Quran preservation & compilation


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Quran preservation & compilation

  1. 1. qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjkSCIENCE OF QURANQuran Preservation & Compilation
  2. 2. 1CONTENTS QURAN PRESERVATION&COMPILATION.........................................................................................................1MEMORIZATION BY THE PROPHET (PBUH)...................................................................... 4MEMORIZATION BY COMPANIONS...................................................................................... 5WRITING DURING THE TIME OF PROPHET (PBUH)............................................................. 7ENCOURAGEMENT FOR WRITING...................................................................................... 12 COMPILATION...................................................................................................................................................................1FIRST COMPILATION DURING ABU BAKR (R.A)............................................................... 13STANDARDIZATION OF QURAN BY CALIPHATE UTMAAN(R.A)..................................... 16CLAIMS THAT QURAN DIDN’T WRITE DURING PROPHET’S LIFETIME.............................. 20
  3. 3. 2Quran Preservation & Compilation -1 (Prophet‟s Lifetime )IntroductionIt is a well-known controversy that Orientalists raised their objections against the Quranto create confusions about the phase ofpreservation.The inimitability and recitation of the Quran are a universally agreed fact besides,it‟san act ofworship in the five daily prayers of all Muslimssince the time of the Prophet ( ) and still so.Contrary to the objection raised by Orientalists and their followers,Wesurely believe that therehas been three important stages in the compilation of the Qur‟anic text; that is in the time of theProphet( ), following compilation of Abu Bakr (r.a), and standardization byUthmaan(r.a).Onething that ought to be kept in mind preservation was done much more through memory thanthrough writing at the time of Prophet ( ).There was a great wisdom in memorization because inprevious Prophets whose teachings were not committed to memory were lost or forgotten. Thus,Muslims gave special attention to memorization of the Quran from the beginning. So, Not onlythe Holy Prophet (pbuh) as well as his companions learnt the complete Quran by heart withstruggles including Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Abdullah bin Masud, Talha, Sad, Huzaifa,Ubayy bin Kab, Abdullah bin Abbas, Abdullah bin Zubar, Abdullah bin Saib, Zaid bin Thabit,
  4. 4. 3Abu Hurairah, Abu Darda, Maaz bin Jabal, Anas bin Malik, Abu Musa Al-Ashari, Muawiyyah,Sayyidah Aisha, Sayyidah Umm Salmah, SayyidahHafsa and many more those whom known asmost pious people among the believers. This assignment will analyze the combination of twoparts before the lifetime of Prophet (pbuh) and after the demise of the Prophet (pbuh).AT THE TIME OF PROPHET ( )Memorization By The Prophet ( )Oral transmission of revelation was basedon Hifz and the Prophet (pbuh) was the first whomemorize it as following verses .“Move not Thy tongue concerning the (Quran) to make haste therewith.It‟s for Usto collect it and promulgate it; but when We have promulgated it follow thou itsrecital‟ (75:16-19)”…an apostle from God, rehearsing scriptures kept pure and holy…‟ (98:2)The Prophet had a fear on that He may forget when revelation was in process because He (pbuh)was an Ummi.The reason why he was doing it. He was not able to read and write .Therefore,after receiving each revelation, he would repeat it to his Companions. They would write it downand he wouldrecheck by asking them to read what they had written. If there was anymistake, theProphet would immediately rechecked and authorized. In this way, the complete Qur‟an waswritten down under the personal supervision of the Prophet (pbuh). It is quite intelligible that
  5. 5. 4there is no any single intervention during the revelation of the Quran even the Prophet (pbuh)himself as it is quoted by the Quran :" And if he (Muhammad ) had forged a false saying concerning Us (Allah),Wesurely should have seized him by his right hand (or with power and might),And thencertainly should have cut off his life artery (Aorta),And none of you could withholdUs from (punishing) him.(V-Haqqah-44)The Prophet ( ) hadthe obligation of delivering the revealed verses to the people among others.He did it verbally. It shows he used to commit them to memory before reading them to others. Itstarted with the first revelation and ended only with his death .Memorization By The Prophet CompanionsThe Sahabah inspired and encouraged by their beloved leader andimmediately started learningthe Quran by heart. They had got retentive memory power.Before Islam they were memorizingthousands of poetic lines however when they got the light of Islam what they had better intheirduring pre-Islamic times was preciously maintained.“A few examples on their memorization :“Abdullah IbnMasudwho,was early convert ,had once been mercilessly bludgeonedby the Quraysh for reciting Surah Al- Rahman (55) loudly near the Qabah.He hadvoluntarily offered to do it.It occurred in an early period of the Prophet‟s mission inMakkah.
