Urban Colleges And Universities And Their Communities


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  • Degree of urbanization (Urban-centric locale) Locale codes identify the geographic status of a school on an urban continuum ranging from “large city” to “rural.” They are based on a school’s physical address. The urban-centric locale codes introduced in this file are assigned through a methodology developed by the U.S. Census Bureau’s Population Division in 2005. The urban-centric locale codes apply current geographic concepts to the original NCES locale codes used on IPEDS files through 2004. 13 = City: Small: Territory inside an urbanized area and inside a principal city with population less than 100,000+. 23 = Suburb: Small: Territory outside a principal city and inside an urbanized area with population less than 100,000+ 31 = Town: Fringe: Territory inside an urban cluster that is less than or equal to 10 miles from an urbanized area. 32 = Town: Distant: Territory inside an urban cluster that is more than 10 miles and less than or equal to 35 miles from an urbanized area. 33 = Town: Remote: Territory inside an urban cluster that is more than 35 miles of an urbanized area. 41 - Rural: Fringe: Census-defined rural territory that is less than or equal to 5 miles from an urbanized area, as well as rural territory that is less than or equal to 2.5 miles from an urban cluster. 42 = Rural: Distant: Census-defined rural territory that is more than 5 miles but less than or equal to 25 miles from an urbanized area, as well as rural 43 = Rural: Remote: Census-defined rural territory that is more than 25 miles from an urbanized area and is also more than 10 miles from an urban cluster. For instance, the City University of New York system, boasting 23 separate institutions, provides education for 461,000 students, which comprises nearly half of all students enrolled in New York State’s Higher Education system
  • 35% of jobs are in Education services ~100,000 students in metro Columbus 11 schools in Columbus area
  • Certain phrases are defined for the sake of clarification within the context of the study. A college or university will both mean a 4-year bachelor or advanced degree granting institution. A city is defined as “Territory inside an urbanized area and inside a principal city” (National Center for Education Statistics, 2008). Urbanized Area will be defined as “an agglomeration of at least 50,000 population living at a density of at least 1,000 persons per square mile” (Southeast Michigan Census Council, 2003). Based on 2003 Census Data, 579 cities fit this criterion (The US Census Bureau, 2003). The term Enlightened Self-Interest , as used in this study, is best defined as “an understanding of [a university making a] decision making based on self-gain, but with a moral and ethical dimension” (Maurrassse, 2001, p. 34).
  • Reardon 106-107
  • Urban Colleges And Universities And Their Communities

    1. 1. URBAN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR COMMUNITIES An Exploration of the Interactions between the Two Constituencies Adam Anderson
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>College is a significant part of life for many young American adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Universities play a large role in this education. </li></ul><ul><li>The Example of CUNY </li></ul>
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Because of the amount of capital (human or otherwise), Urban Universities impact their cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus, Ohio, and the Higher Education Capital </li></ul>
    4. 4. Research Question <ul><li>The guiding question for the study was: “What happens to the local urban neighborhood when a university is in it?” </li></ul><ul><li>The study sought to discover what prevalent themes occur as Urban Universities and their respective neighborhoods interact with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Gannon University was used as a case study. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Limitations To Study/Definitions <ul><li>Lack of cohesive body of study </li></ul><ul><li>Research time frame </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher experience </li></ul><ul><li>College/University </li></ul><ul><li>City </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanized Area </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightened Self-Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions </li></ul>
    6. 6. Review of Literature
    7. 7. Review of Literature <ul><li>Universities can choose to influence the built environment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each of these contribute to more and safer students in the University, and contributes to the bottom line. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Review of Literature <ul><li>Universities may also choose to provide social services for their neighborhoods. </li></ul><ul><li>Tangible – Hostos Community College </li></ul><ul><li>Intangible – Xavier (New Orleans) </li></ul>
    9. 9. Review of Literature <ul><li>Students are a critical part of a University’s operation. </li></ul><ul><li>Space in Urban Settings </li></ul><ul><li>Students will choose to live off campus </li></ul><ul><li>“ Studentification” </li></ul><ul><li>Pros: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discretionary Buying Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Younger population and newer culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher Property Rates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Student Ghettos” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migration of Older populations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Rates of petty theft and disrespect </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Review of Literature <ul><li>Universities must be weary of “Ivory Tower Language” </li></ul><ul><li>Best practice for Community Partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>If a University chooses to act unilaterally, the consequences are not always positive. </li></ul>
    11. 11. The Case of Black Bottom <ul><li>Located in present day University City. </li></ul><ul><li>Home to a largely poor, working class African-American community. </li></ul>
