Diabetes is a chronic disease in which the body does not make or properly use insulin, a hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches, and other food into energy by moving glucose from blood into the cells. People with diabetes have increased blood glucose (sugar) levels for one or more of the following three reasons: Either No insulin is being produced, Insulin production is insufficient, and/or The body is resistant to the effects of insulin. As a result, high levels of glucose build up in the blood, and spill into the urine and out of the body. The body loses its main source of fuel and cells are deprived of glucose, a needed source of energy. High blood glucose levels may result in short and long term complications over time.
ABC of Diabetes will help avoid the complications associated of diabetes: A for the A1C test (A-one-C) It shows you what your blood glucose has been over the last three months. The A1C goal for most people is below 7. High blood glucose levels can harm your heart and blood vessels, kidneys, feet, and eyes. B for Blood pressure. The goal for most people is 130/80. High blood pressure makes your heart work too hard. It can cause heart attack, stroke, and kidney disease. C for Cholesterol. The LDL goal for most people is less than 100. The HDL goal for most people is above 40. LDL or &quot;bad&quot; cholesterol can build up and clog your blood vessels. It can cause a heart attack or a stroke. HDL or &quot;good&quot; cholesterol helps remove cholesterol from your blood vessels. What are the possible complications of diabetes? Very high blood glucose level If you do not have treatment, or use too little insulin, a very high level of glucose can develop quite quickly - over several days. If left untreated this causes dehydration, drowsiness, and serious illness which can be life-threatening. A very high blood glucose level sometimes develops if you have other illnesses such as flu. In these situations you may need to adjust the dose of insulin to keep your blood glucose level normal. Long-term complications If the blood glucose level is higher than normal, over a long period of time, it can have a damaging effect on the blood vessels. Even a mildly raised glucose level which does not cause any symptoms in the short-term can affect the blood vessels in the long-term. This may lead to some of the following complications (often years after diabetes is first diagnosed). Atheroma ('furring or hardening of the arteries') which can cause problems such as angina, heart attacks, stroke, and poor circulation. Eye problems which can affect vision (due to damage to the small arteries of the retina at the back of the eye). Kidney damage which sometimes develops into kidney failure. Nerve damage. Foot problems (due to poor circulation and nerve damage). Impotence. Other rare problems. The type and severity of long-term complications varies from case to case. You may not develop any at all. In general, the risk of developing complications is reduced if the blood glucose level is well controlled, and other risk factors such as high blood pressure are dealt with.
Sedentary means a lifestyle that includes only the light physical activity associated with typical day-to-day life. Moderately active means a lifestyle that includes physical activity equivalent to walking about 1.5 to 3 miles per day at 3 to 4 miles per hour, in addition to the light physical activity associated with typical day-to-day life. Active means a lifestyle that includes physical activity equivalent to walking more than 3 miles per day at 3 to 4 miles per hour, in addition to the light physical activity associated with typical day-to-day life.
African Americans born in the year 2000 face a 2 in 5 risk for diabetes. 4
Tips for Reducing Your Family's Risk for Type 2 Diabetes
Tips For Reducing Your Family’s Risk For Type 2 Diabetes Alexis Williams, MPH, CHES
What is Diabetes? <ul><li>Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin. </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin is a hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches, and other foods into energy needed for daily life. </li></ul>Insulin is made in the pancreas
Diabetes Can Lead To: <ul><li>Retinopathy (blindness) </li></ul><ul><li>Nephropathy (kidney problems) </li></ul><ul><li>Feet ulceration and/or amputations </li></ul><ul><li>Heart attack </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Erectile dysfunction (inability to have an erection) </li></ul>Acknowledgment: Adapted from the Diabetes Outreach Services Campaign, (1991) Queen Elizabeth Hospital Diabetes Centre, Woodville South SA .
Good News! Type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed through modest weight loss by increasing physical activity and making healthy food choices .
Strategies for Type 2 Diabetes Prevention <ul><li>Lose 5 to 7 percent of weight. If overweight, that is 10 to 14 pounds (4.5 to 6.3 kg) for a 200-pound (90.6 kg) person. </li></ul><ul><li>Make healthy food choices </li></ul><ul><li>Be physically active </li></ul>
Make half your plate whole vegetables and fruits
Low in fat Low in calories Rich in disease fighting nutrients High in fiber and water Buy fresh in season Buy frozen and low sodium canned Store properly Keep where they can be seen
A Few Words About Potassium and Sodium People with high blood pressure, African Americans and middle-aged and older adults should eat 4,700mg of potassium per day from food and no more than 1500 mg of sodium per day. Sources of potassium Sweet potatoes, cooked greens, orange squash Bananas, plantains, many dried fruits, oranges and orange juice, cantaloupe, honeydew melons Cooked dry beans Soybeans Tomato products (sauce, paste, puree) Beet greens Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005 , US Department of Health and Human Services
Choose lean Use healthy cooking methods Eat a variety of sources
Non Dairy Sources of Calcium Fortified cereals Fortified soy beverages Collards cooked from frozen Spinach cooked from frozen Turnip greens cooked from frozen Fortified oatmeal Kale, cooked from frozen Okra, cooked from frozen
A Few Words About Fat Eat between 20 to 35% of calories from fat <ul><li>Choose polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats </li></ul><ul><li>fish </li></ul><ul><li>nuts </li></ul><ul><li>vegetable oils </li></ul>Eat fewer foods high in saturated fat and cholesterol (typically found in meat) Eat as few trans fats as possible (typically found in processed foods)
A Few Words About Drinks Hidden source of calories, sugar and sodium Words for sugar include: Sucrose, glucose, high fructose corn syrup, corn syrup, maple syrup & fructose Choose drinks low in calories and added sugars Drink 100% fruit juice in moderation Limit the number of refills on sugary drinks when eating out
Calories in Calories out If you eat 100 more food calories a day than you burn, you will gain about 1 pound in a month 10 pounds in a year
<ul><li>Adults should be moderately active at least 30 minutes a day most days of the week </li></ul><ul><li>Include strength building activities twice a week </li></ul>
<ul><li>Children and teenagers should be active for 60 minutes every day </li></ul><ul><li>Adults should be moderately active at least 30 minutes a day most days of the week </li></ul><ul><li>Include strength building activities twice a week </li></ul>
<ul><li>Figure out what gets in the way and prepare </li></ul><ul><li>Take things one step at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Set reasonable goals AND monitor your progress </li></ul><ul><li>Find what you enjoy </li></ul><ul><li>Find what is meaningful to you </li></ul>Start where you are. Use what you have. Do what you can. - Arthur Ashe Get Motivated!
<ul><li>Be a good example </li></ul><ul><li>Offer healthy snacks </li></ul><ul><li>Be active together </li></ul><ul><li>Limit screen time </li></ul>Train up a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will not turn from it. Proverbs 22:6 Get The Kids Motivated!