  6. 6. 5It was after the migration to Abyssinia of some Sahabah that Abu Bakr , under theProtection of a non-Qurayshite leader,Ibn al Dugunnah ,earmarked a place outsidehis house to pray and read the Quran loudly, prompting his enemies to takeexception to it.Once the Prophet (Saw) asked Abdullah B Masud to read the Quran to Him.”Me ?O prophet of Allah,I should read it to you,The Quran Which has been revaled onyou?TheSahabiexpressed his surprise.The Prophet (pbuh) explained “I love to listento others reading it” So,IbnMas‟ud started reading the Surah Al-Nisa : When Hereached the Ayah 41,The Prophet asked him to stop and tears were rolling down hischeck. “ HowThen,If we brought each community a witness and We brought you (OMuhammad )as a witness against these people.” (By Israr Ahmad Khan)“Huffazsahabah:It‟san agreed fact that the Sahabah had memorized the Quran completely.But the reports aboutthe number of huffaz are not unanimous. Nevertheless Here is a few following examples:Bukhari has quoted Anas B Malik as saying : “ by the time the Prophet (saw) diedthere were only four who had memorized the Quran in full namely: AbuDarda,Muaz B Jabal, Zaid B Thabit and Abu Zaid.Abdullah B Masud heard the Prophet as saying”Learn the Quran fromfour:Abdullah B Mas‟ud,Salim,Mu‟azz and Ubayy B Ka‟b
  7. 7. 6Anas B Malik reports that the Prophet (pbuh) dispatched seventy Sahabah whowere called as Qurra (memorizes of the Quran) to teach and they were allmassacred at a place called BirMaunah.In the battle of Yamamah 70 Muslims were martyred.They were all HUFFAZ of theQuran.”Abu Ubaydah in his work kItap Al Qiraah counts the memorizers from among theSahabah of the Muhajirun: Abu Bakr,‟Umar, Uthman „Ali ,Talhah, Sa‟d Abdullahb Masud,Hudayfah,Salim, Abu Hurairah, Abdullah b al sayeb, Abdullah B Amr bAl As, Abdullah b umar, Abdullah b Al Zubayr Abdullah b Abbas. Ansar :UbadayB SamitMuaz, Majma b Jariyah, Fuziah b Ubayd, Muslimah BMukhallad.What is apparently seen from these reports is that the number of Sahabah who memorized theQuran was dramatically high.” science of Quran by ahmadisrar khanWriting During the Prophet‟s time Materials Used For WritingDuring the 7‟th century the conditionswere not as much flexible as our global age. Writingmaterials were consist of following features:Adeem :LeatherRiqa : Piece of animal skinAsab:Palm-Leaf stalk.Aqtab:Wooden wide tablet.
  8. 8. 7Karanif :Palm-steam or branchAktaf: camel shoulder boneLihkaf:Stone tabletsThe second stage for the preservation ofQuran which also written down was done during thelifetime of the Holy Prophet ( ) under his supervision. The Prophet ( ) showed the utmost careto instruct his companions because he wasnot capable of reading and writing as I said above. TheHoly Prophet ( ) had got more approximately 40 companions who‟s names of these companionshave been mentioned in many authentic works.Here is an evident from the following example on How Quran was written and how it wasrechecked by the Prophet ( ) is :"Zaid bin Thabit, whom was one of the chief scribes relates: "I used to write downthe revelation for the Holy Prophet, may the peace and blessings of Allah be uponhim. When the revelation came to him he felt intense heat and drops of perspirationused to roll down his body like pearls. When this state was over I used to fetch ashoulder bone or a piece of something else. He used to go on dictating and I used towrite it down. When I finished writing the sheer weight of transcription gave me thefeeling that my leg would break and I would not be able to walk anymore. Anyhowwhen I finished writing, he would say, Read! and I would read it back to him. Ifthere was an omission or error he used to correct it and then let it be brought beforethe people."
