced by the various manufacturing sectors are even moresevere and required a pool of strategies to be remained in business.Though Operational Excellence tools provide equally good mechanism ofachieving accelerated excellence in services and non manufacturing sectoryet it’s applicability in manufacturing sector have harvested un parallelresults and we believe can do even far more better.Operational excellence is the most advance form of strategic initiatives andcombines all the theories and methodologies in the journey to excellence.Substantial amount of material on the subject is available on the Internet inthe form of publications, books and articles. Our focus was to exploit thesesources and develop a guide book covering important principles and toolsrequired for embedding operational excellence as a way of life inconvenient desk top book form.All our efforts were to precise and concise the available material into ameaningful and useful publication. Hope, our humble effort will help inreinforcing the understanding of Operational Excellence Philosophy.Dr. Abid Ali Sajjad Shaukat
  2. 2. Operational Excellence – Principles and Tools Table of Contents1. Data Analysis and Presentation a. Pareto Charts b. Histogram c. Radar Analysis2. Issue Analysis a. 5 Whys b. Brainstorming c. Issue Diagrams d. Fishbone Diagram e. Reality Tree3. Preparing For Change a. FMEA b. Force Field Analysis c. Gantt Chart d. Project Start e. DMAIC Process4. Process Mapping a. Time Value Map b. Logical Flow Chart c. Value Stream Mapping d. Load Charts e. IPO Diagram5. Problem Solving a. Problem Solving Method6. Organizing the Workplace a. 5 S b. Visual Factory7. Statistical Process Control a. SPC / Control Charts b. Design of Experiments (DOE)8. Meeting Tools a. Spacer b. AAR9. Additional Tools a. Prioritization Model b. Kaizen Blitz c. Six Sigma Vs Lean Sigma d. Kanbans
  3. 3. DATA ANALYSIS & PRESENTATION Pareto Charts Purpose: To focus efforts on the problems that offers the greatest potential for improvement by showing their relative frequency or size in a descending bar graph. When To Use It It can be used to help a team focus on the causes that will have the greatest impact if solved. It displays the relative importance of problems in a simple, quickly interpreted, visual format. Pareto Charts also help prevent “shifting the problem” where the “solution” removes some causes but worsens others. Underlying Principle The theory behind Pareto Charts originated in 1897 when an Italian economist called Vilfredo Pareto created a formula representing the uneven distribution of wealth. It showed that 20% of the Italy’s population earned 80% of the wealth. This is otherwise known as the 80-20 rule. The Pareto Principle was extended to: 20% of the sources are responsible for 80% of any issue. This principle was then applied to defect analysis, separating the ‘Vital Few’ from the ‘Trivial Many’. The graphical illustration of this, the Pareto Chart, shows the relative frequency of the sources to provide a prioritisation tool to help organise process improvement activities.
  4. 4. Construction: PLEASE NOTE THAT GUIDELINES TO TAKE YOU THROUGH THE EXCEL SPREADSHEET PRODUCTION OF PARETO CHARTS ARE PRESENTED AT THE END OF THIS SECTION.1. Decide which problem you want to know more about. E.g. Being late to work2. Choose the causes or problems that will be monitored, compared and ranked. This can be done by brainstorming or with data collection. For brainstorming (see Brainstorming Module) ask what might be the typical causes, issues or problems surrounding your general problem area. Collect all ideas and then choose the top six - ten issues. If using the brainstorming method, use Post It notes, with only 1 idea clearly written on each Post-It note in felt tip pen. E.g. reasons for being late: - Oversleeping (oversleep) - Things to be done at home (house tasks) - Arguing with spouse/ children (argue) - Leaving things behind (go back) - Traffic (traffic) - Had to take kids to school (kids) For data collecting, base these top six - ten issues on existing data.3. Choose the most meaningful unit of measurement for your issues. This will normally be one of: - time - frequency - cost - size - errors
  5. 5. E.g. frequency4. Choose the relevant period of time to be studied. For example, if measuring late deliveries to the customer, doing it over a month may show a different pattern to collecting data over a week. While Fridays may regularly show late deliveries, it may actually be that the bulk of the problems occur at month end or at a particularly busy period in the month. Longer studies tend to translate to better information. E.g. 1 month5. Gather the necessary data on each problem category either by ’real time’ or reviewing historical data.L = late SEPTEMBER 2001MON TUES WED THURS FRI SAT SUN 1 23 L- kids 4 L- go 5 6 7 8 9 back10 L- 11 12 13 L- 14 15 16traffic Oversleep17 18 L- 19 L- 20 L - 21 L- 22 23 kids kids oversleep oversleep24 L- 25 26 27 L- 28 29 30traffic oversleep6. Put the data into a table reflecting the unit of measurement and its percentage of the overall total.
  6. 6. REASON FOR LATENESS FREQUENCY PERCENT OF TOTALTraffic 2 20%Oversleeping 4 40%Take kids to school 3 30%Left something behind at home 1 10%Arguing with spouse/ kids 0 0Things to be done at home 0 0TOTAL 10 100%7. Compare the relative frequency or cost of each problem category.8. Construct your chart. Place the problem categories along the bottom axis (the horizontal one). At the beginning of this axis, place the problem category that has the highest measurement unit, (in our example, frequency) from your data compilation. Then place the next highest frequency category, then the next highest etc. On the tall axis (the vertical one) place the numbers measuring the frequency of each problem category. TIP: If you started out with more than 5 or six categories, you may like to group the remaining categories with insignificant frequencies into an ‘Other’ category.
  7. 7. BEING LATE TO WORK 5 Number of Times Late 4 3 2 1 0 Oversleeping Take kids to Traff ic Left Arguing Home tasks school something behind FREQUENCY Reasons For Being Late 9. Draw the cumulative percentage line showing the portion of the total that each problem category represents. BEING LATE TO WORK 4.5 120 4 100 3.5FREQUENCY 3 80 2.5 FREQUENCY 60 2 cumulative freq 1.5 40 1 20 0.5 0 0 nd ol ng s g fic sk in ho af hi pi gu ta Tr be sc ee Ar e l to ng rs m ve Ho hi ds O et ki om ke s Ta ft Le REASONS We can now see from our Cumulative Frequency line that the first two causes contribute 70% of the total reasons.
  8. 8. However it is important to remember that this chart only shows one measurement. If for example, our late to work chart was then calculated with how many minutes each event made you late, you may get quite a different picture.REASON FOR LATENESS FREQUENCY HOW LATE TOTAL MINS (from original graph) (MINUTES) LATETraffic 2 15 30 minsOversleeping 4 10 40 minsTake kids to school 3 45 135 minsLeft something behind at home 1 20 20 minsArguing with spouse/ kids 0 5 0 minsThings to be done at home 0 10 0 mins By incorporating this into our graph, we can see that even though we are most often late by oversleeping, it is when we have to take the kids to school that causes the substantial lateness. BEING LATE TO WORK 160 120 140 100 Minutes late 120 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 ol g g s fic ... in in sk ho af be ep gu ta Tr sc le Ar ng e to rs m hi total minutes late ve Ho ds et O om ki cumulative freq ke s Ta ft Le Reasons for being late TOOL TAKEAWAY: (remember this if nothing else!) – The most important thing about Pareto charts is to make sure you are analysing the right unit of measurement, in order to effect the real underlying issue.
