COMPARING NATIONAL AND NON-    NATIONAL STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN                            SAUDI ARABIA:    Analyzing Econo...
Research Goals/Questions2       Responding to rhetoric about education impact        of non-nationals:        1.   Are ch...
Definition of Terms3       National vs. non-national         Legal/traditional     definition           Patrilineal   c...
Percent of GCC Labor Force by Sector and Country4
Percent of GCC Labor Force by Sector and Country5
6
GCC Labor Markets7       High levels of non-national participation.       High levels of unemployment among nationals.  ...
Methods (data)8       TIMSS 2007         8thgrade         Math and science achievement         GCC countries: All exce...
Challenges9       Definition of national vs. non-national         TIMSS  does not directly ask about national status    ...
Challenges10        National vs. non-national schools          TIMSS   do not directly measure degree to which a        ...
Overcoming Challenges11        National vs. non-national schools          Once   concept of “national student” is set, c...
Overcoming Challenges12        Selection bias          Unavoidably limits scope to children in school and           thei...
Methods (Descriptive Analysis)13        Comparison of mean math achievement across         countries and between groups  ...
Methods (HLM)14     Yij = β0j + β1j(BS4GBOOK)ij + β2j(BS4GMFED)ij +            Β3j(BS4GFMED)ij+ β4j(LANGREV)ij + β5j(FEMAL...
Variables (student level)15        Math achievement         Do you think doing                                   well in...
Variables (school level)16        Economic disadvantage of the community        Shortage of math resources        Schoo...
Results (Descriptive Analysis)17 Table 2. 8th Grade Math Achievement by Country and Parents Origin (TIMSS 2007).          ...
Results (Descriptive Analysis)18     Table 3. 8th Grade Math Achievement by Country and National/Expatriate School Majorit...
Table 5. Impact of Students National Status on Math Achievement by Country (TIMSS 2007).     Fixed Effects                ...
Findings20        Students of non-national parents generally         achieve at higher levels.        Students born in t...
What does it mean?21        Skilled non-nationals that have children in their         GCC country of residence are bringi...
Revisiting Question 122        Are children of non-national workers         detrimental to overall Saudi student         ...
Revisiting Question 223        Is a lack of human capital among Saudi         nationals a sufficient explanation for thei...
Human Capital Hypothesis24        H1:          Lack  of national participation in skilled, private           sector empl...
Human Capital Hypothesis25        H0:          Lack of national participation in skilled, private           sector emplo...
Revisiting Question 226        Is a lack of human capital among Saudi         nationals a sufficient explanation for thei...
Conclusion27        Comparing nationals vs. non-nationals using         TIMSS provided answers to two significant but    ...
Conclusion – Potential Uses28        Assess reforms – “Tatweer” – eagerly         anticipating TIMSS 2011 results.      ...
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Comparing National and Non-national Student Achievement in Saudi Arabia:

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Please visit my website for more information: http://www.comparative-education.com/. To cite this presentation, please use the following: Wiseman, A. W., & LaRue, B. (2011, April). Comparing National and Non-national Student Achievement in Saudi Arabia by Analyzing Economic Participation disparity Using Educational Indicators. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.

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Comparing National and Non-national Student Achievement in Saudi Arabia:

  1. 1. COMPARING NATIONAL AND NON- NATIONAL STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN SAUDI ARABIA: Analyzing Economic Participation Disparity Using Educational IndicatorsAlexander W. Wiseman Paper presented at the 2011 Annual Meeting American Educational Research AssociationF. Brandon LaRue New Orleans, LA, USA
  2. 2. Research Goals/Questions2  Responding to rhetoric about education impact of non-nationals: 1. Are children of non-national workers detrimental to overall Saudi student performance?  Responding to rhetoric about labor market impact of non-nationals: 2. Is a lack of human capital among Saudi nationals a sufficient explanation for their underrepresentation in the private sector labor market?
  3. 3. Definition of Terms3  National vs. non-national  Legal/traditional definition  Patrilineal citizenship  Our working definition  Ifany parent is non-native, then we define the student as non-national.  Not concerned with legal status  Interested in social/educational factors associated with having non-national parents
  4. 4. Percent of GCC Labor Force by Sector and Country4
  5. 5. Percent of GCC Labor Force by Sector and Country5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. GCC Labor Markets7  High levels of non-national participation.  High levels of unemployment among nationals.  Public vs. private sector  National aversion to private sector and “low status” positions.  Educated youth holding out for public sector employment.  Saudi Arabia is least reliant on non-national labor.
  8. 8. Methods (data)8  TIMSS 2007  8thgrade  Math and science achievement  GCC countries: All except UAE. Dubai is a “benchmarking” participant.