  9. 9. 8Here is a definitive proof that Companions used to write down the Quran under the authority ofthe ProphetMuhammad ( ) and authenticated was madefor every single memorization byhimself and rechecked it before making it publicly. Also, there are proofs that during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet the written manuscripts of Quran were there.In general speaking, writing of the Quran was in practice from the early days of Islam.Here is the second evidence from the incident leading to conversion of one of theclosest companions „Umar bin al-Khattab. When he found his sister and brother-in-law with a parchment on which the verses of Surah Taha (chapter20) were written.Al-Suyuthi says that the whole Quran was documented during the Prophet‟s period.It is reported on the authority of Abdullah B Abbas that whenever the revelationcame down the Prophet ( ) called one of His scribes to write it down.Zaid B Thabit is quoted to have said We used to write the Quran on pieces ofleather (Al-Riqa) in the presence of the Prophet ( ).Al Bara B Azib reports: When the Ayah (Surah AL Nisa 4;95) came down, theProphet ( ) sent for Zayd B Thabit along with the writing tablet or scapula boneand the ink-stand and when He came the Prophet asked him to write down whathad been revealed to Him.
  10. 10. 9The Prophet is not only read the verses which was revealed to his heart,but also he dictated towrite it down too. The first verses of Sura et-Tur bears witness to this. 11-14 of surah Abasa beconsidered in this context.The Prophet in order to maintain the accuracy and totality of theQuran, we see two separate additional measures which was taken by the Prophet ( ):Prophet ( ) was immediately memorize revealed verses and reading constantly in hisdaily prayers , residences, trips, troubles, whenever he feel himself at ease and ordered itsrecitation to be read loudly when establishing daily prayers.Another consequence arisingfrom taken measures was that Quran was not attempted to monopolize by those wholabelled as religious.The Prophet ( ) would recite the Quran well-digestedly to His OwnCompanions. Companions would give him so much importance. The Prophet wouldrecheck their reliability in reading.If anyone wants to learn the Quran,they had been ordered to do with a condition thatunder the supervision of a trained teacher.The First Teacher was The Prophet ( )himself,and then those teacher whom were very well trained on the matters related to Quran.The Prophet‟s Scribes :A well-known hadith scholar of the day Muhammad Mustafa azami has in the his book kuttabAl Nabi identified as many 48 names who had the privilege of having been invited by theProphet (pbuh) to write down the revelations. The most prominent ones: Abu Bakr
  11. 11. 10 Umar b Al Hattab Utman b Affan Ali b EbuTalib Zaid b Thabit Arqam b Arqam Ubayy b Ka‟b Khalid b Al Waleed Thabit b Qays Muaviyah b AbiSufyan Aban b Sa‟ed handalah b Al-RabiPROPHET’S ENcOURaGEMENT FOR WRITING THE QUR’aNThe Holy Prophet (pbuh) only coordinated for getting every revelation writtenin front of him andalso encouraged the people to write down the Qur‟an for themselves and leave it after them fortheir children besides giving them instructions about the manuscripts. Mark the followingnarration;It was narrated that Abu Hurairah said: “The Messenger of Allah said: „Therewards of the good deeds that will reach a believer after his death are: Knowledgewhich he taught and spread; a righteous son whom he leaves behind; a copy of theQur‟an that he leaves as a legacy; a mosque that he built; a house that he built forwayfarers; a canal that he dug; or charity that he gave during his lifetime when hewas in good health. These deeds will reach him after his death.