  9. 9. Computer TipsUse Excel to complete your Pareto charts.Make the table of your data collection into an excel spreadsheet.Make sure you include the column titles for whatever unit ofmeasurement you have used, along the top of the table with thecauses listed down the left hand side and the frequency recordedin the columns. Your table should have three columns, with theCauses, Frequency and Cumulative Percentage total in the thirdcolumn. Make sure your Categories are in the correct order withthe most frequent at the top of the table.REASON FOR LATENESS FREQUENCY cumulative %Oversleeping 4 40Take kids to school 3 70Traffic 2 90Left something behind 1 100Arguing 0 100Home tasks 0 100Once your table is complete, highlight the table, then use theChart Wizard button to complete the Chart.The chart wizard button looks likeAlternatively on the Chart drop down menu at the top of the page,select the ‘Chart’ option.Click on the chart wizard and a dialogue box will come up withtwo option tabs at the top; Standard Types or Custom Types.Select Custom Types, scroll down the chart types until you reach“Line – Column on 2 Axes”.Once this is selected, click on ‘next’ button at the bottom of thedialogue box.The next step of the Chart Wizard will bring up the text you havepreviously highlighted from your table.You should have the Series to be displayed in ‘columns’.Once this is done, click on
  10. 10. At Step three of the chart wizard you should enter in the title ofyour chart, and the titles of the axes. The X axis is the title ofyour categories i.e. Reasons For Being Late, while the Y axis isthe unit of measurement used, i.e. Number of times late.Click on Next once these boxes are complete.Select the option to have the graph as an object in either yourcurrent worksheet, or if you want the graph on a whole separatepage, then select it to be placed as a new sheet.Click on finish and your graph will appear.To change any of the details, highlight your chart again and gothrough the steps until you reach the information you want tochange.Alternatively if you click on the part of the chart you want tochange (i.e. titles, formatting etc) it should let you change it.Note any changes to the data in your original table willautomatically be reflected in your Pareto Chart.InterpretationGenerally, the tallest bars indicate the biggest contributors to theoverall problem. So normally you would pick these categories todeal with first.However you need to remember that Pareto charts only deal withone dimension at a time, and other variables may have an impacton your decision making.See some of the variations suggested below to provide furtherideas on interpretation.VariationsThe Pareto Chart is one of the most widely and relatively usedimprovement tools. The variations used most frequently are:
  11. 11. A. Major Cause Breakdowns in which the “tallest bar” is broken into subcauses in a second, linked Pareto. For example- breaking down the causes for oversleeping might come down to: - forgot to set alarm - late night the night before - children up all night - slept through the alarm B. Before and After in which the “new Pareto” bars are drawn side by side with the original Pareto, showing the effect of a change. It can be drawn as one chart or two separate charts. C. Change the Source of Data in which data is collected on the same problem but from different departments, locations, equipment, and so on, and shown in side-by- side Pareto Charts. D. Change Measurement Scale in which the same categories are used but measured differently. Typically “cost” and “frequency” are alternated. (in this module, frequency and time were used)Example Problems (Good to practise on)* There is never enough milk in the fridge* Types of errors on letters* Types of department complaintsFor Further Information:See your mentor expertSee your local advocateCheck the ‘Memory Jogger’ book (held by advocate)
  12. 12. DATA ANALYSIS & PRESENTATION Histograms Purpose: It is a visual summary of data that is often difficult to understand in a spreadsheet or tabular form. A histogram summarises data from a process that has been collected over a period of time, and graphically presents its frequency distribution in bar chart form. When To Use It Histograms are useful when you are looking at one issue or problem and trying to make sense of the data collected. It helps you to see whether a piece of data is in the mainstream or is an extreme. Histograms also reflect a range of information, for example, how long it takes people to do a certain task, heights of people in a group etc. PLEASE NOTE THAT GUIDELINES TO TAKE YOU THROUGH THE EXCEL SPREADSHEET PRODUCTION OF HISTOGRAMS ARE PRESENTED AT THE END OF THE CONSTRUCTION SECTION . Construction: 1. Decide on the area you wish to investigate.
  13. 13. 2. Decide what you want to measure about the issue. Your data must be variable, i.e. measured on a continuous scale. For example: temperature, time, dimensions, height, weight, speed, cost.i.e. monthly rental on 1 bedroom flat in London3. Collect data on the issue. The more data points you have the more useful your graph will be. 50 is a good number of data points, as it will reflect any trends. Normally over 50 data points should be collected to see meaningful patterns. MONTHLY RENTALS FOR 1 BEDROOM FLATS IN LONDON710 735 740 800 935 980 820855 920 840 870 790 800 880910 1010 790 695 840 820 860870 870 660 835 945 910 995990 1000 1040 880 845 780 785775 710 715 875 890 875 930750 750 965 1000 840 840 695835 910 780 840 780 900 975 TIP: You might also want to consider collecting data for a specific period of time, depending on the topic. These may be values recorded on an issue within an hour, a shift, a day, a week etc.4. Divide your data into ‘classes’. This is a measure of grouping all your data into sections. One way to determine how many classes you should have is the square root rule. Take the number of data points
  14. 14. collected, and find the square root. Round it up to the nearest whole number TIP: as a rough guide, consider this for the number of classes. NO. OF DATA POINTS NO. OF CLASSES Under 50 5-7 6-10 7-12 Over 250 10-20 i.e. n = 56 √56 = 7.48 = 85. Determine the range. Take the lowest value in your data points and subtract it from the highest value. i.e. 1040 – 660 = 3806. Now you know how many classes you are going to have, you need to know how big to make those classes. To do this, divide the range by the number of classes and round up. i.e. 380 ÷ 8 = 47.5 = 50 (rounded up to nearest 10) TIP: It is usually more useful if all class widths are the same. It is easier to compare the areas of 2 rectangles of equal width than to compare the areas of 2 rectangles with different widths. TIP: Depending on your data, you may find it easier to start at your lowest value and go up in groups of 1, 10, 20, or 100 – whichever seems most obviously appropriate for your data. i.e. heights – classes of 2 inches at a time rents - £50 intervals at a time
  15. 15. 7. Now construct your classes. It is important that your first class should contain your lowest value and your last class should contain your highest value. If the first or last class is empty, you may need to change the class width, the number of classes or the anchoring (the number system) of the classes. 650 - 699 700 – 749 750 – 799 800 – 849 850 – 899 900 – 949 950 – 999 1000 - 1049 8. For a final check on your classes, look to make sure they are: - exhaustive – so every data point can be inserted into a class. The classes must span the entire range of data collected. - mutually exclusive - the classes do not overlap and each data point fits into only 1 class. The usual procedure is to assume that each class interval opens on the left and closes on the right. Class 1 = 0 – 5 , not incl. 6 Class 2 = from 6 up, but not incl. 12 Class 3 = from 12 up, but not incl. 18 Class 4 = from 18 up, but not incl. 24 Class 5 = from 24 up, but not incl. 30 Class 6 = from 30 up, but not incl. 366 12 18 24 30 36 So the data point 18 would belong in the 4 th class, not the third class. 9. Now distribute your data amongst your classes.
