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  • 2. Full title: An act for liability, compensation, cleanup, and emergency response for hazardous substances released in the environment and the cleanup of hazardous waste disposal sites.Acronym: CERCLAColloquial name: SuperfundEnacted by the: 96th United States Congress(1980)
  • 3. INTRODUCTION> Name given by/to: Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA).> Also a fund: established by CERCLA statute. Enacted from: disaster of LOVE CANAL and TIMES BEACH (1970S). Authorized EPA: provides federal responsibility through: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). SARA 1986: Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act.Note :Christian Baha: Founder & Owner of Superfund in Financial markets
  • 4. SUPERFUND PARTNERS (CO-OPERATION)Management: Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI).1.Office of Emergency Management.2.Office of Site Remediation and Enforcement (OSRE).3.Federal Facilities Enforcement Office (FFEO) .4.Brownfields.5.Office of Research and Development (ORD).6.Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR).7.National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.8.US Army Corps of Engineers .9.Office of Regional Operations.10.EPA Regional Offices ,etc.
  • 5. SUPERFUND SITESRegion 1--ME NH VT MA RI CTRegion 2--NY NJ PR VIRegion 3--PA DE DC MD VA WVRegion 4--KY TN NC SC MS AL GA FLRegion 5--MN WI IL MI IN OHRegion 6--NM TX OK AR LARegion 7--NE KS IA MORegion 8--MT ND WY SD UT CORegion 9--CA NV AZ HIRegion 10--WA OR ID AK
  • 6. SUPERFUND PHILOSOPHY (STRATEGIES)• EPA publish: Hazard Ranking System (HRS), and National Priorities List (NPL).2 types of actions:• Removal actions• Remedial actions
  • 7. Superfund indicator Environmental Indicators(EI)• Government Performance and Results Act 1993(GPRA): Rational use of resources• EI are: Site-Wide Human Exposure EI and, Contaminated Groundwater Migration EI.
  • 8. SUPERFUND: ADAPTATION FOR NEPAL• Green Nepal: Geographical territory preservation.• Burning issue: pollution: superfund is solution.• Strict Environmental act and execution: liable.• Intersectorial co-operation: maintain Ecosystem.• Increasing trend of RTIS: toxins, hazardous substances.• Cost-effective: secure future: waste recycling.• Aid in construction of damp sites: NPL, HRS• Response Emergency actions (toxins, disasters).• Invest future: combat env. Challenges.