  12. 12. 11It is hence comprehensible that Holy Prophet ( ) had the clear motive of not only having thecomplete Qur‟an written but also to get the people make and obtain Qur‟anic manuscripts andleave it behind them as souvenirs. Such an arrangement had beenmade to see what is nowachieved. The following needs to be considered in this ground;Once a number of companions were with the Holy Prophet (pbuh).One of them reports;We said:„O Messenger of Allah! Is there anyone greater than us in earning reward,we believed you and followed you.‟ He said: “And what is there that to stops youfrom it while the Messenger of Allah is amongst you and comes to you with therevelation from the heavens? In fact, there will come a people after you, whom thebook will reach [only] in two bindings. They will believe in it and follow whatever isin; they are greater in reward than you.”After The Demise Of The Prophet ( )First Step By Abu Bakr (R.A)The Caliph Abu Bakr confronted a number of grave challenges. The most serious challenge wasthe wars of apostasy which was done against the non-payers of zakat and the hypocrites andmanifestation of false prophets. During the battle of Yamaamah, Abu Hudayfah encouraged theCompanions by saying: “O possessors of the Qur‟an, decorate the Qur‟an with deeds”.It‟sgravely awell-knowntragic event of early period of islam. The event of Yamaamah Battle, 70companions who were Huffazwere killed. Muslims had been suffered a huge number of
  13. 13. 12casualties .The death of such a large number of Qurraaput Umar al-Hattap(r.a) in a flurry.Hewent to Abu Bakr, expressed what He had in His mind by saying that more Qurraa may havekilled in following battles. This may lead to an avoidable loss of the Qur‟an, unless it wascompiled in one book. At first, Abu Bakr had an approach unwilingly to do something which theProphet ( ) had not done before, however Umar al-Hattap (r.a) ,later on, accomplished toconvince him that collecting the Qur‟an was of benefit to the Muslim Ummah. The Prophetformulated for the Qur‟an being-written in order to preserve it; compiling it in one book wascompleting what the Prophet (pbuh) had already started.ZaydibnThabbit was a chosen to compilethe Qur‟an due to the following reasons:Zayd was one of the best reciters of the Qur‟an, and had the most knowledge withregards to the psalmody of the Quran.Zaydhad memorized the Qur‟an like a daylightZayd became a primary scribe of the Prophet (pbuh)Zayd witnessed Jibraeel‟s final recitation to the Prophets final RamadanZayd was young, vigorous, intelligent manZayd was best in moral virtuesZayd was commisioned by Abu Bakr (r.a) : „Sit at the entrance of the masjid. If anyonebrings you a verse of the Book of Allah, along with two witnesses, write it down andexplained for written material to be accepted by Zayd, two witnesses had to witnessed thatit had been written under the supervision of the Prophet ( pbuh). Any written material ifCompanions may have privately duplicate vice-versa, would not have accepted.
  14. 14. 13"Zayd‟sknowledge of the Qur‟an could solely be compared with material of the same standing.Zayd Bin Thabit also compared the written material submitted to him, against the memories ofthe Companions. „So He gathered the Qur‟an from various parchments .He mentions that: „I found the last two ayahs of Surah al-Bara‟a with Abu Khuzaima al Ansari‟(Bukhari). These two verses were written in the Mushuf solely based on Abu Khuzaima Ansari‟sform. However, other companions had memorised it, and confirmed that it was from the Qur‟an.Even though Zayd and his beloved companions had memorized the last two verses of Surah al-Bara‟a, and could recall them quite, he was not authorized to record it in the Mushaf, until hecame across it in written form. Hence, ZaydibnThabit had ensured that the Mushuf that hecompiled was indeed the same Book that Allah had revealed to His Messenger, and had pledgedto preserve by relying on written material, backed by witnesses, comparing the written materialagainst the memories of other Companions, and his own memory. For this initial phase, theentire Qur‟an was in one Book. This compilation patched up the various polishes of the Arabs.After the demise of Abu Bakr (r.a), the Mus-hafwas passed on to Umar, then to Hafsah after thedeath of Umar al-Hattap.Standardization ByUthmaan (R.A)Uthmaan (r.a),In 1 Muharram 24/646, was brought to the caliphate and took over the leadershipof muslim community .the Muslims had conquered plenty of lands while the Islamic Empire wasstill growing, fighting on a number of fronts were being struggled. One front was the territoriesof Azerjeban and Armenia. Whose native language is foreign to many Muslims were forced toreading the Koran in Arabic. Contradiction or differences among the Arabs dialect must be add