  16. 16. 650 - 699 660 695 695700 – 749 710 735 740 710 715750 – 799 790 790 780 785 775 750 750 780 780800 – 849 800 820 840 800 840 820 835 845 840 840 835 840850 – 899 855 880 860 870 870 880 875 890 875 870900 – 949 935 920 910 945 910 910 930 900950 – 999 980 990 995 975 9651000 - 1049 1010 1000 1040 1000 10. Plot the classes along the X (horizontal) axis. 99 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 04 74 79 84 89 94 99 -6 -1 – – – – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 65 00 85 70 75 80 90 95 10 Monthly Rent (£) 11. Decide on the intervals for the Y axis. This should be in whole numbers and may be in intervals of 1, 2, 5 or 10 depending on how many data points are collected. Once again it will depend on the range or frequency of your data. 12. For each of your classes, count the number of data items that fall into that category (see Variations section for Stem and Leaf diagram). Bring the bar up to this level on the Y axis.
  17. 17. Repeat for each one of your classes. Monthly Rent paid on 1 bedroom flats in London 14 12Frequency 10 8 6 4 2 0 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 99 04 74 79 84 89 94 99 -6 -1 – – – – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 10 Monthly Rent (£) Frequency Computer Tips Use Excel to complete your Histograms. Make the table of your data collection into an excel spreadsheet. Have a column containing your classes and a second column of their frequency. Once your table is complete, highlight the table, including column titles then use the Chart Wizard button to complete the Chart. The chart wizard button looks like Alternatively on the Chart drop down menu at the top of the page, select the ‘Chart’ option.
  18. 18. Click on the chart wizard and a dialogue box will come up withtwo option tabs at the top; Standard Types or Custom Types.Select Standard Types, and highlight “Column”.Once this is selected, click on ‘next’ button at the bottom of thedialogue box.The next step of the Chart Wizard will bring up the text you havepreviously highlighted from your table.You should have the Series to be displayed in ‘columns’.Once this is done, click onAt Step three of the chart wizard you should enter in the title ofyour chart, and the titles of the axes. The X axis is the title ofyour categories i.e. Monthly Rent (£), while the Y axis is the unitof measurement used, i.e. Frequency.Click on Next once these boxes are complete.Select the option to have the graph as an object in either yourcurrent worksheet, or if you want the graph on a whole separatepage, then select it to be placed as a new sheet.Click on finish and your graph will appear.To change any of the details, highlight your chart again and gothrough the steps until you reach the information you want tochange.Alternatively if you click on the part of the chart you want tochange (i.e. titles, formatting etc) it should let you change it.Note any changes to the data in your original table willautomatically be reflected in your Histogram.InterpretationHistograms show centering, dispersion (spread) and shape(relative frequency) of data.
  19. 19. The shape of the Histogram (the frequency distribution) tells us alost about probability. If a height Histogram was representative ofthe overall population, we could conclude the probability of findingpeople v. short (under 65 inches) or very tall (over 72 inches) islow.The shape of this distribution is called the normal distribution andlooks like a bell shaped curve.Most sets of data fall into a ‘normal’ distribution i.e. there are a lotof medium height people and a few tall and a few short in mostpopulations.As a Histogram picks up these patterns and expresses them in agraphical form it makes it easy to highlight whether a piece of datais in the mainstream or at an extreme.Not all data falls conveniently into a normal distribution.Other main possibilities include:POSITIVELY SKEWED NEGATIVELY SKEWEDBI-MODAL FLAT OR UNITARY
  20. 20. To interpret your Histogram you need to ask:Why this shaped distribution and what is it telling us?For example, if assessing how long it took to perform a certaintask and it falls into normal distribution, you may look to cut outthe extremes, in order to have more values fall into the centre.Alternatively if it is a skewed distribution you may only need toadjust 1 extreme.Histograms can be good comparison diagrams. Constructing asecond Histogram some time after the original may reflect thechanges made as steps taken to improve processes. JUNE DECEMBER10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 2426 26 (seconds) (seconds)TIME TAKEN TO ANSWER TELEPHONE (seconds)Here you can see an improvement in times from June toDecember, suggesting that measures put in place after June havehad an effect and increased performance.Histograms can also be used to examine your data for accuracyand/or process changes. FIGURE A FIGURE B
  21. 21. Figure A is a Histogram with a fairly symmetrical shape with noobvious outliers (extreme data values) which might be due to anerror or process change.However figure B may reflect that the far right data is not a part ofthe symmetric shaped Histogram.So it may be a good idea to investigate the far right data in orderto check whether it is incorrect, inaccurate or something in theprocess changed when that data was collected.VariationsStem & Leaf DisplayThe Stem & leaf Display is a cross between a frequencydistribution and a histogram.It reflects the shape of the histogram, but displays all the originaldata points, providing some more detail. While a histogram willshow you how many values may fall in a class, it will not reflectthe pattern of that data, i.e. Whether or not all the data in theclass 18-24 is made up of mostly 18 scores or if it is evenlydistributed across the class.The ‘stem’ of the diagram is normally determined by the leadingdigit in your collected data.The following ‘leaves’ are then all the numbers in that data set.For example, if I was collecting data on ages of people buying thelatest Oasis CD, I might come up with the following datacollection: 18 16 30 29 28 21 17 41 8 17 32 26 16 24 27 17 17 33 19 18 31 27 23 38 33 14 13 26 11 28 21 19 25 22 17
  22. 22. 12 21 21 25 26 23 20 22 19 21 14 45 15 24Given that all our data was all integers with one or 2 digits, wecan use the tens digit as our choice for the stem. The leaf is thenthe following digit, as illustrated below.Alternatively you can use the classes already determined inpreparing your histogram.Sort or order the data, then the following diagram can bedisplayed.Stem Leaf0 81 1234456677777889992 01111122334455666778893 01233484 15So the Stem & Leaf display still shows the individual elements ineach class, while still retaining the ‘feel’ or ‘shape’ of a histogram.Example Problems (Good to practise on)* ages of people at work* how many cups of tea people drink* how long it takes people to get to workFor Further Information:See your mentor expertSee your local advocateCheck the ‘Memory Jogger’ book(held by advocates)
  23. 23. DATA ANALYSIS & PRESENTATION Radar Charts Purpose: To visually show in one graphic the size of gaps among a number of both current performance areas and ideal performance areas. When To Use It Radar Charts are useful to illustrate strengths and weaknesses in important areas of performance. Construction: PLEASE NOTE THAT GUIDELINES TO TAKE YOU THROUGH THE EXCEL SPREADSHEET PRODUCTION OF RADAR CHARTS ARE PRESENTED AT THE END OF THIS SECTION. 1. Decide on the issue to be assessed. It may be the performance of an organization, groups or process. i.e. skill areas I need to improve to go for a job promotion 2. Assemble the right team of people capable of rating the selected organization, group or process. Try to get varied perspectives to avoid ‘blind spots’. i.e. probably just me, or if appropriate, my boss or my partner 3. Select the rating categories. On average, choose between 5- 10 categories you want to rate performance on.