  9. 9. Challenges9  Definition of national vs. non-national  TIMSS does not directly ask about national status  Possible measurements of “Saudiness” using TIMSS  Birthplace of student  Birthplace of parents  Further challenge: mother and/or father?  Language spoken at home
  10. 10. Challenges10  National vs. non-national schools  TIMSS do not directly measure degree to which a school is national or non-national  Indirect measurement: % of students whose 1st language is test language  Selection bias  Addressing labor market through educational assessment limits information to children and their parents. Childless adult workers are not included.
  11. 11. Overcoming Challenges11  National vs. non-national schools  Once concept of “national student” is set, can use school IDs for students combined with their national/non-national status to generate numbers of national vs. non-national students.  However, TIMSS sample of each school might not accurately reflect national vs. non-national numbers.  No data available on teachers’ national status, birthplace, language, etc.
  12. 12. Overcoming Challenges12  Selection bias  Unavoidably limits scope to children in school and their parents.  This will include a broad range of Saudi nationals, but a narrow range of non-nationals.  non-nationals with children are more likely to be skilled workers. non-nationals in low skilled, low status positions are unlikely to bring their families or have families while in Saudi Arabia.  Acceptable limitation  National vs. non-national conflict over skilled occupations is 1) more closely tied to education, and 2) more of a sociopolitical concern in Saudi Arabia.
  13. 13. Methods (Descriptive Analysis)13  Comparison of mean math achievement across countries and between groups  Students with two native-born parents (nationals)  Students with one native-born parents  Students with no native-born parents  Comparison of mean math achievement across school types and between groups  Nationals in national-majority schools  Non-nationals in national-majority schools  Nationals in non-national majority schools  Non-nationals in national majority schools
  14. 14. Methods (HLM)14 Yij = β0j + β1j(BS4GBOOK)ij + β2j(BS4GMFED)ij + Β3j(BS4GFMED)ij+ β4j(LANGREV)ij + β5j(FEMALE)ij + β6j(MATHJOBR)ij + β7j(MATHUNIR)ij + β8j(MBORNREV)ij + β9j(FBORNREV)ij + β10j(SBORNREV)ij+ eij, β0j=γ00+ γ01(PCTNATL)0j + γ02(MATHAVG)0j + γ03(PCTFEM)0j + γ04(ECONDIS)0j + γ05(MATHRESS)0j + u0j,
  15. 15. Variables (student level)15  Math achievement  Do you think doing well in math is  Mother/Father important to get the birthplace job you want?”  Student birthplace  Math-based job  Language at home expectation  Mother/Father  “Do you think doing education well in math is  Gender important to get the job you want?”  Books in the home  Math-based university
  16. 16. Variables (school level)16  Economic disadvantage of the community  Shortage of math resources  School’s math achievement mean  % of female students (aggregate based on TIMSS participants from that school)  % of non-national students (aggregate based on TIMSS participants from that school)
  17. 17. Results (Descriptive Analysis)17 Table 2. 8th Grade Math Achievement by Country and Parents Origin (TIMSS 2007). Both (National) Only One Neither (Expatriate) ANOVA Country N Mean SD N Mean SD N Mean SD F Bahrain 3224 399.6 76.8 414 387.4 80.2 469 412.5 79.9 11.662 *** Kuwait 3011 355.8 69.3 510 349.4 77.3 369 369.1 80.4 8.349 *** Oman 3932 378.9 87.1 453 341.1 90.4 286 354.5 99.9 44.374 *** Qatar 3946 297.6 81.7 1047 297.1 88.1 1923 337.5 82.3 161.943 *** Saudi Arabia 3286 328.3 67.2 380 317.6 75.2 450 356.9 74.5 41.614 *** Dubai (UAE) 544 400.0 83.8 263 410.5 86.2 1926 490.2 81.1 318.462 *** GCC Mean 17944 352.2 86.2 3067.0 336.7 92.0 5424 402.9 106.4 760.410 *** Intl Mean 193153 456.8 107.3 20788.0 444.7 117.7 19979 460.4 112.3 134.070 *** *p<.05, **p<.01, ***p<.001
  18. 18. Results (Descriptive Analysis)18 Table 3. 8th Grade Math Achievement by Country and National/Expatriate School Majority (TIMSS 2007). National Majority Schools Expatriate Majority Schools Country National Mean Expatriate Mean National Mean Expatriate Mean Bahrain 409.1 405.4 393.0 427.1 Kuwait 352.1 349.1 337.8 395.5 Oman 368.0 353.8 369.0 389.6 Qatar 286.9 330.7 311.0 354.8 Saudi Arabia 329.2 349.8 328.0 369.9 Dubai (UAE) 393.8 429.4 420.1 481.6 GCC Mean (not including Dubai)351.3 355.0 332.8 376.5 Intl Mean 481.7 477.9 484.6 483.1 *p<.05, **p<.01, ***p<.001