  15. 15. 14to this matter as well. The differerences in pronuncing the Quran had turned into mutualaccusations because The people of Damascus admitted to read the style of Ubeyy ,the people ofQufaaccpeted the reading of IbnMasud, the people of Basra admitted a recitation of reading ofEbu Musa. HudayfahibnYamaan recognized the disagreements on recitation of the Qur‟an hadarised among the armies engaged in battle in the territory of Azerjeban.Huzeyfetul-Yeman withDamascus armies marched on Armenia and Azerbaijan. (25/646).During the Gazve,He sawmany conflicts between Iraqi soldiers recitation andAzerjebanisoldiers recitation. Eventexpulsion were about to raise and HudayfahIbnYamaan in urgentreturned to Madinah to informUthmaan (r.a) about this red-flag development by saying: „O Commander of the Faithful, savethis Ummah before it disagrees about the Divine Word like the Christians and Jews didbefore it‟. (Bukhari)Ali bin EbuTalip narrates that Uthmaan (r.a) united the Companions and said to them :„I see thatwe bring the people on a single mushaf, so that there is neither division nor discord‟. Andcompanions responsed: ‟an excellent proposal‟.(ibnAbiDawood).Uthmaan (r.a) immediately requested the mus-haf from Hafsa, in order to run off copies from it.A committee of 4 companions were commisioned with the task to run off copies, whomrelatively were:ZaydibnThabit, Abdullah ibnZubayr, Saadibn al Aas, Abdur-RahmaanibnHarithibnHishaam.
  16. 16. 15The arising differences in the time of 3.Caliph ,The Caliphate Uthman ordered the"HafsaMushaf" . He instructed 4 best people to bring in Mushaf under the Supervision of Hafsa:Zayd, Abdullah ibnZubair, Said ibn As-RahmanibnHarith.Uthmaan told the committee: „should you (three) and Zayd differ (on how to spell aword), then spell it in the dialect of Quraysh, for verily it was revealed in theirdialect‟. (Bukhari).Except Zayd ,three of them were Qurayshi. If they do anything contradiction they were beingordered to write itdown with the Quraishi dialect. According to the narration of al-Bukhari ,the 3members commissioned by Uthman (r.a) are Ensar: Muaz, UbeyibnuKabveZeydibnuSabit..For example, It was said in response for a difference of opinion regarding spelling the word“taboot” must be spelt in the Qurayshireading style; „taboot‟, or the Madanee style of „tabooh‟.Uthmaan(r.a )ordered it to be written in the Qurayshi style. Sometimes when differences aroseregard to spelling, they would call the scribe who had written the ayah for the Prophet (Pbuh), toask him for pronunciation. “Where is the scribe. Precisely how did the Prophet teach himthis verse.” (ibnAbiDawood).2:248 (taboot)
  17. 17. 16When the committee had completed run off the copies of the MushafUthmaan(r.a) ordered thesecopies to be sent to every major provinces, After the committee completed the duty were givento them, Uthman (r.a ) arranged that all other copies or fragments of the Qur‟an should be burnt.Any copy of the Qur‟an, written from now on, would have to conform to the UthmaaniMushaf orRasm-I Uthmani. Thus, any abrogated readings would eliminate. The latter existed due to somecompanions being unaware of the Prophet‟s final recitation to Jibraeel. Ali ibnTalibsaid: „If Iwere in charge when Uthmaan had been, I would have done the same as he did.With everycopy of the Qur‟an, Uthmaan sent a Qari to teach the Divine Word.” This was to emphasizethat the recitation of the Qur‟an had to be learnt orally through well-trained teachers, whom hadan authentic transmission going back to the Prophet (pbuh).The differences in the compilations Abu Bakr compiled the Qur‟an due to the fear The Quran mayget lost or destroyed ashappened previous books, whereas Uthmaan (r.a) patched up it in response to theinauthentic recitations, and the following differing. BecauseHis primary aim was to unitethe Muslims upon the proper recitation of the Qur‟an. The Prophet ( ) compiled theQur‟an in a method both memorizing and writing and encouraged the Companions tomemorize it and teach it, in order to provide the community with the revelation as itcame. Abu Bakr (r.a) had compiled into one mus‟haf , Uthmaan(r.a) had run off copies . In thetime of the Prophet, although the entire Qur‟an was in written form, it was not in the form