  24. 24. Brainstorm to create the categories. Alternatively, if you have done previous study of this issue, you may like to use the category headings from an Issue Diagram (see Issue Diagram Module)i.e. people management budgeting problem solving & facilitation communication skills computer skills industry knowledge & experience4. One you have your headings, if possible see if there are any similarities between them. For example you may like to have the categories of Financial Performance and Share Price close together or Number of Staff and Training for example. i.e. people management communication skills problem solving & facilitation budgeting computer skills industry knowledge & experience5. Once selected, define your rating categories. Determine the definition on non-performance and full performance within each category so that ratings are done consistently. For each definition assign it a number in a range. Make it the same number for all categories.i.e. 1 = non performance, 5 = full performance
  25. 25. CATEGORY 1 2 3 4 5People No experience Managed teams Managed teams of atManagement managing people of at least 5 least 10 people in a people variety of situations. (min 5 different situations)Communication Problem Good at Comfortable withSkills communicating presenting on communicating with with people; topics to various all levels of staff in formally or groups many situations informallyProb Solv & Unable to work Can demonstrate Comfortable takingFacilitation through Prob problem solving unfamiliar groups Solving process skills in small through complex independently groups problem solving workshopsBudgeting No experience of Able to budget Advanced level of managing or and stick to budgeting skills; able being responsible budget on less to deliver accurate for a budget complex projects budgets on complex issuesComputer Skills Limited Substantial Advanced knowledge knowledge of knowledge of of Word, Excel, Microsoft word word, excel, Powerpoint, Access and excel powerpoint and and Microsoft Project accessIndustry Know. & Role experience Worked in wide Worked in more thanExp in 1 sector range of roles one company in the within the industry, in a range of company over the roles over last 10 last five years years. 6. Decide what rating your ideal should contain in each of the categories. This can be done based on a subjective assessment, or on information available, but should be agreed upon by the whole group. JOB XYZ COMPETENCIES RATING REQUIRED People Management 5 Communication Skills 5 Problem Solving & Facilitation Skills 5 Budgeting 3 Computer Skills 3 Industry Knowledge & Experience 4
  26. 26. 7. Using a large piece of flipchart paper, draw as many spokes as there are rating categories. Write down each rating category at the end of each spoke around the perimeter of the wheel, paying attention to any links you highlighted between categories in step 4, placing them next to each other. Mark each spoke on a 0 to ‘n’ scale where n is the highest number on your scale in step 5 = highest performance. The ‘0’ at the centre is equal to ‘no performance’.8. Rate all performance categories. Performance can be People Management 5 4 Industry Know ledge & 3 Communication Skills Experience 2 1 0 Computer Skills Problem Solving & Facilitation Budgeting measured objectively or subjectively. Get each individual to make their own rating. These ratings can either be recorded on your Radar Chart using markers or coloured stickers directly on to the flipchart or they can be written down. Once individual ratings have been determined, the final ratings for each category should be decided by either consensus or an average of individual scores.
  27. 27. JOB XYZ COMPETENCIES CURRENT RATINGPeople Management 3Communication Skills 4Problem Solving & Facilitation Skills 3Budgeting 4Computer Skills 3Industry Knowledge & Experience 29. Record final ratings on chart, as well as the required rating measures. TIP: make team ratings highly visible on the chart – make sure it is distinguishable from individual team members ratings if these have been recorded directly on to the flipchart.10. Connect the team ratings for each category and highlight as needed. JOB XYZ COMPETENCIES People Management 5 4 Industry Knowledge & 3 Communication Skills Experience 2 1 0 Problem Solving & Computer Skills Facilitation Budgeting CURRENT RATING REQUIRED RATING
  28. 28. Computer TipsUse Excel to complete your Radar Charts.Make the table of your data collection into an excel spreadsheet.Have one column for your Category heading, one column for yourRequired Rating and one column for your Current Rating.Once your table is complete, highlight the table, then use theChart Wizard button to complete the Chart.The chart wizard button looks likeAlternatively on the Chart drop down menu at the top of the page,select the ‘Chart’ option.Click on the chart wizard and a dialogue box will come up withtwo option tabs at the top; Standard Types or Custom Types.Select Standard Types, and highlight “Radar”.Once this is selected, click on ‘next’ button at the bottom of thedialogue box.The next step of the Chart Wizard will bring up the text you havepreviously highlighted from your table.You should have the Series to be displayed in ‘columns’.Once this is done, click onAt Step three of the chart wizard you need to enter in the title ofyour chart.Click on Next once this is complete.Select the option to have the graph as an object in either yourcurrent worksheet, or if you want the graph on a whole separatepage, then select it to be placed as a new sheet.Click on finish and your graph will appear.To change any of the details, highlight your chart again and gothrough the steps until you reach the information you want tochange.
  29. 29. Alternatively if you click on the part of the chart you want tochange (i.e. titles, formatting etc) it should let you change it.Note any changes to the data in your original table willautomatically be reflected in your Radar Chart.InterpretationThe interpretation of your Radar Chart lies in the differencebetween the two shapes. The Radar chart will show you whatareas you have not yet reached the required performance leveland also what areas you have exceeded the requiredperformance level.Using our example, our skill level was fine for the competenciesof Computer Skills and Budgeting, but our skill levels were not upto the required level for Industry Knowledge & Experience, PeopleManagement, Communication and Problem Solving & FacilitationSkills.The overall ratings will identify the categories with the biggestperformance gaps. However it will not show the relativeimportance of the categories themselves.For example, the potential employer may believe that not beingup to scratch on People Management is not as important ashaving the right level of skills for Communication. They maydecide that sending you on a course will take you near enough tothe required level.When selecting a performance measure to improve, work on thebiggest gap in the most critical category.For our job at XYZ, the area requiring the most work might be ourIndustry Knowledge & Experience and our Problem Solving &Facilitation skills.The Radar Chart works well as a visual ‘report card’. Itcan be used to review progress towards a required
  30. 30. state over time. Post the Radar Chart in a prominentplace. Review progress regularly and update the chartaccordingly.VariationsA Radar Chart doesn’t have to measure performance but can alsobe a pictorial reflection of the ‘shape’ of the issue, reflecting itspriorities.Given the same categories the shape can then be redrawn toreflect the change needed to move away from the ‘old’ shape tothe ‘new’ shape.Work can then begin on how to achieve this process.One Radar Chart can also reflect the range of ratings within theteam, the average team rating, the deserved level of performancefor each category and the level required to be world classstandard per that category.Example Problems (Good to practise on)* 5s in your area (see module on 5S)* options for buying a new carFor Further Information:See your mentor expertSee your local advocateCheck the ‘Memory Jogger’ book (held by advocates)
  31. 31. ISSUES ANALYSIS 5 Whys Analysis Purpose: To be able to move past symptoms and get to the true root cause of a problem.When To Use ItThe 5 Whys Analysis is a good tool to use when you quickly wantto get to the root cause of a problem. It can be used inconjunction with a Fishbone Analysis (see Fishbone AnalysisModule) and Pareto Chart (see Pareto Chart Module).Construction:The 5 Whys Analysis is a brainstorming technique that identifiesroot cause by asking WHY events occurred or conditions existed.The simple yet powerful tool gets you write down the problem andask why, peeling back the layers unitl you get to a root cause.It involves selecting one event associated with an action and askswhy the event occurred. This produces the most direct cause foreach event. Then, for each of these sub events or cause, in turnyou need to ask why that happened.It has been found that by the time you ask why 5 times, and got 5sensible answers, you can normally see where the problemoriginated, thereby enabling you to treat the root cause ratherthan the symptoms.
  32. 32. Example of Using 5 Whys To Discover Root CausePROBLEM: There is a damp patch on the ceilingBecause water is dripping through from the roofBecause there is a hole under the eavesBecause birds have been nesting thereBecause they can’t nest in the treesBecause there are no trees tall enough for them to stay out ofreach of the cat!!So need to secure hole in eaves and provide birdhouse that catcan’t get to. TIP: Ensure that the 5 Whys still make sense when you read them backwards.If you can’t finish the 5 Whys, because you get stuck on an ‘Idon’t know’ answer, you need to go out and find out why, beforecontinuing with the 5 Whys Analysis.