  19. 19. Table 5. Impact of Students National Status on Math Achievement by Country (TIMSS 2007). Fixed Effects Bahrain Kuwait Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Dubai (UAE) Student Level Indicators No/Very Few Books in 7.707223 *** 1.469776 9.011839 *** 3.54945 *** 3.81748 *** 7.259926 *** the Home19 (BS4GBOOK) of Education Level 3.87356 *** 0.989254 -1.500936 1.763905 *** 3.3012 *** 1.607505 Mother (BS4GMFED) Education Level of 3.616872 *** 2.660671 *** 3.18505 *** 3.513204 *** 3.55026 *** 3.747731 * Father (BS4GFMED) Language of Test 2.101637 3.081098 ** -1.402683 7.201244 *** -1.9819 * 0.096378 Spoken at Home Female (FEMALE) -18.59745 ** -3.7702 0.162626 -0.019237 -42.581 * -3.293325 Math-based University 11.229673 *** 13.74927 *** 16.384905 *** 10.961482 *** 6.58942 *** 2.950564 Expectations Math-based Job -2.580659 -0.85865 1.076043 4.157429 *** 2.3837 1.637485 Expectations Mother Born in Country -12.65778 ** -23.1038 *** -8.502609 -28.13906 *** -18.367 *** -21.38213 *** (MBORNREV) Father Born in Country -14.74077 * -3.74309 13.483481 * -16.80284 *** -14.101 *** -17.19897 ** (FBORNREV) Student Born in Country 19.491469 ** 25.65123 *** 40.558746 *** 21.988073 *** 34.2603 *** -3.276273 (SBORNREV) School Level Indicators Percent of National 11.426409 10.75475 -22.768 29.285606 *** 19.6106 ** 50.141358 *** Students (PCTNATL) Mean School Math 0.786977 *** 0.876249 *** 0.828818 *** 0.833056 *** 0.78718 *** 0.861777 *** Achievement Percent of Girls at 17.923865 * 2.440081 -4.373561 1.288904 38.7991 * 1.636801 School (PCTFEM) Economic Disadvantage 0.702913 -0.04394 1.529722 -0.536642 1.03999 of Community Shortage of Math 0.237363 -0.36567 -1.354684 -1.364046 0.25363 -2.017368 Resources Intercept 6.06411 -26.1504 ** -31.00417 -43.03615 *** 1.08435 14.482153
  20. 20. Findings20  Students of non-national parents generally achieve at higher levels.  Students born in the country generally achieve at higher levels.  Students in national-majority schools generally achieve at higher levels.
  21. 21. What does it mean?21  Skilled non-nationals that have children in their GCC country of residence are bringing their own education to bear to increase their children’s chances.  This reflects the higher levels of education and higher importance placed on education by non-nationals.
  22. 22. Revisiting Question 122  Are children of non-national workers detrimental to overall Saudi student performance?  Results show that non-nationals consistently outperform nationals, even in national-dominated contexts.  Non-national parents are generally more educated, which is to be expected as they moved to Saudi Arabia because of their skills.
  23. 23. Revisiting Question 223  Is a lack of human capital among Saudi nationals a sufficient explanation for their underrepresentation in the private sector labor market?  Human Capital Theory  Increased investment in education will result in increased economic output.  In the GCC context, increasing the human capital of nationals will increase their participation in the private sector.
  24. 24. Human Capital Hypothesis24  H1:  Lack of national participation in skilled, private sector employment can be explained by a human capital deficit among nationals.  Corollary to H1: Increasing national human capital through education will result in increased participation in the private sector.
  25. 25. Human Capital Hypothesis25  H0:  Lack of national participation in skilled, private sector employment cannot be explained solely by a human capital deficit among nationals.  Corollary to H0: Increasing national human capital through education will not be sufficient to cause an increased participation in the private sector.
  26. 26. Revisiting Question 226  Is a lack of human capital among Saudi nationals a sufficient explanation for their underrepresentation in the private sector labor market?  Findings do indicate a deficit of human capital among national students and their families.  However, while statistically significant and considerable, is it enough to explain lack of participation in the private sector among nationals?  Weconclude that it is not, and other factors are at work that supplement the human capital theory.
  27. 27. Conclusion27  Comparing nationals vs. non-nationals using TIMSS provided answers to two significant but straightforward questions in a complex situation.  TIMSS has limitations for this type of analysis, but an understanding of the context can help overcome.  HLM is useful to see effect of nationality at individual and school levels.
  28. 28. Conclusion – Potential Uses28  Assess reforms – “Tatweer” – eagerly anticipating TIMSS 2011 results.  Respond to rhetoric about non-nationals  Indirectly explain employment differences  Directly explain achievement differences

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