  18. 18. 17of a mushaf. Compiling it in a mushaf would have proved impractical, as revelation wasconstantly inspiring, right up to a few days before the death of the Prophet (pbuh) hadstopped. Abu Bakr determinedone person (Zayd) by constructing him with Umar al-Hattap toduty of compilation of the Qur‟an, Uthmaan (r.a) appointed four people. The Prophet(pbuh) had a large number of scribes,they were ready to write the revelation wheninstructed. Uthmaan (r.a) had other copies of the Qur‟an, or portions of the Qur‟an destroyed duetoinauthentic recitations. Abu Bakr faced no such problem. Abu Bakr‟s compilation was from various sources; date palm leaves, wood, and thecheats‟ of men into a singleMushaaf. Uthmaan‟s compilation was directly from theMushaf of Hafsa only one source. The quality of the parchments of theUthmaaniMushaaf was better than Abu Bakr‟smushaf. The Prophet‟s (pbuh) compilationwas directly from revelation from Allah, via Jibraeel. The compilation of the Qur‟an in the time of the Prophet (pbuh) and Abu Bakr(r.a)provided the various ahruf, whereas the compilation in the time of Uthmaanonlypreserved a portion of the seven ahruf.
  19. 19. 18cLaIM THaT QUR’aN WaS NOT WRITTEN cOMPLETELy DURING THE PROPHET’StimeVerily, We Ourselves have sent down this Exhortation, and most surely We will be itsGuardian, (Al-Hijr, 15:10)Today‟s Orientalists claim that Qur‟an was not written in full during the lifetime of the HolyProphet (pbuh)and Author of that book is He. This is false and the fact is that whole of theQur‟an was, indeed, written in the supervision of the Holy Prophet but it was not compiled intoone collection at that time.The wisdom behind the fact that Qur‟an was completely written butnot compiled at one place during the life of the holy Prophet (pbuh) is explained by Al-Khattabi.He said;“The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) did not gather the Qur‟an in a mushaf because he had towait if there was some abrogation of some commands or recitation but when he died andthe revelation ceased (and thus abrogation as well); Allah, to fulfill his True Commitmentof preservation (of Qur‟an) for this Ummah, put this thought into the hearts of theRighteous Caliphs. Then this great task was undertaken by Abu Bakr on the advice ofUmar.”Order and sequence of Qur‟an divinely inspired;Its a fact that Qur‟an was notcompiled by the Prophet in the chronological order of revelation.Second of all,The order and sequence of the Qur‟an also, was Divinely inspired and wasinstructed to the Prophet by Allah (swt) through archangel Jibraeel. Whenever a revelation was
  20. 20. 19conveyed to his companions, the Prophet would also mention in which surah (chapter) and afterwhich ayat (verse) this new revelation should fit. Every Ramadhaan all the portions of theQur‟an that had been revealed, including the order of the verses, were reviwe and reconfirmed bythe Prophet with archangel Jibraeel. During the last Ramadhaan, before the demise of theProphet, the Qur‟an was rechecked and reconfirmed twice.It is therefore clearly evident that theQur‟an was compiled and authenticated by the Prophet himself during his lifetime, both in thewritten form as well as in the memory of several of his Companions.Truly, there is not even an iota of truth in the loquacity of the missionaries about Quranpreservation and compilation during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet (pbuh).In the fourth year of Hijrah,the event of BiruMaune, number of martyred wereapproximately seventy it was 4 months after the battle of Uhud. In Yamamah thenumber of martyred whose were Kurra and Huffaz" above 450-500 by compared tosome scholars the number was over 700 on the Apostasy wars following the yearsthe demise of The Prophet.Another important spot is the process of wahy was keep going during the Prophetslifetime till his demise. Some revealed of few sura or verse might be unknown for some.According to HamidullahWhen the Prophet (pbuh) died 3000 people knew the Koran byheart. There is no any single differences between the Quran which was written by Zayd Band the Quran which was revealed to Prophet (pbuh).Because during that time,everyonememorizes the Quran, as well as written it down on parhments or materials.Every day in