  33. 33. Example from a kitchen range manufacturerPROBLEM: There is too much work in process inventory, yet wenever seem to have the right parts. WHY? 1The enamelling process is unpredictable, and the press roomdoes not respond quickly enough. WHY? 2It takes them too long to make a changeover between parts, sothe lot sizes are too big, and often the wrong parts. WHY? 3Many of the stamping dies make several different parts, andmust be reconfigured in the tool room between runs, which takesas long as eight hours. WHY? 4The original project management team had cost overruns on thebuilding site work, so they skimped on the number of dies theytraded dedicated dies and small lot sizes for high work-in process(which was not measured by their project budget!) WHY? 5ROOT CAUSE:Company management did not understand lean Manufacturingand they did not set appropriate targets when the plant waslaunched. TIP: Quite often, a 5 Whys Analysis will point to theExample using themanagement or training issue! root cause being a template:
  34. 34. This template gathers information to help you complete your 5Whys Analysis. This form captures historical data, problempriorities, Pareto analysis, corrective action and verification.1. As you can see from the template, the first step is to establish the primary cause of the error. You can do this by either using a Pareto Chart (See Pareto Chart Module) or a Fishbone Diagram (See Fishbone Diagram Module).
  35. 35. 2. Once the top cause has been selected, then ask the question as to why that happens 5 times.3. Once root cause is determined, establish temporary and permanent measures to correct the error.4. Update in three months time to show improvement.Historical Example: FOR WANT OF A NAIL A SHOE WAS LOST FOR WANT OF A SHOE A HORSE WAS LOST FOR WANT OF A HORSE A RIDER WAS LOST FOR WANT OF A RIDER AN ARMY WAS LOST FOR WANT OF AN ARMY A BATTLE WAS LOST FOR WANT OF A BATTLE A WAR WAS LOST FOR WANT OF A WAR A KINGDOM WAS LOST AND ALL FOR THE WANT OF A LITTLE HORSESHOE NAIL.
  36. 36. Example Problems (Good to practise on)* why is the monthly report always late?* why do I always get injured playing sport?* why do we have high staff turnover in our department?For Further Information:See your mentor expertSee your local advocate
  37. 37. ISSUES ANALYSIS Brainstorming Purpose: To establish a common method for teams to creatively and efficiently generate a high volume of ideas on any topic by creating a process that is free of criticism and judgment.When To Use ItCan be used individually, but is usually more effective in a groupwhen you need to generate a lot of ideas; whether they besolutions or causes or data.Brainstorming is a well known but often badly practised technique– it is important to learn to use it properly.Also remember that many solutions to complex problems comefrom ideas that might seem ‘crazy’ at first, so brainstorming isintended to encourage fresh thinking and ‘crazy’ ideas.Rules For Brainstorming:There are five simple rules designed to prevent barriers to theflow of ideas.
  38. 38. 1. NO CRITICISMThere should be no criticism of any ideas thrown up during asession. This means suspending any judgement of ideas andsuggestions until the appropriate time. TIP: This can be very challenging and difficult to deal with! Perhaps have a forfeit of penalty system for those “Yes, but…” people. This should also apply to body language as well, which can also be negative and critical. Also, make sure you don’t succumb to self censorship, criticising in your head what you are thinking that might stop you from suggesting ideas.No criticism is important as what may seem unrealistic and wayoff base can sometimes be enough to develop into a good idea orinspire someone else along a different track altogether.Remember that the brain is a complex machine and our thoughtsare rarely in a logical ordered fashion, but instead tend to jumparound randomly – there is no telling what can spark off a greatsuggestion from someone else.2. FREEWHEELINGOften we have our best ideas when our brain waves are in the so-called ‘Theta’ pattern. This occurs when we are just dropping offto sleep, just waking up, driving on a long journey or relaxing in abath or shower, times during which our minds roam free. It is thisstate you should try and encourage in a brainstorming session.As such, freewheeling encourages people to come up withrandom ideas ‘off the top of their heads’. Don’t worry about how TIP: Maybe spend a few minutes concentrating on the most way-out ideas possible concerning the current topic as part of your brainstorming session.
  39. 39. impractical the ideas are. In fact brainstorming sessions are muchmore effective if really crazy ideas are encouraged.There are two ways to record the ideas from the brainstorm.The first is to have everyone call out the ideas and have a scribewrite them down. This lets others generate ideas from everyoneelse’s ideas, but it can be difficult to get all the ideas down andquieter members of the group may not be heard.The second approach is to have individuals’ complete Post-Itnotes, using 1 Post-It per idea. This approach is effective whereyou may have a mix of seniority or someone that exerts personalpower and others withdraw. It can also let you move the ideasaround once the brainstorming process is finished. However, beaware that the Post-It note approaches which can sometimesmean people get caught up in their own thinking channel withoutan opportunity to be inspired by the ideas from everyone else. Ifthe Post-It note approach is used, ensure there is time set asideto read out each of the Post-It notes – with NO criticism – andthen a few further minutes for any last minute brainstorms.To decide which approach to use, the facilitator should ask thegroup which approach they would prefer, and try and gainconsensus.Whichever approach is used, the facilitator needs to make surethe points noted are accurate and specific enough.3. QUANTITYBrainstorming promotes quantity over quality. Take existingsuggestions or ideas and use them as a springboard for furtherpossibilities.Typically groups might like to aim at producing 100 ideas in 20minutes, although if a brainstorming session is going well, a list of250 ideas can easily be produced.4. RECORD ALL IDEASEvery single idea must be written down, however extraordinary itmay seem, and even if it is that same as a previous idea butexpressed in a different way.
  40. 40. It is also important to make sure the group can see the list beingcompiled.The scribe, who should be someone different to the facilitator,needs to write the ideas on flipchart paper and the sheets need tobe posted around the room when full so that they remain in viewand therefore ‘live’. TIP: All team members should be prepared to help the scribe get all ideas down by repeating themselves. The scribe should abbreviate as much as possible without changing the content of the suggestion.5. INCUBATEIf possible, give yourself an opportunity to process the ideas.‘Sleeping on it’ ensures you have had the chance to really thinkabout the brainstormed suggestions. This is not always possiblebut do try and put some kind of break in there, even if it is just for5 or 10 minutes. TIP: Many problem solving groups incubate their brainstorming sessions for a week and come back to the lists at the next group meeting with a further few minutes of brainstorming to see if any more ideas have occurred to anyone during the week.Steps For Running Brainstorming Meetings:As well as the rules of brainstorming there are also some steps tonote in running a successful brainstorming meeting andevaluating the ideas after they have been incubated. Step One:
  41. 41. Restate, write up and reinforce the rules of Brainstorming! Itcan be easy to assume everyone can slot into the role ofbrainstorming- they won’t. So make sure you promote therules and stick to them. 1. NO CRITICISM 2.FREEWHEEL 3.QUANTITY 4.RECORD ALL IDEAS 5. INCUBATEStep Two:Write up the subject to be brainstormed.This can either be a problem statement, or a subjectproceeded by the phrase “what are all the ways we can…?”Make sure you do write the heading up clearly to make surethe group stays focussed on the topic at hand.Ensure the statement is clearly stated and everyone has thesame understanding. TIP: If using a problem statement, make sure it doesn’t seem to suggest a solution. Problem statements that read “We need more space” suggest a solution that will have everyone only thinking down one track. A better problem statement would be “The work area is congested”.Step Three:Start the ideas coming.