    12. 12. The Case of Black Bottom <ul><li>1959 – 1970: City of Philadelphia requested monies to help the West Philadelphia Corporation plan “University City” </li></ul><ul><li>Razed blighted properties and purchased other via eminent domain. </li></ul><ul><li>Estimates state nearly 5,000 individuals were displaced from Black Bottom neighborhood. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Methodology <ul><li>Gannon Case Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How does Gannon interact with the downtown Erie area? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees of the city of Erie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At-large members of the community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees of Gannon University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting the four attributes found in Review of Literature </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. City of Erie Statistics <ul><li>Population – 103,717 </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty Rate – 13.8% </li></ul><ul><li>Median Income Per Capita - $14,972 </li></ul><ul><li>43.8% of properties are rentals </li></ul><ul><li>20% of people over 25 have no High School Diploma </li></ul><ul><li>4 Local colleges </li></ul>
    15. 15. Downtown Erie <ul><li>Erie downtown is contained 60 square blocks </li></ul><ul><li>Major downtown employers: Hamot Medical Center, Erie Insurance, Gannon University </li></ul>
    16. 16. Gannon University <ul><li>Began by Bishop John Mark Gannon in 1925 </li></ul><ul><li>1964 – Became Coeducational </li></ul><ul><li>1979 – Received University Status </li></ul><ul><li>Owns estimated $111 million of property in downtown Erie. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Gannon University <ul><li>Located from State Street west to Chestnut street, Fourth Street south to Tenth Street </li></ul><ul><li>Located in one of the most impoverished areas of the entire city of Erie. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Findings <ul><li>Gannon has consistently purchased and rehabilitated buildings as they expand. </li></ul><ul><li>17 of 36 (48%) of buildings are of this type. </li></ul><ul><li>The 100,000 sq ft. former Verizon State office </li></ul>
    19. 19. Findings <ul><li>Gannon, however, does not pay taxes on any of the property it owns. </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of tax base </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Verizon Building: “Someone is paying taxes” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$193,807a year contributed in taxes from the building </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Findings <ul><li>Gannon Small Business Development Center </li></ul><ul><li>Hosted by Gannon for 25 years </li></ul><ul><li>Serves four county area and helps small business through free consulting services </li></ul>
    21. 21. Findings <ul><li>Community Service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30,000 hours of logged community service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GIVE Day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United Way Day of Caring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greek Week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal Justice degree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upward Bound/ACT 101 </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Findings <ul><li>“ Who tends to the streets?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criticism of Gannon’s “insular” nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mercyhurst Northeast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LECOM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pilot Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of possible taxable property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erie Insurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gannon’s annual budget </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Findings <ul><li>“ It takes away real estate” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student housing allows properties to be filled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most people have no real complaints with the students in Erie </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ You know where their money is going, right?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception that most student’s discretionary money is going towards alcohol </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Findings <ul><li>“ Just reciprocal. My saying is ‘fair exchange, no robbery’” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception of Gannon as insular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>County Commissioner, Mayor, Fred Rush, most of City Council are Gannon graduates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ This is the University’s back yard” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perry Square Renovations </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Conclusions <ul><li>Gannon has made considerable effort to benefit the Erie downtown. </li></ul><ul><li>It is in Gannon’s best interest as both a Catholic University, and as a University in the midst of a strategic plan, to pursue the City of Erie as much as possible </li></ul><ul><li>However, its lack of funding into the downtown has caused strife amongst both city government and other schools of higher learning. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Recommendations <ul><li>Downtown living incentive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New townhomes in south end of downtown Erie to be built within the next five years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10% quota (17 townhomes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement of tax base </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Recommendations <ul><li>Perry Square Improvements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$500,000 improvements to the two block area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The park is the back yard of the University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would be a major part of Gannon’s Pilot monies. </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Recommendations <ul><li>Public Relations Campaign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “Believe…” campaign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could be restructured to include effective partnerships the University has had with the city of Erie. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Believe in teamwork” </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Recommendations: Further Research <ul><li>Literature Review Essay </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions of Erie after Public Relations Campaign </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of “Graduate Halo” in Town/Gown Relationships </li></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>Thank you for your time. </li></ul>Questions?