  21. 21. 20prayer and acts upon it the thing is what kind of things could be forgettable which readsin daily and establishs 5 times.But the most important discussion on the matter of compilation of the Quran is to refute allclaims of orientalists is to discuss on the issue of hadith compilation. Writing of Hadith wasprobihibited by Prophet (pbuh) once..and this issue has been discussed by Orientalists as well.“Al-Nawawistates in his commentary on Saheeh Muslim:1--It was narrated from Abu Saeed al-Khudri that the Messenger of Allaah (peace andblessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "Do not write anything from me; whoever haswritten anything from me other than the Quraan, let him erase it and narrate from me,for there is nothing wrong with that." (Narrated by Muslim) …It is transmitted in some fames that during the time of the revelation of the Quran, when the Prophetwanted all his companions in full concentrate on writing and memorizing the Quran, the Prophet (pbuh)did not advised people-especially those who were instructed in writing of Divine Words to writeanything other than the Quran.Thats the reason behind this prohibition. Prophet (pbuh) seems to havediscouraged it only because of the potential danger that such collection and recording required onaccount of the recording and following transmission of the Quran.
  22. 22. 21Al-Qaadijustified that there were many controversyamong the Sahaabah and Taabieenconcerning the writing down of knowledge. Many of them regarded this as beingmakrooh, but most of them regarded it as permissible. Thisdispute is no longer an issuebecause the permission was given at other times; or that the prohibition applied only towriting down the things other than Quraan with the Quraanthat permission was given towrite them separately; of that the prohibition came first and the permission abrogatedthat, when there was no longer any fear of confusion.The verses of the Quran descended so harmonious little by little by coming down as much asanyone can easily memorize. It made easier for the memory power of the believers tomemorize it verses by verse by heart. Do not write anything from me, and whoever has written something (he heard)from me, he should erase it. Narrate to others (what you hear) from me; andwhoever deliberately attributes a lie to me, he should prepare his seat in the Fire."[Sahih Muslim]The phrase I underlined clarifies the reason for prohibition on writing hadîth was not onaccount of negating its authority. The exact reason was that in the beginning of therevelation of the Qurân, the companions were not accurately familiar with the Qurânicstyle, nor was the Holy Qurân compiled in a seperate book form. In those days somecompanions began to write the ahâdîth along with the Qurânic text although theprohibition. Some important explanations of the Holy Qurân given by the Holy Prophet(pbuh) were written by some of them mixed with the Qurânic verses without any
  23. 23. 22distinction between the two. there was thereby the fear that it would lead to confusion ofthe Qurânic text with the ahâdîth.During the last pilgrimage of Prophet (pbuh)at the sermon which He gathered Muslims,and said :I left behind two things if you hold fast to it you will never fall into error-a plain indication, the Book of Allah (SWT) and the Sunnah of His Prophets.”According to MuhaddithunsIt definitely reveals that the revelation was available as aKitab, Book, (Writing) before the demise of the Prophet (pbuh),otherwise He wouldreffered to it other terms. To sum up took care of the actual arrangement of the revelationwhen it was written down.There is a more clear evidence all what I proclaimed above is that :(We have, without doubt, sent down the Reminder [i.e., the Quran]; and We willassuredly guard it [from corruption].) (Al-Hijr 15:9)References :BOOKS:
  24. 24. 23Ulum Al-Quran – Ahmad Von Denffer -pg.31…52Quranic Studies An Introduction - Dr. Israr Ahmad Khan chapter-5 pg 53..76The Quran –Michael Cook -pg.119-127Al-Quran An introduction – Abdullah Saaed - pg..37..52WEBSITES:www.calltoislam.comwww.Quran.comhttp://www.call-to-monotheism.comwww.quransmessage.comPDF FILES:The Compilation of the Holy Qur’ān by Luton Islamic Centre -pdfTHE COMPILATION OF THE QURAN-Quran and Its Message-pdfThe QUR`AN - How it was Revealed and Compiled-By Dr. Mohammad Shafi