  42. 42. You can do this in a structured way by going around theroom and taking it in turns to call out ideas. If someone cannot think of a suggestion he or she just says ‘pass’ and thenext person carries on so as not to halt the flow of ideas.This way makes sure everyone is involved and ideas comeone at a time which makes it easier to record them.However the unstructured approach is generally morepopular.This is more a free for all session, letting anyone call out anidea at any time. This is more difficult for the person writingto keep up with, but has the advantage of letting the ideascome more freely which results in better qualitybrainstorming.Let people know how long the generating ideas part will gofor; this will make it easier for people to suspend theirnegative tendencies to criticise and evaluate immediately ifthey know how long they have to suspend them for.However make sure you remain flexible with this rule.Sometimes there can be a lot lost by restricting people totime – if ideas are flowing, or conversely not flowing at all,people may need a bit more time.The role of facilitator is important here. The facilitator shouldbe able to appreciate when to step in to start off the flow ofideas and when to ease off and let the ideas run. Once theflow of ideas has started to plateau or stall, the facilitator
  43. 43. should step in and try rephrasing the topic to get a different angle. Example questions might be:- What would you like done differently about XYZ?- What’s dumb about what we do?- What do other people perceive as problems in this area?- What things or areas could we make better? Towards the end of the time ask for any last suggestions to give people a chance to get any last thoughts down. Step Four: Record all ideas and make sure the list is visible to all group members as mentioned in Brainstorming Rule 4. Step Five: As mentioned in rule 5 of the Brainstorming rules, incubating the ideas is an important and valuable part of the process. Maybe post the list of brainstormed suggestions somewhere in the work area. This keeps the subject in mind and can help the incubation process. Step Six: Now you need to evaluate the ideas. The best way of organising the evaluation is to begin by grouping the items on the list into themes. This should be before any items are rejected as being impractical. Once sorted, each theme can then be examined to find instant winners, ideas that can be quickly and easily implemented. For a problem solving session you can also evaluate the ideas using the Pareto Principle (see module on Pareto
  44. 44. Charts) to isolate the one or two ideas that would solve mostof the problem.
  45. 45. VariationsTo generate the flow of ideas you may like to switch between thestructured and unstructured method of brainstorming. If the groupis silent early on, or if the manager has had a lot of input early on,start off in the freewheeling mode and then switch to the roundrobin, structured fashion.Or if people start to fidget waiting for their turn, switch to the freewheeling session, but ensure everyone gets a turn to be heard.Try and make your brainstorming sessions something different.Another rule could be: Don’t Treat It Like A Meeting. Sittingaround a table can be boring, so encourage people to get up andpace around or even just stay standing - this can contribute tothe ‘Eureka!’ effect.You may also like to give everyone access to paper and brightcoloured pens. Sometimes just doodling can spark off ideas, oralternatively instead of writing the statement to be brainstormed,draw the situation to further stimulate creative minds.One further idea is to bring in at least one employee whois NOT affiliated intimately with the initiative being discussed. Thisallows an impartial witness to any short-sightedness and lets youshow other departments how good you are!!The following are two articles written about the brainstormingprocess at Ideo, one of Silicone Valleys foremost creative productdesign companies.
  46. 46. 7 Secrets to Good BrainstormingGenerating rafts of good ideas is Ideo’s business. Here’s how thisworld-class product-development firm keeps the lightbulbs blazingbright.by Linda TischlerAccording to The Economists Innovation Survey, half of the U.S.economys current growth comes from companies that didnt exist 10 yearsago. Corporate titans have learned to fear the prodigy in his dorm room orthe garage-based whiz kid whos forging a bullet with their companys nameon it. "Innovate or die" is not an idle threat. Its the harsh reality of themodern, fast-forward economy.Silicon Valley-based Ideo has sparked some of the most innovative productsof the past decade -- the Apple mouse, the Polaroid I-Zone Pocket Camera,and the Palm V, among others. But Ideo staffers dont just sit aroundwaiting for good ideas to pop into their heads. The company hasinstitutionalized a process whereby ideas are coaxed to the surface throughregular, structured brainstorming sessions. At Ideo, idea-generationexercises are "practically a religion," Kelley says.On any given day, multiple brainstorming sessions may spawn hundreds ofideas and burn through just as many chocolate-chip cookies, the preferredfuel of world-class idea mongers. Indeed, collective idea generation is soimportant at Ideo that a staffer caught trying to noodle a problem alone athis desk may be called on the carpet for wasting his time and the clientsmoney."The social ecology at many American companies says that when yourestuck, youre supposed to go back to your desk and think harder, becauseyou were hired for your skills," Kelley says. "At Ideo, the culture is exactlythe opposite. You have a social obligation to get help."But a poorly planned brainstorming session could cause more harm thangood, Thats why Ideo follows strict rules for sparking good ideas.Some are simple truths: Morning meetings work best; 3 - 10 participantsshould take part; and cookies always spur creativity. Some, like thoseoutlined below, are a bit more refined.1. Sharpen the focus.Start with a well-honed statement of the problem at hand. Edgy is betterthan fuzzy. The best topic statements focus outward on a specific customerneed or service enhancement rather than inward on some organizationalgoal.2. Write playful rules.Ideos primary brainstorming rules are simple: "Defer judgment" and "Oneconversation at a time." The firm believes in its rules so strongly that theyrestenciled in 8-inch letters on conference-room walls. "If Im the facilitatorand somebody starts a critique or people start talking, I can enforce the
  47. 47. rules without making it feel personal," Kelley says. Other rules include, "Gofor quantity," "Be visual," and "Encourage wild ideas."3. Number your ideas."This rule seems counterintuitive -- the opposite of creativity," Kelley says."But numbered lists create goals to motivate participants. You can say, Letstry to get to 100 ideas. Also, lists provide a reference point if you want tojump back and forth between ideas."4. Build and jump.Most brainstorming sessions follow a power curve: They start out slowly,build to a crescendo, and then start to plateau. The best facilitators nurturethe conversation in its early stages, step out of the way as the ideas start toflow, and then jump in again when energy starts to peter out."We go for two things in a brainstorm: fluency and flexibility," Kelley says."Fluency is a very rapid flow of ideas, so theres never more than a momentof silence. Flexibility is approaching the same idea from differentviewpoints."5. Make the space remember.Good facilitators should also write ideas down on an accessible surface. Ideoused to hold its brainstorms in rooms wallpapered with whiteboards orbutcher paper. Lately, however, the group has started using easel-sizedPost-it notes. "When the facilitator tries to pull together all the ideas afterthe session," Kelley says, "she can stack up nice, tidy rectangular thingsinstead of spreading butcher paper all the way down the hall."6. Stretch your mental muscles.Brainstorming, like marathon running, should begin with warm-up exercises.Ideo studied various methods of prepping for a session. For a project on thetoy industry, for example, Ideo divided the group into three teams: The firstteam did no preparation. The second listened to a lecture on the technologyinvolved and read background books. The third team took a field trip to atoy store. Far and away, the toy-store team produced ideas in greaterquantity and quality than the other two.7. Get physical.At Ideo, brainstorming sessions are often occasions for show-and-tell.Participants bring examples of competitors products, objects that relate tothe problem, or elegant solutions from other fields as springboards for ideas.Ideo also keeps materials on hand -- blocks, foam core, tubing -- to buildcrude models of a concept.
  48. 48. Six Surefire Ways to Kill a BrainstormComing up with good ideas -- even in an ideal environment -- is hardwork. But these tactics will guarantee failure.by Linda TischlerA poorly planned brainstorming session could cause more harm than good.And more frustration than anything else. Thats why Silicon Valley designfirm Ideo follows strict rules for sparking good ideas.These are not those rules.The six strategies below are absolute no-nos -- surefire innovation killersfrom Tom Kelley, general manger of Ideo Product Development.1. Let the boss speak first.Nothing kills a brainstorming session like a dominating CEO or thebrownnosers who rush to agree with his every statement. Ideo recommendsthat bosses lock themselves out of idea-generation sessions all together.Send him out for doughnuts, and youll get better results.2. Give everybody a turn.Kelley remembers packing 16 people into a room for one particular meeting.Each person had two minutes to speak. It was democratic. It was painful. Itwas pointless. It was a performance, not a brainstorm. "In a realbrainstorm, the focus should never be on just one person," Kelley says.3. Ask the experts only.When it comes to generating truly innovative ideas, deep expertise in a fieldcan actually be a drawback. "In a brainstorm, were looking for breadth,"Kelley says. Cross-pollination from seemingly unrelated fields can lead toauthentic breakthroughs.4. Go off-site.By conducting off-site brainstorming sessions, you only reinforce the conceptthat great ideas only come on the beach or at high altitudes -- not in theproximity of your daily work.5. No silly stuff.Kelley remembers one brainstorming session doomed by the bosss openingremarks: All ideas had to result in something the firm could patent andmanufacture. The silence that followed was deafening. Silly is important.Wild ideas are welcome. Brainstorming should be fun.6. Write down everything.Obsessive note taking is toxic to brainstorming. It shifts the focus to thewrong side of the brain. It makes the session feel like History 101. Doodles
  49. 49. and sketches are fine. A short note that preserves a thought is acceptable.But detailed writing destroys momentum, dissipates energy, and distractsfrom the main purpose of the exercise: unfettered thinking. Each sessionshould have an assigned scribe who records suggestions. And that personshould not be the group facilitator.Example Problems (Good to practise on)* Where to go for my birthday* Christmas presents* Coming up with a name for a rock band* Promotion ideas for a businessFor Further Information:See your mentor expertSee your local advocate
  50. 50. ISSUES ANALYSIS Issue Diagrams Purpose: To identify the problem attributes and the specific areas that you are going to address. It will not provide solutions.When To Use ItThe Issue Diagram is a tool that you can use as an individualwhen you have a specific problem/ objective or in a teamenvironment where you are trying to get consensus in what theproblem is. It can be especially powerful in multi-functionaldiscussions.You can use the Issue Diagram when you have a lot of issuesaround a topic as it allows you to organise and summarise naturalgroupings to understand the essence of a problem.Construction:Two methods: Top Down and Bottom Up.Generally Bottom Up is easiest to use.
  51. 51. Bottom Up:1. Place 2-3 pieces of Flipchart paper on the wall.2. On a whiteboard, or separate piece of Flipchart paper, write a broad problem statement. It should be as generic as possible and brought into by everybody. i.e. “I can’t afford to buy a house” Alternatively you can write down an effect i.e. “The Zido cycle is too long”3. Brainstorm by asking “what are all the issues contributing to this problem?”. Follow the brainstorming rules (see Brainstorming Module). A quick summary of the brainstorming rules are: 1. NO CRITICISM 2. FREEWHEEL 3. QUANTITY 4. RECORD ALL IDEAS 5. INCUBATE
  52. 52. 4. Use thin tipped felt pens on Post-It notes. This makes it easy for everyone to read. It is also important to use Post-Its so that you can shift ideas into groups as necessary. Make sure there is only 1 idea per Post-It. 5. Be prepared to put things to one side if you are getting bogged down – return when appropriate. Don’t allow solutions to be discussed. Don’t lay blame – encourage openness and honesty. I CAN’T AFFORD TO BUY A HOUSE Interest rates too Don’t earn Market Bank enough prices too requirements high Started high too strict smokingIn competition Haven’t saved Preferredwith other buyer enough for house too big Problem with deposit and expensive bank & savings Need to keep history TIP: You may like to initially limit the number of Post-Its savings for Not earning given out in order to make it interest to pullbackup – job good easier the diagram Bills too high Money tied rate total of aboutsituationissues together. Aim for a potentialon 30-40 Only looking up in shares and distribute a set number of Post-Its to group savings in expensive area members (depending on the number of people in the group), remembering to stick to 1 issue per Post-It. TIP: Don’t make your points too technical. Outputs are often shared with people outside the meeting or workshop – so try to avoid using language they might not understand. 6. Collate the issues into groups. You should aim to have 3-6 major categories. If you have too many more you will end up with too much detail. 7. It should be up to the facilitator to decide the process for grouping. Depending on time, the facilitator may like to start grouping while everyone else is brainstorming. The facilitator may also like to do the sorting if they have a pre determined idea of the sort of groups they
  53. 53. would like to see it split into. This doesn’t need to be a hard and fast sorting process but good as a prompt. Alternatively, without talking, get everyone to sort the ideas simultaneously. Sorting in silence will focus everyone on the meaning behind and the connections among all ideas, instead of emotions and ‘history’ that often arrives in discussions. Move the Post-Its where they fit best for you; don’t ask, simply move any notes you think belong in another grouping. If an idea is moved back & forth, try to see the logical connection the other person is making. It may be a good idea to create a duplicate Post-It if agreement can’t be reached. TIP: It is ok for some notes to stand alone. These loners can be as important as others that fit into groupings naturally. I CAN’T AFFORD TOi BUY A HOUSEInterestrates too Don’t earn Markethigh enough prices too highNot earninggood interest Haven’t saved In competitionrate on enough for with other buyersavings deposit Bills too highMoney tied Preferredup in shares house too big and expensive Need to keepBank savings for Only lookingrequirements backup – jobtoo strict in expensive situation areaProblem with Startedbank & savings smokinghistory
  54. 54. 8. Write a statement that summarises each group on a header card or Post-It. It is possible a Post-It within the grouping becomes a header card. However don’t just choose the “closest one” because its convenient. Creating a new, accurate header card can often lead to breakthrough ideas. BANK HOUSE EARNINGS & MARKET EXPE9. Test each ‘major category’. Are they mutually exclusive? If not, why not? Review the categories to make them mutually exclusive.10. Refine and tighten the original problem statement.I’M HAVING PROBLEMS SAVING FOR A HOUSE DEPOSIT11. Review the diagram. Have all the issues been captured? Can any of the major categories be broken down further? Do they need to be?
  55. 55. I’M HAVING PROBLEMS SAVING FOR A HOUSE DEPOSIT BANK HOUSE EARNINGS & MARKET EXPE Interest Don’t earn Market rates too enough prices too high high Not earning Haven’t saved In competition good interest enough for with other buyer rate on deposit savings Bills too high Preferred Money tied house too big up in shares and expensive Need to keep Bank Only looking requirements savings for in expensive too strict backup – job area situationProblem with Startedbank & savings smokinghistory
  56. 56. Top Down: 1. Place 2-3 pieces of Flipchart paper on the wall. 2. Start with a problem statement. Place it at the top of the page. I AM HAVING PROBLEMS SAVING FOR A HOUSE DEPOSIT TIP: Make sure your problem statement doesn’t seem to suggest a solution. Problem statements that read “We need more space” suggest a solution that will have everyone only thinking down one track. A better problem statement would be “The work area is congested”. 3. Brainstorm ‘major categories’ that are contributing to the problem. Write them descending from the problem statement. Aim for 3-6 major categories I AM HAVING PROBLEMS SAVING FOR A HOUSE DEPOSIT AMOUNT FORSPENDING INVESTMENT EARNINGS DEPOSIT
  57. 57. 4. Test each ‘major category’. Are they mutually exclusive? If not, why not? Review the categories to make them mutually exclusive. Make sure there is no overlap between categories. This is because you want to spend your time sorting your issues – not arguing over the most appropriate category!5. Take each ‘major category’ and break down into specific components. Brainstorm. Following the brainstorming rules (see module on Brainstorming), brainstorm all of the issues that are contributing to the problem. A quick summary of the brainstorming rules are: 1. NO CRITICISM 2. FREEWHEEL 3. QUANTITY 4. RECORD ALL IDEAS 5. INCUBATE6. Use thin tipped felt pens on Post-It notes. This makes it easy for everyone to read. It is also important to use Post-Its so that you can shift ideas into groups as necessary.
  58. 58. 7. Be prepared to put things to one side if you are getting bogged down – return when appropriate. Don’t allow solutions to be discussed. Don’t lay blame – encourage openness and honesty.
  59. 59. I AM HAVING PROBLEMS SAVING FOR A HOUSE DEPOSIT SPENDING INVESTMENT AMOUNT FOR EARNINGS DEPOSIT Rent Interest Rate Size Of Salary House Bills Amount Lenders Job Invested Stability Entertainment Requirement Hobbies Type Of Savings Account Type Of History Job Transport Money Tied Amount Promotion Road Up In Shares Already Saved Opportunity Luxuries i.e Area House cigarettes is In Overtime available Clothes Other Buyers Bonuses Insurance Qualifications Holidays Children 8. Review the issue diagram have all of the issues been captured? Can any of the major categories be broken down further? Do they need to be?
  60. 60. I AM HAVING PROBLEMS SAVING FOR A HOUSE DEPOSIT SPENDING INVESTMENT AMOUNT FOR EARNINGS DEPOSIT Rent Interest Rate Size Of Salary House Bills Amount Lenders Job Gas Invested Stability Phone Requirement Electric Type Of Savings Account Type Of History Job Entertainment Money Tied Amount Promotion Hobbies Up In Shares Already Saved Opportunity Area House Transport Overtime is In available Food Other Buyers Bonuses Luxuries i.e cigarettes Qualifications Clothes Insurance Contents Car Medical Holidays Children
  61. 61. InterpretationLook at the issue diagram and through the team identifythe perceived major causes for the problem. Prove themajor cause i.e. collate data to prove the theoryMove to Solution mode – identify what you are going todo.You may choose to deal with the area with the mostcauses, or some causes may stick out as being moresignificant than others.Example Problems (Good to practise on)Deciding what school to send your children toDeciding where to go on holidayA process is taking too longThe work area is too crowdedFor Further Information:See your mentor expertSee your local advocateCheck the ‘Memory Jogger’ book(held by advocates
  62. 62. ISSUES ANALYSISCause & Effect / Fishbone Analysis Purpose: To determine the root cause(s) of theproblem so that solutions will have an impact on thereal problem and not just the effects of the problem.When To Use ItWhen you need to explore, identify and graphicallydisplay, in increasing detail, all of the possible causes orvariables related to a problem, condition or process todiscover its root cause.Construction:1. Decide what you are trying to achieve.Are you trying to solve a problem or are you trying toidentify variables in a process?For a problem solving tool, devise the problem statementthat best describes the issue you want to determine theroot cause of.This statement should describe the problem, be clear andconcise and understood by everyone.i.e. The car is going through petrol faster
  63. 63. TIP: Make sure your problem statement doesn’t seem to suggest a solution. Problem statements that read “We need more space” suggest a solution that will have everyone only thinking down one track. A better problem statement would be “The work area is congested”.If using the tool to identify variables in a process, thenwrite down the name of the process. E.g. hplc methodreference2. Tape together 3 pieces of flipchart paper and place on wall.3. Write the problem statement/ process name in a box in the middle of the far right hand side of the paper, at the ‘head’ of the fish, followed by a line which is the ‘backbone’. PROBLEM STATEMENT/ PROCESS4. Depending on which version you are using, there are two ways to categorise the causes.The causes can be determined bya) representing each step in the process involved (a process classification type fishbone) orb) deciding the ‘major’ causes for problem solving and then asking of each major cause: - ‘why does this happen?’ (a dispersion analysis type fishbone)5. From the ‘back bone’ of the fish, draw one fishbone for each major cause category or step in the process.
  64. 64. For a Process Classification Type Fishbone, a maximum of 6-8 major steps should be identified, to ensure major classes of cause. For a Dispersion Analysis Type Fishbone, the most common way to group the major causes is under the 6 M categories: Manpower/ Machines/ Measurement/ Methods/ Materials/ Mother Earth (Environment). MANPOWER MACHINES ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM STATEMENTMEASUREMENT METHODS MATERIALS TIP: Other types of groupings may be Places/ Procedures/ People/ Policies or Surroundings/ Suppliers/ Systems/ Skills. Don’t confine yourself to these however; add and delete categories as you feel are appropriate. Make the categories fit the problem. For example, particular problem statements may mean you need to focus on areas such as Communications or Training, so you should add a ‘fishbone’ for this. 6. Generate the major causes to build the diagram. These causes many come from: - brainstorming (see Brainstorming Module) - data collection
  65. 65. Group members can call out suggestions for causes/variables to the facilitator. The group member should alsostate which category the cause comes under. If they don’tknow, then the facilitator should decide, as opening up adiscussion for each cause will make the process verylong!Another recommended alternative is to use Post It notesfor each idea. This makes it easier to move causes aroundbetween category as well as re-word them at a later date ifnecessary.Also use thin tipped felt tip pens so that everyone canread the Post Its.If you are having problems getting ideas started, use thecause categories as catalyst questions.For example, what in “materials” might cause the car to begoing through petrol faster?7. Make sure you follow the Brainstorming rules to get the best ideas. Remember Brainstorming is about quantity over quality. (Refer Module on Brainstorming).
  66. 66. A quick summary of the brainstorming rules are: 1. NO CRITICISM 2. FREEWHEEL 3. QUANTITY 4. RECORD ALL IDEAS 5. INCUBATE8. Place the brainstormed or data based causes from Step 3 in the appropriate categories on the ‘bones’.
  67. 67. MEASUREMENT METHODS MATERIALS Car not being Poor qualityOdometer maintained of petrolfaulty Driven with window open Air filter blockedPetrol gauge reading Car used toincorrect tow caravan THE CAR IS GOING Car being Car is getting older THROUGH used more Spend more time PETROL FASTER Handbrake left on in traffic jams Petrol Leak Different Tires are wearing driver Bad weather conditions Blown head gasket Air conditioning onMANPOWER MACHINES MOTHER NATURE 9. For each cause listed on the bones, ask repeatedly: -why does it happen? OR -what could happen? This will give rise to a deeper understanding of the problem and identify further causes.

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